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Sample records for volatile constituents flows

  1. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

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    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  2. The volatile constituents of Salvia leucantha.

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    Rojas, Luis B; Visbal, Tomas; Morillo, Marielba; de Rojas, Yndra Cordero; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae), native to Mexico, is found in Venezuela in parks and gardens. Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of this plant yielded 0.05% of essential oil. GC and GC/MS analyses permitted the identification of 30 compounds, which made up 95.9% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bornyl acetate (24.1%), beta-gurjunene (14.8%), beta-caryophyllene (14.1%), dillapiol (11.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.9%).

  3. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

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    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  4. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

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    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  5. Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region

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    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8% represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7% with germacrene D (27.9%, germacrene B (16.3%, b-caryophyllene (9.6%, b-selinene (6.2%, α-humulene (5.8% as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6% and 1,8-cineole (4.8%. Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%, 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11-dien-8-one (7.8% and amorph-4,7(11-dien-8-one (5.7% were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%, bornyl acetate (15.6% and camphene (8.9%. On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%, β-caryophyllene (20.7%, demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%, a-humulene (6.6% and p-cymene (3.3%.

  6. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

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    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  7. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  8. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF THE FRUIT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUML. FROM ISFAHAN

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    ALIREZA GHANNADI

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. which is cultivated in Isfahan was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by TLC, GC, GC/MS and ^-NMR. Eight compounds representing 95.3% of the total components were characterized. Linalool (56.2%, y- terpinene (12.0% and 5-3-carene (9.7% were the major constituents of the oil which were obtained in 0.68% (V/W yield.

  9. Analysis on Volatile Constituents in Leaves and Fruits of Ficus carica by GC-MS

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    LI Jun; TIAN Yu-zeng; SUN Bao-ya; YANG Dan; CHEN Ji-ping; MEN Qi-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits ofFicus carica.Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used.Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%),β-damascenone (10.17%),benzyl alcohol (4.56%),behenic acid (4.79%),and bergapten (1.99%),etc.The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%),5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%),and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%),etc.Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits ofF.carica,among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits.Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.

  10. A new way for chemical degradation of plastic by natural volatile constituents of Ledum palustre

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    XIU Zhilong; ZHU Xiuling; ZHANG Daijia; YIN Jianzhong; WANG Dehe; AN Lijia

    2003-01-01

    A novel phenomenon of degradation of polypropylene plastic by volatile constituents of Ledum palustre is reported in this study. The characteristic of degradation is described by tensile strength, melting point, and scanning electron micrographs as well as optical micrographs. The chemical composition of volatile oil of Ledum palustre is analyzed by gas chrography and mass spectrometry. The mechanism of degradation and problems needed to be solved are also discussed.

  11. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

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    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  12. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)

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    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

  13. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

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    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  14. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oil from the Folium Rhododendri Daurici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

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    Jiao, Shu-qing; Liu, Feng-hua

    2009-02-01

    To compare the chemical constituents of volatile oils from Folium Rhododendri Daurici between supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE-CO2) and steam distillation (SD). The chemical constituents of volatile oils obtained by two methods were analyzed by GC-MS. 52 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SCE-CO2 and 48 compounds in the volatile oil extracted by SD were separated and identified separately. There were 45 same components. The chemical constituents obtained by SCE-CO2 and SD are approached.

  15. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

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    Denise Josino Soares; Marc Pignitter; Miriam Margit Ehrnhöfer-Ressler; Jessica Walker; Isabella Montenegro Brasil; Veronika Somoza

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was perfor...

  16. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  17. Chemical investigation of the volatile constituents of Cleome viscosa from Nigeria

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    Gabriel Olatunji

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots and some oxygenated derivatives (3% in leaves/stem; 1% in seeds/fruits and 1.5% in roots. The monoterpenes occurred frequently in the oils. Fatty acid esters especially ethyl palmitate which constituted a major constituent in the oil from the seeds/fruits was not detected in the oils from the roots.

  18. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

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    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  19. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

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    于红; 于沈晶; 任春生; 修志龙

    2012-01-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile con- stituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active cud oxidative species, radicals, products cud high euergy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (Crbmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  20. Volatile constituents of the dried leaves of Cassia angustifolia and C. acutifolia (Sennae folium).

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    Schultze, W; Jahn, K; Richter, R

    1996-12-01

    The official drug Sennae folium (obtained from Cassia angustifolia and/or C. acutifolia) was found to contain small amounts of volatiles (0.047% based on dry weight) which were analyzed in detail by GC and GC/MS. More than 200 compounds could be detected, 122 of them were identified, representing about 90.7% of the peak area of the total mixture. The volatile constituents can be classified into monoterpenoids (8.8% for sample A and 34.6% for B), sesquiterpenoids (4.2% and 4.0%, respectively), phenylpropanoids (4.2%/15.2%), fatty acids and esters (54.3%/14.2%), and miscellaneous compounds (19.3%/22.7%). Apart from hexadecanoic acid which was strong in both samples (36.8%/9.7%), the occurrence of menthol, geranylacetone, and (E)-anethole is of interest.

  1. New volatile constituents from leaves of Stemodia trifoliata (Link.) Reichb. (Schrophulariaceae)

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    Silva, Wildson Max B. da; Assuncao, Joao Carlos da C.; Araujo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    The leaf essential oils of Stemodia trifoliata (Scrophulariaceae), collected at the same month of two different years (August 2005 and 2006), were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 22 volatile components represented by sesquiterpenes and diterpenes was identified. {beta}-Caryophyllene (9.4-15.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.2-9.0%) were the major compounds identified in the sesquiterpene fraction, while the diterpenoids 6{alpha}-acetoxymanoyl oxide (13.9-23.2%) and 6{alpha}-hydroxymanoyl oxide (25.1-29.7%) were the main constituents of the diterpene fraction. The two novel manoyl oxide derivatives had their structures established by means of spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR. This work describes for the first time the chemical investigation on the volatile composition of S. trifoliata. (author)

  2. Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC).

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    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Lee, Sung-Eun; Takeoka, Gary R

    2003-01-01

    Volatiles were isolated from the dried inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa using steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g). The antioxidant activity of the volatiles was evaluated using two different assays. The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene.

  3. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  4. Volatile constituents of Aristolochia trilobata L. (Aristolochiaceae: a rich source of sulcatyl acetate

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    Darlisson de Alexandria Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the volatile fraction of Aristolochia trilobata stem led to the identification of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (23.31 ± 0.28%, limonene (15.43 ± 0.030%, linalool (8.70 ± 0.29%, p-cymene (7.81 ± 0.12%, bicyclogermacrene (4.21 ± 0.11%, and spathulenol (4.17 ± 0.14% as the major constituents of the essential oil. Linalool (29.51 ± 0.49%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol (19.54 ± 0.82%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (8.92 ± 0.16%, and a-terpineol (4.62 ± 0.05% were identified as major constituents of the hydrolate. The compound 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate was isolated for the first time from this plant and was identified as the major component of the volatile fraction.

  5. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  6. Cytotoxic activity and constituents of the volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge.

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    Sun, Hongxiang; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjian

    2005-10-01

    The volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge was isolated by steam distillation, and separated into four major fractions (Fr. A-D) by means of column chromatography. A total of 39 compounds (1-39) were identified by GC/MS analysis, and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human ovarian carcinoma cells (HO-8910) and human hepatoma cells (Bel-7402) (Table 1). Fr. A showed the strongest inhibitory effect on HO-8910 (IC50 = 21 microg/ml) and Bel-7402 cells (16 mcirog/ml), whereas Fr. B was the least active (>100 microg/ml). By comparison of the constituents of the four fractions, we assume that the cytotoxicity of the volatile oil of P. scabra is mainly due to the lignans and azulenes, rather than to caryophyllene oxide I (18). Our results suggest that the volatile oil of P. scabra possesses potent and tumor-specific cytotoxicity, and could serve as a possible candidate for future cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2004-09-08

    The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways.

  8. Effect of roasting on the volatile constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds

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    Shimin Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Roasted Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds have much more intense flavor than the raw seeds, and are commonly used as food and in the preparations of many medicinal formulations. Volatile constituents in the raw and roasted T. kirilowii seeds were separated by simultaneous distillation and extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry on two capillary gas chromatography columns of different polarities (DB-WAX and HP-1. A total of 40 volatile compounds were identified in the raw seeds, with pentanal, 2-pentanol, styrene, (Z-2-heptenal, (+-calarene, and α-muurolene being the predominant compounds; 40 volatile compounds were also identified in the roasted seeds, with 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, 2-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, (E,E-2,4-nonadienal, and 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-9-methylene-bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1-ene being the most abundant compounds. A total of 15 compounds, mostly aldehydes, were common in both seeds. Roasting of T. kirilowii seeds resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of sesquiterpenes and short-chain aliphatic aldehydes. By contrast, high concentrations of 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, 2-butanol, and alkyl pyrazines were generated, which was responsible for the unique flavor of the roasted seeds. The study results may be useful for optimizing the roasting process and oil processing of T. kirilowii seeds.

  9. Changes of headspace volatile constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Muhammad Nor Bin; Nor, Nor Nazuha M; Idris, Nor Aini

    2007-04-01

    Changes of aroma constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries have been studied. The aroma constituents of used oils were collected using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique with an absorbent of a divinylbenzene/carboxen (DVB/CAR) (50/30 microm) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. The extracted volatiles were desorbed from the fibre in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 250 degrees C and the aroma constituents were identified by GC-MS. Analytical data showed that volatile constituents of palm olein, soybean oil, corn oil and sunflower oil changed while frying continued from 2 to 40 h, respectively. In palm olein, the 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 14.7 to 5.5 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 7.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 29.2 microg g(-1) (40 h), respectively. Similar result was also obtained from soybean oil after frying French fries. The 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 15.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) after 40 h frying whilst hexanal increased from 10.2 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 34.2 microg g(-1) (40 h). Meanwhile, in corn oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal decreased from 15.6 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 11.3 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 33.8 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. In sunflower oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal, decreased from 16.8 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 1.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) while hexanal increased from 9.5 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 32.4 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. It also showed that used oils exhibited off-odour characteristics due to the increasing amount ofhexanal while their freshness characteristics diminished due to the decreasing amount of 2t, 4t-decadienal.

  10. "Volatile Constituents of Amedicinal Plant of Iran , Echium Amoenim Fisch. and C.A. Mey "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Ghassemi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Boraginaceae is an endemic Iranian plant, that its dry violet–blue petals has long been used in traditional medicine of Iran. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the dried petals of this plant which was isolated by steam distillation extraction with pentane (in yield of 0.05% was examined by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats’ indices. The major components except aliphatic alkanes which belong to sesquiterpenes were: δ-cadinene (24.25%, viridiflorol (4.9%, α-muurolene (4.52%, ledene (3.8%, α-calacorene (3.04%, and γ-cadinene (2.9%.

  11. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  12. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  13. Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Constituents from Fresh Fruits of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E. Essien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals, can be exploited to ameliorate the problem of microbial resistance. The fruit essential oils of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were subjected to in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity screening. Thirty-eight compounds comprising 97.7% of A. cordifolia oil and forty-six constituents representing 98.2% of C. subcordatum oil were identified. The major components in A. cordifolia oil were methyl salicylate (25.3%, citronellol (21.4%, α-phellandrene (7.4%, terpinolene (5.7% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Benzaldehyde (28.0%, β-caryophyllene (15.5%, (E,E-α-farnesene (5.3% and methyl salicylate (4.5% were the quantitatively significant constituents in C. subcordatum fruit essential oil. A. cordifolia essential oil demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 78 μg/mL and marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 156 μg/mL. C. subcordatum showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus (MIC = 156 μg/mL and notable antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 39 μg/mL. However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cells (Hs 578T and human prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3 were observed for either essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of A. cordifolia and C. subcordatum fruit essential oils are a function of their distinct chemical profiles; their volatiles and biological activities are reported for the first time.

  14. Volatile constituents of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves using headspace solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkaew, Sayamol; Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Thongpoon, Chalermporn; Machan, Theeraphan; Wongchuphan, Rattana

    2014-12-01

    The volatile components of Murraya koenigii fresh leaves, collected from Surat Thani province, Thailand were studied by using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The four fibers employed to extract the volatiles were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), carboxane-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene-carboxane (PDMS-DVB-CAR). The volatile constituents of M. koenigii fresh leaves were also extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-one compounds were identified by these fibers. Five major compounds, γ-terpinene, β-caryophyllene, β-phellandrene, a-selinene and a-pinene, were detected in all fibers. The PDMS-DVB-CAR fiber was considered as the best for trapping key volatiles of M. koenigii fresh leaves.

  15. [Analysis of volatile constituents in leaves of three cypress species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dejun; Zhang, Yonghui; Dai, Huaguo; Wang, Yan

    2006-03-01

    Volatile oils in leaves of three cypress species were extracted by hydrodistillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-four constituents were separated and identified. The majority of the components were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. There were 33, 37, 37 compounds in the oils of leaves of Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant, Cupressus lusitanica 'zhongshan' Mill and Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. Cv. Kaizuca, respectively. Fourteen compounds were common to them, which were thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinolene, bornyl acetate, beta-elemene, alpha-amorphene, germacrene D, delta-cadinene and elemol. In addition, each species had particular compounds. The main components were found to be: sabinene (20.99%), limonene (19.78%) and bornyl acetate (11.68%) for Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant; alpha-pinene (10.39%), sabinene (11.19%) and delta-3-carene (8.88%) for Cupressus lusitanica 'zhongshan' Mill; limonene (24.56%), beta-myrcene (8.04%) for Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. Cv. Kaizuca.

  16. Volatile organic compound constituents from an integrated iron and steel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lai, Nina; Ma, Sen-Yi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2008-09-15

    This study measured the volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents of four processes in an integrated iron and steel industry; cokemaking, sintering, hot forming, and cold forming. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, isopentane, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were the predominant VOC species in these processes. However, some of the chlorinated compounds were high (hundreds ppbv), i.e., trichloroethylene in all four processes, carbon tetrachloride in the hot forming process, chlorobenzene in the cold forming process, and bromomethane in the sintering process. In the sintering process, the emission factors of toluene, benzene, xylene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and ethylbenzene were over 9 g/tonne-product. In the vicinity of the manufacturing plant, toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene and ethylbenzene were high. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene, 1-butene and isopentane were the major ozone formation species. Aromatic compounds were the predominant VOC groups, constituting 45-70% of the VOC concentration and contributing >70% to the high ozone formation potential in the stack exhaust and workplace air. The sequence of VOC concentration and ozone formation potential was as follows: cold forming>sintering>hot forming>cokemaking. For the workplace air, cokemaking was the highest producer, which was attributed to the fugitive emissions of the coke oven and working process release.

  17. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  18. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  19. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  20. Analysis on Volatile Constituent in Pandan Leaves%香兰叶挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任竹君; 王道平; 罗亚男; 陶晨

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测香兰叶中挥发性成分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC/MS)对香兰叶的挥发性成分进行了分析.[结果]鉴定出18种化学成分,其中含量最高的为亚油酸甲酯,其次为叶绿醇,还含有草蒿脑、棕榈酸、角鲨烯、甲基丁香酚,邻苯二甲酸、α-紫罗兰酮和吉马烯D等成分;另含有几种烷烃及少量的醛、酮类化合物.[结论]该方法准确、简便,适用于香兰叶中挥发性成分的检测.%[ Objective] The aim was to detect the volatile constituent in Pandan leaves. [ Method] The volatile constituent in Pandan leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrum. [Result] 18 kinds of chemical composition were identified, the content of linoleic acid methyl ester was highest, followed by phytol, and it also contained estragole, palmitic acid, squalene, methyl eugenol, phthalic acid, α-irisone and Gemmaen D. , in addition, it contained a small amount of several alkanes and aldehydes, ketones. [ Conclusion] The method is accurate, simple and convenient, is suitable to the detection of volatile constituent in Pandan leaves.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, I.; Ishak, S.; Ayub, M.K. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor)

    1983-12-01

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author).

  2. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  3. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp. PMID:26394146

  4. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    Full Text Available The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS, reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  5. 鱼腥草挥发油的化学成分%Chemical constituents of volatile oil from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾虹燕; 蒋丽娟; 张英超

    2003-01-01

    The volatile oils from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were obtained with supereritical CO2, steam distillation and petroleum ether extraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. The results showed that the chemical constituents of the volatile oils by three different methods are very different. The extraction rates of volatile oil by above-mentioned three extraction methods are 1.764%, 0.040% and 0.082%, respectively. The volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction, which the content of houttuyninum reached 14.393 %, is better than those with traditional methods.

  6. A model for steady flows of magma-volatile mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Belan, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional model for the steady adiabatic motion of liquid-volatile mixtures in vertical ducts with varying cross-section is presented. The liquid contains a dissolved part of the volatile and is assumed to be incompressible and in thermomechanical equilibrium with a perfect gas phase, which is generated by the exsolution of the same volatile. An inverse problem approach is used -- the pressure along the duct is set as an input datum, and the other physical quantities are obtained as output. This fluid-dynamic model is intended as an approximate description of magma-volatile mixture flows of interest to geophysics and planetary sciences. It is implemented as a symbolic code, where each line stands for an analytic expression, whether algebraic or differential, which is managed by the software kernel independently of the numerical value of each variable. The code is versatile and user-friendly and permits to check the consequences of different hypotheses even through its early steps. Only the las...

  7. Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel; Constituintes quimicos volateis e nao-volateis de Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes de; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2005-02-01

    The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were {beta}-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%), {beta}-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%), {gamma}-muurolene (28.4%), {alpha}-humulene (26.0%), 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5%) and {beta}-pinene (10.6%). Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS), and comparison with the literature. (author)

  8. Volatile constituents and biological activities of the leaf and root of Echinacea species from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nyalambisa

    2017-03-01

    It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.

  9. Volatile constituents of Aristolochia trilobata L. (Aristolochiaceae): a rich source of sulcatyl acetate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Franco, Clovis Roberto Pereira; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the volatile fraction of Aristolochia trilobata stem led to the identification of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (23.31 ± 0.28%), limonene (15.43 ± 0.030%), linalool (8.70 ± 0.29%), p-cymene (7.81 ± 0.12...

  10. Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Solanum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Arias, Eilen; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    The volatile components from the leaves of Solanum bicolor Roemer & Schultes, was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analizad by GC/MS. A total of 20 compounds, representing 96.3 % of the oil, were identified. The dominant compounds were trans-caryophyllene (23.2%), trans-2-pentadecene (22.6%), germacrene D (12.2%), biciclogermecrene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.7%).

  11. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    jihane OUMATOU; Saadia ZRIRA; Petretto, Giacomo L.; Bouchta SAIDI; Mariaelena SALARIS; Giorgio PINTORE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The study allowed the identifi...

  12. Highly Volatile Constituents of Vetiveria zizanioides Roots Grown under Different Cultivation Conditions

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    Ampan Promsiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Vetiveria zizanioides Nash (Mae Hae; Thai ecotype planted in three different cultivation systems (normal soil, normal soil with added microbes and semi- hydroponically were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE apparatus. Yields of the essential oils obtained were 0.27, 0.18 and 0.06%, respectively. The separation profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC and solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC×GC analyses of the crude essential oils showed a total of 156 and 48 well-resolved components, respectively. The highly volatile fractions isolated from the three essential oils by SPME were subjected to analysis by GC-MS and 42 compounds were identified in total. Volatile component profiles of the oils obtained by normal soil and semi-hydroponic cultivation were similar, whereas a quantitative difference was noted in some major volatiles when the cultivation system containing microbes was utilized.

  13. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

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    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  14. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  15. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  16. International capital flows and investment volatility in selected sub-Saharan African countries

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    William Brafu-Insaidoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of foreign capital flows on investment volatility in emerging and frontier market economies in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the study attempts to answer the question of whether different components of foreign capital inflows explain investment volatility. Theory suggests that increased cross-border capital mobility increases investment volatility due to the possibility of substituting foreign for domestic investments. Empirical literature does not, however, provide any clear evidence in support of this theory. By using the dynamic panel data analysis, this study tests the hypothesis that increased capital flows increases investment volatility and the study established that international capital flows reduce investment volatility.

  17. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI) and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muricatus: (i) The oil from roots is mainly composed by nonterpenic oxygenated compounds (59.8 g/100 g), and (ii) the aerial part oils (i.e., the leaves, stems, flowers, and umbels) was mainly composed by terpenic hydrocarbon compounds (62.3–72.2 g/100 g). The chemical composition of the volatile fraction isolated from different organs of Daucus muricatus were studied by HS–SPME/GC–RI and GC–MS after optimization of Solid Phase MicroExtraction parameters. For all organs studied, the main volatiles emitted by the plant were hydrocarbon compounds (60.7–82.2 g/100 g). Only quantitative differences between the volatiles of the separated organs studied were observed. In addition, the activity of the oil of D. muricatus against eight bacterial strains and one yeast was investigated. The oil from roots revealed active against S. aureus, while the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts was active against the yeast C. albicans. Conclusions Daucus muricatus essential oil seems be a promising source of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity. PMID:22647252

  18. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

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    Bendiabdellah Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muricatus: (i The oil from roots is mainly composed by nonterpenic oxygenated compounds (59.8 g/100 g, and (ii the aerial part oils (i.e., the leaves, stems, flowers, and umbels was mainly composed by terpenic hydrocarbon compounds (62.3–72.2 g/100 g. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction isolated from different organs of Daucus muricatus were studied by HS–SPME/GC–RI and GC–MS after optimization of Solid Phase MicroExtraction parameters. For all organs studied, the main volatiles emitted by the plant were hydrocarbon compounds (60.7–82.2 g/100 g. Only quantitative differences between the volatiles of the separated organs studied were observed. In addition, the activity of the oil of D. muricatus against eight bacterial strains and one yeast was investigated. The oil from roots revealed active against S. aureus, while the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts was active against the yeast C. albicans. Conclusions Daucus muricatus essential oil seems be a promising source of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity.

  19. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Hosni; Amel Kerkenni; Wafa Medfei; Nadia Ben Brahim; Houcine Sebei

    2010-01-01

    The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and traditional dry distillation (DD) and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%). The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4%) in DD extract when compared t...

  20. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hosni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD and traditional dry distillation (DD and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%. The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4% in DD extract when compared to that of HD one (13.6%. As temperature increased (100°C during DD, the oil quality decreased. The most significant changes were observed in 2-phenethyl alcohol percentage (4.5%. Moreover, an increase of alkanes/alkenes and the production of furan derivatives were observed. So, DD at moderate temperature (50°C seemed more suitable to improve the volatile oil quality and hence, to make more value of R. canina.

  1. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

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    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, -terpene (2.6 % and -phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. -Pinene, -phellandrene, l-limonene, - terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. -Thujene and trans--caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis--farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

  2. Volatile constituents in the flowers of Elsholtzia argyi and their variation: a possible utilization of plant resources after phytoremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong-yun; YANG Xiao-e

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation effectiveness and remediation costs are driving factors of this project. Full utilization of plant resources after their being used for phytoremediation is an unsolved problem. GC/MS technique was used to investigate the volatiles of the flowers from Elsholtzia argyi (PFE1: Purple Flower Elsholtzia) and their variation (WFE: White Flower Elsholtzia),naturally growing in Pb/Zn mined area, and Elsholtzia argyi (PFE2: Purple Flower Elsholtzia), naturally growing in Jiuxi uncontaminated agriculture soil. Seventeen compounds constituting 86.88% of total essential oils were identified in PFE1, with 2,6-octadienoic acid,3,7-dimethyl-methyl ester being the main constituent (63.30%). Sixteen compounds accounting for 95.32% of total essential oils were identified in WFE, with caryophyllene being the main component (55.02%). Compared to PFE1, PFE2 contained lower level of 2,6-octadienoic acid,3,7-dimethyl-methyl ester (31.76%), which was the main constituent in the total essential oils of PFE2. Caryophyllene is the main ingredient of flavor. Elsholtzia ketone was identified in all the three Elsholtzia plants. It can be concluded that the selected Elsholtzia argyi plants can be exploited on their versatile uses as fragrances and antiseptics due to the perfume ingredient and antibacterial components existing in their essential oils.

  3. Variation in the volatile constituents of different plant parts of Ligusticopsis wallichiana from western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2012-08-01

    The essential oil composition of the leaves, stem, flowers and roots of Ligusticopsis wallichiana (DC.) Pimenov & Kljuykov were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Forty-five constituents, forming 93.2%-97.8% of the oil compositions, were dominated by acetylenic (31.5%-92.8%) compounds and sesquiterpenoids (0.3%-44.4%). The leaf essential oil was mainly composed 3,5-nonadiyne (35.8%), beta-selinene (20.9%), alpha-funebrene (10.1%) and (Z)-falcarinol (6.1%). The stem oil was dominated by acetylenic compounds (73.8%) represented by 3,5-nonadiyne (67.8%) and (Z)-falcarinol (5.7%). On the contrary, the major components of the flower essential oil were sesquiterpenoids (37.5%), such as germacrene D (16.6%), alpha-funebrene (7.4%), and acetylenic compounds (31.5%), such as (Z)-falcarinol (21.0%) and 3,5-nonadiyne (10.0%). Monoterpenoids constituted 23.9% of the flower oil with limonene (19.9%) as the single major constituent. The essential oil of the roots was dominated by 3,5-nonadiyne (90.5%). The results showed considerable qualitative and quantitative variations in the essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of L. wallichiana. (Z)-Falcarinol (1.9%-21.0%) and alpha-funebrene (0.1%-10.1%) were reported for the first time from the essential oils of L. wallichiana.

  4. α-Pinene Rich Volatile Constituents of Cupressus torulosa D. Don from Uttarakhand Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Hema; Gwari, Garima; Andola, H C; Bhandari, U; Chauhan, N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  5. α-pinene rich volatile constituents of Cupressus torulosa D. don from Uttarakhand Himalaya

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    Hema Lohani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  6. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  7. GC-MS of Volatile Chemical Constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis%苏合香挥发性化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宇; 彭颖; 夏厚林; 周颖; 王建; 曾南

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究苏合香的挥发性化学成分.方法:通过固相微萃取技术提取苏合香的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行分析鉴定.结果:共鉴定出苏合香28种成分,占总色谱峰面积的90.72%,其中α-蒎烯(15.97%)、莰烯(13.28%)和β-蒎烯(12.82%)的含量较高.结论:本方法简便、高效,可为芳香辛味含挥发性成分药物的成分研究提供参考.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the volatile chemical constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis. METHODS: HS-SPME was used to extract the volatile chemical constituents and GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile chemical constituents. RESULTS: 28 compounds were identified, which accounts for 90.72% of the total GC peak area, of which the amounts of the volatile chemical constituents a-pinene( 15.97%),camphene( 13.28%) and ^-pinene (12.82%) had taken a larger part. CONCLUSION: The method employed in the study is convenient and efficient, and the study can serve as a reference to researches on aromatic and pungent Pharmaceuticals with volatile constituents.

  8. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatile constituents in Thai vetiver root oils obtained by using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Marriott, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Vetiver root oil is known as one of the finest fixatives used in perfumery. This highly complex oil contains more than 200 components, which are mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives. Since conventional GC-MS has limitation in terms of separation efficiency, the comprehensive two-dimensional GC-MS (GC x GC-MS) was proposed in this study as an alternative technique for the analysis of vetiver oil constituents. To evaluate efficiency of the hyphenated GC x GC-MS technique in terms of separation power and sensitivity prior to identification and quantitation of the volatile constituents in a variety of vetiver root oil samples. METHODOLOGY. Dried roots of Vetiveria zizanioides were subjected to extraction using various conditions of four different methods; simultaneous steam distillation, supercritical fluid, microwave-assisted, and Soxhlet extraction. Volatile components in all vetiver root oil samples were separated and identified by GC-MS and GC x GC-MS. The relative contents of volatile constituents in each vetiver oil sample were calculated using the peak volume normalization method. Different techniques of extraction had diverse effects on yield, physical and chemical properties of the vetiver root oils obtained. Overall, 64 volatile constituents were identified by GC-MS. Among the 245 well-resolved individual components obtained by GC x GC-MS, the additional identification of 43 more volatiles was achieved. In comparison with GC-MS, GC x GC-MS showed greater ability to differentiate the quality of essential oils obtained from diverse extraction conditions in terms of their volatile compositions and contents.

  9. Effect of volatile constituents from Securidaca longepedunculata on insect pests of stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Thamara K; Stevenson, Philip C; Hall, David R; Belmain, Steven R

    2005-02-01

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophilus zeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that were given a choice between untreated maize and maize treated with root powder, extract, or synthetic methyl salicylate in a four-way choice olfactometer significantly preferred the control maize. Methyl salicylate vapor also had a dose-dependant fumigant effect against S. zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Prostephanus truncates, with a LD100 achieved with a 60microl dose in a 1-l container against all three insect species after 24 hr of exposure. Probit analyses estimated LD50 values between 34 and 36 microl (95% CI) for all insect species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure for 6 days showed that lower amounts (30 microl) of methyl salicylate vapor were able to induce 100% adult mortality of the three insect species. The implications are discussed in the context of improving stored product pest control by small-scale subsistence farmers in Africa.

  10. Volatile flavor constituents in the pork broth of black-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Meng; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Mengyao; Hou, Li; Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Shi; Cheng, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Pork of black-pig in China is well known for its quality and preferred by consumers. However, there is a lack of research on its flavors. By solvent assisted flavor evaporation combined with GC-MS, 104 volatile compounds in the stewed pork broth of black-pig were identified with the dominant amounts of fatty acids, alcohols, and esters. By aroma extract dilution analysis-GC-O method, 27 odor-active compounds were characterized, including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 2-furfurylthiol, γ-decalactone, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal that had high FD factors. Compared to the common white-pig, the aroma compounds in both pork broths were almost the same, but the aroma profile of potent odorants for the black-pig pork broth showed less fatty and more roasted notes, which were partially attributed to the higher monounsaturated fatty acids and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat. With aid of authentic chemicals and selected reaction monitoring mode of GC-MS/MS, 19 aroma compounds were quantitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill from Morocco

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    jihane OUMATOU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS. The study allowed the identification of forty-six compounds for the VOCs. The most abundant compounds in the three varieties (Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul were 2-hexanal and n-hexanol with a percentage of 10.6%, 10.9% and 44.0% for the first compound and 10.3 %, 59.0%, 18.7% for the second, successively. The extraction of phenolic compounds permitted the identification and quantification of 15 fractions of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid with 16.0 and 10.8 mg/100g of plant material respectively for Dellahia and Aissa. For flavoinoids composition, isorhamnetin was the major compound. It accounted respectively for 40.5% and 43.2% for Dellahia and Aissa. We can conclude that cactus pear fruits are a good source of natural antioxidants and the major compounds responsible of flavor in the studied varieties are 2-hexanal and n-hexanol.

  12. Volatile Constituents of Two Croton Species from Caatinga Biome of Pernambuco – Brasil

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    Ilzenayde de Araújo Neves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and stem essential oils from Crotonpulegioides Müll.Arg. and C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius (Kunth Müll.Arg were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The composition of the oils from the two Croton species was very different. The main components of the C. pulegioides oils were 1,8-cineole (15.86± 0.23% in leaf, p-cymene (14.40± 0.01% in leaf, camphor (13.28%± 0.12% in leaf and α-humulene (12.98± 0.22% in leaf, α-calacorene (12.95± 0.45% in stem, cis-isolongifolane (8.94±0.54% in stem and juniper camphor (6.44±0.45% in stem. The main components of the C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius oils were β-caryophyllene (20.82±0.48% in leaf, spathulenol (16.37±0.56% in leaf and β-elemene (17.28±0.06% in stem and guaiol (18.38±0.84% in stem. Phenylpropanoids common to Croton species were only found in C. rhamnifolius var. heliopropiifolius oils at percentages below 5%. This is the first report of the essential oil constituents of C. pulegioides and C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius from the Caatinga biome of the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil.

  13. STUDY OF MACROMOLECULAR CONSTITUENTS, VOLATILE EXTRACTIVES AND PHENOLICS FROM CANDEIA WOOD - Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina de Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main chemical components of Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC. (candeia or cambará wood were investigated. This wood is native in the Southern region of Minas Gerais - Brazil.  The chemical composition was:  47.5% of α-cellulose, 25.4% of A and B hemicelluloses, 24.0% of lignin, 73.2% of holocellulose, 3.82% of ethanol:cyclohexane  (1:1, v v-1 extractives, 3.21% of ethanol extractives and 4.04%  of hot water extractives.  The volatile composition was mainly: α-curcumene, α-dihydroturmerone, β-dihydroturmerone, cedranol, 1-cyclopentyl-3-[2,4-dimethylphenyl]propane. The total phenols analysis was carried out on methanol:water (MW and acetone:water (AW extracts. The last one presented better yield. The total phenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and the modified Prussian blue assays.  Folin-Ciocalteau yielded 0.93 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 1.56 for AW extract; modified Prussian blue yielded 2.74 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 4.42 for AW extract. Proanthocyanidins were determined by n-buthanol-acid and vanillin assays. The n-buthanol acid yielded 0.012 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.017 for AW extract; vanillin: 0.29 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.58 for AW extract. 3-deoxy-proanthocyanidins were not detected.

  14. Numerical modeling and experimental analysis of volatile contaminant removal from vertical flow filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical flow filters (unplanted) and vertical flow constructed wetlands (planted), simple and inexpensive technologies to treat effectively volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contaminated water, consist of containers filled with granular material which is intermittently fed with contaminated water.

  15. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

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    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  16. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Han Jia; Yi Liu; Yu-Zhen Li

    2011-01-01

    The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE) and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone) were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results showed that USE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extracting the volatile components from safflower. It also could be found that the number of components in the TIC of ethyl acetate extract was more than that in the TIC of other solvent ones. Meanwhile, the volatile components of safflower from Xinjiang Autonomous Region and Henan Province of China were different in chemical components and relative contents. It could be concluded that both the extraction solvents and geographical origin of safflower are responsible for these differences. The experimental results also indicated that USE/GC-MS is a simple, rapid and effective method to analyze the volatile oil components of safflower.

  17. International Portfolio Flows and Exchange Rate Volatility for Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Ali, Faek Menla; Spagnolo, Fabio; Spagnolo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of equity and bond portfolio inflows on exchange rate volatility, using monthly bilateral data for the US vis-a-vis eight Asian developing and emerging countries (India, Indonesia, South Korea, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan) over the period 1993:01-2012:11, and estimating a time-varying transition probability Markov-switching model. We find that net equity (bond) inflows drive the exchange rate to a high (low) volatility state. ...

  18. Treatment of volatile organic contaminants in a vertical flow filter: Relevance of different removal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Reger, D.; Schmidt, A.; Jechalke, S.; Reiche, N.; Martínez-Lavanchy, P.M.; Rosell, M.; Van Afferden, M.; Maier, U.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters and vertical flow constructed wetlands are established wastewater treatment systems and have also been proposed for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates the removal processes of volatile organic compounds in a pilot-scale vertical flow filter. The

  19. Treatment of volatile organic contaminants in a vertical flow filter: Relevance of different removal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Reger, D.; Schmidt, A.; Jechalke, S.; Reiche, N.; Martínez-Lavanchy, P.M.; Rosell, M.; Van Afferden, M.; Maier, U.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters and vertical flow constructed wetlands are established wastewater treatment systems and have also been proposed for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates the removal processes of volatile organic compounds in a pilot-scale vertical flow filter.

  20. 迷迭香挥发油提取工艺优化及其化学成分分析%Optimization of Extraction Technology of Volatile Oil from Rosemary and Analysis on the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏妙; 郭占京; 卢汝梅; 蒙亮

    2012-01-01

    Volatile oil was extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) by water steam distillation method. The extraction technology was optimized by orthogonal test. And the chemical constituents of volatile oil in fresh and dry rosemary were compared by GC-MS. According to orthogonal design, the optimum technology for extracting volatile oil from rosemary was, the herb was cut into pieces with length of 1 cm, then soaked for 3 h when the dosage of water was fifteen fold of material mass, and extracted for 4 h, under such conditions the extraction rate of volatile oil was 1.870%. And the chemical constituents of volatile oil in fresh and dry rosemary were similar. The quality was not affected by drying in the shade.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取迷迭香(Rosmarinus officindis L.)挥发油,运用正交设计优化提取工艺.结果表明,迷迭香挥发油最佳提取工艺条件为迷迭香剪成1 cm长的小段、料水质量比1∶15、浸泡时间3h、提取时间4h,此条件下挥发油的得率为1.870%.运用GC-MS技术分析并比较了迷迭香鲜样和干样挥发油的化学成分,结果表明二者化学成分基本相同,药材阴干后挥发油品质没有受到明显影响.

  1. Concentrations, loads and yields of selected water-quality constituents during low flow and storm runoff from three watersheds at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 1994 through September 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the effects of storm runoff from urban areas on water quality at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, was conducted from May 1994 through September 1996. The purpose of this report is to present information to assess the current (1994-96) conditions and possible methods for anticipating future water-quality effects from storm runoff and changes in land use. Three sampling sites were established to monitor streamflow and water quality from three watersheds draining the study area. Streamflow was monitored continuously, and water-quality samples were collected during low-flow (12 samples) and storm-runoff (21 samples) conditions to determine mean annual constituent loads. Constituent concentrations for the most part were smallest during low flow with the exception of major ions, dissolved solids, and some nutrients. Concentrations of suspended solids and total recoverable metals at all three sites were much larger in storm-runoff samples than in low-flow samples--typically an order of magnitude larger than low-flow concentrations. Mean low-flow nutrient concentrations were either larger than or smaller than storm-runoff concentrations depending on the watershed. Total chloroform and total tetrachloroethylene were the only two volatile organic compounds detected, and acid-base/neutral organic compounds were not detected in any of the samples collected. Eight pesticides were detected in low-flow samples, and 15 pesticides were detected in storm-runoff samples. The only mean concentrations of the selected constituents in this study that exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level were dissolved solids and total recoverable iron and manganese.

  2. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of three endemic Centaurea species from Turkey: Centaurea amanicola Hub.-Mor., Centaurea consanguinea DC. and Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek and their antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Celik, Sezgin; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Centaurea amanicola Hub.-Mor., Centaurea consanguinea DC. and Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 94 components were identified. Sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids and carbonylic compounds were the most abundant components in the oils. Hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z )-9,12-octadecadienoic acid were the main fatty acids in all the examined samples, that showed different patterns of composition. The study on the biological activity of the oils showed an action mainly against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  3. [Effects of processing methods on the amounts of volatile oil of nutmeg and on isolation and characterization of the volatile oil constituents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Xu, Z; Pan, J; Mao, S

    1990-07-01

    In this paper, the authors investigated the effects of various processing methods, i.e., scalding in hot purified talc, simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran, on nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) in terms of the quantities of the volatile oil. The experimental results revealed that the amounts of volatile oil contained in nutmeg vary remarkably with the lengths of cooking time and the fluctuation of temperature. Detected by GC-MS-computer, 32 compounds of nutmeg were characterized, and their contents were determined by GC respectively.

  4. GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Lasiosphaera fenzlii%脱皮马勃挥发性成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑楠; 司攀; 高玉琼; 刘建华; 杨广成

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide the foundation for reasonable utilization by analyzing the volatile constituents of Lasiosphaera fenzlii. Method: The volatile oil was extracted from L. fenzlii by team distillation. The chemical constituents were analyzed by GC-MS. Result: Eighty nine compounds were separated and forty nine of them were identified, which accounted for 70.713% of all the volatile oil. The major components were acenaphthylene (16.836%), ar-curcumene (7.800%), caryophyllene oxide (5.448%), beta-tumerone (2. 814% ) , beta-cadinene (2. 771% ). Conclusion: This paper reported, for the first time, the composition of volatile oils of L. fenzlii by GC-MS.%目的:分析脱皮马勃的挥发性成分,为脱皮马勃的开发利用提供实验依据.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取脱皮马勃(Lasiosphaera fenzlii Reich)挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对挥发油进行分析.结果:共分离出89个化学成分,鉴别出49个化学成分,占挥发油总量的70.713%,其主要成分为苊(16.836%);芳-姜黄烯(7.800%);丁香烯环氧物(5.448%);β-姜黄酮(2.814%);β-杜松萜烯(2.771%).结论:首次采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对脱皮马勃的挥发性成分进行研究.

  5. Differential elliptic flow of identified hadrons and constituent quark number scaling at FAIR

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2010-01-01

    Differential elliptic flow $v_2(p_{T})$ for identified hadrons has been investigated in the FAIR energy regime, employing a hadronic-string transport model (UrQMD) as well as a partonic transport model (AMPT). It has been observed that both the models show a mass ordering of $v_2$ at low $p_{T}$ and a switch over resulting a baryon-meson crossing at intermediate $p_{T}$. AMPT generates higher $v_2$ values compared to UrQMD. In addition, constituent quark number scaling behavior of elliptic fl...

  6. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  7. Investigation of the volatile oils, lipid constituents and biological activity of Ballota andreuzziana, Teucrium zanonii andVerbena tenuisecta in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled A Abdelshafeek; Adnan A Elgattar; Aziza H Zarkoon; Mohamed A Alwahash; Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the chemical composition of essential oils and lipid constituents of Ballota andreuzziana (B. andreuzziana), Teucrium zanonii (T. zanonii)andVerbena tenuisecta (V. tenuisecta) growing in Libya, and to test the antibacterial activity of different extracts ofTeucrium zanonii.Methods: The volatile oils of all plants were extracted by hydrodistillation method and analyzed byGC/MS method. The lipid constituents of plants were obtained by extraction with petroleum ether and fractionated into fatty alcohols, fatty acids and unsapoinfiable matters. Antibacterial activity ofT. zanonii extracts and antioxidant activity of different extracts ofT. zanonii were also studied.Results: The volate oil ofB. andreuzziana was found to consists of20 compounds in which caryophyllin is the main one (63.1%), the volatile oil ofT. zanonii consists of74 compounds in which germacrene-D was the main compound, while the volatile oil ofV. tenuisecta consists of13compounds with1-octen-3- ol as a major constituent(52.87%). The study of antimicrobial activity of different extracts ofV. tenuisecta showed that, both methanol and butanol extracts exhibited the highest activity againstMycobactirium phlei (M. phlei) andCandida albicans (C. albicans) respectively, while petroleum ether, fatty alcohols and unsaponifiable fractions had no antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Investigation of the antioxidant activity of different extracts ofT. zanonii usingDPPH method proved that, the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed the highest activity where the inhibition percentage(I%) are 93.6 and92.1 respectively.Conclusions:This is the first report about the volatile oils of these plants whereT. zanonii have the highest content and the highest number of the identified compounds. The study of antioxidantT. zanonii extracts proved that, the ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous extracts have the highest antioxidant activity. Methanol and butanol extracts of

  8. 仙人掌超微粉挥发性成分研究%Determination of Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.) Haw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯莎; 丁丽娜; 刘建华; 高玉琼; 安立群; 廖川

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究仙人掌中的挥发性成分.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取经超微粉碎后的仙人掌[Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.)Haw]挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果:共分离鉴定出32个化学成分,占总成分的98.097%,其中相对百分含量大于2%的分别确定为异丁基邻苯二甲酸酯(Isobutyl phthalate)27.492%,棕榈酸(Palmific acid)16.716%,丁基邻苯二甲酸酯(Butyl phthahte)11.257%,薄荷脑(Menthol)6.722%,亚油酸(Linoleic acid)5.995%,壬醛(Nonanal)4.594%,乙醛(Hexanal)3.614%,十二酸(Dodecanic acid)3.244%.结论:通过对仙人掌超微粉挥发性成分的分析鉴定及相对含量测定,为综合利用仙人掌植物资源等提供科学依据.%Objective: To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw.Method: The chemical compositions of the volatile oil of the plants which were obtained by steam distillation with hexane were analyzed by GC-MS.The constituents were identified by their mass spectra.The relative percentage of the oil constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas.Result: Thirteen-two kinds of chemical constituents in Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw were separated and characterized;which were representing 98.097% of the oil.Relative contents that were more than 2% were determined as Isobutyl phthalate 27.492%,Palmitic acid 16.716%,Butyl phthalate 11.257%,Menthol 6.722%,Linoleic acid 5.995%,Nonanal 4.594%,Hexanal 3.614%,Dodecanic acid 3.244%.Conclusion: The composition of volatile oils of micro-milling of Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gaw.) Haw's comprehensive utilization to provide reference data.

  9. Changes in the enantiomeric distribution of selected volatile constituents of Mentha pulegium L. powders caused by hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokl, Michał; Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, Maria Luisa Ruiz

    2006-11-15

    The variation, in general, of the composition of the aromatic fraction and, in particular, of the enantiomeric composition of certain chiral volatile compounds of commercial Mentha pulegium L. powders caused by boiling water was evaluated. A comparison between the volatile profile of the studied herbs demonstrated that most M. pulegium L. samples contained high proportions of Mentha piperita L., even when this information was not specified on the label. Likewise, substantial changes in the volatile fraction of the infusions with respect to the composition of the original plant used in their preparation were found. The enantiomeric composition of some chiral compounds of the dried plant material, particularly limonene, was modified by adding hot water, whereas others were kept invariable. The results shown in this work reflect the need for the control of the composition of commercial powders and brews of M. pulegium L. to ensure their correct application.

  10. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Yunnan Weigela florida%云南产锦带花挥发油化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文晖; 梁倩

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Yunnan Weigela florida. METHODS: The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation, and identified by GC-MS. RESULTS: 16 compounds were isolated, including organic acid, alkane, phenols and ketone. The content of palmitic acid was the highest (53.048%), followed by linoleic acid (9.654%), pentacosane(8.967%),heptacosane(8.555%),tricosane (5.665%) and linolenic acid (3.848%). CONCLUSION: The study report the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Yunnan W. Florida for the first time and provide scientific basis for the further effective utilization of W. Florida.%目的:研究云南产锦带花挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取锦带花挥发油,利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行化学成分分析.结果:共分离出16种化学成分,包含有机酸、烷烃、酚类和酮类.其中含量最高的是十六烷酸(53.048%),其次是亚油酸(9.654%)、正二十五烷(8.967%)、正二十七烷(8.555%)、正二十三烷(5.665%)和亚麻酸(3.848%).结论:本研究首次报道了云南产锦带花的挥发油化学成分,可为锦带花的进一步高效合理使用提供科学依据.

  11. Analysis of volatile constituents in beeswax using HS-GC/MS%顶空-气质联用测定黑龙江地产蜂蜡中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 张宁; 雷勇; 孙慧峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究蜂蜡挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空-气质联用手段进行测定,利用ChemStation、AMDIS、NIST05库相结合的方法对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用相对峰面积法计算相对百分含量.结果:分离得到色谱峰34种,确定了其中29种化合物,其中大部分成分在蜂蜡中首次报道.结论:应用顶空气一质联用技术能够全面、便捷测定蜂蜡中挥发性成分.%Objective: To study the volatile constituents from beeswax sample. Methods: The volatile constituents of beeswax which were analyzed by Head Space-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra using ChemStation, AMDIS and NIST05. The relative percentage of volatile constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Results: Thirty-four kinds of chemical constituents in beeswax were separated, of which twenty-nine compounds were characterized. Conclusion: HS-GC/MS was simple and less sample-demanding and can be used for the fast analysis of the volatile constituents of beeswax.

  12. Comparison of volatile constituents extracted from model grape juice and model wine by stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven-Quantrill, Darren J; Buglass, Alan J

    2011-02-18

    A stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimised for the analysis of volatile components of a model wine, based on a previously optimised method used for analysis of the same components in model grape juice. The presence of ethanol in the model wine sample matrix resulted in decreased sensitivity of the method toward most of the volatile constituents. Mean percent relative recoveries and reproducibilities (%CV) were 22.8% and 7.1%, respectively, compared with 28.4% and 8.5% for model grape juice. The mean limit of detection (LoD) ratio (juice:wine) was 0.25. Similar sensitivities for the two sample matrices using this method were achieved by changing the split ratio from 20:1 (grape juice) to 5:1 (wine), giving a mean limit of detection ratio (juice:wine) of 1.0, thus allowing direct comparison of chromatograms of volatile components in the two matrices. This enabled direct comparisons of grape juices and the wines derived from them by alcoholic yeast fermentation. The influence of ethanol concentration in the range 9-15% on method sensitivity is discussed, using an overlay of the total ion chromatograms. The use of a gas saver device for the 5:1 split ratio analysis of desorbed model wine aroma compounds is discussed in terms of preventing extraneous reaction of sorbent and stationary phases with air during analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction with Simultaneous Steam Distillation Extraction for the Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in Chinese Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-xia; CHEN Xue-sen; WANG Xin-guo; CI Zhi-juan; LIU Xiao-li; HE Tian-ming; ZHANG Li-jie

    2006-01-01

    Volatile constituents in fully mature fruits of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Xinshiji were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SSDE) and then analyzed using capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 70 components were identified by HSSPME, including 20 esters, 19 hydrocarbons, 5 alcohols, 5 ketones, 4 acids, 4 lactones, 3 aldehydes, and 10 miscellaneous components, with the esters being the dominant constituent. On the basis of the odor unit values, it is believed that the following compounds probably contributed to the fresh apricot odor: hexyl acetate, β-ionone, butyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal,linalool, limonene, γ-decalactone, and hexanal. A total of 49 components were also detected by SSDE, including 13 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 9 esters, 4 ketones, 4 lactones, 2 acids, and 1 miscellaneous component, of which the monoterpene alcohols were the dominant constituents. It could be judged from the odor unit values that the following compounds were the major contributors to boiled apricot aroma: β-ionone, linalool, hexyl acetate, γ-dodecalactone, γ-decalactone, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, γ-octalactone, phenylacetaldehyde, butyl acetate, limonene, α-terpineol, and δ-decalactone.The results show that HS-SPME is a simple, rapid, and solvent-free method, which is an alternative to the classical SSDE.

  14. Analysis Natural Volatile Constituents of Nothapodytes Pittosporoides with SPME-GC-MS%SPME-GC-MS 分析马比木中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 柳小兰; 王道平; 李齐激; 杨小生; 高渐飞; 张凡; 曹佩雪; 张明; 周美

    2016-01-01

    Nothapodytes pittosporoides containing camptothe-cin and its methyl derivatives which are im-portant anti-cancer active ingredients was extensively attracted as an alternative to camptotheca acuminate.Nat-ural volatile constituents of Nothapodytes pittosporoides were extracted by using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)and separated and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The relative content of natural volatile constituents for Nothapodytes pittospo-roides was calculated to take area normalization meth-od of chromatographic peak.Through computer retrieval,80 natural volatile constituents of Nothapodytes pit-tosporoides were identified.The main ingredients were 2-methyl Butanal (4.85 1%),2-Methyl-2-butenal (3. 088%),Hexanal (5.780%),2-Furancarboxaldehyde (40.413%),(E)-2-Hexenal (6.099%),3-Hexen-1-ol (2. 739%),(Z)-Hexenol(3.260%),1-Hexanol(1 1.5 14%)and so on.%马比木(Nothapodytes pittosporoides )含有重要的抗癌活性成分喜树碱及其甲基衍生物.利用固相微萃取技术(SPME)提取马比木中的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对其化学成分进行分离分析,并用色谱峰面积归一化法测定各成分的相对含量.通过计算机检索,鉴定出80个挥发性化学成分,其中主要成分为2-甲基丁醛(4.851%)、2-甲基-2-丁烯醛(3.088%)、己醛(5.780%)、2-呋喃甲醛(40.413%)、(E)-2-己烯醛(6.099%)、3-己烯-1-醇(2.739%)、(Z)-己烯醇(3.260%)、正己醇(11.514%)等.

  15. ESTIMATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS IN THE FISH FLESH FROM WILD AND FARMED CIRRHINA MRIGALA AND CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Mahboob; Bilal Hussain; Zahid Iqbal; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of fish meat using gas chromatography is described. Flavor is the sensation arising from the interplay of the signals of sensing smell, taste and irritating stimuli from food stuff. For human, flavor and nutrition are inseparable. In fish, trace amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major compounds to affect consumer's preference, which are produced during storage and spoilage. In the present study, volatile compounds were extracted by Likens-Nickerson con-current distillation apparatus from wild and farmed Cirrhina mrigala and Cyprinus carpio. The quantitative and qualitative estimation of volatiles was made by gas chromatography. Wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes were compared for these compounds (appearing in the form of peaks), which were identified from their retention time by comparing with the stand-ards. Fifteen major VOCs were found in these species which included hexadecane, 3-octanol, hexanal, decane, 3-hexene-1-ol, 2-undecanone, 2-heptanone, butanal, 2-nonanone, 1-heptanal, furaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanal, trans-3-hexene-1-ol, octanal and decanal. These compounds varied qualitatively and quantitatively in both wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes.

  16. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  17. Volatile flavour constituent patterns of Terras Madeirenses red wines extracted by dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Rodrigues, Freddy; Câmara, José S

    2008-06-01

    A suitable analytical procedure based on static headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-(ITD)MS), was developed and applied for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of volatile components of Portuguese Terras Madeirenses red wines. The headspace SPME method was optimised in terms of fibre coating, extraction time, and extraction temperature. The performance of three commercially available SPME fibres, viz. 100 mum polydimethylsiloxane; 85 mum polyacrylate, PA; and 50/30 mum divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane, was evaluated and compared. The highest amounts extracted, in terms of the maximum signal recorded for the total volatile composition, were obtained with a PA coating fibre at 30 degrees C during an extraction time of 60 min with a constant stirring at 750 rpm, after saturation of the sample with NaCl (30%, w/v). More than sixty volatile compounds, belonging to different biosynthetic pathways, have been identified, including fatty acid ethyl esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids, higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters, carbonyl compounds, and monoterpenols/C(13)-norisoprenoids.

  18. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  19. Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Pulicaria sicula (L.) Moris growing wild in Sicily: chemotaxonomic volatile markers of the genus Pulicaria Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Riccobono, Luana; Spadaro, Vivienne; Campisi, Patrizia; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Pulicaria sicula (L.) Moris was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil was particularly rich in oxygenated terpenoids. Among the oxygenated monoterpenes (content of 44.5%), the most abundant were borneol (23.7%), bornyl acetate (6.5%), and isothymol isobutyrate (6.2%). Caryophyllene oxide (10.2%), caryophylladienol I (4.3%), and caryophylla-3,8(13)-dien-5β-ol (4.4%) were identified as the main constituents among the oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, a complete literature review on the composition of the essential oils of all the Pulicaria taxa studied so far was performed and a principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out.

  20. Investor sentiment, mutual fund flows and its impact on returns and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, T.; Müller, Aline; Frijns, B.P.M.; Beaumont, R.J.; Daele, M. van

    2008-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of individual investor sentiment on the return process and conditional volatility of three main US market indices (Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P500 and Nasdaq100). Individual investor sentiment is measured by aggregate money flow

  1. Removal of volatile organic compounds in vertical flow filters: predictions from Reactive Transport Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Maier, U.; Baeder-Bederski, O.; Bayer, P.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters are containers filled with porous medium that are recharged from top and drained at the bottom, and are operated at partly saturated conditions. They have recently been suggested as treatment technology for groundwater containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Numerical rea

  2. Removal of volatile organic compounds in vertical flow filters: predictions from Reactive Transport Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Maier, U.; Baeder-Bederski, O.; Bayer, P.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters are containers filled with porous medium that are recharged from top and drained at the bottom, and are operated at partly saturated conditions. They have recently been suggested as treatment technology for groundwater containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Numerical rea

  3. Removal of volatile organic compounds in vertical flow filters: predictions from Reactive Transport Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Maier, U.; Baeder-Bederski, O.; Bayer, P.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical flow filters are containers filled with porous medium that are recharged from top and drained at the bottom, and are operated at partly saturated conditions. They have recently been suggested as treatment technology for groundwater containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Numerical

  4. Determination of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum%果上叶挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛世昌; 王道平; 刘建华; 高玉琼; 刘文炜; 李计龙

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究果上叶中的挥发性成分.方法:利用有机溶剂-水蒸气蒸馏法提取果上叶挥发油,用GC-MS进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离化合物进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果:分离鉴定出38种化学成分,占挥发油总量91.448%,其中含量大于2%的分别为Z-9-十八烯醛18.075%、2,4-二叔丁基苯酚3.264%、棕榈酸5.413%、油酸25.079%、二十三烷6.344%、二十四烷3.768%、1-十八烯酸单甘油酯2.146%、亚油酸甘油酯4.953%、二十五烷4.332%、二十六烷3.387%、二十七烷3.841%、二十八烷3.102%.结论:本文采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对果上叶中的挥发性成分进行研究.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum. Method: The chemical compositions of the volatile oil of the plants which were obtained by organic-steam distillation with hexane were analyzed by GC-MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra. The relative percentage of the oil constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Result: Thirty-eight kinds of chemical components were identified from B. odoratissimum. The amount of the identified components was accounted for 91. 448% of all the volatile oil. The constituents whose relative content was more than 2% were determined as Z-9-octadecenal (18. 075% ), 2,4-Di-tertbutylphenol (3.264%), palmitic acid (5.413%), oleic acid (25.079%),tricosane (6. 344% ), tetracosane (3. 768% ), 1-Monoolein (2. 416% ), 1-monolinolein (4. 953% ), pontacosane (4. 332% ), hexacosane (3. 387% ), heptacosane (3. 841% ), octacosane (3. 102% ). Conclusion: The composition of volatile oils from B. odoratissimum by GC-MS.

  5. Anodized aluminum wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber for rapid determination of volatile constituents in medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi

    2011-09-02

    Headspace solid phase microextraction using anodized aluminum fiber in combination with capillary GC-MS was utilized as monitoring technique for the collection and detection of the volatile compounds of Echinophora platyloba DC. Experimental parameters, including the sample weight, extraction temperature, extraction time and humidity effect, desorption time and desorption temperature were examined and optimized. Using HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 53 compounds were separated and identified in E. platyloba DC, which mainly included E-β ocimene (47.63%), R-D-decalactone (13.28%), α-pinene (7.43%) and nonane (6.71%). Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), HS-SPME, provides the advantages of a small amount of sample, timesaving, simplicity and cheapness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using anodized aluminum fiber in solid-phase microextraction coupled to headspace for the investigation of volatile fraction of medicinal plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction for determination of volatile constituents in tobacco flavor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Ke-jun; WEI Wan-zhi; GUO Fang-qiu; HUANG Lan-fang

    2005-01-01

    The volatile and semi-volatile components in tobacco flavor additives were extracted by both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Extraction conditions for solid-phase micro-extraction were optimized with information theory. Then, detection were accomplished by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characteristic of each method was compared. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of 6# tobacco flavor sample were accomplished through both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. The experimental results show that solid-phase micro-extraction method is the first choice for qualitative analysis and simultaneous distillation extraction is another good selection for quantitative analysis. By means of simultaneous distillation extraction, 20 components are identified, accounting for 92.77% of the total peak areas. Through solid-phase micro-extraction, there are 17 components identified accounting for 91.49% of the total peak areas. The main aromatic components in 6# tobacco flavor sample are propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, menthol and menthyl acetate. The presented method has been successfully used for quality control of tobacco flavor.

  7. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow Sprengel Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were beta-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%, beta-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%, gamma-muurolene (28.4%, alpha-humulene (26.0%, 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5% and beta-pinene (10.6%. Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS, and comparison with the literature.

  8. Stock Return and Cash Flow Predictability: The Role of Volatility Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Xu, Lai; Zhou, Hao

    We examine the joint predictability of return and cash flow within a present value framework, by imposing the implications from a long-run risk model that allow for both time-varying volatility and volatility uncertainty. We provide new evidence that the expected return variation and the variance...... risk premium positively forecast both short-horizon returns and dividend growth rates. We also confirm that dividend yield positively forecasts long-horizon returns, but that it cannot forecast dividend growth rates. Our equilibrium-based “structural” factor GARCH model permits much more accurate...

  9. Volatile constituents of the oils from Povedadaphne Quadriporata (lauraceae from "Alberto M. Brenes" biological preserve, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the leaf, bark and wood oils of Povedadaphne quadriporata W. Burger from Costa Rica were analyzed by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. One hundred and sixty-three compounds were identified. The major components from the leaf oil were a-pinene (21.2%, germacrene D (18.1%, b-pinene (14.8%, a-phellandrene (7.8%, a-copaene (6.6%, b-caryophyllene (6.1% and d-cadinene (3.5%. From bark oil, the main constituents were a-pinene (27.7%, p-cymene (7.8%, b-pinene (7.4%, camphene (3.6%, a-copaene (3.5% and limonene (3.3%. From wood oil, 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (8.0%, a-eudesmol (3.4%, cadalene (3.4% and d-cadinene (3.0% were the major compounds identified. This paper describes for the first time the composition of essential oils in this unique species and genus.

  10. Trading and non-trading period Internet information flow and intraday return volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yongjie

    2016-06-01

    This paper employs the news appeared in Baidu News as the proxy for Internet information flow, separates them into trading period and non-trading period information and provides alternative evidence for the Mixture of Distribution Hypothesis (MDH). The empirical results show that the contemporary information can effectively reduce the volatility persistence; meanwhile, the lead information and the aggregate information also show some explanatory power. Some future directions are pointed out in the concluding remarks.

  11. Study of Volatile Chemical Constituents in Different Parts of Picrasma quassioides%苦木不同部位挥发性化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨再波; 郭治友; 龙成梅; 毛海立; 孙成斌

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)分析苦木不同部位的挥发性化学成分.方法:采用微波辅助顶空固相微萃取技术分别提取苦木叶柄、叶和枝的主要挥发性化学成分,用气相色谱-质谱法与Kovats色谱保留指数相结合进行定性定量分析.结果:从苦木的叶柄、叶片和枝中分别鉴定出84,76,60个组分,分别占挥发油总峰面积的97.247%,97.179%,97.141%,在叶柄中主要成分香芹酚(5.201%),麝香草酚(6.185%),反式-丁香烯(6.562%),α-佛手柑油烯(6.295%),反-β-金合欢烯(5.088%),枯茗醇(10.807%),β-甜没药烯(6.136%).叶片中主要成分是反式-丁香烯(7.017%),α-佛手柑油烯(7.848%),反-β-金合欢烯(8.297%),枯茗醇(10.728%),β-甜没药烯(7-150%),(-)-石竹烯氧化物(5.094%).而在枝中主要是反式-丁香烯(5.530%,α-佛手柑油烯(9.997%),反-β-金合欢烯(7.994%),枯茗醇(15.416%),β-甜没药烯(12.733%).结论:苦木叶柄、叶和枝所含挥发性成分差异较大.%Objective:To analyze and compare the volatile constituents which were extracted from the different parts of Picrasna quassioides . Method:The volatile components were extracted from the different parts of P.quassioides by the methods of MAE-HS-SPME and the chemical components of them were identified by GC-MS and Kovats retention index. Result: Eight-four volatile constituents in the petiole,76 in the leaf blade and 60 in the branch of P. quassioides were separated and identified, Accounting for 97. 247% ,97. 179% and 97. 141% of the total peak areas,respectively. Which is the main component in petiole carvacrol(5.201% ) ,thymol(6. 185% ) ,transcaryophyllene ( 6.562% ) , alpha-bergamotene ( 6. 295% ) , trans-beta-farnesene ( 5. 088% ), cuminol ( 10. 807% ),beta-bisabolene 6. 136% ). And in the leaf blade trans-caryophyllene ( 7. 017% ) , alpha-bergamotene ( 7. 848% ),trans-beta-farnesene ( 8.297% ) , cuminol ( 10. 728% ) , beta-bisabolene ( 7. 150

  12. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

  13. Designing reverse-flow packed bed reactors for stable treatment of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fan Liang; Keith, Jason M

    2006-02-01

    Reverse-flow packed bed reactors can be used to treat gaseous pollutants from chemical plants. This article describes the design and operation of a modified reverse-flow reactor (MRFR) which has a recuperator on each end of the reactor and a reaction zone in the middle. The recuperators have low thermal dispersion and the reaction zone has a high thermal dispersion, obtained by placing metal inserts into the bed, parallel with the gas flow. Performance of the MRFR during extended lean and rich conditions is determined with analytical analysis and compares well with numerical simulations of CO oxidation; however, the theory is expected to be useful for any reaction kinetics. A major advantage of this MRFR design is an extended time for the reactor to extinguish during lean conditions. This work also describes MRFR performance with internal reactor cooling, which can be used as a control mechanism to maintain reactor temperature for proper removal of volatile organic compounds.

  14. Volatile constituents from flower of Tianmian Cucurbita moschata Duch. by head-space solid micro-extraction coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌勤; 卢引; 李新铮; 邢晗; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the volatile constituents in flowers of Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Tianmian). Methods The volatiles were analyzed by head-space solid micro-extraction,coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time. A quantitative analysis in percent was performed by peak area normalization measurements to search the volatile constituents from flowers of C. moschata Duch. (Tianmian). Results 37 compounds were identified from the male flowers and 16 from the female flowers,98.24% and 94.45% of the total essential constituents respectively,the male flowers and the female had 10 common components. Conclusion =The volatile constituents were different between the female flowers and the male of C. moschata.%目的:分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),结合保留指数法,首次采用峰面积归一化法计算各化合物的相对百分含量来分析甜面大南瓜花挥发性成分。结果:从甜面大南瓜雄花和雌花中分别鉴定出37和16种化合物,分别占总峰面积的98.24%和94.45%。其中雄花和雌花有10种共有成分。结论:发现甜面大南瓜雌雄花的挥发性成分具有差别。

  15. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  16. What Makes International Capital Flows So Volatile?: Push vs. Pull Factors in the Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Joon Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the determinants of financial capital flows in Korea, which provides an intriguing case for examining the volatility of such flows as an almost fully opened capital market. Our empirical analysis finds both pull and push factors have significantly affected all three types of foreign capital flows- foreign equity investment, foreign bond investment and foreign other-type investment- in Korea, though the relative importance of each factor varies by sample period and type of financial capital. First, the determinants of capital inflows changed substantially following the 1997 currency crisis. The impact of push factors on foreign investment strengthened, rendering the Korean stock and bond market more susceptible to external shocks. Second, the global financial crisis, which increased global financial instability and preference for safe assets, appears to have had a negative effect on other-type investment. However, fThis paper analyzes the determinants of financial capital flows in Korea, which provides an intriguing case for examining the volatility of such flows as an almost fully opened capital market. Our empirical analysis finds both pull and push factors have significantly affected all three types of foreign capital flows- foreign equity investment, foreign bond investment and foreign other-type investment- in Korea, though the relative importance of each factor varies by sample period and type of financial capital. First, the determinants of capital inflows changed substantially following the 1997 currency crisis. The impact of push factors on foreign investment strengthened, rendering the Korean stock and bond market more susceptible to external shocks. Second, the global financial crisis, which increased global financial instability and preference for safe assets, appears to have had a negative effect on other-type investment. However, foreign equity investment showed a quick recovery in the wake of global financial

  17. Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Flavor Constituents from Ginkgo biloba Exocarp%银杏外种皮挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩帅; 苗志伟; 刘玉平; 孙宝国

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Ginkgo Biloba exocarp were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) or simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As a result, 29 compounds were identified, including 9 carboxilic acids, 9 esters, 3 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 4 alcohols, 1 hydrocarbon and 2 heterocyclic compounds. Both extraction methods allowed the identification of 12 volatile compounds. AS determined by SDE-GC-MS, hexanoic acid (65.88%), butanoic acid (21.46%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.53%) and octanoic acid (1.15%) were predominant among them. The predominant compounds determined by SPME-GC-MS were butanoic acid (59.96%), hexanoic acid (25.45%), methyl hexanoate (3.90%), methyl butyrate (3.59%) and acetic acid (1.65%). Butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, methyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, etc made a greater contribution to the odor characteristics of Ginkgo Biloba exocarp.%采用同时蒸馏萃取和固相微萃取两种萃取技术提取银杏外种皮的挥发性成分,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用对其挥发性物质成分进行分离鉴定。结果共鉴定出29种挥发性化合物,包括酸类9种、酯类9种、酮类3种、醛类1种、醇类4种、烃类1种、杂环类化合物2种,两种萃取物中都鉴定出的挥发性成分有12种。经SDE—GC—MS分析出的相对含量较高(峰面积比〉1%)的化合物有己酸(65.88%)、丁酸(21.46%)、棕榈酸(4.53%)、辛酸(1.15%);经固相微萃取.气相色谱-质谱联用分析出的相对含量较高(峰面积Lt〉1%)的化合物有丁酸(59.96%)、己酸(25.45%)、己酸甲酯(3.90%)、丁酸甲酯(3.59%)、乙酸(1.65%)。根据分析出的挥发性成分的香气特征可知对银杏外种皮挥发性气味贡献较大的物质有丁酸、己酸、丁酸甲酯和己酸甲酯等。

  18. A new semi-Lagrangian routing procedure for constituent transport in steady and unsteady flow velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, L.; Cozzolino, L.; D'Aniello, A.; Morlando, F.; Pianese, D.; Singh, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new numerical model for the simulation of constituent transport in both steady and unsteady flow conditions is presented. The transport model is a routing procedure in which the advection process is solved by means of the Lagrangian coordinate transformation, while the dispersion process is approximated within each time step by means of the convolution principle, exploiting a multilinear procedure. In order to facilitate the application of the Lagrangian coordinate transformation during unsteady flow conditions, the unsteady velocity field corresponding to the linearized parabolic approximation of the Saint Venant Equations is provided, taking into account appropriate boundary conditions. Finally, classic BOD-DO relationships are embedded into the routing procedure in order to perform water quality applications with reactive constituents. The model is first demonstrated with respect to a numerical water quality model in both steady and unsteady hydraulic conditions, and is then applied to two real-world cases. Because of its characteristics, the proposed model seems suitable for real time forecast of pollutant concentrations when an emergency event occurs, or for water quality management in real rivers.

  19. Effectiveness of non-volatile falling film absorbers with solution and coolant in counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.S. [Austrian Institute of Technology, Dept. Energy, Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna (Austria); Infante Ferreira, C.A. [Delft University of Technology, Engineering Thermodynamics, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Effectiveness equations are developed for non-volatile falling film absorbers with solution and coolant in counter-flow. It is shown how mixture thermodynamics and film theory can be used to simplify the problem to give eigenvalue solutions for temperature and concentration profiles and how heat and mass transfer effectiveness equations can be derived from such solutions. The results indicate that the transfer process in an absorber is driven by two driving forces, i.e. the difference between bulk solution and cooling water temperatures and the initial deviation of bulk solution from its equilibrium state. Asymptotic effectiveness equations are derived for a few limiting cases to show that they approach their counterparts in single-phase heat transfer and isothermal absorption processes. (author)

  20. Aerodynamic Flow Control by Thermoacoustic Excitation from the Constituent Nanomaterials on the Platform Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    control, turbulence, fluid mechanics, nonlinear coupling, planar jet experiment, Director’s Research Initiative (DRI) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Successful development of active aerodynamic flow control technologies that delay or prevent separation could lead to substantial performance...improvements, including increased speed, maneuverability, payload capacity, and/or range. However, instances in which active flow control technologies have

  1. Constituintes químicos e efeito ecotoxicológico do óleo volátil de folhas de Eucalyptus urograndis (Mirtaceae Chemical constituents and ecotoxicological effect of the volatile oil from leaves of eucalyptus urograndis (Mirtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Oliveira Lino de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oil from the leaves of E. urograndis was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It was identified 10 compounds in which, orto-cimene (41.4% and 1,8-cineol (25.8% were the main constituents. The induction of deleterious effect to aquatic organisms due to the presence of volatile oil lixiviated from E. urograndis leaves was studied using Daphnia laevis and D. similis as bioindicators. Through the results of toxicological tests it was possible to show that the litterbag of E. urograndis represents a risk factor for the aquatic ecosystem of lakes and rivers that are in the surrounding area of large scale Eucalyptus plantations. The method can be used for monitor the quality of these types of aquatic environments.

  2. 微波萃取莪术挥发油及其成分分析%Extraction of Volatile Oil from Curcumae rhizoma with Microwave -Extracting and Analysis of Its Constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶晶

    2012-01-01

    The volatile oil of Curcumae rhizoma was extracted by microwave - extracting and detected by GC - MS.Results showed that the extraction yield of volatile oil using microwave was 3.36%, higher than that by steam distillation. The main constituents of the volatile oil were the curzerenone achieving 20. 14%, followed by curcumol of 18.34%. This experiment has practical significance for the effective use of Curcumae rhizoma and its volatile oil.%采用微波萃取的方式提取莪术中的挥发油,并通过气相色谱一质谱联用技术对其化学成分进行了分析。实验结果显示,用微波萃取莪术挥发油的得率为3.36%,高于水蒸汽蒸馏法;挥发油中莪术呋喃烯酮含量最高,达到20.14%,其次是莪术醇,为18.34%。该实验可为莪术药材及其挥发油的有效利用提供依据。

  3. 气质联用法分析香茶菜不同部位挥发油的化学成分%GC-MS Analysis on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Different Fractions of Isodon Amethystoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 朱冬青; 王贤亲; 林崇良

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences of chemical constituents of the volatile oils in different fractions from the Isodon amethystoides.Methods:The volatile oils of Isodon amethystoides were extracted by steam distillation and were identified by GC-MS.The percentage composition of the volatile oils were calculated according to Peak area normalization method.Results:The major constituents of the volatile oils were alkanes,alcohols,acids and esters.8 compounds were identified from the stems,24 from the leaves,17 from the inflorescences,8 from the roots,and 32 from the rhizomes.Conclusion:It provides a basis for further development and utilization of Isodon amethystoides.%目的:研究香茶菜不同部位挥发油化学成分的差异.方法:水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,利用GC-MS计算机联用仪定性分析,按峰面积归一化法求出挥发油中化学成分的百分含量.结果:香茶菜挥发油主要成分以烷烃、醇、酸、酯为主,香茶菜茎鉴定出8个化合物,香茶菜叶鉴定出24个化合物,香荼菜花序鉴定出17个化合物,香茶菜根鉴定出8个化合物,香茶菜根茎挥发油中鉴定出32个化合物.结论:为进一步开发利用香茶菜提供依据.

  4. 3种百合科植物挥发物成分分析%Constituent analysis of volatile organic compounds in three Liliaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯青; 高群英; 张汝民; 高岩; 侯平

    2011-01-01

    为了探究百合科Liliaceae植物挥发物(VOCs)成分组成,采用活体植物动态顶空套袋采集法收集吊兰Chlorophytum comosum,一叶兰Aspidistra elatior和文竹Asparagus plumosus 3种百合科植物VOCs,利用热脱附-气相色谱/质谱联用法分析了这3种植物VOCs的主要成分.结果表明:吊兰释放34种VOCs,包含萜类、酯类、醇类、醛类、酸类等5类化合物,其中二氢香茅醇相对含量最高(28.79%);一叶兰释放VOCs共鉴定出25种,包含醛类、酯类、醇类、萜类、酮类、烃类等6类化合物,其中壬醛(相对含量为12.12%)为其主要成分;文竹释放出38种V0Cs,包含萜类醛类、酯类、醇类、醛类等4种化合物,主成分为牻牛儿醇(相对含量为27.90%).3种百合科植物挥发物中都含有萜类化合物、醇类化合物、醛类化合物、酯类化合物.研究结果为百合科植物的综合开发利用提供了理论依据.%To understand the constituents of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Liliaceae, VOCs from Chlorophytum comosum, Aspidistra elatior, and Asparagus plumosus were collected using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method.Then, the main VOCs compounds were identified with thermal desorption system-gas chromatography/mass spectrum(TDS-GC/MS). Results showed that C. comosum emitted 34 types of VOCs (mainly as terpenoids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, and acids) with dihydro-citronellol the most abundant compound (28.79%). Aspidistra elatior emitted 25 types of VOCs (mainly as aldehydes, esters, alcohols, terpenoids, ketones, and hydrocarbons) with Nonanal the most abundant compound (12.12%). Asparagus plumosus emitted 38 types of VOCs (mainly as terpenoids, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes) with lemonol the most abundant compound(27.90%). Thus, these three species, with alcohols, terpenoids, aldehydes, and esters all found in the VOCs, will provide a theoretical basis for multiple utilization and development of Liliaceae.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Volatile Constituents in Citrus aurantium L.-Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae and its Single Herb%枳实-白术及其单味药中挥发油成分的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华美玲; 熊峻; 佘金明

    2014-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从枳实、白术及其药对中提取挥发油成分,利用气相色谱-质谱法( GC-MS)分离检测它们,并通过交互移动窗口因子法( AMWFA)对其共有组分进行比较分析,最后通过质谱库结合保留指数、面积积分法进行定性定量分析。枳实、白术及其药对中挥发油分别定性46、45和82个成分,占各自总量的92.51%、91.56%和82.09%。药对与枳实、白术的共有组分分别为38个和37个。药对中挥发油主要成分是: D-苧烯(34.88%)(主要来自枳实);1,2,3,4-四氢-1-丁基异喹啉(22.31%)、大根香叶烯D(4.74%)(主要来自白术);里哪醇(6.17%)(新增)等。实验表明药对种类与含量变化并不是单味药的简单相加。%The volatile constituents in Citrus aurantium L.( CaL ) -Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae ( RAM ) and its single herb were extracted by steam distillation , and comparison analysis of these volatile constituents by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) combined with alternative moving window factor analysis ( AMWFA ) , finally by mass spectrometry library combining retention indices for qualitative and to quantitative by adopting total area in integral method.In total, 46, 45 and 82 volatile chemical components in volatile oil of CaL , RAM and its herbal pair CaL -RAM were separately determined qualitatively , accounting for 92.51%、 91.56% and 82.09% of total contents , respectively.The results showed that there were 38 common volatile constituents in herbal pair and single herb CaL , and 37 common volatile constituents in RAM.The volatile principally components in HP were D -limonene ( 34.88%) (mainly came from the CaL), 1,2,3,4 -four hydrogen -1 -butyl isoquinoline (22.31%), Germacrene D(4.74%) ( mainly came from the RAM ) , Farnesol ( 6.17%) ( added new ) , etc.Their relative kinds and amount in HP were not equal to the two single herbs.

  6. Comparison of pneumotachography and anemometery for flow measurement during mechanical ventilation with volatile anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoñedo, Jarred R; Herrmann, Jacob; McNeil, John S; Kaczka, David W

    2016-11-14

    Volatile anesthetics alter the physical properties of inhaled gases, such as density and viscosity. We hypothesized that the use of these agents during mechanical ventilation would yield systematic biases in estimates of flow ([Formula: see text]) and tidal volume (V T) for two commonly used flowmeters: the pneumotachograph (PNT), which measures a differential pressure across a calibrated resistive element, and the hot-wire anemometer (HWA), which operates based on convective heat transfer from a current-carrying wire to a flowing gas. We measured [Formula: see text] during ventilation of a spring-loaded mechanical test lung, using both the PNT and HWA placed in series at the airway opening. Delivered V T was estimated from the numerically-integrated [Formula: see text]. Measurements were acquired under baseline conditions with room air, and during ventilation with increasing concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. We also evaluated a simple compensation technique for HWA flow, which accounted for changes in gas mixture density. We found that discrepancies in estimated V T between the PNT and HWA occurred during ventilation with isoflurane (6.3 ± 3.0%), sevoflurane (10.0 ± 7.3%), and desflurane (25.8 ± 17.2%) compared to baseline conditions. The magnitude of these discrepancies increased with anesthetic concentration. A simple compensation factor based on density reduced observed differences between the flowmeters, regardless of the anesthetic or concentration. These data indicate that the choice and concentration of anesthetic agents are primary factors for differences in estimated V T between the PNT and HWA. Such discrepancies may be compensated by accounting for alterations in gas density.

  7. GC-MS分析秀丽海桐叶挥发油成分%Analysis of the Chemical Constituent of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Pittosporum pulchrum (Pittosporaceae) by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云峰; 李振麟; 赖茂祥; 胡琦敏

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取秀丽海桐(Pittosporum pulchrum Gagnep.)叶中的挥发油,应用GC-MS联用技术进行挥发油成分分析.结果从秀丽海桐叶挥发油中分离出51个组分,确认出其中的37种成分,其主要成分为a-蒎烯(29.27% ),β-蒎烯(17.84%)、坎烯(3.90%)和桃金娘烯醇(3.60%).确认的37种成分为首次从该植物中鉴定出来.%The volatile oil from the leaves of P. pulchrum was extracted by hydrodistillation method and the constituents were analysed with capillary gas chromatography and GC-MS-DS.51 compounds were obtained and 37 of them were identified. α-Pinene(29.27%), β-Pinene (17.84%), Camphene(3.90%) and Myrtenol(3.60%) were the major chemical constituents of volatile oil from the leaves of P. pulchrum . Among the 51 compounds, 37 of them were first identified from this plant.

  8. Research on Cholinesterase Inhibitory Action and Chemical Constituents in the Volatile Oil of Radix Peucedani%前胡挥发油胆碱酯酶抑制作用及化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚旻; 宋波; 李宗阳; 姜保平; 潘瑞乐

    2012-01-01

    Using micro plate high-throughput screening assay to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory action, and analyzing the main chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani by the means of Gas Chromatography-Masa Spectrometer combined with Kovats index. The result shows that the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani has significant inhibitory activities of both Acetylcholinesterase ( AChE) and Butyr-ylcholinesterase (BuChE) ,the inhibition ratio of which were (63.76±1.99) % ,(51.53 ±1.70) % .respectively, when the content of the volatile oil of Radix Peucedani was lμL/mL. Meanwhile,32 main chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Radix Peueedani has been identified,the main constituents are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, 1 -Methyl-3 - (1 -methylethyl) -benzene, (R ) -1 -Methyl-4- (1 -methyl-ethenyl)-cyclohexene,2-(4-Methtlcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol,2-hydroxyl-5-methyl-acetophenone,etc. The result suggests that Radix Peucedani maybe have a certain curative effect on neurodegenerative diseases,such as Alzheimer's disease.%运用微孔高通量筛选方法研究前胡挥发油胆碱酯酶抑制活性,并用气相色谱-质谱联用技术辅以Kovats 指数鉴定挥发油的主要化学成分.结果显示前胡挥发油对乙酰胆碱酯酶和丁酰胆碱酯酶均具有明显的抑制作用,当前胡挥发油浓度为1 μL/mL时,其抑制率分别为(63.76±1.99)%和(51.53±1.70)%;其挥发油共鉴定出32种化学成分,主要有α-蒎烯、左旋-β-蒎烯、月桂烯、1-甲基-3-(1-甲基乙基)苯、(R)-1-甲基-4-(1-甲基乙烯基)环己烯、萜品醇、2-羟基-5-甲基苯乙酮等.本研究结果提示前胡有可能对老年痴呆等神经退行性疾病有一定的治疗作用.

  9. Volatile Constituents from leaves of Piper betle L by Head-space Solid Micro-extraction Coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析蒟酱叶挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹震花; 王微; 顾海鹏; 康文艺

    2012-01-01

    To study the volatile constituents from leaves of Piper betle L. ,the volatiles were analyzed by head- space solid micro-extraction,coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time. A quantitative analysis in percent was performed by peak area normalization measurements. The results showed that 27 compounds were identified from the leaves, accounting for 97.53% of the total essential constituents. The structure types of volatiles compounds included aldehyde, acids,esters,phenols,alkenes,aromatic hydrocarbons,and alkanes. 2-Methoxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde (42. 89% ) ,4-(2-propenyl)-phenol acetate ( 12. 49% ) ,2-methoxy-4-( 1-propenyl)-phenol ( 13. 42% ) ,4-allyl-l, 2-diace-toxybenzene (9.47% ) ,4-(2-propenyl)-phenol (2. 89% ) ,y-cadinene (2. 74% ) .eugenol (2. 66% ) and 2-methoxy-4-( 1-propenyl)-phenol acetate (2.06% ) were the main volatile constituents.%首次采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GCMS),结合保留指数法,用峰面积归一化法测定蒟酱叶中挥发性成分及相对百分含量.结果表明,从蒟酱叶中鉴别出27个化学成分,占峰面积的97.53%,化合物结构类型包括醛、酸、酯、酚、烯烃、芳香烃和(环)烷烃.2-甲氧基-5-甲基苯甲醛(42.89%)、胡椒酚醋酸酯(12.49%)、异丁香酚(13.42%)、4-烯丙基-1,2-二乙酰氧基苯(9.47%)、胡椒酚(2.89%)、γ-毕橙茄烯(2.74%)、丁香酚(2.66%)和乙酸异丁香酚酯(2.06%)是蒟酱叶的主要挥发性成分.

  10. 广东尾叶桉叶挥发油化学成分的气相色谱-质谱分析%GC-MS analysis of volatile oil constituents from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blakely leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 周晓农; 朱丹; 李明亚; 庞小雄; 何启华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blakely leaves collected in Guangdong Province of China. Methods The volatile oil was extracted with steam distillation method,and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The relative amount of each constituent was calculated by peak area normalization. Results Thirty-eight constituents in volatile oil from Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blakely leaves in Guangdong Province were identified,amounting to 97. 76% of the total area of the peaks. The principal constituents were eucalyptol (38.13% ) ,alpha-pinene(10.71% ) .menthol (9. 79% ) ,alpha-terpineol (7.41% ) ,neomenthol(5. 51% ), (R)-citronellol(5. 22% ) , alpha-terpinyl acetate (5.03% ) and so on. Conclusion The constituents of the volatile oil from Eucalyptus wophyllaS. T. Blakely leaves in Guangdong Province were successfully identified. Compared with the reports, our findings suggest great similarity and little differences, which provides the foundation for further comprehensive utilization of the volatile oil.%目的 研究广东尾叶桉叶挥发油的化学成分.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取广东尾叶桉叶挥发油,用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行分离测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用气相色谱峰面积归一化法确定各组分的相对含量.结果 首次确定了广东尾叶桉叶挥发油中38个化合物,所鉴定成分占总馏出峰面积的97.76%.主要成分为1,8-桉叶素(38.13%)、α-蒎烯(10.71%)、薄荷醇(9.79%)、α-松油醇(7.41%)、异蒲勒醇(5.51%)、右旋香茅醇(5.22%)、乙酸松香酯(5.03%)等.结论 确定了广东尾叶桉叶挥发油的化学成分,与文献报道尾叶桉挥发油的成分具有相似性,但仍存在一些差异,为综合利用桉叶挥发油奠定了基础.

  11. 废电池浸出液对荆芥生理及挥发性成分含量的影响%Effects of waste batteries leaching solution stress on resistance physiological indices of volatile constituents from Schizonepeta tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏金凤; 王俊霞; 康文艺

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The effect of waste batteries leaching on the seedling growth and volatile constituents in leaves of Schi-zonepeta tenuifolia was assayed. Method; The different concentrations of waste batteries leaching on the seedling growth were discussed. Volatile compounds were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass speetrome-try (GC-MS). Result; The results indicated that 5. Tenuifolia showed resistance to heavy metal polluting, but the high rate of waste batteries leaching had the inhibiting effect to seedlings growth. The waste batteries leaching cause the major volatile constituents in leaves of S. tenuifolia was changed greatly under waste batteries leaching solution stress. Conclusion; Heavy metal leached by waste batteries had great effect on growth of S. Tenuifolia, reducing its value for food and medical purposes.%目的:研究废旧电池浸出液对荆芥幼苗生长及叶片挥发性成分的影响.方法:探讨不同浓度废旧电池浸出液对荆芥幼苗生长的影响,并用固相微萃取技术与气相质谱联用对叶片中挥发性成分进行分析.结果:荆芥幼苗对废电池浸出液具有一定的抗性,但高质量分数废电池浸出液对荆芥的生长有一定的抑制作用;不同浓度废电池浸出液对荆芥挥发性成分影响较大.结论:废旧电池在水中渗出的化学物质对荆芥产生很大影响,降低荆芥的食用和药用价值.

  12. Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Leaves and Stems of Ancient Pithecellobium dulce by GC-MS%古牛蹄豆茎、叶挥发油成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰晶; 简蓝; 曾靖; 江智伟; 李超

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of volatile oils from leaves and stems of ancient Pithecellobium dulce, the analyzing sample was water vapor distillation, the volatile oils of leaves and steins were analyzed and determined by GC-MS. 36 peaks were isolated from the leaves by gas chromatography, the amount of the identified compounds was account for 93.377% and only 2 peaks were isolated from the stems by gas chromatography, the amount of the identified compounds was account for 100.000%. The main chemical constituents are alkanes, heterocyclic, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons compounds,and types of volatile oils from leaves and stems differed largely.%利用水蒸气蒸馏法制备古树牛蹄豆(Pithecellobium dulce)待测样品,采用气质联用法分析牛蹄豆古树茎、叶中挥发油的化学成分.结果表明,从叶中分离出36个峰,占总化学成分种类的93.377%,从茎中分离出2个峰,占总化学成分种类的100.000%.古树牛蹄豆叶中挥发性油主要化学成分为烷烃、杂环、酯、芳香烃化合物,茎叶中挥发油物质种类相差很大.

  13. Initial Investigations of Intra-Day News Flow of S&P500 Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Kyung-Soo Liew

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we examine Thomas Reuters News Analytics (TRNA data. We found several fascinating discoveries. First, we document the phenomenon that we label “Jam-the-Close”: The last half hour of trading (15:30 to 16:00 EST contains a substantial and statistically significant amount of news sentiment releases. This finding is robust across years and months of the year. Next, upon further investigations we found that the “novelty” score is on average 0.67 in this period vs. 2.09 prior to midday. This indicates that “new” news is flowing at a rapid pace prior to the close. Finally, we discuss the implication of such phenomena in the context of existing financial literature.

  14. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  15. Detection of volatile compounds produced by microbial growth in urine by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina K; Hibbard-Melles, Kim; Davis, Brett; Scotter, Jenny

    2011-10-01

    Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry has been used to measure the volatile compounds occurring in the headspace of urine samples inoculated with common urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing microbes Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, or Candida albicans. This technique has the potential to offer rapid and simple diagnosis of the causative agent of UTIs.

  16. Analysis on Volatile Constituent of Ocimum basilicum Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum%罗勒挥发性成分的气相色谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任竹君; 罗亚男; 王道平; 陶晨

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测罗勒挥发性成分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对罗勒的挥发性成分进行了分析.[结果]共鉴定出53种化学成分,其中含量最多的成分是草蒿脑(64.55%),其次为甲基丁香酚(12.16%)、1,8-桉叶素(8.355%),T-荜澄茄醇(1.50%)、E-细辛脑(1.412%)、(E)-β-罗勒烯(1.028%).[结论]罗勒的挥发油的化学成分较复杂,其中4种醚类化合物占74.455%、3种酚类化合物占12.208%、22种烯烃占5.401%,9种醇类化合物占1.751%、并含有少量的酮类、酯类、酸类物质等.%[Objective] The aim was to detect volatile constituent of Ocimum basilicum. [ Method] The gas chromatography - mass spectrum technology was used to analyze the volatile constituent of Ocimum basilicum. [Results] 53 chemical compositions were identified, among which estragole occupied most(64. 55% ) ,followed by methyl eugenol( 12. 16% ) , 1,8-Cineole(8. 355% ) ,T-cubebol( 1. 50% ) , E-asarin (1.412% ) , ( E) -β-ocimene( 1.028% ). [ Conclusion] Volatile constituent of Ocimum basilicum were complex, among which 4 kinds of e-thers compounds occupied 74.455% , 3 kinds of phenol compounds accounted for 12.208% , 22 kinds of alkene occupied 5.401%,9 kinds of alcohol compounds accounted for 1.751% , and there were also few ketones, the ester, the acids material and so on.

  17. Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2008-09-29

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. The RI/FS process and remedial investigations for the 200-PW-1, 200 PW-3, and 200-PW-6 Operable Units are described in the Plutonium/Organic-Rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Groups Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) by incorporating kinetic volatilization of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and multicomponent flow and transport. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Previous numerical simulation results with the STOMP simulator have overestimated the effect of soil vapor extraction (SVE) on subsurface CT, showing rapid removal of considerably more CT than has actually been recovered so far. These previous multiphase simulations modeled CT mass transfer between phases based on equilibrium partitioning. Equilibrium volatilization can overestimate volatilization because mass transfer limitations present in the field are not considered. Previous simulations were also conducted by modeling the NAPL as a single component, CT. In reality, however, the NAPL mixture disposed of at the Hanford site contained several non-volatile and nearly insoluble organic components, resulting in time-variant fluid properties as the CT component volatilized or dissolved over time. Simulation of CT removal from a DNAPL mixture using single-component DNAPL properties typically leads to an overestimation of CT removal. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy

  18. The effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility of investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jalal Golmohammadi; Mahboubeh Jafari

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study to measure the effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities...

  19. Melting and reactive flow of a volatilized mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges: theory and numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tobias; Katz, Richard F.

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory experiments indicate that even small concentrations volatiles (H2O or CO2) in the upper mantle significantly affect the silicate melting behavior [HK96,DH06]. The presence of volatiles stabilizes volatile-rich melt at high pressure, thus vastly increasing the volume of the upper mantle expected to be partially molten [H10,DH10]. These small-degree melts have important consequences for chemical differentiation and could affect the dynamics of mantle flow. We have developed theory and numerical implementation to simulate thermo-chemically coupled magma/mantle dynamics in terms of a two-phase (rock+melt), three component (dunite+MORB+volatilized MORB) physical model. The fluid dynamics is based on McKenzie's equations [McK84], while the thermo-chemical formulation of the system is represented by a novel disequilibrium multi-component melting model based on thermo-dynamic theory [RBS11]. This physical model is implemented as a parallel, two-dimensional, finite-volume code that leverages tools from the PETSc toolkit. Application of this simulation code to a mid-ocean ridge system suggests that the methodology captures the leading-order features of both hydrated and carbonated mantle melting, including deep, low-degree, volatile-rich melt formation. Melt segregation leads to continuous dynamic thermo-chemical dis-equilibration, while phenomenological reaction rates are applied to continually move the system towards re-equilibration. The simulations will be used first to characterize volatile extraction from the MOR system assuming a chemically homogeneous mantle. Subsequently, simulations will be extended to investigate the consequences of heterogeneity in lithology [KW12] and volatile content. These studies will advance our understanding of the role of volatiles in the dynamic and chemical evolution of the upper mantle. Moreover, they will help to gauge the significance of the coupling between the deep carbon cycle and the ocean/atmosphere system. REFERENCES

  20. Rapid identification of volatile constituents of Kangbingdu oral liquid by GC-MS%GC-MS法对抗病毒口服液中挥发性成分的快速鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施法; 侯峰; 孙苓苓; 刘晓秋

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析鉴定抗病毒口服液中挥发性成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法从抗病毒口服液及其处方药材中提取挥发油,GC-MS法鉴定挥发油类成分.结果:抗病毒口服液中共检出28个色谱峰,鉴定22个化合物,并对其进行归属,占挥发油总量的93.51%,其中含量最高的是4-松油醇,约占总量的42.03%.结论:首次建立GC-MS法鉴定抗病毒口服液中挥发性成分,方法简便、快速、准确,为该制剂的质量控制提供依据.%Objective : To analyze the volatile constituents of Kangbingdu oral liquid. Methods : The volatile oil was extracted from Kangbingdu oral liquid and medicinal matenals in prescription by warer - steam distillation method and separated by capillary column chromatography. The components were quantitatively determined with normalization method and identified by GC - MS. Results :28 chromatografic peeks were detected and 22 compounds were identified and assigned, which were composed of 93. 51% of the total essential oil. The highest constituent in essential oil was 4 - terpineol, which was composed of 42. 03% of the total essential oil. Conclusions : The GC - MS method to identify the essential oil of Kangbingdu oral liquid is reported for the first time. The established method is simple,rapid and accurate. The study provides basis for quality control of the preparation.

  1. A model of ruminal volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics and rumen epithelial blood flow in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Hanigan, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Ruminal absorption of volatile fatty acids (VFA) is quantitatively the most important nutrient flux in cattle. Historically, VFA absorption models have been derived primarily from ruminal variables such as chemical composition of the fluid, volume, and pH. Recently, a mechanistic model incorporated...... means (RMSPE) of 5.86, 5.75, 11.3, and 4.12, respectively. The epithelial blood flow was predicted with 26.3% RMSPE. Sensitivity analyses indicated that when ruminal butyrate concentration increased from 4.0 to 37.4 mmol/L, blood flow of the epithelium increased 47% and the ruminal disappearance rate...... of propionate increased 11%. The concentration gradient of propionate between ruminal fluid and epithelium was no more than 3:1 and increased with increasing blood flow. In conclusion, a dynamic model based on rumen epithelial blood flow and bidirectional fluxes of VFA between ruminal fluid and epithelium gave...

  2. 山东产蛇床子挥发油化学成分研究%Studies of Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil of Cnidii Fructus in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱缨; 谈如蓝; 吴芝园; 俞迪佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Cnidii Fructus in Shandong by GC - MS. Methods The volatile oil was extracted from Cnidii Fructus by steam distillation. The volatile components were identified by GC - MS method and the relative component percentage of each component was determined by GC area normalization method. Results 39 major components were identified. High relative content of chemical components were as follows: limonene(18. 90% ), alpha - pinene(16. 40% ), borneyl ac-etate(11. 00% ), camphene(7. 44% ), etc. Conclusion This method has good separation effect, is accurate and fast, and can be used as the quality monitoring for Cnidii Fructus.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱(GC - MS)法分析山东产地蛇床子果实挥发油的化学成分。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法从蛇床子果实中提取挥发油,运用 GC - MS 法对其挥发性成分进行分析鉴定,归一法测定其相对百分含量。结果鉴定了39种主要成分,相对含量高的有柠檬油烯(18.90%)、α-松萜(16.40%)、醋酸冰片酯(11.00%)、莰烯(7.44%)等。结论该法分离效果好、准确、快速,适用于中药蛇床子的药材质量监控。

  3. Analysis of Volatile Constituents from the Sporocarp of Armillaria luteo-virens by SPME-GC-MS%SPME-GC-MS分析黄绿蜜环菌子实体挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永生; 杨振; 郑敏燕; 高鹏

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents from the sporocarp of Armillaria luteo-virens (Alb. El Schwein.; Fr.) Sace. Were obtained by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography spectrometry-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The effects of sampling by different fiber hair, temperature and time of adsorption on detecting results were also discussed. The resulls showed that volatile constituents from the sporocarp could be effectively extracted by the fiber hair of DVB/CAR/PDMS at 80℃ for 35 minutes. These volatile compounds mainly included 3,7-dimelhyldecane (13. 89 %) , zingiberene (9. 10 %), 2,3-dimethyldodecane (8.76 %), α-bergamotene (4.62%), octadecane(3. 65%). 2-nonanone (3.41 %), 2,3 ,5,8-tetramethyldecane (2.89 %), α-curcumene (2. 83 %) , 6-octen-2-one (2.80 %) and /3-bisabolene (2.42 %).%利用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用技术(SPME-GC-MS)研究黄绿蜜环菌子实体的挥发性成分,探讨了不同纤维头取样、不同温度、不同吸附时间等条件对分析检测结果的影响.结果表明,80℃条件下吸附35 min,二乙烯苯/碳分子筛/聚二甲基硅氧烷(DVB/CAR/PDMS)纤维头能够有效地吸附黄绿蜜环菌子实体的挥发性成分:其主要挥发性成分为3,7-二甲基癸烷(13.89%)、姜烯(9.10%)、2,3-二甲基十二烷(8.76%)、佛手柑油烯(4.62%)、十八烷(3.65%)、2-壬酮(3.41%)、2,3,5,8-四甲基癸烷(2.89%)、姜黄烯(2.83%)、6-辛烯-2-酮(2.80%)以及β-红没药烯(2.42%)等.

  4. Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils from Small Leaves Ku-Ding-Cha%小叶苦丁茶挥发油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武宏伟; 赵丽元; 郑宜婷; 相婷; 李银

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To compare the chemical components of volatile oil from small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha which belonged to the family Oleaceae. [Method] Volatile oils of small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha in different production areas were extracted hy the technique of steam distillation; then,the components of volatile oils were analyzed by gas chromalography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). [Result] A total of 55 compounds were identified. There was great similarity in the old leaves and buds of Ku-Ding-Cha in different batches. Linalool had the highest content (48.34% -79.25% ) ; α-terpineol, geraniol and nerol had relatively high content. [Conclusion] This research provided scientific references for the quality control and reasonable utilization of the small leaves Ku-Ding-Cha.%[目的]分析比较不同品种或产地木犀科小叶苦丁茶老叶及芽中挥发油成分的异同.[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法分别对不同品种或产地的小叶苦丁茶中的挥发油进行提取,利用气质联用技术分析所提取的挥发油成分.[结果]共鉴定55个化合物,7个不同批次小叶苦丁茶老叶及芽中的成分具有较大的相似性,相对含量最高的均为以芳樟醇(48.34%~79.25%)为主的单萜类成分,其他含量较高的成分有α-松油醇、香叶醇何橙花醇等.[结论]该方法为小叶苦丁茶的质量控制和资源合理开发利用提供了科学依据.

  5. Tracing volatile loss during the eruption of individual flood basalt flows in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Vye, C.; Gannoun, A.; Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    Continental flood basalt (CFB) volcanism is characterised by the repeated eruption of huge batches of magma, producing enormous basalt provinces (105-106 km3) over relatively brief intervals of time, and delivering large masses of volcanic gas to the atmosphere. The release of gases and aerosols during CFB volcanism is thought to have had a significant impact on the atmosphere, ocean chemistry and climate [1-3]. The key factors influencing atmospheric chemistry and the environmental impact of CFB eruptions are the timing, mechanism and duration of volatile release during individual eruptions, but for the most part such information remains poorly known. The 187Re-187Os isotope system offers a highly sensitive tracer of the evolution of melt chemistry, and of the timing and mechanism of volatile release. This is partly because the contrasting behaviour of Re and Os during melting results in the extreme fractionation of parent/daughter (Re/Os) isotope ratios, thus magmatic phases can yield precise chronological information, and crustal rocks develop highly radiogenic isotope compositions that can be readily traced if assimilated [4]. Partly also because Re behaves as a highly volatile element during sub-aerial volcanism [5]. This study presents 187Re-187Os isotope data for rocks and minerals from two flows in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Group, one of the youngest flood basalt provinces that formed over a 2 million year interval in the Mid-Miocene. The 2,660 km3 Sand Hollow flow field displays small major and trace element variations, both laterally and vertically across the flow, indicative of fractional crystallisation, but the elemental data cannot be used to distinguish source variations and/or crustal contamination. However, Os isotopes indicate systematic crustal contamination over the timescale of an individual eruption, where the earliest formed lavas show the greatest degree of contamination. Isotope and elemental data for phenocryst phases from the 40

  6. Comparison of tomatillo and tomato volatile compounds in the headspace by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichi; Barringer, Sheryl

    2010-04-01

    The concentration of 31 volatiles were measured in the headspace of tomatillos using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), and were compared with those in vine-ripened tomato, roma tomato, cherry tomato, and grape tomato. None of the volatiles were higher in the headspace of tomatillos than of tomatoes. Compounds (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-pentenal, 2-isobutylthiazole, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and phenylacetaldehyde were significantly lower in tomatillo than in the tomato varieties in the headspace. After blending, volatiles in the headspace increased, and then decreased after reaching a maximum concentration, due to further degradation or depletion. Compounds (E)-2-pentenal and 1-penten-3-one reached a maximum concentration later than (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, and hexanal for tomatillo and tomatoes. The slope of the ratio of (E)-2-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenal was not significantly different for any of the samples, implying that the activity of cis/trans isomerase was not different between tomatillos and tomatoes.

  7. Investor sentiment, mutual fund flows and its impact on returns and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, T.; Müller, Aline; Frijns, B.P.M.; Beaumont, R.J.; Daele, M. van

    2008-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of individual investor sentiment on the return process and conditional volatility of three main US market indices (Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P500 and Nasdaq100). Individual investor sentiment is measured by aggregate money

  8. 白术挥发油光照氧化及成分分析%Sunlight Oxidation of Volatile Oil from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz and Its Constituent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 阎克里; 赵丽; 刘焕蓉

    2011-01-01

    将样品分别置于-20℃保存和室外(20~29℃)进行光照氧化,然后利用高效液相色谱(HPLC)跟踪检测,通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对光照前后挥发油化学成分及含量的变化进行分析比较.从光照氧化前白术挥发油中鉴定出32个组分,占挥发油总成分的98.01%;从光照氧化后白术挥发油中鉴定出27个组分,占挥发油总成分的90.70%.光照氧化后增加了2个组分,消失了7个组分;含量降低的有8个,增加的有17个.含量降低最明显的组分是苍术酮和y-榄香烯;含量增加最明显的组分是白术内酯Ⅰ、白术内酯Ⅲ、β-桉叶醇、广木香内酯、Isovelleral和17-(1,5-二甲基已基)-10,13-二甲基-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-十四氢化-1H-环戊[a]3-菲酚.%To investigate the effect of sunlight oxidation on the composition and content changes of volatile oil, two volatile oil samples extracted from Atractylodes rnacrocephala Koidz were treated by preservation at -20℃ without sunlight and sunlight oxidation at 20 ~ 29℃, respectively. High performance liquid chromatagraphy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to analyze ingredients and their contents of the treated samples. 32 and 27 components were identified in the volatile oil without sunlight oxidation and with sunlight oxidation, which account for 98. 1% and 90.70% of the total components in the oil, respectively. After sunlight oxidation, 2 new components were found and 7 components disappeared. 8 components decreased and 7 components increased in their contents, in which Atractylon and γ-Elemene decreased remarkably, while Attractyenolide Ⅰ, Attractyenolide Ⅲ,β-Eudesmol, Costunolide, Isovelleral, and 17 ( 1,5 Dimethylhexyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1 H-cyclopen ta[a]phe-nanthren-3-ol increased dramatically.

  9. Studies on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil of Ocimum basilicum from Two Different Sources%两产地罗勒挥发油化学成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭江; 林励; 谭翠明

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较分析广东广州与安徽毫州产罗勒挥发油化学成分差异.方法:用水蒸气蒸馏法提取罗勒挥发油,用气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对挥发油成分进行分析,并通过峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量;采用薄层色谱法进行比较分析.结果:广州产罗勒挥发油鉴定出29种化合物,并确定了其相对含量,占总含量的99.90%,主成分为对烯丙基茴香醚(83.082%)、芳樟醇(4.734%)、Τ-杜松醇(2.715%)、桉叶油素(2.251%).毫州产罗勒挥发油鉴定出31种化合物,并确定了其相对含量,占总含量的98.65%,主成分为芳樟醇(26.909%)、肉桂酸甲酯(21.85%)、T-杜松醇(17.411%)、喇叭茶醇(14.154%):薄层色谱显示广州产罗勒挥发油比毫州产者多了2个特征斑点.结论:产地对罗勒挥发油化学成分具有显著影响,气质联用和薄层色谱法均可用于罗勒挥发油的鉴别和产地分析,提示罗勒开发利用应明确品质产地.%Objective; To analyze the chemical constituents of volatile oil from Ocimum basilicum collected in two different sources. Method: The volatile components were extracted by steam distillation method, and analyzed by GC-MS. Peak area normalization method was used for the relative content of volatile oil. TLC was used for the identification of two samples. Result; Twenty-nine components were identified in 0. basilicum from Guangzhou, which accounted for 99.90% of the total relative content. The main components were p-allylanisole (83.082%), linalool 4. 734% ), tau-cadinol (2.715%), eucalyptol (2.251%). Thirty-one components were identified in 0. basilicum from Bozhou, which accounted for 98.65% of the total relative content. The main components were linalool (26.91%), methyl cinnamate (21.85%), tau-cadinol ( 17.41%), ledol (14. 154% ). Two characteristic spots could not be identified in 0. basilicum. from Bozhou but from Guangzhou. Conclusion: The volatile oil from different

  10. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  11. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  12. Effects of volatiles on melt production and reactive flow in the mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Magmatism in the Earth interior has a significant impact on its dynamic, thermal and compositional evolution. Experimental studies of petrology of mantle melting find that small concentrations of water and carbon dioxide have a significant effect on the solidus temperature and distribution of melting in the upper mantle. However, it has remained unclear what effect small fractions of deep, volatile-rich melts have on melting and melt transport in the shallow asthenosphere. We present a method to simulate the thermochemical evolution of the upper mantle in the presence of volatiles. The method is based on a novel, thermodynamically consistent framework for reactive, disequilibrium, multi-component melting/crystallisation. This is coupled with a system of equations representing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for a partially molten grain aggregate. Application of this method to upwelling-column models demonstrates that it captures leading-order features of hydrated and carbonated peridotite melting. ...

  13. Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Elsholtzia Seed and Its Oil%香薷籽及其油脂中挥发油成分的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽涛; 和承尧; 李建成; 和春

    2016-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Elsholtzia seeds,oils and its meal of Mosla chinensis Maxim were extracted respectively under the same conditions by gas chromatography analysis.The results are com-pared.By gas phase chromatography -mass spectrometry analysis of the components of the volatile constit-uents of Elsholtzia seeds,30 kinds of chemical components were detected,26 compounds were identified,its content accounted for 96.79% of the total oil.The main chemical components were dehydrogenation of Elsholtzia ketone (84.62%),3 -aminopyrazole (5.373%),Elsholtzia ketone (2.97%),beta bourbon-ene (1.41%),2,5 dimethyl 3 vinyl 1,4 hexadiene (1.36%),trans -2,4 -decadienal (1.06%).%对香薷籽、香薷油脂及其粕中的挥发性成分进行了提取,在同一条件下分别进行气相色谱分析,对其结果作了比较。香薷籽中的挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用法分析其成分,检出30种化学成分,确认了26种化合物,其含量占全油的96.79%。主要化学成分为脱氢香薷酮(84.62%),3-氨基吡唑(5.373%),香薷酮(2.97%),β-波旁烯(1.41%),2,5-二甲基-3-乙烯基-1,4-己二烯(1.36%),反式-2,4-癸二烯醛(1.06%)。

  14. On GC fingerprint analysis of fennel volatile constituents%小茴香挥发性成分 GC 指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 云琦; 高晓黎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a GC fingerprint analysis method for the quality control of fennel.Meth-ods Fennel oil was extracted by steam distillation method.The fingerprint analysis of volatile oil was con-ducted by GC and the fingerprint peaks were identified with GC-MS.Results The batch of fennel were an-alyzed by GC,and ten common peaks were shown in the fingerprints,nine of which were identified.The established fingerprint analysis method was validated .The similarities of samples were over 0.95.Conclu-sion The fingerprint analysis method is simple,practical and suitable for the quality control of fennel.%目的:建立小茴香挥发性成分气相色谱指纹图谱分析方法,对挥发油成分进行分析,为控制小茴香挥发油质量提供依据。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取小茴香挥发油,对10个产地小茴香进行气相色谱分析,用气相色谱建立挥发油指纹图谱分析法,并用 GC-MS 对指纹峰进行鉴别。结果指纹图谱中共有10个共有峰,其中8个成分得到鉴定,所建立指纹图谱分析方法学各项目符合规定,各批样品相似度>0.95。结论所建立指纹图谱方法分析简便易行,为更好控制小茴香的质量提供了新的方法。

  15. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6% e timol (9,6% nas folhas, octadecano (27,4% e ácido hexadecanóico (18,4% nas flores e docosano (32,7% e tetracosano (24,0% nos frutos. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram identificadas a partir de técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN, IV e EM. A 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o gênero Moringa e os óleos essenciais das flores e frutos estão sendo citados pela primeira vez para a espécie M. oleifera.Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, yield the benzylnitriles: niazirine, niazirinine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, while of fruit shells only octacosane was isolated. The essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were: phytol (21.6% and thymol (9.6% in the leaves oil, octadecane (27.4% and hexadecanoic acid (18.4% in the flowers oil, docosane (32.7% and tetracosane (24.0% in the fruits oil. The structures of all compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR and MS. 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is reported for the first time to the Moringa genus and the essential oils of flowers and fruits are reported for the first time to the species M. oleifera.

  16. The heat budgets of magmatic arcs: Discrepancies between heat flow measurements, volatile fluxes, and interpretations of the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buer, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arc magmatic processes, from differentiation to emplacement, depend crucially on the rate at which heat and magma are supplied to the arc crust. In active arcs, the total heat flow can be estimated relatively directly by measuring and quantifying the amounts of heat lost via conduction, hydrothermal circulation, and eruption. This total heat flow can be used to calculate the implied magmatic flux at depth. Alternatively, magmatic flux in active arcs can be estimated from measured rates of volatile emissions, usually SO2. Unfortunately, heat flow and volatile flux data sufficiently detailed to make these calculations exist for only a handful of active arcs. In the geologic record, rates of arc magmatic flux have most frequently been estimated by measuring the preserved volumes of intrusive and extrusive products and dividing by the geochronologically determined duration of arc activity. This can be converted to heat flow by assuming a certain amount of heat carried per volume of magma. The ranges of magmatic flux estimated via either heat flow or SO2 are similar for modern arcs, but, on average, estimates from the geologic record are lower by about a factor of three (Fig. 1). This discrepancy may indicate that the assumption that preserved igneous rock volumes represent the total advective flux is a poor choice when interpreting the geologic record. Recycling of early solidified magma and loss of cumulates to the mantle may be important, i.e., the time-integrated advective flux might significantly exceed the net preserved intrusive volume. This is also supported by other lines of evidence, including geochemical mass-balance arguments, thermal models of basalt flux needed to allow substantial assimilation and/or crystal fractionation in the lower crust, high-temperature thermochronology in arcs, and thermal models of the conditions necessary to cause large, explosive eruptions from upper crustal magma chambers. Substantial recycling or convection within the arc crust

  17. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  18. 朝鲜苍术挥发油成分GC-MS分析%Analysis of the Volatile Oil Constituent of Atractylodes Coreana (Nakai)Kitam by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧娟; 姚慧敏; 卜书红; 陆晓彤; 张健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the volatile oil constituent of Atractylodes coreana(Nakai) Kitam. Methods The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation, analyzed by capillary GC. The relative content of chemical components was calculated by peak area normalization method, the chemical components were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results We found that 58 components were isolated, 55 components were identified, the identified chemical components account for 79.94 % of the total volatile oil, including l,2-Bis-[4-pyridine-N-oxide]ethane (31.1831%)、 [5,6]cholestan -3 -ol,3',6 -dihydro - , (3.beta.,5.beta.,6.alpha.) -Cyclopropa (12.3086 %)、5α -Spirostan (11.2161%)、1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-l,8a-dimethyl-7-(l-methylethenyl)-,[lR-(l.alpha.,7.beta.,8a.alpha.)]-Naphthalene(7.05606%), y-Elemene(4.24732%)^ 8(14)-en-3-ol,(3.beta.)-Ergost(2.11089%)、Caryophyllene(1.44473%)、 decahydro -4a -methyl -1 -methylene -7 -(1 -methylethenyl) - , [4aR -(4a.alpha.,7.alpha.,8a.beta.)] -Naphthalene (1.43541%)、9,10-dehydro-isolongifolene(1.21445%),α-Caryophyllene(0.72132%). Conclusion We concluded that the main chemical components of Atractylodes coreana(Nakai) Kitam. Volatile oil are sesquiterpenoids.%目的 研究朝鲜苍术挥发油成分,为朝鲜苍术的药用价值及合理开发利用提供参考.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,GC毛细管柱色谱法进行分析,峰面积归一化法确定其相对含量,气相色谱-质谱联用技术辅助人工检索鉴定其化学成分.结果 从朝鲜苍术的挥发油中分离出58种,鉴定出55种化学成分,鉴定出的挥发性化学成分占挥发油总量的79.94%,主要成分有苍术酮(31.1831%)、3-羟基-6β-环丙烷-5β-胆甾烷(12.3086%)、5α-螺甾烷(11.2161%)、巴伦西亚橘烯(7.05606%)、γ-榄香烯(4.24732%)、菜油甾醇(2.11089%)、石竹烯(1.44473%)、β-桉叶烯(1.43541%)、9,10-脱水-异长叶烯(1.21445%)、α-石竹烯(0.72132

  19. Development of aquarium fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: an intermittent-flow exposure system for volatile, hydrophobic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, W.W.; Manning, C.S.; Overstreet, R.M.; Hawkins, W.E.

    1985-08-01

    An intermittent-flow exposure system was designed to provide stable and manipulative concentrations of volatile and hydrophobic compounds to small aquatic animals for uninterrupted long periods. Test species for 28-day experiments included two aquarium fishes, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the king cobra guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Test chemicals included trichloroethylene, vinylidene chloride, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, ethylene dichloride, and a mixture of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. These compounds are drinking water biorefractories and are potentially carcinogenic. Concentrated aqueous toxicant solutions, delivered from a remote triple carboy dispensing system, were mixed with diluent water within an isolated chamber containing exposure aquaria and test fish. Toxicant concentrations measured throughout each exposure period proved to be stable within acceptable variability ranges as indicated by coefficients of variation generally less than 15%.

  20. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  1. GC-MS analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from Cinnamomum camphora leaves by different extraction methods%GC-MS分析不同方法提取的樟树叶挥发油成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 章挺; 江香梅; 罗丽萍; 杨海宽; 郭夏丽; 刘星星; 李桂兰

    2015-01-01

    为确定樟树叶挥发油最佳的提取方法,采用传统水蒸气蒸馏法、微波辅助蒸馏法、超声波辅助蒸馏法和同时蒸馏萃取法提取樟树叶挥发油,并用GC-MS法对其化学成分进行分析比较。实验结果,MAHD挥发油得率为3.1%,略高于SDE的2.8%。4种提取方法所得挥发油共鉴定出79种化学成分,共有成分达到37种,其主要组成成分相近,主要为芳樟醇(64.156%~69.464%)、石竹烯(3.188%~3.814%)、桉叶油醇(2.559%~3.511%)、樟脑(2.015%~4.215%)等。综合分析,SDE成本投入少,简便,耗时短,是一种高效快速提取植物性挥发油的方法。%In this paper, the volatile oil form the Cinnamomum camphora leaves was obtained by hydro-distillation (HD), microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD), ultrasound assisted hydro-distillation (UAHD) and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) method. Then its chemical composition was analyzed and compared by gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The results showed that the yield of MAHD was 3.1%, which was a little more than that of SDE(2.8%). 79 chemical constituents were separated and identified from above methods, there were 37 common components. The main compounds were linalool(64.156%~69.464%), caryophyllene(3.188%~3.814%), eucalyptol(2.559%~3.511%), camphor(2.559%~3.511%), etc. The SDE method offers important over traditional method, lower cost, easy and shorter extraction time. So SDE is an effective method for extract volatile oil from aromatic plants and has advantages of higher yield and quick exaction.

  2. Ergot alkaloids reduce rumen epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  3. A flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow as an ion source coupled to a differential mobility analyzer for volatile organic compound detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, Marcos; Orejas, Jaime; López-Vidal, Silvia; Pisonero, Jorge; Bordel, Nerea; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-05-23

    Atmospheric pressure glow discharges have been widely used in the last decade as ion sources in ambient mass spectrometry analyses. Here, an in-house flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) has been developed as an alternative ion source for differential mobility analysis (DMA). The discharge source parameters (inter-electrode distance, current and helium flow rate) determining the atmospheric plasma characteristics have been optimized in terms of DMA spectral simplicity with the highest achievable sensitivity while keeping an adequate plasma stability and so the FAPA working conditions finally selected were: 35 mA, 1 L min(-1) of He and an inter-electrode distance of 8 mm. Room temperature in the DMA proved to be adequate for the coupling and chemical analysis with the FAPA source. Positive and negative ions for different volatile organic compounds were tested and analysed by FAPA-DMA using a Faraday cup as a detector and proper operation in both modes was possible (without changes in FAPA operational parameters). The FAPA ionization source showed simpler ion mobility spectra with narrower peaks and a better, or similar, sensitivity than conventional UV-photoionization for DMA analysis in positive mode. Particularly, the negative mode proved to be a promising field of further research for the FAPA ion source coupled to ion mobility, clearly competitive with other more conventional plasmas such as corona discharge.

  4. Selected Ion Flow-Drift Tube Mass Spectrometry: Quantification of Volatile Compounds in Air and Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-12-15

    A selected ion flow-drift tube mass spectrometric analytical technique, SIFDT-MS, is described that extends the established selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, by the inclusion of a static but variable E-field along the axis of the flow tube reactor in which the analytical ion-molecule chemistry occurs. The ion axial speed is increased in proportion to the reduced field strength E/N (N is the carrier gas number density), and the residence/reaction time, t, which is measured by Hadamard transform multiplexing, is correspondingly reduced. To ensure a proper understanding of the physics and ion chemistry underlying SIFDT-MS, ion diffusive loss to the walls of the flow-drift tube and the mobility of injected H3O(+) ions have been studied as a function of E/N. It is seen that the derived diffusion coefficient and mobility of H3O(+) ions are consistent with those previously reported. The rate coefficient has been determined at elevated E/N for the association reaction of the H3O(+) reagent ions with H2O molecules, which is the first step in the production of H3O(+)(H2O)1,2,3 reagent hydrate ions. The production of hydrated analyte ion was also experimentally investigated. The analytical performance of SIFDT-MS is demonstrated by the quantification of acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath. Finally, the essential features of SIFDT-MS and SIFT-MS are compared, notably pointing out that a much lower speed of the flow-drive pump is required for SIFDT-MS, which facilitates the development of smaller cost-effective analytical instruments for real time breath and fluid headspace analyses.

  5. Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.

  6. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  7. Volatile Constituents of Romanian Coriander Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tsagkli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Romanian coriander fruits ( cultivar “Sandra” were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds were identified in the total essential oils. Monoterpenes were the most dominant class of compounds, with linalool (48.4-54.3% being the major component. Other significant compounds were γ-terpinene (9.2-12.1%, α-pinene (5.5-9.3% and limonene (4.7-6.3%.

  8. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GLECHOMA HIRSUTA WALDST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, ... Although also widely utilized in the same way as G. hederacea, little or nothing is ..... The financial support of this work by the Ministry of Science and ... Janković, M.M. Rod Glechoma L. in Flora SR Srbije, Josifović, M. (Ed.), SANU: Beograd;.

  9. Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, K.J.; Bove, D.J.; Mast, M.A.; Evans, J.B.; Meeker, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of iron, aluminum, zinc, and other metals to Cement Creek. Information is needed to prioritize remediation and develop strategies for cleanup of historical abandoned mine sites in Prospect Gulch. Chemical-constituent loads were determined in Prospect Gulch, a high-elevation alpine stream in southwestern Colorado that is affected by natural acid drainage from weathering of hydro-thermally altered igneous rock and acidic metal-laden discharge from historical abandoned mines. The objective of the study was to identify metal sources to Prospect Gulch. A tracer solution was injected into Prospect Gulch during water-quality sampling so that loading of geochemical constituents could be calculated throughout the study reach. A thunderstorm occurred during the tracer study, hence, metal loads were measured for storm-runoff as well as for base flow. Data from different parts of the study reach represents different flow conditions. The beginning of the reach represents background conditions during base flow immediately upstream from the Lark and Henrietta mines (samples PG5 to PG45). Other samples were collected during storm runoff conditions (PG100 to PG291); during the first flush of metal runoff following the onset of rainfall (PG303 to PG504), and samples PG542 to PG700 were collected during low-flow conditions. During base-flow conditions, the percentage increase in loads for major constituents and trace metals was more than an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding 36 % increase in stream discharge. Within the study reach, the highest percentage increases for dissolved loads were 740 % for iron (Fe), 465 % for aluminum (Al), 500 % for lead (Pb), 380 % for copper (Cu), 100 % for sulfate (SO4), and 50 % for zinc (Zn). Downstream loads near the mouth of Prospect Gulch often greatly exceeded the loads generated within the study reach but varied by metal species. For example, the study reach accounts for about 6 % of the dissolved

  10. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil.

  11. The effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility of investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Golmohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities. The study selects 102 firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange and, using regression technique with Panel data, examines five different hypotheses over the period 2008-2012. The results indicate that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between return of investment and the ratio of debt to equities and a positive and meaningful relationship between sales growth and the ratio of debt to equities. Moreover, there were positive and meaningful relationships between volatility of investment as well as cash flow and the ratio of debt to equities. Finally, the survey has indicated that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between the structure of institutional shareholders and the ratio of debt to equities.

  12. Stochastic empirical loading and dilution model for analysis of flows, concentrations, and loads of highway runoff constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Jones, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with FHWA, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM) to supersede the 1990 FHWA runoff quality model. The SELDM tool is designed to transform disparate and complex scientific data into meaningful information about the adverse risks of runoff on receiving waters, the potential need for mitigation measures, and the potential effectiveness of such measures for reducing such risks. The SELDM tool is easy to use because much of the information and data needed to run it are embedded in the model and obtained by defining the site location and five simple basin properties. Information and data from thousands of sites across the country were compiled to facilitate the use of the SELDM tool. A case study illustrates how to use the SELDM tool for conducting the types of sensitivity analyses needed to properly assess water quality risks. For example, the use of deterministic values to model upstream stormflows instead of representative variations in prestorm flow and runoff may substantially overestimate the proportion of highway runoff in downstream flows. Also, the risks for total phosphorus excursions are substantially affected by the selected criteria and the modeling methods used. For example, if a single deterministic concentration is used rather than a stochastic population of values to model upstream concentrations, then the percentage of water quality excursions in the downstream receiving waters may depend entirely on the selected upstream concentration.

  13. Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Four Kinds of Aromatic Rice Marketed in Beijing%4种市售香米中挥发性成分提取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 苗志伟; 陈海涛; 黄明泉; 孙宝国

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents of 4 kinds of aromatic rice marketed in Beijing were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).According to MS spectrum and retention index comparison,51 compounds were identified,including 31 hydrocarbons,6 esters,5 nitrogen-containing compounds,5 organic acids,2 aldehydes,1 acetal and 1 ether.Nineteen compounds shared by four rice were 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene,ethyl acetate,3-methyl-2-pentene,methylcyclopentane,ethyl i-butyl ether,2,3-dimethyl-1-pentene,benzene,2-methylhexane,2,3-dimethylpentane,3-methylhexane,cyclohexene,trichloroethylene,hexanal,N,N-dimethylaniline,benzothiazole,tetradecanoic acid,n-hexadecanoic acid,linoleic acid and oleic acid.However,the characteristic compound of aromatic rice,2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was not found in the extracts.%分析香米中的挥发性成分。采用水蒸气蒸馏的方法对北京市场上销售的4种香米中的挥发性成分进行提取。提取物经气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析,结合计算分离出的成分保留指数。结果共鉴定出51种成分,其中烃类31种、酯类6种、含氮化合物5种、有机酸类5种、醛类2种、缩醛类和醚类各1种;采用面积归一化法确定其相对含量;4种香米中均鉴定出的挥发性成分有19种,分别是2,3-二甲基-2-丁烯、乙酸乙酯、3-甲基-2-戊烯、甲基环戊烷、乙基异丁基醚、2,3-二甲基-1-戊烯、苯、2-甲基己烷、2,3-二甲基戊烷、3-甲基己烷、环己烯、三氯乙烯、己醛、N,N-二甲基苯胺、苯并噻唑、十四酸、十六酸、亚油酸、油酸;在4种香米中未鉴定出香米的特征香成分2-乙酰基吡咯啉。

  14. Macroscopic numerical simulation model of multi-constituent fluid flows in porous medium; Modele macroscopique de simulation numerique d'ecoulements de fluides multiconstituants en milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbois, B.

    2003-07-01

    In this work, a new model is built which allows to take into consideration the overall mass transfer phenomena (in particular convection) taking place inside a mixture of n{sub c} constituents in a porous medium. This model should allow to foresee the quantitative composition of fluids in oil fields and also to improve the knowledge of the flow of different species inside mixtures. The overall physical phenomena taking place at oil fields is explained in the first chapter. Chapter 2 recalls some thermodynamical notions at the equilibrium and outside equilibrium. These notions, necessary to understand the forecasting methods used by petroleum geologists, are described in chapter 3. This chapter includes also a bibliographic study about the methods of simulation of mass and heat transfers in porous media. In chapter 4, using the thermodynamical relations of irreversible processes described in chapter 2, a new type of macroscopic model allowing to describe the overall phenomena analyzed is developed. The numerical method used to solve this new system of equations is precised. Finally, chapter 5 proposes a set of cases for the validation of the uncoupled phenomena and some qualitative examples of modeling of coupled phenomena. (J.S.)

  15. Comparison of chemical constituents of volatile oil from different parts of mentha haplocalyx briq%薄荷不同部位挥发油成分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平晟; 朱才会; 晏婷; 朱敏; 陈功; 王丽梅

    2015-01-01

    研究武汉地区野生薄荷根茎叶挥发油的成分及含量。用水蒸气蒸馏法( SD )分别提取薄荷不同部位的挥发油,然后用气相色谱-质谱法分析薄荷不同部位挥发油的化学成分。结果表明:叶片挥发油出油率是0.45%,茎挥发油出油率是0.2%,根挥发油出油率是0.02%。用气相色谱-质谱法分析三种不同部位挥发油,共鉴定出43种化合物,叶和茎挥发油主要成分是薄荷醇,根挥发油的主要成分是二十四烷。用薄荷不同部位提取的挥发油含量和成分有较大差别。为获得较高产率的薄荷醇成分,以薄荷叶获取挥发油为最佳原料。%To study the volatile components and contents of roots, stems and leaves from wild Mentha haplocalyx Briq cultivated in Wuhan.The volatile oil of roots, stems and leaves from wild Mentha haplocalyx Briq was extracted by steam distillation( SD) .The chemical components of volatile oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS).The yield of volatile oil from the leaf was 0.45%, The yield of volatile oil from the stem was 0. 2%, The yield of volatile oil from the roots was 0.02%.43 main vo1atile compounds were identified.Levomentho was main component of volatile oil from the leaf and the stem ,Tetracosane was main component of volatile oil from the root.There was great difference in volatile components and contents which were extracted from different part of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.In order to obtain higher yield of Levomentho, leaf of Mentha haplocalyx Briq was the best Material.

  16. Analysis of Volatile Constituents from the Fresh Leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum(L.)L Her.ex Ait.by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%豆蔻天竺葵鲜叶挥发性成分的HS-SPME/GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建刚

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究豆蔻天竺葵鲜叶中的挥发性成分.[方法]采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对豆蔻天竺葵鲜叶挥发性化学成分进行分离鉴定,用色语峰面积归一化法确定各组分的相对含量.[结果]从豆蔻天竺葵叶挥发性物质中分离出了68个组分,鉴定出了61个组分,并测定了各组分相对含量,包括D-柠檬烯(61.18%),芳樟醇(4.09%),大牻牛儿烯(3.38%),4-蒈烯(2.92%),按叶醇(1.31%),α-蒎烯(2.19%),桧烯(2.15%),异松油烯(2.86%),1,7,7-三甲基双环[2.2.1]庚-2-乙酸酯(1.98%)等.[结论]通过对豆蔻天竺葵挥发性成分的研究,为豆蔻天竺葵资源的进一步开发利用提供了试验依据.%[Objective] To analyze volatile constituents from the fresh leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L. ) L Her. Ex Ait.. [ Method] Volatile constituents were isolated from fresh leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L. ) L Her. Ex Ait. And identified by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), contents of which were determined by area normalization method. [ Result ] 68 constituents were isolated, 61 of which were identified including D-limonene (61.18%), linalool (4.09% ) , germacrene (3.38%), 4-carene (2.92%), eucalyptol (1.31%), alpha-pinene (2.19%), sabinene (2.15%), terpinolene (2.86%) and 1, 7, 7-trime-thylbicyclo [2.2.1] hept-2-yl acetate(1.98% ). [Conclusion] The study on the volatile constituents could provide a test basis for further development and utilization of Pelargonium odoratissimum ( L. ) L Her. Ex Ait. Resources.

  17. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  18. 刺五加叶挥发性化学成分的提取与气相色谱-质谱分析%Extraction and GC/MS analysis of volatile constituents from Acanthopanax senticosus(Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张肖宁; 孙妍; 曹飞

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较不同提取方法对刺五加叶中挥发性化学成分的得率,并对其挥发性化学成分进行分析.方法:采用同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)与常规提取法(水蒸气蒸馏法、溶剂法)对刺五加叶药材挥发性化学成分的提取收率进行比较研究,用GC/MS法对其挥发性化学成分进行分离鉴定,用峰面积归一化法得出各化学成分在挥发性组分中的相对百分含量.结果:共分离出51个成分,确认了其中39种化学成分,主要为萜类及其含氧衍生物(68.85%)和芳香族类化合物(6.32%),其中,(+)-匙叶桉油烯醇含量最高,达19.89%,其余依次为1-甲基-5-亚甲基-8-[1-甲基乙基]-1,6-环癸二烯(7.02%)和1-甲基-1-乙烯基-2,4-二异丙烯基-环己烷(5.59%)等.结论:同时蒸馏萃取法是提取刺五加叶挥发性物质的优良方法.采用GC-MS法可以高效、适用、准确地分析、鉴定药材中挥发性物质的组成,对深入探索中药的药用价值具有积极的促进作用.%Objective: To determine the volatile constituents extracted from Acanthopanax senticosus( Rupr.et Maxim. ) Harms leaf by different methods. Methods: Simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction ( SDE),traditional hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent extraction were applied to analyze the volatile constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus( Rupr. et Maxim. ) Harms leaf. The volatile constituents were identified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry and the relative contents of the constituents were determined by an area nomalization method.Results: Totally 51 peaks were separated, of which 39 compounds were identified and quantified. The main components were terpenoids, and their oxo-derivatives (68.85%) and aromatic compounds (6.32%). The main volatile chemical components were ( + )-spathulenol (19.89%); 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-[ 1-methylethyl]-1,6-cyclo-decadiene (7.02%); l-methyl-l-vinyl-2, 4-isopropenyl-cyclohexane (5.59%) and others. Conclusion: Simultaneous

  19. Analysis of Volatile Chemical Constituents in Vinegar-Processed Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Vinegar-Processed Schisandrae Chinesis Fructus by HS-SPME-GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS联用分析醋制南北五味子中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶欣; 卢金清; 曹利; 林杰; 万丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and compare the volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fructus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus.Methods:The volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fruc-tus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus were extracted by headspace solid phase-microextraction (HS-SPME) and quali-tatively analyzed by GC-MS.Results:Totally 20 kinds of constituents were identified from vinegar-processed schisandra sphenanthera fructus, which accounted for 99.55%of the total volatile components , and totally 21 kinds of constituents were identified from vinegar-processed schisandra sphenanthera fructus, which accounted for 99.90% of the total volatile components .Conclusion: The type and content of volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fructus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus are quite different , and the study can provide scientific basis for the two traditional Chinese medicinal materials .%目的:分析和比较醋制南北五味子挥发性成分。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取法( HS-SPME)萃取醋制南北五味子中挥发性成分,结合GC-MS法对其挥发性成分进行分析。结果:从醋制南五味子中鉴定出20种化学成分,从醋制北五味子中鉴定出21种化学成分,分别占各自挥发性成分总量的99.55%和99.90%。结论:醋制南北五味子的挥发性成分在种类和含量上差异较大,为快速鉴定醋制南北五味子提供科学依据。

  20. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity...

  1. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  2. Volatile Outputs From Subduction-Related Magmatism in the Oregon Cascades Estimated From Melt Inclusions, Spring Discharges, Heat Flow Data and Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P.; Ruscitto, D.; Rowe, M.; Kent, A.

    2008-12-01

    Estimates of volatile fluxes provide a primary test for models of magmatism and volatile cycling during subduction in the endmember "hot and dry" Cascadia subduction zone, which is caused by slow convergence (4 cm/a) of the young (~10-12 Ma) Juan de Fuca plate with Western North America. Intra- arc rifting in the Central Oregon segment of the Cascade arc during the past 2 Ma has caused this region to have the highest mafic output along the arc. However, estimates of major volatile (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) fluxes and comparisons with other arcs (e.g. Central America) are not straightforward because there are no passively degassing volcanoes in the area. We estimate volatile outputs for the Central Oregon Cascades by combining data for olivine-hosted melt inclusions with regional heat flow (e.g. Ingebritsen, 1989; Blackwell,1990) and geochronological (Sherrod and Smith, 1990) studies. These flux estimates can be compared with those obtained from spring water studies (e.g. James, 1999; Hurwitz, 2005). This multidisciplinary approach allows us to more accurately constrain volatile fluxes, given that uncertainties in all methods are large and difficult to evaluate. Reported fluxes for Central Oregon springs are 3.4E5 CO2 and 1.5E4 Cl kg/yr/km of arc (James, 1999; Hurwitz, 2005). Melt inclusion data indicate primitive basaltic magmas in the Central Oregon Cascades have 1.0-3.5 wt% H2O, 800-1900 ppm S, and 300-1100 ppm Cl. Assuming global arc magma CO2 contents of ~1 wt% (Wallace, 2005), we estimate H2O/CO2 (1.0-3.5), S/CO2 (0.08-0.19), and Cl/CO2 (0.03-0.11) in magmas, which when combined with spring CO2 estimates, yield an H2O flux of 0.34-1.2E6, a S flux of 2.6-6.5E4, and a Cl flux of 1.0-3.7E4 kg/yr/km of arc. Alternatively, by combining melt inclusion data with magma flux estimates (14-38 km3/Myr/km of arc; Ingebritsen et al. 1989; Sherrod and Smith 1990) we estimate volatile fluxes for H2O: 0.39-5.4E6; S: 0.39-3.9E5; and Cl: 0.16- 2.3E5 kg/yr/km of arc. Given the

  3. Comparison of volatile constituents in two types of mugwort leaves (produced in Qichun and Nanyang) using the headspace GC-MS%顶空进样GC-MS比较蕲春与南阳产艾叶的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元; 康利平; 滕中秋; 詹志来; 南铁贵; 周爱香; 郭兰萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察比较湖北蕲春与河南南阳两个产地艾叶的挥发性成分的种类。方法:采用顶空加热提取艾叶挥发性成分并进行气相色谱-质谱(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS)分析,结合美国国家标准与技术研究院(National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST)提供的标准数据库进行定性分析,以峰面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量。结果:从湖北蕲春产艾叶中鉴定出59种化合物,从河南南阳产艾叶中鉴定出51种化合物,主要为单萜类、倍半萜及其含氧衍生物,及其他的醛、酮、烷及苯系化合物。两地艾叶药材挥发性成分中有32种共有成分,具有一定差异;所鉴定化合物的色谱流出峰面积占湖北蕲春艾叶GC-MS色谱总流出峰面积的96.38%,占河南南阳艾叶的95.54%。结论:顶空加热提取结合GC-MS技术可以便捷地揭示不同产地艾叶的挥发性成分异同,为艾材的质量评价和筛选提供一定科学依据。%Objective:To compare the volatile constituents in mugwort leaves produced in Qichun, Hubei Province and Nanyang, Henan Province. Methods:The volatile constituents were extracted using headspace heating and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then a qualitative analysis was made according to the standard database provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the relative contents of each constituent were calculated using the peak area normalization method. Results:A total of 59 compounds were identified from the mugwort leaves from Qichun and 51 compounds were identified from the mugwort leaves from Nanyang. These mainly include monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, CxHyOz and other compounds involving the aldehyde, ketone, alkane and benzene. The mugwort leaves from Qichun and Nanyang share 32 common volatile constituents. The chromatographic peak area of identified compounds accounting for 96.38% of GC-MS total

  4. Mantle Volatiles - Distribution and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luth, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    Volatiles in the mantle have, for many years, been the subject of intensive study from a number of perspectives. They are of interest because of their potential effects on melting relationships, on transport of major and trace elements, and on the rheological and other physical properties of the mantle. By convention, "volatiles" in this context are constituents that are liquid or gaseous at normal Earth surface conditions. This review will look at the behavior of C-O-H-S-halogen volatiles, beginning with H2O and C-O volatiles.There have been tremendous strides made recently towards understanding how volatiles in general and water in particular is transported and stored in the mantle. This progress is based on research on a number of fronts: studies of mantle-derived samples have provided insight into the nature and occurrence of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, and chlorite, and have provided constraints on the capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxenes, and garnet to contain "water" by a variety of substitution mechanisms. Experimental studies on mantle-derived magmas have provided constraints on volatile contents in their source regions. Other studies have constrained the pressure, temperature, and composition conditions over which hydrous phases are stable in the mantle.Fundamental questions remain about the geochemical cycling of volatiles in the mantle, and between the mantle and the surface. Much attention has focused on the capability of hydrous phases such as amphibole, mica, serpentine, chlorite, and a family of "dense hydrous magnesian silicates" (DHMSs) to act as carriers of water in subducting slabs back into the mantle. It has been clear since the work of Ito et al. (1983) that there is a discrepancy between the amount of volatiles subducted into the mantle and those returned to the surface by arc magmatism. A recent overview of volatile cycling in subduction systems by Bebout (1996) suggests that 5-15% of the H2

  5. GC-MS Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Rose Damascena Mill%突厥玫瑰挥发油化学成分的 GC-MS分析及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓宝; 陈德力; 赵祥升; 杨新全

    2016-01-01

    The volatile oil from Rose damascena Mill.was extracted by steam distillation.The chemical con-stituents of volatile oil from Rose damascena Mill.were analyzed by a GC-MS.The antioxidant activity of vola-tile oil from Rose damascena Mill.was determined by a DPPH+FRAP method.The relative content of volatile oil from Rose damascena Mill.was determined by a peak area normalization.Total 42 compounds were identi-fied,accounting for 79.57% of the total volatile oil content.The main chemical constituents of volatile oil were citronellol(26.1 1%),α-geraniol(5.89%),β-nerol(4.36%),α-geranial(3.56%),terpinen-4-ol(SG)(3.48%), phenethyl alcohol(2.64%),α-guaiene(2.33%),ocimene(2.32%),and neryl acetate(2.17%).The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of volatile oil was 58.9%,and the FRAP value was 402.1 μmol·L-1 .The results provide reliable experimental data and a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of Rose damascena Mill..%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取突厥玫瑰挥发油,并通过气质联用仪(GC-MS)对其化学成分进行分析,采用 DPPH+FRAP 法对其抗氧化活性进行测定。采用面积归一化法对突厥玫瑰挥发油中的主要成分进行了定量分析,共鉴定出42种化合物,占挥发油总成分的79.57%,主要成分为香茅醇(26.11%)、α-香叶醇(5.89%)、β-橙花醇(4.36%)、α-香叶醛(3.56%)、松油-4-醇(3.48%)、苯乙醇(2.64%)、α-愈创烯(2.33%)、罗勒烯(2.32%)、乙酸橙花酯(2.17%);突厥玫瑰挥发油对 DPPH 自由基的清除率最高为58.9%,FRAP 值为402.1μmol·L-1。为突厥玫瑰的进一步产业化开发提供了可靠的实验数据和理论依据。

  6. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  7. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  8. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  9. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  10. Advances in the Studies of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Volatile Components from Mentha L.%薄荷属植物挥发性成分及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智坤; 梁呈元; 任冰如; 于盱; 李维林

    2013-01-01

    薄荷属(Mentha L.)植物广泛分布于世界各地,有着悠久的药食两用史.目前,薄荷属植物挥发性物质主要应用于医药、食品、化妆品、香料、烟草等工业.现代研究表明其挥发性成分主要含有多种单萜类化合物,药理学研究显示其具有抗氧化、抗菌、抗辐射、抗癌、降血压等生物活性.本文主要对该属植物挥发性化学成分及药理作用的研究现状进行综述,以期为进一步开发和利用该属植物提供科学依据.%Mentha L.species widely distribute around the world.They had been used in foods and medicines for more than 2000 years.Currently the volatile components(or essential oils) from mint were widely used in medicine,food,cosmetics,perfume,tobacco and others industry.Recent researches show that the volatile components are mainly composed by monoterpenoids and have the biological activity such as antioxidation,antibacterial,antiradiation,anticancer,lowering school pressure,and etc.In this paper,we review progresses on botany,chemistry and activity of volatile components about this species,in order to provide the evidence for utilizing this resource better.

  11. Study on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Drug Pair of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae by GC-MS%金银花、连翘药对配伍挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学锋; 陈飞龙; 罗佳波

    2009-01-01

    目的 考察金银花、连翘药对配伍对挥发油化学成分的影响.方法 采用气-质联用系统对金银花、连翘药材以及药对配伍中的挥发油进行分析,评价配伍对挥发油成分及含量的影响.结果 采用GC-MS对金银花、连翘药材和药对挥发油的成分进行分析比较,发现金银花挥发油中检出的香叶醇、十四烷酸甲基酯、十六烷酸乙基酯、荧蒽、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸甲基酯、亚油酸等成分和连翘挥发油中检出的樟脑烯、α-松油烯、紫苏醇、蒎烯、棕榈醛、β-水茴香萜等成分在药对挥发油中未检出,而相对于单煎所得的挥发油,药对挥发油中新增成分有柠檬烯、异长松叶烯、十九烷等.结论 金银花、连翘药对配伍对所提挥发油的成分和含量都有较大的影响.%Objective To discuss the influence of drug compatibility on the components of the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae. Methods GC-MS system was used to analyze the volatile oil in Flos Lonicerae, Fructas Forsythiae and their combination. The effect of compatibility on the components and content of volatile oil was evaluated. Results The results of GC-MS showed that gerani]o, tetradecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, fluoranthene, 9, 12, 15-Octadeeatrienoic acid ethyl ester and linoleic acid was detectable in Flos Lonicerae but was undetectable in the drug pair; camphene, alpha-terpinene, perillaalcohol, 2-beta-pinene, beta-hexadecanal, phellandrene was de-tectable in Fructus Forsythiae but was undetectable in the drug pair; limonene, isolongifolene, nonadecane was detectable in the drug pair but was undetectable in the two single drugs. Conclusion The compatibility of the drug pair has an effect on components and contents in the volatile oil of Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae.

  12. Detecting volatile compounds from Kraft lignin degradation in the headspace of microbial cultures by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew; Malek, Lada; Dekker, Robert F H; Ross, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used to quantify methanol and other volatile compounds in the headspace of one bacterial and 12 fungal lignin-degrading microbial cultures. Cultures were grown in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks capped with aluminum foil containing 40 mL of nutrient media using Kraft lignin (0.3% w/v) as the sole carbon source. Analysis was done using SIFT-MS with H3O(+) and NO(+) precursors. Product ions were identified with multiple ion mode (MIM). Full scan (FS) mode was used to identify other compounds of interest. Absidia cylindrospora, Ischnoderma resinosum and Pholiota aurivella increased headspace methanol concentration by 136 ppb, 1196 ppb and 278 ppb, respectively, while Flammulina velutipes and Laetiporus sulphureus decreased concentration below ambient levels. F. velutipes and L. sulphureus were found to produce products of methanol oxidation (formaldehyde and formic acid) and were likely metabolizing methanol. Some additional unidentified compounds generated by the fungal cultures are intriguing and will require further study. SIFT-MS can be used to quantify methanol and other volatile compounds in the headspace of microbial cultures and has the potential to be a rapid, sensitive, non-invasive tool useful in elucidating the mechanisms of lignin degradative pathways.

  13. Real-time quantification of traces of biogenic volatile selenium compounds in humid air by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Španěl, Patrik

    2012-06-01

    Biological volatilization of selenium, Se, in a contaminated area is an economical and environmentally friendly approach to phytoremediation techniques, but analytical methods for monitoring and studying volatile compounds released in the process of phytovolatilization are currently limited in their performance. Thus, a new method for real time quantification of trace amounts of the vapors of hydrogen selenide (H(2)Se), methylselenol (CH(3)SeH), dimethylselenide ((CH(3))(2)Se), and dimethyldiselenide ((CH(3))(2)Se(2)) present in ambient air adjacent to living plants has been developed. This involves the characterization of the mechanism and kinetics of the reaction of H(3)O(+), NO(+), and O(2)(+•) reagent ions with molecules of these compounds and then use of the rate constants so obtained to determine their absolute concentrations in air by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. The results of experiments demonstrating this method on emissions from maize (Zea mays) seedlings cultivated in Se rich medium are also presented.

  14. Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Coupled with Solid-phase Microextraction for Determination of Volatile Constituents of Chinese Ginger%固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱分析生姜的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国新; 邓春晖; 吴丹; 胡耀铭

    2003-01-01

    采用固相微萃取(SPME)技术结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析了生姜中的挥发性化合物.用膜厚为100 μm的聚二甲基硅氧烷纤维头萃取新鲜生姜中的挥发性化合物,纤维头在温度为250 ℃气化室进样口脱附3 min.通过顶空SPME-GC-MS方法从生姜中共分离和鉴定出36个化合物.其中主要的化合物为α-水芹烯,莰烯,里哪醇,香叶醛,姜烯,倍半水芹烯,橙花醛,α-没药烯,α-姜黄烯,由色谱峰的峰面积比例计算出各个化合物的相对含量. 研究和讨论了影响SPME条件的参数,包括吸附时间、温度、脱附时间等.%Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS) was developed for the determination of volatile compounds of ginger. The volatile constituents of fresh ginger were extracted by SPME with a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The fibers were desorbed in a GC injection liner at 250 ℃ for 3 min. With headspace SPME-GC-MS analysis, thirty-six peaks in ginger were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds included α-phellandrene, camphene, linalool, geranial, zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene, neral, α-bisabolene, α-curcumene etc and their relative contents were calculated on basis of peak area ratio. SPME extraction conditions including time, temperature and desorption time were investigated.

  15. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  16. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  17. SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Hassanpouraghdam; F Shekari; J. EMARAT-PARDAZ; SAFI SHALAMZARI, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodistilled volatile seed oil composition of commonly growing ornamental Tagetes patula L. was analyzed for its constituents by GC/MS. Forty constituents were identified, comprising 94% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.7%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.8%) were the main subclasses of volatile oil components followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (12.6%). The principle constituents of the volatile oil were (E)-caryophyllene (44.6%) caryophyllene oxide (14.8%), germacrene D...

  18. Volatile Constituents from Three Parts of Cucurbita Moschata Duch. (Miben) by Head-Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析蜜本南瓜3个部位的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 彭涛; 卢引; 顾雪竹; 李昌勤; 康文艺

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the volatile constituents from flower, stem tip and seed of Cucurbita moschata Duch.(Miben). The volatiles were analyzed by head-space solid micro-extraction, coupled with GC-MS and Kovats indices for the first time . The results showed that 22 compounds were identified from the flower , 20 from the stem tip and 21 from the seed of the C. moschata (Miben). The total essential constituents from each part were 91 . 89%, 89 . 24% and 96 . 26%, respectively . A total of 10 compounds in the flower and stem tip were mutual. And 3 compounds in the flower, stem tip and seed were mutual. It was concluded that the β-bourbonene (17.57%) and heneicosane (11.90%) were the highest components of the total essential constituents of the flower of C. moschata (Miben). Decanal (28.77%) was the highest components of the stem tip and hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (29.12%), 2,3-butanediol (16.90%) and linoleic acid ethyl ester (16.52%) were the highest compo-nents of seed of C. moschata (Miben).%目的:对蜜本南瓜花、茎尖和籽的挥发性成分进行分析。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取和气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),结合保留指数法,首次分析蜜本南瓜3个部位的挥发性成分。结果:从蜜本南瓜花、茎尖、籽中分别鉴定出22、20和21个挥发性成分,占总峰面积的91.89%、89.24%和96.26%。其中花和茎尖共有10个共有成分,花、茎尖和籽有3个共有成分。结论:蜜本南瓜花中茁-波旁烯(17.57%)和二十一烷(11.90%)含量较高;蜜本南瓜茎尖中癸醛(28.77%)含量最高;籽中棕榈酸乙酯(29.12%)、2,3-丁二醇(16.90%)和亚油酸乙酯(16.52%)含量较高。

  19. Effect of ethanol, temperature, and gas flow rate on volatile release from aqueous solutions under dynamic headspace dilution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Gady, Anne-Laure; Kalopesas, Michalis; Linforth, Robert S T; Athès, Violaine; Marin, Michele; Taylor, Andrew J

    2008-07-09

    On the basis of a mechanistic model, the overall and liquid mass transfer coefficients of aroma compounds were estimated during aroma release when an inert gas diluted the static headspace over simple ethanol/water solutions (ethanol concentration = 120 mL x L(-1)). Studied for a range of 17 compounds, they were both increased in the ethanol/water solution compared to the water solution, showing a better mass transfer due to the presence of ethanol, additively to partition coefficient variation. Thermal imaging results showed differences in convection of the two systems (water and ethanol/water) arguing for ethanol convection enhancement inside the liquid. The effect of ethanol in the solution on mass transfer coefficients at different temperatures was minor. On the contrary, at different headspace dilution rates, the effect of ethanol in the solution helped to maintain the volatile headspace concentration close to equilibrium concentration, when the headspace was replenished 1-3 times per minute.

  20. Comparative analysis of volatile constituents in herbal pair Ramulus Cinnamomi-Atractylodes macrocephala and its signal herb by GC-MS%药对桂枝-白术及其单味药中挥发油成分GC-MS的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘金明; 钟明; 梁逸曾; 彭友林; 张茂美; 谭斌斌

    2011-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法从桂枝、白术及其药对中提取挥发油成分,通过气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对其进行分离检测,结合直观推导式演进特征投影法(HELP)对重叠色谱峰进行分辨解析;同时,利用程序升温保留指数辅助定性.研究结果表明:从单味药桂枝、白术及其药对中鉴定出66,29和55个组分,分别占挥发油成分总量的94.43%,95.93%和96.35%;单味药与药对共有4种组分,占药对挥发油总含量的13.14%;组成药对后,新增4种组分,单味药桂枝消失33种组分,白术消失7种组分;药对中挥发油主要成分是2-(2-甲氧基)苯甲氧基苯酚、γ-芹子烯和桂皮醛等,它们主要来自于白术;药对种类与含量变化并不是单味药的简单相加,其作用机理有待进一步研究.%The volatile constituents were extracted from Ramulus Cinnamomi(RC), Atractylodes macrocephala(AM) and herbal pair(HP) RC-AM by steam distillation. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with heuristic evolving latent projections(HELP), a useful chemometric resolution method which can be used to resolve overlapping peaks in chromatogram, was employed to identify and comparatively analyze the volatile constituents,together with the temperature-programmed retention index for assistant identification. The results show that there are 66,29 and 55 kinds of constituents of the essential oils being identified respectively from single herb RC, AM and HP-RC-AM, and the relative amount accounts for 94.43%, 95.93% and 96.35 % of the total relative contents in order.There are 4 common volatile constitutions in single herb and HP, and accounting for 13.14% total contents in HP. There are 4 components increasing in HP, while there are 33 and 7 components losing in the single herb CR and AM respectively. The volatile principally components in HP are 2-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)phenol, γ-Selinene and Cinnamaldehyde, et al., and they are mainly from single herb

  1. Study on Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oils in Drug Pair of Frankincense and Myrrh by GC-MS%乳香、没药药对配伍挥发油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳; 王团结; 宿树兰; 段金廒; 付小环

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence ot drug compatibility on the components ot the volatile oil in Frankincense and Myrrh. Methods GC-MS system was used to analyze the volatile oil in Frankincense,Myrrh and their combination. The effect of compatibility on the components and content of volatile oil was evaluated. Results The results of GC-MS showed that cadina-1 ( 10 ) ,4-diene, yl-2H-1-Benzopyran, 3,5,6,8 a-tetrahydro-2,5,5,8 a-tetramethyl-, trans- was detectable in Frankincense but was undetectable in the drag pair; Phenol,2-(1,2-dimethyl-2- cyclopenten-l-yl)-, acetate, Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l,6-dimethyl-4 -(1-methylethyl)-,(1 S-cis)-, Azulen-2-ol, 1,4-dimethyl-7-(l-methylethyl)- was detactable in Myrrh but was undectable in the drug pair;1-ethenyl -1-methyl - 2,4-diisopropyl -cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4- tetrahydro-1-methyl -8-Isopropylnaphthalene was dectable in the drug pair but was undetectable in the two single drugs. Conclusion The compatibility of the drug pair has an effect on components and contents in the volatile oil of Frankincense and Myrrh.%目的 考察乳香、没药药对配伍对挥发油化学成分的影响.方法 采用气-质联用系统对乳香、没药药材以及药对配伍中的挥发油进行分析,评价配伍对挥发油成分及含量的影响.结果 采用GC-MS对乳香、没药药材和药对挥发油的成分进行分析比较,发现乳香挥发油中检出的trans-3,5,6,8 a-四氢-2,5,5,8a-四甲基-y1-2H-1-苯并吡喃、荜澄茄-1(10),4-二烯等成分和没药挥发油中检出的2-(1,2-二甲基-2-环戊烯-1-y1)乙酸苯酯、(1S-cis)-1,2,3,4-四氢-1,6-二甲基-4-(1-甲基乙基)-萘、1,4-二甲基-7-(1-甲基乙基)-Azulen-2-醇、(-)-匙叶桉油烯醇等成分在药对挥发油中未检出,而相对于单煎所得的挥发油,药对挥发油中新增成分有1-乙烯基-1-甲基-2,4-二异丙基-环己烷、1,2,3,4-四氢-1-甲基-8-异丙基萘等.结论 乳香、没药药对配伍对所提挥发油的成分和含量都有较大的影响.

  2. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  3. [Volatile Oil Analysis of Piper hongkongense form Different Hatbitats by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Xie, Feng-feng; Yan, Ping-hua; Gan, Ri-cheng; Zhu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the volatile oil in Piper hongkongense from five different habitats. The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components oil of each sample varied significantly. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene and nerolidol 2 were common constituents of five samples. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of fresh sample were higher than that of the old sample. The volatile oil and chemical constituent contents of Piper hongkongense from different habitats have sig- nificant differences, which are affected by habitats, harvest season, storage time and so on.

  4. 新疆圆柏叶挥发油化学成分变化的研究%Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Sabina vulgaris Ant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭平; 高莉

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,对新疆圆柏(Sabina vulgaris Ant.)鲜叶和贮存1年的干燥叶中的挥发油化学成分进行检测,鲜叶中的成分鉴定了31种,干叶中的成分鉴定了23种,共有成分15种.与鲜叶比较,干叶中含量减少的成分是:2,7-二甲基-3-辛烯-5-炔(51.88%,15.29%,前者为鲜叶中的量,后者为干叶中的量,下同)、1-柠檬烯(1.65%,1.13%)、α-异松油烯(0.92%,0.58%)、3,7-二甲基-甲基酯-2,6-辛二烯酸(2.88%,0.50%)、α-长叶蒎烯(1.91%,1.46%)、α-雪松醇(12.69%,10.81%),含量增加的成分是:β-侧柏酮(1.01%,1.98%)、4-甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)-3-环己烯-1-醇(0.22%,2.83%)、β-香茅醇(0.22%,10.83%)、乙酸香桧酯(4.37%,39.83%),新疆圆柏鲜叶和干叶中的挥发性成分及其含量差异甚大,但是特征成分种类基本一致,随着叶的干燥贮存时间的延长,其挥发性成分及其含量在逐渐减少.%The volatile composition from fresh leaves and dry leaves of Juniperus sabina L. storaged for one year were analyzed by steam distillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 31 compounds from fresh leaves were indentified, and 23 compounds from dry leaves were indentified. The same composition between fresh leaves and dried leaves were 15 kinds. The compounds of contents decreased were ( E) 2, 7-dimethyl-3-octen-5-yne ( 51.88 % , 15.29 % ) , limonene ( 1.65 % , 1. 13 % ), α-terpinolene(0.92 % , 0. 58 % ), 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoicacid methyl ester(2.88 % , 0.50 % ), α-longip-inene (1.91 % , 1.46 % ) , α-cedrol ( 12. 69 % , 10. 81 % ). The compounds of contents increased were β-thujone (1.01 % , 1.98 % ) , 4-methyl-l -( 1 -methyl ethyl) -3-cyclohexen-l -ol (0. 22 % , 2. 83 % ) , β-citronellol (0.22 % , 10. 83 % ) , sabinyl acetate(4. 37 % , 39.83 % ). The difference of heterogeneous were significantly. The difference of volatile composition from the fresh leaves and dry

  5. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  6. Volatility Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Classical capital asset pricing theory tells us that riskaverse investors would require higher returns to compensate for higher risk on an investment. One type of risk is price (return) risk, which reflects uncertainty in the price level and is measured by the volatility (standard deviation) of asset returns. Volatility itself is also known to be random and hence is perceived as another type of risk. Investors can bear price risk in exchange for a higher return. But are investors willing to p...

  7. Volatile accretion history of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B J; Halliday, A N; Rehkämper, M

    2010-10-28

    It has long been thought that the Earth had a protracted and complex history of volatile accretion and loss. Albarède paints a different picture, proposing that the Earth first formed as a dry planet which, like the Moon, was devoid of volatile constituents. He suggests that the Earth's complement of volatile elements was only established later, by the addition of a small veneer of volatile-rich material at ∼100 Myr (here and elsewhere, ages are relative to the origin of the Solar System). Here we argue that the Earth's mass balance of moderately volatile elements is inconsistent with Albarède's hypothesis but is well explained by the standard model of accretion from partially volatile-depleted material, accompanied by core formation.

  8. Chemical constituents of guava fruit flesh volatiles and their effect on oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly%番石榴果肉挥发物化学组成及对桔小实蝇产卵行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯歌; 邱雪兰; 杜虎斌; 曾鑫年

    2012-01-01

    The chemical constituents of guava fruit flesh volatiles and their effect on oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) was studied. Guava fruit flesh volatiles were analyzed by GC - MS, and the differences of amount of responded oriental fruit fly adults and eggs laid by oriental fruit fly effected by guava fruit flesh volatiles and other lures. Result of chemical constituents analysis indicated that 18 kinds of components were detected. The highest content component was (Z) -3 -Hexen - 1 - ol acetate, followed by caryophyllene, and their relative contents were 40. 07% and 23. 55% respectively. The results of oviposition behavior of oriental fruit fly tests showed that attractant effect of guava fruit flesh was significantly higher than that of sucrose, water control and blank control. But its attractant effect was lower than protein hydrolysate's. Guava fruit flesh and protein hydrolysate had the effect of attracting oriental fruit fly to lay eggs. The eggs laid by oriental fruit fly with guava fruit flesh and protein hydrolysate after 24 h were 6. 80 ±0.23 and 7.07 ±0. 16 egg/tube respectively, which were significantly higher than other treatments. The eggs laid by oriental fruit fly were increased with the increase of weight of guava fruit flesh which can produce volatiles. Maximum eggs were collected, when the weight of guava fruit flesh increased to 11 g. The amount of eggs laid by oriental fruit fly would tend to be unchanged while adding more guava fruit flesh.%本文研究了番石榴果肉挥发物化学组成及对桔小实蝇产卵行为的影响.通过气相色谱与质谱联用对番石榴果肉挥发物进行了分析,并比较了番石榴果肉挥发物和不同引诱物对桔小实蝇成虫诱集虫口数和产卵量的差异.化学组成分析结果表明,检出的番石榴果肉挥发物共18种化合物,含量最高的为乙酸叶醇酯,占40.07%,其次为石竹烯,占23.55%.桔小实蝇成虫产卵行为生

  9. Analysis of selected volatile organic compounds in split and nonsplit swiss cheese samples using selected-ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castada, Hardy Z; Wick, Cheryl; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Harper, W James

    2014-04-01

    Splits/cracks are recurring product defects that negatively affect the Swiss cheese industry. Investigations to understand the biophysicochemical aspects of these defects, and thus determine preventive measures against their occurrence, are underway. In this study, selected-ion, flow tube mass spectrometry was employed to determine the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles present in the headspace of split compared with nonsplit cheeses. Two sampling methodologies were employed: split compared with nonsplit cheese vat pair blocks; and comparison of blind, eye, and split segments within cheese blocks. The variability in VOC profiles was examined to evaluate the potential biochemical pathway chemistry differences within and between cheese samples. VOC profile inhomogeneity was most evident in cheeses between factories. Evaluation of biochemical pathways leading to the formation of key VOCs differentiating the split from the blind and eye segments within factories indicated release of additional carbon dioxide by-product. These results suggest a factory-dependent cause of split formation that could develop from varied fermentation pathways in the blind, eye, and split areas within a cheese block. The variability of VOC profiles within and between factories exhibit varied biochemical fermentation pathways that could conceivably be traced back in the making process to identify parameters responsible for split defect.

  10. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Kristensen, N B; Klotz, J L; Kim, D H; Koontz, A F; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; E+) seed (0.015 mg ergovaline·kg BW(-1)·d(-1)) or endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) seed via the rumen cannula 2x daily for 7 d at thermoneutral (TN; 22°C) and heat stress (HS; 32°C) conditions. On d 8, the rumen was emptied and rinsed. A buffer containing VFA was incubated in the following sequence: control (CON), 15 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (1×EXT) from a tall fescue seed extract, and 45 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (3×EXT). For each buffer treatment there were two 30-min incubations: a 30-min incubation of a treatment buffer with no sampling followed by an incubation of an identical sampling buffer with the addition of Cr-EDTA and deuterium oxide (D2O). Epithelial blood flow was calculated as ruminal clearance of D2O corrected for influx of physiological water and liquid outflow. Feed intake decreased with dosing E+ seed at HS but not at thermoneutral conditions (TN; P0.05). Inclusion of the extract in the buffer caused at least a 50% reduction in epithelial blood flow at TN (P=0.004), but there was no difference between 1×EXT and 3×EXT. There was a seed × buffer treatment interaction at HS (P=0.005), indicating that the reduction of blood flow induced by incubating the extract was larger for steers receiving E- seed than E+ seed. Volatile fatty acid flux was reduced during the 1×EXT and 3×EXT treatments (P0.80), indicating that observed differences are due to the presence of ergot alkaloids in the rumen. A decrease in VFA absorption could contribute to the signs of fescue toxicosis including depressed growth and performance.

  12. Sill intrusion driven fluid flow and vent formation in volcanic basins: Modeling rates of volatile release and paleoclimate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the

  13. Flow injection determination of Se in dietary supplements using TiO2 mediated ultraviolet-photochemical volatile species generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, E.; Linhart, O.; Červený, V.; Rychlovský, P.; Hraníček, J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a method for determination of selenium content in samples of dietary supplements using TiO2 mediated UV-photochemical vapor generation with quartz furnace atomic spectrometric detection. The flow-injection method was optimized for determination of selenium in the form of selenite or selenate ions. The limits of detection of the proposed method are 0.89 ng mL- 1 and 0.68 ng mL- 1 for selenite and selenate, respectively. Extraction in neutral medium was used for the leaching of selenate and NaOH solution was used for the leaching of selenite. The methods accuracy was verified against the declared amounts of Se in five different samples of over-the-counter dietary supplements and on NIST SRM 3280. The method was also compared to results achieved with determination by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry following microwave decomposition. The recovery of selenium during sample preparation was tested by spiking the tablets prior to extraction and estimated to be approximately 100%. An interference study has been carried out to estimate the effect of concomitant elements on the methods accuracy.

  14. Natural Gas Price Volatility in the UK and North America

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a commonly held definition, volatility is an often over-generalised term with different meanings to different constituencies. This does not detract from the importance of the subject. To traders volatility is a source of revenue, to energy intensive industrial end-users it is often perceived as a threat. Midstream utilities actively work to risk-manage volatility in order to deliver a ‘dampened’ price offer to end-user customers. In this working paper Sofya Alterman summarises ...

  15. Imaging and Measurements of Flow Phenomena and Impact of Soil Associated Constituents Through Unsaturated Porous Media in a 2D System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, A. R.; Li, B.; Clifford, H.; Edayilam, N.; Montgomery, D.; Dogan, M.; Tharayil, N.; Martinez, N. E.; Moysey, S. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    This research aims to build upon past two-dimension (2D) tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) and how exudates effect unstable flow patterns. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital single lens reflex (CMOS DSLR) Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from red-green-blue (RGB) into hue-saturation-intensity (HVI) and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Contact angle and surface tension of the chemical plant exudate solutions was measured using a Kruss EasyDrop FM40Mk2 (Kruss GmbH Germany). The exudates (oxalate, citrate, tannic acid, and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter) had an increased wettability effect compared to control rain water (0.01M NaCl). This resulted in variable finger formation and speed of finger propagation; dependent on exudate type and concentration. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for future works in this study to analyze how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media.

  16. Sensitive monitoring of volatile chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counter-flow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Tsuge, Koichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Iura, Kazumitsu; Itoi, Teruo; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Koji; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Nagano, Hisashi; Waki, Izumi; Ezawa, Naoya; Tanimoto, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Shigeru; Fukano, Masumi; Okada, Hidehiro

    2013-03-05

    A new method for sensitively and selectively detecting chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in air was developed using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Four volatile and highly toxic CWAs were examined, including the nerve gases sarin and tabun, and the blister agents mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1). Soft ionization was performed using corona discharge to form reactant ions, and the ions were sent in the direction opposite to the airflow by an electric field to eliminate the interfering neutral molecules such as ozone and nitrogen oxide. This resulted in efficient ionization of the target CWAs, especially in the negative ionization mode. Quadrupole MS (QMS) and ion trap tandem MS (ITMS) instruments were developed and investigated, which were movable on the building floor. For sarin, tabun, and HD, the protonated molecular ions and their fragment ions were observed in the positive ion mode. For L1, the chloride adduct ions of L1 hydrolysis products were observed in negative ion mode. The limit of detection (LOD) values in real-time or for a 1 s measurement monitoring the characteristic ions were between 1 and 8 μg/m(3) in QMS instrument. Collision-induced fragmentation patterns for the CWAs were observed in an ITMS instrument, and optimized combinations of the parent and daughter ion pairs were selected to achieve real-time detection with LOD values of around 1 μg/m(3). This is a first demonstration of sensitive and specific real-time detection of both positively and negatively ionizable CWAs by MS instruments used for field monitoring.

  17. Flow boiling of refrigerant-oil mixtures; Transferts de chaleur dans un melange constitue de fluide frigorigene et d'huile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidt, M.

    1999-10-13

    The phase out of chlorine containing refrigerants (CFC and HCFC) has led to the introduction of new refrigerants and lubricants to the market. The interest in using HFC fluids as working fluids to replace fluids harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer. The study presents the influence of synthetic oil (POE ISO 68) on flow boiling of refrigerants R134a (pure fluid) and R410A (R32/R125 50%/50%). Local and average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops have been measured for a smooth horizontal tube. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient at the inner wall has been obtained from solving the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) and resulted in a local combination of nucleate and convective contributions to flow boiling. Local heat transfer coefficients have been averaged and displayed as a function of the vapour quality. For R134a: small amounts of oil (1% to 6%) in the liquid phase increased the heat transfer coefficient at low and intermediate vapour qualities (less than 0.60) compared to pure fluid. However a hugh reduction of the heat transfer has been observed at higher vapour qualities. For R410A : oil dramatically decreases the heat transfer coefficient compared to pure fluid. Pressure drops are also affected by small amounts of lubricant: an important increase has been noted for both fluids. Available design methods for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (superposition, enhancement, asymptotic) badly predict the experimental results. Nevertheless a new design method accounting for flow patterns has shown good agreements. The influence of the lubricant on the heat transfer is discussed and a new proposition is made to calculate pressure drops. (author)

  18. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  19. Thermodynamique de l'écoulement diphasique compressible à deux constituants de Fanno Thermodynamic of Two-Phase Two Component Compressible Fanno Type Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attou A.

    2006-12-01

    -liquid flow through a duct with a constant cross-sectional area is studied from a thermodynamics point of view. By assuming the two-phase mixture as homogeneous, the treatment of the physical conservation laws makes it possible to obtain an analytical equation of the fluid evolution which expresses the difference between the Fanno and the isothermal evolutions. On the basis of its differential form and the second principle of thermodynamic, the properties of this flow are discussed. The determination of the Fanno limit shows the existence of a maximum length of the duct. For a length greater than this maximum one, the flow is no more possible. One shows that this maximum length is a function of the mass quality as well as the initial conditions, i. e. the inlet state variables and the inlet velocity. The results are systematically verified by considering the limit of a single phase ideal gas flow. The theory allows to understand and to justify the existence of the so-called multichoked flow. It is applied to the two-phase flow through discharge lines involving geometrical singularities (sudden enlargement for example. The proposed model is validated on the basis of experimental data obtained for quasi steady-state discharges of pure nitrogen and water-nitrogen mixture through a complex pressure relief line involving several abrupt enlargements. The critical configuration and the maximum mass flowrate as well as the variables of the flow (pressure and temperature predicted from the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hrma@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  1. Propagation of small disturbances in two phases, one component flow (1963); Propagation de petites perturbations dans un ecoulement double phase a un seul constituant (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boure, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A small disturbance is, shown to give rise to two waves: a pressure (sonic) wave and a continuity wave. Their propagation velocities are calculated. These velocities are independent of the disturbance amplitude. The sonic velocity is primarily a function of that one corresponding to the same medium with no flow and of the liquid phase velocity. It is also a function of the physical properties of the phases on the saturation line, of the slip laws and of the void fraction. The continuity wave velocity is only a function of the slip laws, of the void fraction and of the velocity of either phase. It appears two kinds of critical flow rates which are calculated. The void fraction and the liquid and gas velocities variations are calculated. These results are extended to the case of a real loop and an approximative method is given for the treatment of this case. (author) [French] On montre qu'une petite perturbation donne naissance a deux ondes: une onde de pression (onde sonique) et une onde de continuite. On calcule leurs vitesses de propagation qui sont independantes de l'amplitude de la perturbation. La vitesse du son depend des proprietes physiques des phases le long de la courbe de saturation, des lois du glissement, de la fraction volumique de vapeur. Elle depend surtout de la vitesse qu'il aurait dans le milieu immobile de meme fraction volumique de vapeur, et de la vitesse de la phase liquide. La vitesse de l'onde de continuite depend des lois du glissement, de la fraction volumique de vapeur et de la vitesse d'une des phases. Il apparait deux types de debits critiques que l'on calcule. On calcule egalement les variations de la fraction volumique de vapeur et des vitesses des phases dans la perturbation. On generalise des resultats precedents dans le cas d'un circuit reel et on propose une methode approchee pour traiter le probleme dans ce cas. (auteur)

  2. Volcanism on Mercury (dikes, lava flows, pyroclastics): Crust/mantle density contrasts, the evolution of compressive stress and the presence of mantle volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Background. There is great uncertainty about the internal structure of Mercury and the composition of the mantle [e.g., 1, 2]. The high mean density of the body suggests that it may have lost parts of its crust and mantle in a giant impact at some stage after most of its initial accretion was sufficiently complete that at least partial separation of a core had occurred. It is the uncertainty about the timing of the giant impact, and hence the physico-chemical state of proto-Mercury at the time that it occurred, that leads to difficulties in predicting the interior structure and mantle composition. However, it seems reasonable to assume that the Mercury we see today has some combination of a relatively low-density crust and a relatively highdensity mantle; uncertainty remains about the presence and types of volatiles [2]. The second uncertainty is the nature of the surface plains units, specifically, are these lava flows and pyroclastics erupted from the interior, or impact-reworked earlier crust [3-5] (Figs. 1-2)? The detection of candidate pyroclastic deposits [4] has very important implications for mantle volatiles. Furthermore, whatever the surface composition, the presence of planet-wide systems of wrinkle ridges and thrust faults implies that a compressive crustal stress regime became dominant at some stage in the planet's history [3, 6]. If the plains units are indeed lava flows, then the fact that the products of the compressive regime deform many plains units suggests that the development of the compressive stresses may have played a vital role in determining when and if surface eruptions of mantle-derived magmas could occur. This would be analogous to the way in which the change with time from extensional to compressive global stresses in the lithosphere of the Moon influenced the viability of erupting magmas from deep mantle sources [7-9]. Analysis: To investigate the relationship between lithospheric stresses and magma eruption conditions [e.g., 9-11] we

  3. SPME-GC-MS versus Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analyses for the study of volatile compound generation and oxidation status during dry fermented sausage processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, José Luis; Smith, David; Spanĕl, Patrik; Flores, Mónica

    2011-03-09

    The use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry together with solid phase microextraction (GC-MS-SPME) has been compared in the analysis of volatile compounds during dry fermented sausage processing. Thus, the headspace (HS) of samples of dry fermented sausages with different fat contents was analyzed during their manufacture using both techniques, and significant and positive correlations were found between SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS measurements for the compounds pentanal, hexanal, 2-heptenal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, ethanol, acetic acid, and hexanoic acid. The oxidative status of fermented sausages during processing was also evaluated, and a significant correlation was obtained between the HS concentration of lipid autoxidation volatile compounds measured by SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the sausage. The hexanal measured by SIFT-MS resulted in a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.936) than that obtained using SPME-GC-MS (r = 0.927). SIFT-MS is shown to be a fast, real time analytical technique for monitoring changes in the profile of volatile compounds in dry fermented sausages during processing and a useful tool to evaluate the oxidative status of meat products.

  4. GC-MS和平滑预处理及SFA法用于茵陈挥发性成分的分析%Analysis of the volatile constituents in the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb.by GC-MS, smoothing and SFA methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉林; 朱丹晖; 冯晓亮; 贺云彪; 黄兰芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究茵陈的挥发性成分.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取茵陈挥发油,用GC-MS检测.重叠色谱峰用粗糙惩罚平滑法处理后,用子窗口因子分析法(SFA)分辨,从而获得每一组分的纯色谱和质谱,依靠每一组分纯质谱在NIST质谱库进行相似性检索而定性分析,用总体积积分法定量分析.结果:共分辨出67个色谱峰,鉴定出48个化学成分,占总含量的89.03%.主要组分为n-十六烷酸、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸、镰叶芹醇、反式-Z-α-环氧红没药烯和大(拢)牛儿烯D.结论:本法不仅可使鉴定的化合物数目增加,而且也提高了定性准确度,该法能用于茵陈的进一步开发和质量控制.%Objective: To study the volatile chemical constituents in the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Methods: The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. The chemical compositions were detected by GC -MS. After the overlapping of chromatographic peaks, which were first treated with roughness penalty smoothing method , were resolved into pure chromatograms and spectra with subwindow factor analysis method (SFA) , qualitative a-nalysis was performed by similarity search in NIST library with the obtained pure mass spectrum of each component and the quantitative results were obtained by overall volume integration. Results: A total of 67 chromatographic peaks were separated, and 48 chemical components in the essential oil of the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. were identified, which accounted for 89. 03% of the total content. The main components were n - hexade-canoic acid,9,12,15 - octadecatrienoic acid,Artemisia capillaris falcarinol,trans - Z - alpha - bisabolene epoxide and germacrene D. Conclusions: Not only more components were identified by the established method,but also the accuracy of the qualitative analysis of components was improved. The established method can be used for further development and quality control of Artemisia

  5. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  6. Use of on-line stop-flow heart-cutting two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of 12 major constituents in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-08-23

    The use of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) for quantification studies presents challenges with respect to repeatability, precision, and robustness. The present study used an on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system to determine 12 chemical constituents in tartary buckwheat. A combination of various stationary phases was developed and bridged using two switch valves as the interface. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography was chosen for separation in the first dimension ((1)D), and mixed mode stationary phases (an amide polar-embedded phase and alkyl-phenyl phase) were used in parallel for separation in the second dimension ((2)D). The mobile phase comprised acetonitrile and water containing 0.03% aqueous phosphoric acid. The sample was separated into two fractions on the (1)D column (HILIC-10 column) using 5% acetonitrile. One fraction, mainly comprising flavonoids, was directly eluted onto the head of (2)D column (Polar Advantage II column) and further separated using a linear gradient of 11-23% acetonitrile. The second fraction, containing phenylpropanoid glycosides, was trapped on the (1)D column. This retained fraction was back-flushed onto the (2)D column (Phenyl-1 column) and separated using a linear gradient of 35-43% acetonitrile. An on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system was successfully developed with column switching and back-flush. This 2D-LC system was validated and was able to simultaneously determine 12 major components in tartary buckwheat: seven flavonoids, four phenylpropanoid glycosides, and N-trans-feruloyltyramine. The system showed good performance with respect to linearity (r>0.996), repeatability (RSD, relative standard deviation<3.4%), intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD<4.6%), recovery (91.2-108%), limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.21μg/mL), and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.10-0.41μg/mL). The on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system offers a potential approach to analyze compounds, which have similar

  7. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  8. Optimal directional volatile transport in retronasal olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Michalski, Mark H.; Brown, Elliott; Doan, Ngoc; Zinter, Joseph; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of humans to distinguish the delicate differences in food flavors depends mostly on retronasal smell, in which food volatiles entrained into the airway at the back of the oral cavity are transported by exhaled air through the nasal cavity to stimulate the olfactory receptor neurons. Little is known whether food volatiles are preferentially carried by retronasal flow toward the nasal cavity rather than by orthonasal flow into the lung. To study the differences between retronasal and orthonasal flow, we obtained computed tomography (CT) images of the orthonasal airway from a healthy human subject, printed an experimental model using a 3D printer, and analyzed the flow field inside the airway. The results show that, during inhalation, the anatomical structure of the oropharynx creates an air curtain outside a virtual cavity connecting the oropharynx and the back of the mouth, which prevents food volatiles from being transported into the main stream toward the lung. In contrast, during exhalation, the flow preferentially sweeps through this virtual cavity and effectively enhances the entrainment of food volatiles into the main retronasal flow. This asymmetrical transport efficiency is also found to have a nonmonotonic Reynolds number dependence: The asymmetry peaks at a range of an intermediate Reynolds number close to 800, because the air curtain effect during inhalation becomes strongest in this range. This study provides the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, for adaptations of the geometry of the human oropharynx for efficient transport of food volatiles toward the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity. PMID:26553982

  9. Optimal directional volatile transport in retronasal olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rui; Michalski, Mark H; Brown, Elliott; Doan, Ngoc; Zinter, Joseph; Ouellette, Nicholas T; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2015-11-24

    The ability of humans to distinguish the delicate differences in food flavors depends mostly on retronasal smell, in which food volatiles entrained into the airway at the back of the oral cavity are transported by exhaled air through the nasal cavity to stimulate the olfactory receptor neurons. Little is known whether food volatiles are preferentially carried by retronasal flow toward the nasal cavity rather than by orthonasal flow into the lung. To study the differences between retronasal and orthonasal flow, we obtained computed tomography (CT) images of the orthonasal airway from a healthy human subject, printed an experimental model using a 3D printer, and analyzed the flow field inside the airway. The results show that, during inhalation, the anatomical structure of the oropharynx creates an air curtain outside a virtual cavity connecting the oropharynx and the back of the mouth, which prevents food volatiles from being transported into the main stream toward the lung. In contrast, during exhalation, the flow preferentially sweeps through this virtual cavity and effectively enhances the entrainment of food volatiles into the main retronasal flow. This asymmetrical transport efficiency is also found to have a nonmonotonic Reynolds number dependence: The asymmetry peaks at a range of an intermediate Reynolds number close to 800, because the air curtain effect during inhalation becomes strongest in this range. This study provides the first experimental evidence, to our knowledge, for adaptations of the geometry of the human oropharynx for efficient transport of food volatiles toward the olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

  10. [Analysis of headspace constituents of Gardenia flower by GC/MS with solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B Z; Gao, Y

    2000-09-01

    The headspace constituents of fresh Gardenia flower were investigated by GC/MS. The headspace volatiles were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dynamic headspace sampling (DHS). SPME sampling was conducted with 100 microns PDMS fiber at 28 degrees C for 60 min. In DHS sampling, purified nitrogen was used as purging gas with a flow rate at 80 mL/min for 120 min. Tenax GR(20 mesh-40 mesh) was used as adsorbent and the volatiles were eluted by ether, and concentrated to 0.5 mL for GC/MS analysis. A Supelco-wax capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 micron df) was employed in GC/MS analysis. Initial oven temperature was kept at 45 degrees C for 2 min, then raised to 250 degrees C at 4 degrees C/min, and kept at 250 degrees C for 10 min. According to SPME-GC/MS analysis, the main compounds in headspace of fresh Gardenia flower included farnesene(64.86%), cis-ocimene(29.33%), linalool(2.74%), cis-3-hexenyl tiglate(1.34%), methyl benzoate(0.25%). Results obtained from SPME and DHS sampling were also compared. In this study, SPME afforded a simpler and more sensitive sampling method, and much more accurate information about headspace volatiles of Gardenia flower.

  11. Changes in Groundwater Flow and Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations at the Fischer and Porter Superfund Site, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The 38-acre Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site is in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa. Historically, as part of the manufacturing process, trichloroethylene (TCE) degreasers were used for parts cleaning. In 1979, the Bucks County Health Department detected TCE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water from the Fischer and Porter on-site supply wells and nearby public-supply wells. The Fischer and Porter Site was designated as a Superfund Site and placed on the National Priorities List in September 1983. A 1984 Record of Decision for the site required the Fischer and Porter Company to pump and treat groundwater contaminated by VOCs from three on-site wells at a combined rate of 75 gallons per minute to contain groundwater contamination on the property. Additionally, the Record of Decision recognized the need for treatment of the water from two nearby privately owned supply wells operated by the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association. In 2004, the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association sold its water distribution system, and both wells were taken out of service. The report describes changes in groundwater levels and contaminant concentrations and migration caused by the shutdown of the Warminster Heights supply wells and presents a delineation of the off-site groundwater-contamination plume. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted this study (2006-09) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Fischer and Porter Site and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Stockton Formation of Late Triassic age. The rocks are chiefly interbedded arkosic sandstone and siltstone. The Stockton aquifer system is comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. A three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model was developed for the site on the basis of rock cores and borehole geophysical logs. The model was simplified by combining individual lithologic

  12. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  13. Constituents of Doubly Periodic Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as constituent locations. To support this picture, the action density is computed analytically and numerically within a two dimensional slice containing the two constituents. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. Such objects comprise a single constituent.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  15. Visualization of electrolyte volatile phenomenon in DIR-MCFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yodo, Tadakatsu; Yamauchi, Makoto; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Volatilization of molten salt is one of the factors that control the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). Volatilization of molten salt promotes cross-leakage and the corrosion of metallic components. Moreover, piping blockage is caused by the solidification of volatile matter. Because reforming catalysts filling the anode channel are polluted by molten salt volatile matter in direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cells (DIR-MCFC), the volatilization of molten salt is an especially serious subject. However, neither the behaviour nor the volatilization volume of molten salt volatile matter has heretofore been elucidated on. Because molten salt volatile matter that has strong alkalinity cannot be supplied directly to an analyzer, its volatilization volume is small, and analytical accuracy is poor. Therefore, an attempt has been made to elucidate about the electrolyte volatile phenomenon in an MCFC by using a non-contact image measurement technique. A 16 cm 2 MCFC single cell frame has an observation window and an irradiation window. The image of the volatile phenomenon is shown by irradiating a YAG laser light sheet 2 mm thick from an irradiation window into the anode channel, and taking measurements from an observation window with a high spatial resolution video camera (12 bit). As a result, though the volatile matter is not observed in an anode channel at OCV, the volatile matter flows in a belt-like manner from the inlet side near the electrode toward the outlet at a current density of 150 mA cm -2. In addition, volatile matter is difficult to observe with the conventional thickness of an anode electrode. Because the composition of these volatile matters is 15Li 2CO 3/85K 2CO 3 (the result of conversion into molten salt) by ion chromatography analysis, it is not an electrolyte (62Li 2CO 3/38K 2CO 3) but rather the volatile matter of potassium, such as KOH. Therefore, it is understood that the volatile matter K 2CO 3 is generated as KOH

  16. Oxy-coal combustion in an entrained flow reactor: Application of specific char and volatile combustion and radiation models for oxy-firing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.

    2013-01-01

    implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations of combustion of three coals under air-firing and various oxy-firing (21-35% vol O2 in O2/CO2 mixture) conditions in an EFR (entrained flow reactor). The predicted coal burnouts and gaseous emissions were compared against experimental results...

  17. Emerging Equity Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Bekaert; Harvey, Campbell R.

    1995-01-01

    Returns in emerging capital markets are very different from returns in developed markets. While most previous research has focused on average returns, we analyze the volatility of the returns in emerging equity markets. We characterize the time-series of volatility in emerging markets and explore the distributional foundations of the variance process. Of particular interest is evidence of asymmetries in volatility and the evolution of the variance process after periods of capital market refor...

  18. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  19. Chaerophyllum aureum L. Volatiles: Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena G. Stamenković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the chemical composition on the essential oil of fresh flowering aerial parts and headspace (HS volatiles obtained from fresh stem and flower of Chaerophyllum aureum L. For hydrodistilled oil, 45 components were identified representing 99.1 % of the total, while 23 components, representing 99.9 % of total HS stem volatiles and 25 components, representing 99.9 % of total HS flower volatiles were found using GC and GC/MS method. The main constituents of C. aureum hydrodistilled oil, stem and flower HS volatiles were: sabinene (40.8 %, 53.5 %, 58.5 % and terpinolene (19.1 %, 23.8 %, 11.2 % respectively. The results of antibacterial assay showed that the essential oil was not active at concentration of 3 and 5 mg per disk. Also, the examined oil was almost inactive in applied antioxidant assays.

  20. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Hanigan, M.D.; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers...... liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n = 24). Epithelial blood flow increased...

  1. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over time. Wi

  2. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  3. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  4. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  6. 白木香内生真菌Aspergillus sp.A14的挥发性成分及其抗菌活性%Volatile Constituents and Their Antimicrobial Activities of Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. A14 from Aquilaria sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭可; 梅文莉; 吴娇; 戴好富

    2011-01-01

    通过溶剂萃取法提取白木香内生真菌A14(Aspergillus sp.)的挥发油,采用滤纸片琼脂扩散法分别测定了其对3种人体病原菌的体外抑菌活性.结果表明:A14挥发油对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(Methicillin-resistant S.aureus,MRSA)和白色念珠菌(Candida albicans)均表现出一定抑制作用.应用GC-MS技术,分析鉴定了内生真菌A14挥发油的14个化学成分,显示蜂蜜曲菌素是其中的主要成分,占挥发油峰面积的93.41%.%The volatile oils of endophytic fungus A14 (Aspergillus sp. ) from Aquilaria sinensis were extracted by solvent method and their antimicrobial activities against 3 pathogens were tested by agar disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the volatile oils of A14 exhibited weak antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well as Candida albicans. Fourteen ingredients were identified from the volatile oil of A14 by GC-MS analysis,and mellein was the main component,which accounted for 93.41% of the peak area.

  7. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong......In this paper, we scrutinize the cross-sectional relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. As a novelty, the idiosyncratic volatility is obtained by conditioning upon macro-Önance factors as well as upon traditional asset pricing factors. The macro-Önance factors are constructed...

  8. SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodistilled volatile seed oil composition of commonly growing ornamental Tagetes patula L. was analyzed for its constituents by GC/MS. Forty constituents were identified, comprising 94% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.7% and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (15.8% were the main subclasses of volatile oil components followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (12.6%. The principle constituents of the volatile oil were (E-caryophyllene (44.6% caryophyllene oxide (14.8%, germacrene D (3.8%, (Z-β-ocimene (3.8% and limonene (3.7%. From chemical point of view, oxides (15.7% were the predominant group of components with caryophyllene oxide as their main representative. α-terthienyl (3.8% comprised partially large amount in the volatile oil content despite of its polar and less-volatile nature. Taking into account the volatile oil profile, the chemical composition of the volatile seed oil of commonly growing ornamental T. patula L. was characterized as sesquiterpene and α-terthienyl rich one probably with appreciable biocidal (Insecticidal and nematicidal and pharmacological potential.

  9. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  10. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  11. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  12. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  13. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    , as the major constituents. All three compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Penicillium expansum, in accordance with the traditional use of the plant. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (methylxanthoxylin), three other coumarins [7-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-6...

  14. Departmental Excellence: Constituencies in Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Ronald C.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden

    1999-01-01

    Places the question of departmental excellence within "the winds of historicity and temporality" and the political demands of multiple constituencies. Concludes that the task for every department that wants to pursue excellence is to know, understand, and operate within the hidden curriculum of a campus that socializes faculty to the…

  15. Chemical constituents from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Tao Li; Zhi Ying Weng; Jian Xin Pu; Han Dong Sun

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the stems of Schisandra sphenanthera are described for the first time. This investigation has resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic glycoside (1), along with seven known compounds. The structure of 1 was assigned by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra.

  16. The cyclical properties of disaggregated capital flows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Contessi; Pierangelo DePace; Johanna L. Francis

    2008-01-01

    We describe the second-moment properties of the components of international capital flows and their relationship (covariance and correlation) to business cycle variables of 22 emerging and OECD countries. Disaggregated flows have different volatility properties, with debt being the most volatile and FDI the least volatile. We show that (a) inward flows are procyclical, outward and net outward flows are countercyclical for most industrial and emerging countries while, for the G-7, both inward ...

  17. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail: minh.vo@metrostate.edu

    2011-09-15

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  18. Constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure.......Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure....

  19. Potential interaction between the volatile and non-volatile fractions on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Jacqueline Y; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Van Vuuren, Sandy F

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have reported promising antimicrobial efficacy for the essential oils and solvent extracts of several indigenous Pelargonium species. This study aimed to determine if any pharmacological interaction (e.g. synergism or antagonism) exists between the volatile and non-volatile components when the different fractions were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the following fractions were tested; the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation (EO), non-volatile fraction (NV), prepared by extraction of plant material remaining in the distilling apparatus (having no or negligible volatile constituents) and solvent extracts prepared from fresh (FC) and dried (DC) plant material containing both volatile and non-volatile constituents. Pelargonium quercifolium oil was dominated by p-cymene (42.1%) and viridiflorol (16.9%), while P. graveolens and P. tomentosum oil had high levels of isomenthone (84.0 and 58.8%, respectively). Menthone was noted as a major constituent in the P. tomentosum EO sample. It was evident from the results that the presence of volatile constituents in the three species; P. graveolens, P. quercifolium and P. tomentosum is generally not a pre-requisite for antimicrobial activity. The most significant variations of antimicrobial activity were noted for P. tomentosum where poorer activity was noted for the FC and EO fractions against Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans. Studies on Staphylococcus aureus, however, showed the converse, where best activity was noted for the FC fraction (3.0 mg/mL). For P. quercifolium, the DC fraction indicated a notable increase in anti-staphylococcal activity (2.0 mg/mL) when compared with the FC (8.0 mg/mL) and EO (16.0 mg/mL) fractions. For P. tomentosum, the FC fraction indicated much lower antimicrobial activity (against both B. cereus and C. albicans) when compared with all other fractions, suggesting that the essential oils may impact negatively on the antimicrobial activity when tested against

  20. Scaling and memory in the return intervals of realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2009-11-01

    We perform return interval analysis of 1-min realized volatility defined by the sum of absolute high-frequency intraday returns for the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSEC) and 22 constituent stocks of SSEC. The scaling behavior and memory effect of the return intervals between successive realized volatilities above a certain threshold q are carefully investigated. In comparison with the volatility defined by the closest tick prices to the minute marks, the return interval distribution for the realized volatility shows a better scaling behavior since 20 stocks (out of 22 stocks) and the SSEC pass the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and exhibit scaling behaviors, among which the scaling function for 8 stocks could be approximated well by a stretched exponential distribution revealed by the KS goodness-of-fit test under the significance level of 5%. The improved scaling behavior is further confirmed by the relation between the fitted exponent γ and the threshold q. In addition, the similarity of the return interval distributions for different stocks is also observed for the realized volatility. The investigation of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) show that both short-term and long-term memory exists in the return intervals of realized volatility.

  1. [Chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuankuan; Zhang, Qianjun; Huang, Zhongbi; Chen, Qing; Yao, Rongjun

    2010-09-01

    The chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense were studied. Chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate and purify the constituents, and the structures were identified on the basis of physico-chemical and spectroscopeic methods. Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of Desmodium sambuens and elucidated as beta-amyrin(1), betulic acid(2), daucosterol(3), triacontanoic acid(4), lup-20(29)-en-3-one(5), tetracosanoic-2,3-dihydroxypropylester(6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-ol (7),methyl phaeophorbidea(8), o-hydroxy benzoic acid(9),beta-sitosterol(10),d-catechin(11), luteolin (12), epigallocatechin (13). All of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  2. Role of organic volatile profiles in clinical diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlatkis, A. (Univ. of Houston, TX); Brazell, R.S.; Poole, C.F.

    1981-06-01

    The organic volatile constituents of biological fluids contain clinically useful diagnostic information for the recognition of metabolic disorders in man. To gain access to this information, it was necessary to develop the methodology for reproducibly stripping the trace concentrations of volatiles from biological fluids (dynamic headspace, gas phase-stripping, solvent extraction, and the transevaporator technique), to separate the complex extracts by high-resolution capillary column gas chromatography, and to develop computer-aided data-handling and pattern-recognition techniques for analyzing the immense amount of information generated. The normal and pathological organic volatiles identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine, serum, and breast milk are tabulated. Clinical applications of the above techniques to the study and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, respiratory virus infection, renal insufficiency, and cancer are described.

  3. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  4. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  5. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  6. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  7. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process.......In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  8. A new approach to clausal constituent order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hengeveld

    2013-01-01

    This chapter studies the consequences of the FDG approach to constituent ordering for the typology of constituent orders at the clausal level. After introducing the theoretical framework, it is argued that the fact that FDG in its dynamic approach to constituent ordering uses four absolute positions

  9. 维药神香草挥发油与超临界 CO2流体萃取物化学成分的比较研究%The comparison of chemical constituents in the volatile oil and supercritical CO2 fluid extracts of Hyssopus officinalis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖丽菲亚·吾斯曼; 努尔江·肉孜; 买吾拉尼江·依孜布拉; 麦合苏木·艾克木

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究维药神香草水蒸气蒸馏提取挥发油与超临界 CO2流体萃取物化学成分的异同。方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法与超临界 CO2流体萃取法分别提取神香草挥发油和超临界 CO2流体萃取物,并通过气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用仪对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定。结果维药神香草挥发油的水蒸气蒸馏法提取率为0.68%,GC-MS 分析、鉴定出所有65种化合物,其中含量较高的是亚油酸(13.83%)、棕榈酸(13.80%)、(+)-胡薄荷酮(8.31%)、(+)斯巴醇(6.27%)、二十一烷(5.34%)、香茅酸(4.07%)、二十六烷(4.02%)、二十四烷(3.28%)、二十烷(3.06%)。维药神香草超临界 CO2流体萃取物的萃取得率为5.5%,GC-MS 分析、鉴定出所有34种化合物,其中γ-谷甾醇(31.882%)、二十八烷(19.953%)、亚麻酸(16.279%)、三十六烷(15.939%)、棕榈酸(10.658%)、亚麻酸乙酯(12.471%)、三十一烷(12.215%)、9,12,15-十八烷三烯酸乙酯(9.057%)化合物含量较高。结论维药神香草挥发油与超临界 CO2流体萃取物化学组成存在较大的差异,超临界 CO2流体萃取物中的γ-谷甾醇、亚麻酸、亚麻酸乙酯等被认为是具有较强生物活性的化合物,且含量较高,具有较大的潜在研究前景。%Objective To study the similarity and differences in chemical composition and relative content of volatile oil by steam distillation and supercritical CO2 Fluid extraction extracts of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Hyssop),a Traditional Uighur Hreb Medicine.Methods Hyssopus volatile oil and SFE exctracts was extracted by steam distillation and supercritical CO2 Fluid extraction methods and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)were used to analyze its chemical composition.Then,relative content of each component has been calculated

  10. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Siderophile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickodem, K.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently several hypotheses on the origin of volatile siderophile elements in the Earth. One hypothesis is that they were added during Earth s accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core [1], others claim multiple stage origin [2], while some hypothesize that volatiles were added after the core already formed [3]. Several volatile siderophile elements are depleted in Earth s mantle relative to the chondrites, something which continues to puzzle many scientists. This depletion is likely due to a combination of volatility and core formation. The Earth s core is composed of Fe and some lighter constituents, although the abundances of these lighter elements are unknown [4]. Si is one of these potential light elements [5] although few studies have analyzed the effect of Si on metal-silicate partitioning, in particular the volatile elements. As, In, Ge, and Sb are trace volatile siderophile elements which are depleted in the mantle but have yet to be extensively studied. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of these elements will be measured to determine the effect of Si. Partition coefficients depend on temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition and can constrain the concentrations of volatile, siderophile elements found in the mantle. Reported here are the results from 13 experiments examining the partitioning of As, In, Ge, and Sb between metallic and silicate liquid. These experiments will examine the effect of temperature, and metal-composition (i.e., Si content) on these elements in or-der to gain a greater understanding of the core-mantle separation which occurred during the Earth s early stages. The data can then be applied to the origin of volatile elements in the Earth.

  11. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex...

  12. Stock markets liberalization affects volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alin NISTOR; Maria-Lenuţa CIUPAC-ULICI; GHERMAN Mircea-Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the impact of liberalization, the results show that, in general, market opening is accompanied by a significant increase in market volatility. In particular, volatility tends to decrease due to large capital inflows and domestic growth.The study analyzes the impact of stock market liberalization on volatility in six emerging stock markets by using GARCH methodology. Theory on the effects of financial liberalization on volatility has been ambiguous, and empirical work has yielded con...

  13. INNOVATION CONSTITUENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates an innovation constituent of sustainable development along with environmental, social and economic pillars of the concept. Determining of implementation details of innovation activity by J. Schumpeter is a theoretical prerequisite to understanding of innovation constituent. An innovator-entrepreneur provides a customer with an information image of 'new combinations.' The image is created by identifying customer's future needs, which outline business aims, subject and appropriate means for creating the innovation products. However, consumer choice is largely motivated by values and specific rules of behavior. The rules of consumer society that in the industrial age become the motive, morality and institution, did not consider the reproductive capabilities of the environment. This disagreement was previously presented in The Limits to Growth by the Club of Rome and was reflected in the concept of sustainable development, which gained immense significance after the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 (Our Common Future. The study highlights importance for establishment of new social values that motivate innovators to change their thinking, comprehend their responsibility not only to consumers but also to the environment and future generations. The Rio+20 Corporate Sustainability Forum: Innovation and Collaboration for the Future We want, organized by the UN Global Compact, demonstrates the interest of entrepreneurs in practical implementation of the concept of sustainable development, through an effective innovation activity. The paper summarizes management tools for implementing business commitments to action in priority areas of ensuring sustainable development: Energy & Climate, Water & Ecosystems, Agriculture & Food, Economics & Finance of Sustainable Development, Social Development, and Urbanization & Cities. Main stages of changes in companies are outlined for making responsible

  14. [Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time.

  15. Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia ebracteolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIHai-ming; MINZhi-da

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the chemical constituents of Euphorb/a ebracteolata Hayata. Methods Column chromatography was used in the isolation procedure, while the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectral data. Results Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as baccatin (1), 3-acetyl-β-amyrin (2), 3,3'-diacetyl-4,4'-dim-ethoxy- 2,2', 6,6'-tetrah ydroxy diphenylmethane (3), 2,4- dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl acetophenone (4), β-sitosterol(5), and daucosterol (6). Conclusion Baccatin was obtained from Euphorbia ebracteolata for the first time.

  16. [Chemical constituents of Physalis pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-ping; Cheng, Fan-qin; Ji, Long; Yu, He-yong

    2015-11-01

    Chemical constituents of 95% ethanol extract of the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens were investigated. By chromatography on a silica gel column and reverse-phase preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Based on the MS and 1D/2D NMR data, these compounds were identified as 5-O-(E-feruloyl) blumenol (1), isovanillin (2), (E) -ethyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde(4), 4-methylphenol (5), (E) -methyl cinnamate (6), 7,3',4' trimethoxyquercetin (7), 5,3', 5'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(8), danielone (9), and 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (10).

  17. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  18. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  19. Plant volatiles and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loreto, F.; Dicke, M.; Schnitzler, J.P.; Turlings, T.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted by plants represent the largest part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into our atmosphere. Plant volatiles are formed through many biochemical pathways, constitutively and after stress induction. In recent years, our understanding of the func

  20. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and clean-up criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-02-18

    Soil clean-up criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria which include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... fi…rst order Markov process and show that our model is closely related to the CEV and Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard (2001) models for local volatility. We show that if measurement noise in the observable volatility proxies is not accounted for, then the estimated autoregressive parameter in the latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  2. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17β-hydroperoxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17α-hydroperoxide (6), β-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3β, 17β-diol (8), α-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens.

  3. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  4. WORKSHOP REPORT - CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LEACHING TEST METHODS FOR SEMI- AND NON-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a summary of the information exchange at a workshop on the potential for release of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where sub-surface treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. The...

  5. Scaling Foreign Exchange Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Batten; Craig Ellis

    2001-01-01

    When asset returns are normally distributed the risk of an asset over a long return interval may be estimated by scaling the risk from shorter return intervals. While it is well known that asset returns are not normally distributed a key empirical question concerns the effect that scaling the volatility of dependent processes will have on the pricing of related financial assets. This study provides an insight into this issue by investigating the return properties of the most important currenc...

  6. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérénice Fassotte

    Full Text Available To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analyses revealed that (--β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%, with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle.

  7. [Chemical constituents of Rhododendron seniavinii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2013-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rhododendron seniavinii. Compounds were isolated from the aqueous extract of the leaves of R. seniavinii by using Sephadex LH-20, ODS open column chromatography and other means. Their structures were elucidated according to spectral data and physiochemical properties. Thirteen compounds were isolated from R. seniavinii and identified as 5-methoxydehydroconiferyl alcohol (1), dehydroconiferyl alcohol (2), (-)-syringaresinol (3), (-)-lyoniresinol (4), (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), (-)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), nikoenoside (8), 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone-3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (9), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol (10), scopoletin (11), scopolin (12) and quercitrin (13). Compounds 1-12 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  8. [Chemical Constituents from Sphagneticola trilobata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hui; Dong, Li-mei; Zhou, Zhong-yu; Xu, Qiao-lin; Tan, Jian-wen

    2015-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Sphagneticola trilobata. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Three lignans, two indolics and two phenolic glycosides were isolated from the whole plant of Sphagneticola trilobata and identified as syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), pinoresinol-4-sulfate(2), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3), 1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (4), 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde(5), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1 - 7 are isolated from the genus Wedelia for the first time. Compound 4 demonstrates significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase.

  9. A novel inlet system for on-line chemical analysis of semi-volatile submicron particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eichler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We herein present the concept of a novel modular inlet system that allows using gas-phase analyzers for on-line chemical characterization of semi-volatile submicron particles. The "chemical analysis of aerosol on-line" (CHARON inlet consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes, an aerodynamic lens for particle enrichment in the sampling flow and a thermo-desorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. We coupled the CHARON inlet to a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS which quantitatively detects most organic analytes and ammonia. The combined set-up measures submicron organic and ammonium nitrate/sulfate particles online. Two proof-of-principle studies were carried out for demonstrating the analytical power of the new set-up in analyzing primarily emitted and secondarily generated particles. Oxygenated organics and their partitioning between the gas and the particulate phase were observed from the reaction of limonene with ozone. Abundant quasi-molecular ions of organic particulate constituents were observed when submicron particles were sampled from diluted mainstream cigarette smoke.

  10. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, Emilia L; Carbone, Concetta; Di Gioia, Maria L; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Siciliano, Carlo; Viscomi, Maria C

    2007-09-19

    The vacuum distillation of bergamot peels furnishes a high-quality essential oil that is totally bergapten-free. This oil was compared with that produced by distillation of cold-pressed oils and those commercially available. The oil obtained by vacuum distillation of the bergamot vegetable matrix shows a composition quite similar to that of the cold-pressed oil. It also displays qualitative characteristics that are superior with respect to those normally observed for essential oils isolated by distillation of cold-pressed oils. Oils isolated by the method presented here can constitute ideal candidates in producing foods, for example, Earl Grey tea, and cosmetic preparations.

  11. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex.

  12. Essential Oil Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Asplenium Ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Saoussen; Snène, Ali; El Mokni, Ridha; Faidi, Khaled; Falconieri, Danilo; Dhaouadi, Hatem; Piras, Alessandra; Mighri, Zine; Porcedda, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Two fern species Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. and Asplenium trichomanes L. collected from the Kroumiria region (Northwest of Tunisia) were individually submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Volatile organic compounds were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Thus, 35 compounds were identified in A. adiantum-nigrum essential oil accounting for 77.5% of the whole constituents dominated by palmitic acid (34.5%); however, only 29 volatiles were identified in A. trichomanes showing a high amount of phytol, an odorous diterpene alcohol, representing 14.4% of the total oil contents. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant effects of crude extracts from both pteridophytes were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging assays, respectively. A. adiantum-nigrum ethyl acetate extract is shown to be lower in total phenolic contents (49.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) than similar extract from A. trichomanes (55.4 mg GAE/g).

  13. Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arash, F; Arash, Firooz; Atashbar-Tehrani, Shahin

    1999-01-01

    We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.

  14. Evolution of volatile species from the combustion of coal pyrolysis volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, E.B. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology]|[Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry; Li, C.Z. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Nelson, P.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Mackie, J.C. [Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The combustion of coal pyrolysis volatiles at 900 and 1000 C has been studied using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a tubular flow reactor in series with a fluidised bed reactor. HNCO was found to be a significant N-containing product at low O{sub 2} concentrations. An increase in C=O functionality was observed in the partially oxidised tars with increasing O{sub 2} concentration. (orig.)

  15. Development of a fast GC/MS-system for airborne measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Ann-Kathrin; Wegener, Robert; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Wahner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) determine the radical chemistry of the atmosphere. They can serve both as sources, or sinks for radicals. Mass spectrometry linked to gas chromatography (GC/MS) is a widespread technique in environmental analysis since it can be used to separate and analyze any compound which can be evaporated and pass the analytical column with very high precision and a good sensitivity. The use of special chromatographic phases and long capillary columns enables the quantification of a wide range of compounds with little interference from other sample constituents. An in situ GC/MS consists in principle of three compartments, 1) a preconcentration unit where the sample is extracted from the air, focussed onto a small volume and volatilized, 2) a chromatographic system where the analytes are separated on the analytical column and 3) a mass spectrometer where the compounds are ionized and detected. VOC have to be preconcentrated due to their low concentration level and in order to get enough sensitivity for analysis. The aim of this project was to develop an in situ GC/MS system to analyze volatile Nonmethane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOC) for the High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft (HALO). In contrast to other analytical instruments a GC/MS works discontinuously. The preconcentration unit is either heated up when the compounds are volatilized or cooled down when substances are adsorbed. The same is true for the GC oven. It is heated up when the compounds are separated or it is cooled down to be ready for the next injection. On a system with a single GC oven, these processes will inevitably lengthen the whole analytical procedure. To speed up the analytical process the GC/MS system described here was equipped with two GC ovens and two adsorption units. While the components are adsorbed in one adsorption unit, in the other unit the components are desorbed and transferred to the GC unit. The second GC

  16. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices. PMID:28218279

  17. Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Syazana, M S; Gan, S H; Halim, A S; Shah, Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sukari, Halim Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended.

  18. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  19. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In the present paper we suggest to model Realized Volatility, an estimate of daily volatility based on high frequency data, as an Inverse Gaussian distributed variable with time varying mean, and we examine the joint properties of Realized Volatility and asset returns. We derive the appropriate d...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  20. Expression of Terpenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Accumulation of Chemical Constituents in Valeriana fauriei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ji Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana fauriei (V. fauriei, which emits a characteristic and unpleasant odor, is important in traditional medicine. In this study, the expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes was investigated in different organs that were also screened for volatile compounds including valerenic acid and its derivatives. Specific expression patterns from different parts of V. fauriei were observed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The highest transcript levels of biosynthetic genes involved in mevalonic acid (MVA and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP production were found in the stem. Although the amounts of volatile compounds were varied by organ, most of the volatile terpenoids were accumulated in the root. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis identified 128 volatile compounds, which represented 65.33% to 95.66% of total volatiles. Certain compounds were only found in specific organs. For example, isovalerenic acid and valerenic acid and its derivatives were restricted to the root. Organs with high transcript levels did not necessarily have high levels of the corresponding chemical constituents. According to these results, we hypothesize that translocation may occur between different organs in V. fauriei.

  1. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Consolacion Y.Ragasa; Dinah L.Espineli; Esperanza Maribel G.Agoo; Ramon S.del Fierro

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense,an endemic and critically endangered tree found only in Cebu,Philippines.METHODS:The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography.The structures of the isolates were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy.RESULTS:The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of the bark of C.cebuense afforded a new monoterpene natural product 1 and a new sesquiterpene 2,along with the known compounds,4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3),4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4),α-terpineol (5) and humulene (6).The DCM extract of the leaves of C.cebuense yielded 6,β-caryophyllene (7),squalene (8),and a mixture of α-amyrin (9),β-amyrin (10) and bauerenol (11).The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy,while the structures of 8-11 were identified by comparison of their 13C NMR data with those reported in the literature.CONCLUSION:The bark of C.cebuense afforded monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes and phenolics,while the leaves yielded sesquiterpenes and triterpenes.

  2. [Chemical constituents of Poria cocos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Jia-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-03-01

    The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time.

  3. [Antitussive constituents of Disporum cantoniense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiu-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Yuan; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhou, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The antitussive activity assay for the root extraction of Disporum cantoniense was carried out with coughing mice induced by ammonia liquor. The results showed that the ethanol and water extractions of D. cantoniense possess strong antitussive activity, and the high dose of the former was better than positive control, and then the constituents of the ethanol extraction were separated and purified by various modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic data. As a result, eight compounds were isolated and identified as stigmast-4-en-3-one(1), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol(2), obtucarbamate A(3), obtucarbamate B(4), neotigogenin(5), azo-2, 2'-bis[Z-(2,3-dihydroxy-4-methyl-5-methoxy) phenyl ethylene] (6),dimethyl {[carbonylbis (azanediyl)] bis( 2-methyl-5, 1-phenylene) j dicarbamate (7) , and quercetin-3-O-pB-D-glucopyranoside(8). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, and the result of bioactivity-directed isolation showed that compounds 3, 4, and 6 had obvious effect on antitussive activity, and compound 6 had the same level as positive control.

  4. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  5. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-15

    The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Volatile signals during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Scents play a key role in mediating reproductive interactions in many vertebrates including mammals. Nowadays, several studies indicate that humans seem to use remarkably olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive pheromones. Furthermore, over the past several years, it became increasingly clear that pheromone-like chemical signals probably play a role in offspring identification and mother recognition. Recently developed technical procedures (solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace extraction) now allow investigators to characterize volatile compounds with high reliability. We analyzed the volatile compounds in sweat patch samples collected from the para-axillary and nipple-areola regions of women during pregnancy and after childbirth. We hypothesized that, at the time of birth and during the first weeks of life, the distinctive olfactory pattern of the para-axillary area is probably useful to newborn babies for recognizing and distinguishing their own mother, whereas the characteristic pattern of the nipple-areola region is probably useful as a guide to nourishment.

  7. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  8. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Scaling of Growth Rate Volatility for Six Macroeconomic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the annual growth rates of six macroeconomic variables: public debt, public health expenditures, exports of goods, government consumption expenditures, total exports of goods and services, and total imports of goods and services. For each variable, we find (i that the distribution of the growth rate residuals approximately follows a double exponential (Laplace distribution and (ii that the standard deviation of growth rate residuals scales according to the size of the variable as a power law, with a scaling exponent similar to the scaling exponent found for GDP [Economics Letters 60, 335 (1998]. We hypothesise that the volatility scaling we find for these GDP constituents causes the volatility scaling found in GDP data.

  10. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  11. Subduction and volatile recycling in Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. D.; Ita, J. J.; Staudigel, H.

    1994-01-01

    The subduction of water and other volatiles into the mantle from oceanic sediments and altered oceanic crust is the major source of volatile recycling in the mantle. Until now, the geotherms that have been used to estimate the amount of volatiles that are recycled at subduction zones have been produced using the hypothesis that the slab is rigid and undergoes no internal deformation. On the other hand, most fluid dynamical mantle flow calculations assume that the slab has no greater strength than the surrounding mantle. Both of these views are inconsistent with laboratory work on the deformation of mantle minerals at high pressures. We consider the effects of the strength of the slab using two-dimensional calculations of a slab-like thermal downwelling with an endothermic phase change. Because the rheology and composition of subducting slabs are uncertain, we consider a range of Clapeyron slopes which bound current laboratory estimates of the spinel to perovskite plus magnesiowustite phase transition and simple temperature-dependent rheologies based on an Arrhenius law diffusion mechanism. In uniform viscosity convection models, subducted material piles up above the phase change until the pile becomes gravitationally unstable and sinks into the lower mantle (the avalanche). Strong slabs moderate the 'catastrophic' effects of the instabilities seen in many constant-viscosity convection calculations; however, even in the strongest slabs we consider, there is some retardation of the slab descent due to the presence of the phase change.

  12. Exploiting the Errors: A Simple Approach for Improved Volatility Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Quaedvlieg, Rogier

    with the (estimated) degree of measurement error, the models exhibit stronger persistence, and in turn generate more responsive forecasts, when the measurement error is relatively low. Implementing the new class of models for the S&P500 equity index and the individual constituents of the Dow Jones Industrial Average......, we document significant improvements in the accuracy of the resulting forecasts compared to the forecasts from some of the most popular existing models that implicitly ignore the temporal variation in the magnitude of the realized volatility measurement errors....

  13. Isolation and quantification of volatiles in fish by dynamic headspace sampling and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Benny

    1999-01-01

    determined by use of this sample preparation method and for samples chewed for 10 s. Effects of sampling time, temperature, and purge flow on level of volatiles were tested. Purging at 340 mL/min for 30 min at 45 degrees C was found to be optimal. Detection Emits for a number of aldehydes were 0.2-2.7 mu g......A dynamic headspace sampling method for isolation of volatiles in fish has been developed. The sample preparation involved freezing of fish tissue in liquid nitrogen, pulverizing the tissue, and sampling of volatiles from an aqueous slurry of the fish powder. Similar volatile patterns were...

  14. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  15. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  16. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  17. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  18. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. They consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. An analytical framework, which offers pragmatic solutions for long-term investors who seek exposure to volatility, is used to calibrate and assess the risk-return profiles of portfolios. The benefit of volatility exposure for a...

  19. Reduced Heart Rate Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Eric L.; Morris, John A.; Norris, Patrick R.; France, Daniel J.; Ozdas, Asli; Stiles, Renée A.; Harris, Paul A.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Speroff, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if using dense data capture to measure heart rate volatility (standard deviation) measured in 5-minute intervals predicts death. Background: Fundamental approaches to assessing vital signs in the critically ill have changed little since the early 1900s. Our prior work in this area has demonstrated the utility of densely sampled data and, in particular, heart rate volatility over the entire patient stay, for predicting death and prolonged ventilation. Methods: Approximately 120 million heart rate data points were prospectively collected and archived from 1316 trauma ICU patients over 30 months. Data were sampled every 1 to 4 seconds, stored in a relational database, linked to outcome data, and de-identified. HR standard deviation was continuously computed over 5-minute intervals (CVRD, cardiac volatility–related dysfunction). Logistic regression models incorporating age and injury severity score were developed on a test set of patients (N = 923), and prospectively analyzed in a distinct validation set (N = 393) for the first 24 hours of ICU data. Results: Distribution of CVRD varied by survival in the test set. Prospective evaluation of the model in the validation set gave an area in the receiver operating curve of 0.81 with a sensitivity and specificity of 70.1 and 80.0, respectively. CVRD predict death as early as 24 hours in the validation set. Conclusions: CVRD identifies a subgroup of patients with a high probability of dying. Death is predicted within first 24 hours of stay. We hypothesize CVRD is a surrogate for autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:15319726

  20. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer-headspace single drop microextraction of essential oil from pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shigang; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Yeqiang; Wang, Lu; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Xu, Xu; Shi, Yuhua

    2011-07-22

    The ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HGFT-HS-SDME) was developed for the extraction of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the constituents in the essential oil. The contents of the constituents from essential oil obtained by the proposed method were found to be more similar to those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) than those obtained by ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME). The heating gas flow was firstly used in the analysis of the essential oil to transfer the analytes from the headspace to the solvent microdrop. The relative standard deviations for determining the five major constituents were in the range from 1.5 to 6.7%. The proposed method is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the volatile and semivolatile constituents in the plant materials.

  1. Doubly Periodic Instantons and their Constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as the locations of instanton core constituents. For a square torus this constituent picture is closely reflected in the action density. In rectangular tori with large aspect ratios the cores merge to form monopole-like objects. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. These findings are illustrated with plots of the action density within a two-dimensional slice containing the constituents.

  2. Volatile constituents and antibacterial screening of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. growing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N; Palazzo, Maria C; Olowu, Rasaq A; Ogundajo, Akintayo

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS. The major components were found to be alpha-terpinene (63.1%), p-cymene (26.4%) and ascaridole (3.9%). The oil displayed no antibacterial activity against either Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus or Staphylococcus aureus, or the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (MIC=1250 microg/mL). A cluster analysis of C. ambrosioides essential oils reveals at least seven distinct chemotypes: ascaridole, alpha-terpinene, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and limonene.

  3. Improved pre-concentration and detection methods for volatile sulphur breath constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Wzorek, Beata; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Amann, Anton

    2009-07-01

    Suitability of different types of pre-concentration (solid phase microextraction and sorbent trapping) and detection (flame photometric detector (FPD) and mass selective detector (MSD)) for gas chromatographic determination of sulphur-containing compounds (H2S, MeSH, EtSH, DMS, COS and CS2) in breath-gas was assessed in this study. Several factors like influence of humidity, influence of oxygen, or stability of target compounds in extraction vessels (SPME vials and sorbent tubes) were investigated. Despite poor stability of VSCs in SPME vials and matrix effects (unfavorable influence of humidity), SPME was found to be a fast and reliable enrichment method, which coupled with mass selective detector provided satisfactory LODs of target compounds at the ppt level (from 0.15 ppb for CS2 to 2.3 ppb for H2S). Application of sorbent trapping with two-bed sorbent tubes containing Tenax TA and Carboxen 1000 gave excellent LODs (0.03-0.3 ppb for 200 ml sample and MSD). Stability of investigated VSCs in sorbents was found to be very poor (30-40% losses after 2 h). FPD showed satisfactory sensitivity only when it was coupled with sorbent trapping. Breath samples were collected into Tedlar bags in a CO2-controlled manner. Humidity was removed during sampling (permeation dryer--Nafion) to avoid unfavorable water dependent effects during analysis.

  4. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  5. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah Amel; El Amine Dib Mohammed; Djabou Nassim; Allali Hocine; Tabti Boufeldja; Muselli Alain; Costa Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI) and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muri...

  6. Historic activity of mt. Vesuvius: major elements and volatile constituents of primary melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetti, A.; Marianelli, P.; Metrich, N.; Sbrana, A.

    2003-04-01

    Mt. Vesuvius experienced a three-century long period of semi-persistent activity, after the 1631 eruption and is presently in a phase of rest. During this period, several eruptions displayed composite style since they started with lava effusions and evolved towards explosive activity (lava fountains, phreatomagmatic explosions and occasionally steady columns). The tephrostratigraphic sequence of post-1631 activity is well reconstructed [1] on the basis of historical chronicles and field investigations, whereas information about the feeding system is still weak. We have selected samples related to energetic lava fountain activity that occurred during the 1794, 1822 and 1872 composite-style eruptions for investigating the deep feeding systems of Mt. Vesuvius, during the 1631--1944 period. We present data on melt inclusions and their host olivines. Major elements, S, Cl and F were obtained using the electron microprobe (SX50, Camparis), CO_2 and H_2O by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Carbon was also analysed by nuclear reaction 12C(d,p)13C. The magma batches emitted during the 1794, 1822 and 1872 eruptions brought to the surface primitive olivines (Fo90.4-88.5) containing spinel (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.77--0.75). Their inclusions attest of crystallization at high pressure from K-rich (HK) parental magmas with K_2O varying from 4.3 to 6.0, high K_2O/H_2O (up to 2.4), Cl/H_2O (up to 0.25), Cl/F (up to 3) ratios, and H_2O content systematically high and variable from 2.3 to 4.9 wt.%. The most primitive compositions are recorded in melt inclusions from the oldest samples (1794 and 1822 eruptions). We propose a rather rapid transfer of HK-melts carrying olivine crystals from depth. This process is only detectable by the means of melt inclusions in Fo-rich olivines phenocrysts occurring only in the deposits related to the most powerful episodes of lava fountains while the whole rocks are cumulative with respect to clinopyroxene (± leucite). These new data, in addition to those from the 1944 and 1906 samples [2], demonstrate that deep-seated magma batches are systematically involved in most energetic phases of the recent eruptions of Mt Vesuvius. The calculated total fluid pressures fit with the crustal structures deduced from the seismic records [3]. However, our model does not match with a widely laterally extended magmatic sill. References [1] Arrighi et al., 2001; [2] Marianelli et al., 1999, Bull. Volcanol. 61, 48-63; [3] Auger et al., 2001, Science, 294, 1510-1512

  7. Variability in volatile constituents of Cinnamomum tamala leaf from Uttarakhand Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hema Lohani; Harish C. Andola; Nirpendra Chauhan; Ujjwal Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variation of Cinnamomum tamala leaf essential oil in respect with months and tree size class. Methods: By fallowing standard laboratory methods using capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. Results: The oil samples were analyzed for two months and two different tree size classes. cinnamaldehyde, was the principal component, was higher in the both months i.e. October and January, highest in 30 cm girth class tree in January month (59.23%) and lowest in 60 cm girth class tree in a month of October (41.90%). Smaller size class tree contained greater amount of cinnamaldehyde as compared to higher size class. Conclusions: Consequences of the present study need to selection of proper, tree size and month for harsh economic potentials of such valuable resources.

  8. Volatile Constituents of Ferula communis L. subsp. communis Growing Spontaneously in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Manolakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Greek Ferula communis subsp. communis from different plant parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. Ninety three compounds were identified in the total essential oils. Sesqui terpenes were the most dominant class of compounds in the leaves and inflorescences oils, while infructescences oils were rich in monoterpenes with α-pinene (35.2-40.6% being the dominant component.

  9. Quantification of selected volatile constituents and anions in Mexican Agave spirits (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, Bacanora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sohnius, Eva-Maria; Attig, Rainer; López, Mercedes G

    2006-05-31

    A large collection (n = 95) of Mexican Agave spirits with protected appellations of origin (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, and Bacanora) was analyzed using ion and gas chromatography. Because of their production from oxalate-containing plant material, all Agave spirits contained significant concentrations of oxalate (0.1-9.7 mg/L). The two Tequila categories ("100% Agave" and "mixed") showed differences in the methanol, 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol concentrations with lower concentrations in the mixed category. Mezcal showed no significant differences in any of the evaluated parameters that would allow a classification. Sotol showed higher nitrate concentrations and lower 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations. Bacanora was characterized by exceptionally high acetaldehyde concentrations and a relatively low ethyl lactate content. The methanol content was the most problematic compound regarding the Mexican standards: two Tequilas (4%), five Sotols (31%), and six Bacanoras (46%) had levels above the maximum methanol content of 300 g/hL of alcohol. In conclusion, the composition of Mexican Agave spirits was found to vary over a relatively large range.

  10. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres.

  11. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  12. NN Interaction in Chiral Constituent Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Valcarce, A; González, P

    2003-01-01

    We review the actual state in the description of the NN interaction by means of chiral constituent quark models. We present a series of relevant features that are nicely explained within the quark model framework.

  13. Moving contact line of a volatile fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeček, V; Andreotti, B; Pražák, D; Bárta, T; Nikolayev, V S

    2013-12-01

    Interfacial flows close to a moving contact line are inherently multiscale. The shape of the interface and the flow at meso- and macroscopic scales inherit an apparent interface slope and a regularization length, both named after Voinov, from the microscopic inner region. Here, we solve the inner problem associated with the contact line motion for a volatile fluid at equilibrium with its vapor. The evaporation or condensation flux is then controlled by the dependence of the saturation temperature on interface curvature-the so-called Kelvin effect. We derive the dependencies of the Voinov angle and of the Voinov length as functions of the parameters of the problem. We then identify the conditions under which the Kelvin effect is indeed the mechanism regularizing the contact line motion.

  14. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-25

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem.

  15. Chiral symmetry and the constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with Dan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks.

  16. Baryons in chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1996-01-01

    Beyond the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a flavor-spin chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks. One cannot exclude, however, the possibility that this flavor-spin interaction has an appreciable vector- and higher meson exchange component.

  17. Chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves of Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romoff, Paulete; Ferreira, Marcelo J.P., E-mail: romoff@mackenzie.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Padilla, Ricardo; Toyama, Daniela O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra

    2010-07-01

    The volatile oils from Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. leaves, collected in February and August of 2007 and at 7:00 and 12:00 h (samples A - D), were extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. A total of nineteen compounds were identified with predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, among them, a-bisabolol, was the main constituent (62.3-69.4 %). After chromatographic separation procedures, this compound was purified from crude oil and its structure was confirmed by analysis of NMR data. This paper describes for the first time the composition of the leaves volatile oil from N. megapotamica. (author)

  18. Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadambari Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.

  19. The Effects of Federal Funds Target Rate Changes on S&P100 Stock Returns, Volatilities, and Correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chulia-Soler (Helena); M.P.E. Martens (Martin); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe study the impact of FOMC announcements of Federal funds target rate decisions on individual stock prices at the intraday level. We find that the returns, volatilities and correlations of the S&P100 index constituents only respond to the surprise component in the announcement, as

  20. The Effects of Federal Funds Target Rate Changes on S&P100 Stock Returns, Volatilities, and Correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chulia-Soler (Helena); M.P.E. Martens (Martin); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe study the impact of FOMC announcements of Federal funds target rate decisions on individual stock prices at the intraday level. We find that the returns, volatilities and correlations of the S&P100 index constituents only respond to the surprise component in the announcement, as measu

  1. A recent review on phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paritala Vikram; Kishore Kumar Chiruvella; Ilfah Husna Abdullah Ripain; Mohammed Arifullah

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants and herbal preparations are gaining renowned interest in scientific communities nowadays due to their reliable pharmacological actions and affordability to common people which makes them effective in control of various diseases. Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae) locally known as kesum is an aromatic plant commonly used in Malay delicacies. The plant is having potential applications due to its high volatile oil constituents in perfumes and powerful antioxidant activity. It has been used traditionally to treat various ailments including dandruff. The research has been carried out by various researchers using different in vitro and in vivo models for biological evaluations to support these claims. This review paper may help upcoming research activities on Polygonum minus by giving up to date information on the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of kesum to a possible extent with relevant data.

  2. A Computer Model for Analyzing Volatile Removal Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Boyun

    2010-01-01

    A computer model simulates reactional gas/liquid two-phase flow processes in porous media. A typical process is the oxygen/wastewater flow in the Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA) in the Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) installed in the International Space Station (ISS). The volatile organics in the wastewater are combusted by oxygen gas to form clean water and carbon dioxide, which is solved in the water phase. The model predicts the oxygen gas concentration profile in the reactor, which is an indicator of reactor performance. In this innovation, a mathematical model is included in the computer model for calculating the mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The amount of mass transfer depends on several factors, including gas-phase concentration, distribution, and reaction rate. For a given reactor dimension, these factors depend on pressure and temperature in the reactor and composition and flow rate of the influent.

  3. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  4. Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2010-05-12

    The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation.

  5. On forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Christian

    2003-01-01

    In an efficient market, foreign exchange rates have to guarantee absence of triangular arbitrage. This note shows that the no-arbitrage condition can be exploited for forecasting the volatility of a single rate by using the information contained in the other rates. Linearly transforming the volatility forecasts of a bivariate model is shown to be more efficient than using a univariate model for the cross-rate.

  6. A Method for Software Requirement Volatility Analysis Using QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarso Anang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes of software requirements are inevitable during the development life cycle. Rather than avoiding the circumstance, it is easier to just accept it and find a way to anticipate those changes. This paper proposes a method to analyze the volatility of requirement by using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method and the introduced degree of volatility. Customer requirements are deployed to software functions and subsequently to architectural design elements. And then, after determining the potential for changes of the design elements, the degree of volatility of the software requirements is calculated. In this paper the method is described using a flow diagram and illustrated using a simple example, and is evaluated using a case study.

  7. Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce,Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-fan YANG; Shen-ru CHEN; Hui NI; Xing-qian YE

    2008-01-01

    Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl ace tate extraction fol-lowed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modem analysis methods.

  8. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION FLOWSON PRICE VOLATILITY IN CHINA'S STOCK MARKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuePan; ShinongWu

    2004-01-01

    By using GARCH and EGARCH models, the authors examine the relationship between price volatility and new information flow, represented by trading volume, and past information flow, represented by the ARCH effect, in the Shanghai Stock Market for the three different periods from July 1998 to December 2002: the soft period, the bull period, and the bear period. The empirical results show that: (1) there exists a 'leverage effect' in the stock market; that is, negative news had a greater impact on stock price volatility than did positive news in the soft period and bear period, but in the bull period the 'leverage effect' behaves differently; (2) there is a significantly positive relationship between trading volume and stock price volatility, and such a relationship is even more significant in the bear period; (3) it turns out that in the three periods, the relationships between stock price volatility and information flow, both past and new, are not the same; that is, in both the soft and bull periods, both the ARCH effect, reflecting 'past information flow', and trading volume,reflecting 'new information flow', explain price volatility simultaneously, but in the bear period, the ARCH effect is substantially reduced. These findings provide key evidence for understanding, explaining, and tracking the characteristics of price volatility and the changing rules of the stock market in China more comprehensively.

  9. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  10. GC-MS analysis of the chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwei LI; Jian LIU; Hai LAN; Mingmin ZHENG; Tingzhao RONG

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of yacon grown in China was isolated by hydrodistillation and distillation-extraction. Chemical constituents of the essen-tial oil were separated and identified by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the first time, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Twenty-one chemical constituents were identified, and their amounts accounted for 96.2% of the total composition. The main components of the essential oil were β-phellandrene (26.3%), β-cubebene (17.7%), β-caryophyllene (14.0%) and β-bourbonene (10.2%). Therefore, in the volatile oil from the leaves of yacon, sesquiterpenes are major compounds, accounting for 52.2%.

  11. Gluonic structure of the constituent quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochelev, Nikolai, E-mail: kochelev@theor.jinr.ru [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Lee, Hee-Jung [Department of Physics Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Baiyang; Zhang, Pengming [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Based on both the constituent quark picture and the instanton model for QCD vacuum, we calculate the unpolarized and polarized gluon distributions in the constituent quark and in the nucleon. Our approach consists of the two main steps. At the first step, we calculate the gluon distributions inside the constituent quark generated by the perturbative quark–gluon interaction, the non-perturbative quark–gluon interaction, and the non-perturbative quark–gluon–pion anomalous chromomagnetic interaction. The non-perturbative interactions are related to the existence of the instantons, strong topological fluctuations of gluon fields, in the QCD vacuum. At the second step, the convolution model is applied to derive the gluon distributions in the nucleon. A very important role of the pion field in producing the unpolarized and the polarized gluon distributions in the hadrons is discovered. We discuss a possible solution of the proton spin problem.

  12. Determination of nanogram per liter concentrations of volatile organic compounds in water by capillary gas chromatography and selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and its use to define groundwater flow directions in Edwards Aquifer, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Rose, D.L.; Ozuna, G.B.; Groschen, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure nanogram per liter amounts of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and the isomers of dichlorobenzene in water. The method uses purge-and-trap techniques on a 100 mL sample, gas chromatography with a megabore capillary column, and electron impact, selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. Minimum detection levels for these compounds ranged from 1 to 4 ng/L in water. Recoveries from organic-free distilled water and natural groundwater ranged from 70.5% for dichlorodifluoromethane to 107.8% for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Precision was generally best for cis-1,2-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and the dichlorobenzene isomers and worst for dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane. Blank data indicated persistent, trace-level introduction of dichlorodifluoromethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroemene to samples during storage and shipment at concentrations less than the method reporting limits. The largest concentrations of the selected VOCs in 27 water samples from the Edwards aquifer near San Antonio, TX, were from confined-zone wells near an abandoned landfill. The results defined a zone of water with no detectable VOCs in nearly all of the aquifer west of San Antonio and from part of the confined zone beneath San Antonio.

  13. In Arabidopsis thaliana codon volatility scores reflect GC3 composition rather than selective pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Mary J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synonymous codon usage bias has typically been correlated with, and attributed to translational efficiency. However, there are other pressures on genomic sequence composition that can affect codon usage patterns such as mutational biases. This study provides an analysis of the codon usage patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana in relation to gene expression levels, codon volatility, mutational biases and selective pressures. Results We have performed synonymous codon usage and codon volatility analyses for all genes in the A. thaliana genome. In contrast to reports for species from other kingdoms, we find that neither codon usage nor volatility are correlated with selection pressure (as measured by dN/dS, nor with gene expression levels on a genome wide level. Our results show that codon volatility and usage are not synonymous, rather that they are correlated with the abundance of G and C at the third codon position (GC3. Conclusions Our results indicate that while the A. thaliana genome shows evidence for synonymous codon usage bias, this is not related to the expression levels of its constituent genes. Neither codon volatility nor codon usage are correlated with expression levels or selective pressures but, because they are directly related to the composition of G and C at the third codon position, they are the result of mutational bias. Therefore, in A. thaliana codon volatility and usage do not result from selection for translation efficiency or protein functional shift as measured by positive selection.

  14. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of "pairwise-refresh time" and "all-refresh time" methods based on the concept of "refresh time" proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index.

  15. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of “pairwise-refresh time” and “all-refresh time” methods based on the concept of “refresh time” proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index. PMID:23264708

  16. A meta-analysis approach for assessing the diversity and specificity of belowground root and microbial volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eSchenkel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds are secondary metabolites emitted by all organisms, especially by plants and microbes. Their role as aboveground signals has been established for decades. Recent evidence suggests that they might have a non-negligible role belowground and might be involved in root-root and root-microbial/pest interactions. Our aim here was to make a comprehensive review of belowground volatile diversity using a meta-analysis approach. At first we synthesized current literature knowledge on plant root volatiles and classified them in terms of chemical diversity. In a second step, relying on the mVOC database of microbial volatiles, we classified volatiles based on their emitters (bacteria versus fungi and their specific ecological niche (i.e. rhizosphere, soil. Our results highlight similarities and differences among root and microbial volatiles and also suggest that some might be niche specific. We further explored the possibility that volatiles might be involved in intra- and inter-specific root-root communication and discuss the ecological implications of such scenario. Overall this work synthesizes current knowledge on the belowground volatilome and the potential signaling role of its constituents. It also highlights that the total diversity of belowground volatiles might be numerous orders of magnitude larger that the few hundreds of compounds described to date.

  17. Spiral mining for lunar volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Carrier, W. D., III

    Lunar spiral mining, extending outward from a periodically mobile central power and processing station represents an alternative for comparison with more traditional mining schemes. In this concept, a mining machine would separate regolith fines and extract the contained volatiles. Volatiles then would be pumped along the miner's support arm to the central station for refining and for export or storage. The basic architecture of the central processing station would be cylindrical. A central core area could house the power subsystem of hydrogen-oxygen engines or fuel cells. Habitat sections and other crew occupied areas could be arranged around the power generation core. The outer cylinder could include all volatile refining subsystems. Solar thermal power collectors and reflectors would be positioned on top of the central station. Long term exploitation of a volatile resource region would begin with establishment of a support base at the center of a long boundary of the region. The mining tract for each spiral mining system would extend orthogonal to this boundary. New spiral mining systems would be activated along parallel tracts as demand for lunar He-3 and other solar wind volatiles increased.

  18. RICE PRICE VOLATILITY IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati R.Y.E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is analyzing the volatility and volatility spillover of monthly price of paddy at the level of farmers and consumers in 2010-2016. ARCH/GARCH used to analyze volatility and GARCH BEKK-model is used to analyze the volatility spillover. The results of the analysis show that price volatility at the farmer level is very high (extremely high volatility, price volatility at the consumer level is low (low volatility, and volatility spillover does not occur between the farmers and the consumers market. The need to guarantee an effective floor price as well as information disclosure related to the market commodity prices so that the pattern of prices transmission among interrelated markets can be symmetrical.

  19. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  20. The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem for Resource Prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The OVEN (Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node) Subsystem is part of the RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction) Payload, whose main objective is to verify the presence of water and other volatiles on the lunar surface. The RESOLVE payload is scheduled to fly to the moon as part of the Resource Prospector (RP) in 2019. The OVEN Subsystem accepts regolith (soil) and evolves the volatiles contained in the sample by heating the segment to a temperature of at least 150oC for volatile analysis and as high as 900oC for hydrogen reduction. In general, a regolith segment is deposited into a crucible; the crucible is heated and evolved gases flow to a gas analyzer.

  1. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio investment, GARCH (1,1 is used because shocks are responded quickly by this model. The results reveal that there exists significant relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility. Thus, less volatility in international portfolio flows is associated with high interest rate, currency depreciation, foreign direct investment, lower inflation, and higher GDP growth rate of the host country. Thus findings of this study suggest that foreign portfolio investors focus on stable macroeconomic environment of country.

  2. Isolation and quantification of volatiles in fish by dynamic headspace sampling and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, H H; Haahr, A M; Jensen, B

    1999-03-01

    A dynamic headspace sampling method for isolation of volatiles in fish has been developed. The sample preparation involved freezing of fish tissue in liquid nitrogen, pulverizing the tissue, and sampling of volatiles from an aqueous slurry of the fish powder. Similar volatile patterns were determined by use of this sample preparation method and for samples chewed for 10 s. Effects of sampling time, temperature, and purge flow on level of volatiles were tested. Purging at 340 mL/min for 30 min at 45 degrees C was found to be optimal. Detection limits for a number of aldehydes were 0.2-2.7 microg/kg. Levels of volatiles are given for fresh salmon, cod, saithe, mackerel, and redfish.

  3. Fingerprinting Breast Cancer vs. Normal Mammary Cells by Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Hollmén, Maija; Li, Xue; Detmar, Michael; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for early cancer detection, to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Identification of volatile metabolic compounds may provide an approach for noninvasive early diagnosis of malignant diseases. Here we analyzed the volatile metabolic signature of human breast cancer cell lines versus normal human mammary cells. Volatile compounds in the headspace of conditioned culture medium were directly fingerprinted by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were subsequently treated statistically to identify discriminating features between normal vs. cancerous cell types. We were able to classify different samples by using feature selection followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to propose their chemical structures for some of the most discriminating molecules. We conclude that cancerous cells can release a characteristic odor whose constituents may be used as disease markers.

  4. Analysis of organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu using SPME with different fiber coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; Miao, Zhiwei; Guan, Wei; Sun, Baoguo

    2012-03-26

    The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST) were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs) of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  5. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  6. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  7. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    result in an inferior model being chosen as "best" with a probability that converges to one as the sample size increases. We document the practical relevance of this problem in an empirical application and by simulation experiments. Our results provide an additional argument for using the realized...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable.......We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  8. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  9. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  10. Mesons in the Constituent Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; PING Jia-Lun

    2007-01-01

    The quark-antiquark (q(-q)) spectrum is studied by solving the Schrǒdinger equation in the framework of non-relativistic constituent quark model. An overall good fit to the experimental data of meson is obtained. The interactions between quark and antiquark consist of quadratic colour confinement-exchange, one-gluon-exchange, and Goldstone-boson-exchange potentials.

  11. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  12. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1995-01-01

    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  13. 21 CFR 610.15 - Constituent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.15 Constituent materials. (a) Ingredients... culture produced vaccines. Extraneous protein known to be capable of producing allergenic effects in human subjects shall not be added to a final virus medium of cell culture produced vaccines intended...

  14. Inorganic constituents of some Turkish lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    In this study the mineral matter contents of two different Turkish lignite samples from Cayirhan and Tuncbilek regions were isolated by means of mild oxidation of organic matrix applying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HCOOH treatment. The isolated minerals were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques and constituents of the minerals were investigated qualitatively.

  15. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  16. Housing market volatility in the OECD area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vector-autoregressive models are used to decompose housing returns in 18 OECD countries into cash flow (rent) news and discount rate (return) news over the period 1970-2011. For the jajority of countries news about future returns is the main driver, and both real interest rates and risk-premia play...... an important role in accounting for housing market volatility. Bivariate cross-country correlations and principal components analyses indicate that part of the return movements have a common factor among the majority of countries. We explain the results in terms of global changes in credit constraints...... and transations costs as well as changes in monetary policy over this period. Among other things, our results shed new light on wheather excessively low interest rates by the monetary authorities was a major cause for the housing boom up to 2006....

  17. Studies on Chemical Constituents From Artabotrys Hainanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guangying; SONG Xiao-Ping; HAN Chang-ri

    2004-01-01

    Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are plants of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus,which includes an estimated 100 types of plants distributed mainly in the tropical zone and the subtropics areas. Four types of the plants are discovered in our country, two of which, A.Hongkongensis Hance and A. hexapetalus (Linn. F.) Bhandari, in Guangdong Province, and the other two, A. Pilosus and A. Hainanensis R.E. Fries, in Hainan Province. The latter are widely distributed in Hainan Island with very rich reserves. They have long been used among the ordinary people as medicinal plants with antipyretic, antidotal, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects and are often used for malaria. Scholars from home and abroad have paid much attention to the plants of the Annonaccac family for their containing anti-tumor activities, and after early or late research of the chemical constituents of the root, stem (derm), leaf and fruit of many types of plants of Artabotrys genus, more than 40 compounds including alkaloid, flavone and terpenoid have been isolated and obtained. Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are Hainan endemic plants and there has been no report on the research of their chemical constituents and biological activities so far. In order to find new constituents of pharmacologic activity, we have researched the chemical constituents of the leaf and stem.The crude drugs were collected from Hainan Jianfeng Mountain and were identified as Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus. Its sample specimen is now kept in Chemistry Department of Hainan Normal University.After isolation and identification of constituent, six compounds were isolated from the leaf of Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries and elucidated as β -sitosterol (Ⅰ), catechin (Ⅱ), mangiferin (Ⅲ),(Ⅳ), (Ⅴ), (Ⅵ). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds Ⅱ, Ⅲ,Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ were obtained from the genus of Artabotrys for the first time.

  18. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  19. Comparison of two headspace sampling techniques for the analysis of off-flavour volatiles from oat based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognat, Claudine; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; Stewart, Derek

    2012-10-01

    Two different headspace sampling techniques were compared for analysis of aroma volatiles from freshly produced and aged plain oatcakes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) using a Carboxen-Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre and entrainment on Tenax TA within an adsorbent tube were used for collection of volatiles. The effects of variation in the sampling method were also considered using SPME. The data obtained using both techniques were processed by multivariate statistical analysis (PCA). Both techniques showed similar capacities to discriminate between the samples at different ages. Discrimination between fresh and rancid samples could be made on the basis of changes in the relative abundances of 14-15 of the constituents in the volatile profiles. A significant effect on the detection level of volatile compounds was observed when samples were crushed and analysed by SPME-GC-MS, in comparison to undisturbed product. The applicability and cost effectiveness of both methods were considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatility of Aerosols in the Western European Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    562-576, 1987.I Stratmann, F. and H. Fissan. Convection , diffusion and thermophoresis in cooled laminar tube flow. J. Aerosol Sci., 19. 793-796, 1988.I...contractual work was performed, it was only possible to perform aerosol volatility work up to a temperature of 3000C . Therefore the nature of I the...can severly affect the I propagation or transmission of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere. Quantitative estimates of these effects

  1. Ion mobility spectrometry for detection of skin volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Mochalski, Pawel; Schmid, Alex; Wiesenhofer, Helmut; Klieber, Martin; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by humans through their skin were investigated in near real time using ion mobility spectrometry after gas chromatographic separation with a short multi-capillary column. VOCs typically found in a small nitrogen flow covering the skin are 3-methyl-2-butenal, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, sec-butyl acetate, benzaldehyde, octanal, 2-ethylhexanol, nonanal and decanal at volume fractions in the low part per billion-(ppb) range. The technique presented here ma...

  2. The Cytotoxic Constituents from Marine-derived Streptomyces 3320#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present work studies the chemical constituents from marine-derived streptomyces 3320# and their antitumor activities. The n-BuOH extract of the ferment broth of 3320# was chromatographed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS columns and HPLC to separate the compounds with antitoumor activities. Their structures were identified using IR, UV, NMR, MS spectroscopic techniques and compared with published data. The antitumor activities of the isolates were assayed using SRB method and flow cytometry assay, accompanied with the morphological observation of the cells under light microscope against mammalian tsFT210 cells. Ten compounds, cyclo-(Ala-Leu) 1, cyclo-(Ala-Ile) 2, cyclo-(Ala-Val) 3, cyclo-(Phe- Pro) 4, cyclo-(Phe-Gly) 5, cyclo-(Leu-Pro) 6, 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid 7, N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide 8, 4-methyoxy-1-(2-hydroxy) ethylbenzene 9 and uridine 10, were isolated from the ferment broth of streptomyces 3320#. Among them, compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 showed potent cytotoxicity against the tsFT210 cell with the IC50 values of 3 . 6, 7 . 2, 5 . 2 and 1 . 6 mmol L - 1, respectively. Compounds 8, 10 also exhibited apoptosis inducing activity under 2 . 0 mmol L - 1. Compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 are the principle bioactive constituents responsible for the antitumor activities of marine streptomyces 3320# . Compound 7 was isolated from this species for the first time.

  3. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  4. Modeling the Volatility in Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to estimate the volatility in global fertilizer prices. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test and alternative volatility models, including the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, Exponential GARCH (EGARC

  5. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  6. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  7. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  8. Business Cycles, Financial Crises, and Stock Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Schwert

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows that stock volatility increases during recessions and financial crises from 1834-1987. The evidence reinforces the notion that stock prices are an important business cycle indicator. Using two different statistical models for stock volatility, I show that volatility increases after major financial crises. Moreover. stock volatility decreases and stock prices rise before the Fed increases margin requirements. Thus, there is little reason to believe that public policies can con...

  9. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  10. The january effect across volatility regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Agnani, Betty; Aray, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Using a Markov regime switching model, this article presents evidence on the well-known January effect on stock returns. The specification allows a distinction to be drawn between two regimes, one with high volatility and other with low volatility. We obtain a time-varying January effect that is, in general, positive and significant in both volatility regimes. However, this effect is larger in the high volatility regime. In sharp contrast with most previous literature we find two major result...

  11. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    Extracting and forecasting the volatility of financial markets is an important empirical problem. The paper provides a time series characterization of the volatility components arising when the volatility process is fractionally integrated, and proposes a new predictor that can be seen as extensi...... methods for forecasting realized volatility, and that the estimated model confidence sets include the newly proposed fractional lag predictor in all occurrences....

  12. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive analyses of returned Apollo samples demonstrated that the Moon is extremely volatile poor. While this conclusion remains true, various measurements since the late 90's implicated the presence of water: e.g., enhanced reflection of circularly polarized radar signals and suppression of epithermal neutrons near the poles. More recently, traces of H2O have been discovered inside volcanic glass, along with more significant amounts residing in hydrous minerals (apatite) returned from both highland and mare landing sites. Three recent lunar missions (DIXI, M3, Cassini) identified hydrous phases on/near the lunar surface, whereas the LCROSS probe detected significant quantities of volatiles (OH, H2O and other volatiles) excavated by the Centaur impact. These new mission results and sample studies, however, now allow testing different hypotheses for the generation, trapping, and replenishment of these volatiles. Solar-proton implantation must contribute to the hydrous phases in the lunar regolith in order to account for the observed time-varying abundances and occurrence near the lunar equator. This also cannot be the entire story. The relatively low speed LCROSS-Centaur impact (2.5km/s) could not vaporize such hydrous minerals, yet emissions lines of OH (from the thermal disassociation of H2O), along with other compounds (CO2, NH2) were detected within the first second, before ejecta could reach sunlight. Telescopic observations by Potter and Morgan (1985) discovered a tenuous lunar atmosphere of Na, but the LCROSS UV/Vis spectrometer did not detect the Na-D line until after the ejecta reached sunlight (along with a line pair attributed to Ag). With time, other volatile species emerged (OH, CO). The LAMP instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter had a different viewpoint from the side (rather than from above) and detected many other atomic species release by the LCROSS-Centaur impact. Consequently, it appears that there is a stratigraphy for trapped species

  13. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  14. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures o

  15. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures

  16. Ammonia volatilization from intensively managed dairy pastures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are (i) to quantify NH 3 volatilization from grassland, (ii) to gain understanding of the NH3 volatilization processes on grassland and (iii) to study measures how to reduce NH 3 volatilization from gra

  17. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average r...

  18. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...

  19. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical

  20. Water Vapor Corrosion in EBC Constituent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Fox, Dennis; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) materials are sought after to protect ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in high temperature turbine engines. CMCs are particularly susceptible to degradation from oxidation, Ca-Al-Mg-Silicate (CMAS), and water vapor during high temperature operation which necessitates the use of EBCs. However, the work presented here focuses on water vapor induced recession in EBC constituent materials. For example, in the presence of water vapor, silica will react to form Si(OH)4 (g) which will eventually corrode the material away. To investigate the recession rate in EBC constituent materials under high temperature water vapor conditions, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is employed. The degradation process can then be modeled through a simple boundary layer expression. Ultimately, comparisons are made between various single- and poly-crystalline materials (e.g. TiO2, SiO2) against those found in literature.

  1. [Chemical Constituents from Melissa officinalis Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  2. Chemical Constituents from Roots of Flemingia philippinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Man-qin; DENG Dun; FENG Shi-xiu; HUANG Ri-ming; TIAN Shuai; QIU Sheng-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Flemingia philippinensis.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combination of silica gel column,Sephadex LH-20,polyamide,and ODS column chromatography.The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by means of spectral data.Results Ten compounds were isolated from F.philippinensis and identified as isoderrone (1),dalparvin A (2),prunetin (3),7,3'-dihydroxy-5,4',5'-trimethoxyisoflavone (4),pratensein-7-O-β-D-glucoside (5),sissotrin (6),sophororicoside (7),formononetin (8),orobol (9),and biochanin A (10).Conclusion Compounds 1-6 are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  3. Chemical Constituents from Roots of Millettia speciosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-qin Fu; Geng-sheng Xiao; Yu-juan Xu; Ji-jun Wu; Yu-long Chen; Samuel-X Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Mil/ettia speciosa.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and ODS column chromatography.The structures were identified by means of spectral data.Results Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as naringenin (1),liquiritigenin (2),garbanzol (3),7-hydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (4),calycosin (5),2',5',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (6),2'-hydroxybiochanin A (7),6-methoxycalopogonium isoflavone A (8),demethylmedicarpin (9),4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone (10),2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (11),rhododendrol (12),secoisolariciresinol (13),bisdihydrosiringenin (14),and polystachyol (15).Conclusion All compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  4. Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfi, H.; Österlund, H.; Marsalek, J.; Viklander, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents could serve as potential indicators of bacteria sources. A similar analysis was applied to variation patterns of eight selected inorganics typical for baseflow and stormwater runoff to test the feasibility of using these inorganics to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of inflow into storm sewers. The monitored catchments varied in size, the degree of development, and land use. Catchment and season (i.e., rainy or snowmelt periods) specific variations were investigated for sets of individual stormwater samples by the principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of

  5. Essential Oils and Their Constituents: Anticonvulsant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature-based survey of plants species and their essential oils with anticonvulsant activity was carried out. As results, 30 species belonging to 13 families and 23 genera were identified for their activities in the experimental models used for anticonvulsant drug screening. Thirty chemical constituents of essential oils with anticonvulsant properties were described. Information on these 30 species is presented together with isolated bioactive compound studies.

  6. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Yu Lo; Po-Len Liu; Li-Ching Lin; Yen-Ting Chen; You-Cheng Hseu; Zhi-Hong Wen; Hui-Min Wang

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests t...

  7. The origin of volatiles in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier-Majumder, Saswata; Hirschmann, Marc M.

    2017-08-01

    The Earth's deep interior contains significant reservoirs of volatiles such as H, C, and N. Due to the incompatible nature of these volatile species, it has been difficult to reconcile their storage in the residual mantle immediately following crystallization of the terrestrial magma ocean (MO). As the magma ocean freezes, it is commonly assumed that very small amounts of melt are retained in the residual mantle, limiting the trapped volatile concentration in the primordial mantle. In this article, we show that inefficient melt drainage out of the freezing front can retain large amounts of volatiles hosted in the trapped melt in the residual mantle while creating a thick early atmosphere. Using a two-phase flow model, we demonstrate that compaction within the moving freezing front is inefficient over time scales characteristic of magma ocean solidification. We employ a scaling relation between the trapped melt fraction, the rate of compaction, and the rate of freezing in our magma ocean evolution model. For cosmochemically plausible fractions of volatiles delivered during the later stages of accretion, our calculations suggest that up to 77% of total H2O and 12% of CO2 could have been trapped in the mantle during magma ocean crystallization. The assumption of a constant trapped melt fraction underestimates the mass of volatiles in the residual mantle by more than an order of magnitude.Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's deep interior contains substantial amounts of volatile elements like C, H, and N. How these elements got sequestered in the Earth's interior has long been a topic of debate. It is generally assumed that most of these elements escaped the interior of the Earth during the first few hundred thousand years to create a primitive atmosphere, leaving the mantle reservoir nearly empty. In this work, we show that the key to this paradox involves the very early stages of crystallization of the mantle from a global magma ocean. Using numerical models, we show

  8. The content of active constituents of stored sliced and powdered preparations of turmeric rhizomes and zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability of active constituents (curcuminoids and volatile oil in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. rhizomes and zedoary [Curcuma zedoaria (Berg. Roscoe] bulb and finger rhizomes during storage have been investigated. They were prepared as sliced and powdered and separately packed, either in black polyethylene bags or in paper bags, and stored at room temperature (28-31oC. Samples at initial and three monthly intervals were examined over 12-15 months storage to determine the contents of curcuminoids, volatile oil and moisture. The results showed that storage of rhizomes in black polyethylene bags could prevent samples from taking up moisture better than those stored in paper bags. The sliced and powderedturmeric rhizomes exhibited no decrease in curcuminoids content after 15 months of storage irrespective of the nature of the packing material. However, the slices of zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes lost curcuminoids to a lesser extent than powdered rhizomes during storage period. Volatile oil content of turmeric rhizomes, zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes decreased slower when stored as slices rather than as powders. The result from the present study suggested that in order to maintain the quality of turmeric and zedoary rhizomes as raw material for food and medicinal uses, they should be prepared in sliced form and stored in black polyethylene bags in order to maintain their content of active constituents during storage period.

  9. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping CHEN; Jing-tao CHENG; Guang-fa DENG

    2013-01-01

    The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS) was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  10. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  11. Volatile content of Hawaiian magmas and volcanic vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, A. P.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Ferguson, D. J.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that magma supply to Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i may be affected by magma volatile content. We find that volatile content and magma flow from deep source to Kīlauea's summit reservoirs are non-linearly related. For example, a 25-30% change in volatiles leads to a near two-fold increase in magma supply. Hawaiian volcanism provides an opportunity to develop and test hypotheses concerning dynamic and geochemical behavior of hot spot volcanism on different time scales. The Pu'u 'Ō'ō-Kupaianaha eruption (1983-present) is thought to be fed by essentially unfettered magma flow from the asthenosphere into a network of magma reservoirs at approximately 1-4 km below Kīlauea's summit, and from there into Kīlauea's east rift zone, where it erupts. Because Kīlauea's magma becomes saturated in CO2 at about 40 km depth, most CO2 is thought to escape buoyantly from the magma, before entering the east rift zone, and instead is emitted at the summit. Between 2003 and 2006 Kīlauea's summit inflated at unusually high rates and concurrently CO2emissions doubled. This may reflect a change in the balance between magma supply to the summit and outflow to the east rift zone. It remains unknown what caused this surge in magma supply or what controls magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes in general. We have modeled two-phase magma flow, coupled with H2O-CO2 solubility, to investigate the effect of changes in volatile content on the flow of magma through Kīlauea's magmatic plumbing system. We assume an invariant magma transport capacity from source to vent over the time period of interest. Therefore, changes in magma flow rate are a consequence of changes in magma-static and dynamic pressure throughout Kīlauea's plumbing system. We use measured summit deformation and CO2 emissions as observational constraints, and find from a systematic parameter analysis that even modest increases in volatiles reduce magma-static pressures sufficiently to generate a 'surge' in

  12. Level Shifts in Volatility and the Implied-Realized Volatility Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; de Magistris, Paolo Santucci

    to the multivariate case of the univariate level shift technique by Lu and Perron (2008). An application to the S&P500 index and a simulation experiment show that the recently documented empirical properties of strong persistence in volatility and forecastability of future realized volatility from current implied...... volatility, which have been interpreted as long memory (or fractional integration) in volatility and fractional cointegration between implied and realized volatility, are accounted for by occasional common level shifts....

  13. Removal of carbon constituents from hospital solid waste incinerator fly ash by column flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanqiao; Wei, Guoxia; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Hospital solid waste incinerator (HSWI) fly ash contains a large number of carbon constituents including powder activated carbon and unburned carbon, which are the major source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in fly ash. Therefore, the removal of carbon constituents could reduce PCDD/Fs in fly ash greatly. In this study, the effects of the main flotation parameters on the removal of carbon constituents were investigated, and the characteristics of the final product were evaluated. The results showed that loss on ignition (LOI) of fly ash increased from 11.1% to 31.6% during conditioning process. By optimizing the flotation parameters at slurry concentration 0.05 kg/l, kerosene dosage 12 kg/t, frother dosage 3 kg/t and air flow rate 0.06 m(3)/h, 92.7% of the carbon constituents were removed from the raw fly ash. Under these conditions, the froth product has LOI of 56.35% and calorific values of 12.5 MJ/kg, LOI in the tailings was below 5%, and the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs decreased from 5.61 ng-TEQ/g in the raw fly ash to 1.47 ng-TEQ/g in the tailings. The results show that column flotation is a potential technology for simultaneous separation of carbon constituents and PCDD/Fs from HSWI fly ash.

  14. Characterization of the volatile oil compositions from Hypericum perforatum L. shoot cultures in different basal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Morshedloo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is the most important species of the genus Hypericum and produces a wide range of chemical constituents including essential oil. Regarding advantages of in vitro culture techniques in production of desired metabolites, the present study was aimed to investigate volatile constituents of H. perforatum shoots cultured in different basal media. Shoot cultures were established by culturing six nodes of aseptic plants in three liquid media including MS (Murashige and Skoog, B5 (Gamborg B-5 and half-strength B5 containing 30 g L-1 sucrose and 0.5 mg L-1 BA (6-benzyladenine. According to the results, growth and profile of volatile constituents of cultured shoots were affected by the type of medium used and shoots cultured in the B5 medium exhibited the highest growth which was reached to 42.95 g flask-1. On the other hand, 44 components were totally identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of essential oils of cultured shoots. Decane (27.7%, menthol (8.9%, methyl decanoate (4.6% and β-elemene (4.6% were the major volatile constituents of the shoots cultured in MS medium, while eudesma4(15,7-dien-1-β-ol (8.1-7.5%, thymol (7-7.2% and 1,4-trans-1,7-trans-acorenone (5.2-5.5% were found as the principal components of shoots cultured in B5 and half-strength B5 media.

  15. Inhibitory effects of the volatile oils of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (Myrtaceae) on the acetylcholine induced contraction of isolated rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayinde Buniyamin; Josephine, Owolabi Omonkhelin

    2012-04-01

    Using steam distillation method, the volatile oils of Eucalyptus citriodora and Callistemon citrinus were obtained and their chromatographic profiles examined in hexane: ethylacetate (4:1; 7:3) and hexane-chloroform (7:3). The effects of the volatile oils on acetylcholine (Ach) induced contraction of the rat isolated ileum were investigated based on the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oil of E. citriodora in treating diarrhoea. Relative to the weight of the fresh leaves (200g in each case), E. citriodora produced 0.75% of the volatile oil while the C. citrinus yielded 0.5%. Combination of hexane-ethylacetate (4:1) gave the best resolution of the constituents as E. citriodora produced six major spots while Callistemon citrinus produced three. The concentration-dependent contractions of the ileum produced by the increasing concentration of the Ach were observed to be remarkably attenuated in the presence of the volatile oils at 5 and 10 mg/ml. At 5mg/ ml, the volatile oils of E. citriodora and C. citrinus independently reduced the Ach maximum contraction to 74.11 ± 12.4 and 19.05 ± 5.17% respectively. At 10mg/ml, the volatile oils further significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the contraction induced by the Ach. The results obtained validated the ethnomedicinal use of the volatile oils particularly that of E. citriodora in reducing ilea contractions occasioned by diarrhoea. However, C. citrinus volatile oil seems to be more effective.

  16. Endemic Balkan parsnip Pastinaca hirsuta: the chemical profile of essential oils, headspace volatiles and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Jovanović, Olga P; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-04-01

    The present study for the first time reports the chemical composition of the endemic Balkan parsnip Pastinaca hirsuta Pančić essential oil and headspace (HS) volatiles, obtained from fresh roots, stems, flowers and fruits, as well as fresh fruits n-hexane and diethyl ether extracts. According to GC-MS and GC-FID analyses, β-Pinene was one of the major components of the root and stem HS volatiles (50.6-24.1%). (E)-β-Ocimene was found in a significant percentage in the stem and flowers HS volatiles (31.6-57.3%). The most abundant constituent of the fruit HS, flower and fruit essential oils and both extracts was hexyl butanoate (70.5%, 31.1%, 80.4%, 47.4% and 52.7%, respectively). Apiole, accompanied by myristicin and (Z)-falcarinol, make up over 70% of the root essential oils. γ-Palmitolactone was the major component of the stem essential oils (51.9% at the flowering stage and 45.7% at the fruiting stage). Beside esters as dominant compounds, furanocoumarins were also identified in extracts. (Dis)similarity relations of examined plant samples were also investigated by the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis. The obtained results show there is difference in the composition of volatile components from different plant organs, while the stage of growth mainly affects the quantitative volatiles composition.

  17. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  18. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we...... develop a new class of affine discrete-time option valuation models that use daily returns as well as realized volatility. We derive convenient closed-form option valuation formulas, and we assess the option valuation properties using Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 return and option data. We find...... that realized volatility reduces the pricing errors of the benchmark model significantly across moneyness, maturity, and volatility levels....

  19. Chemical generation of volatile species of copper - Optimization, efficiency and investigation of volatile species nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoukal, Jakub; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2017-07-18

    This work is a comprehensive study on chemical generation of volatile species (VSG) of copper for analytical atomic spectrometry. VSG was carried out in a flow injection mode in a special arrangement of the generator. Atomization in a diffusion flame atomizer (DF) with atomic absorption spectrometry detection was mostly used for VSG optimization. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was utilized to investigate generation efficiencies and feasibility of VSG system for ultratrace analysis. Concentration of individual reagents, namely of nitric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and various reaction modifiers, was optimized with respect to generation efficiency. Triton X-100 and Antifoam B were chosen as the best combination of the modifiers owing to sixfold increase in sensitivity, decrease of tailing of measured signals and long-term repeatability. The addition of 500 μg L(-1) of Ag was found crucial to maintain identical generation efficiency at low concentrations of Cu. This phenomenon was ascribed to the change in the size of generated species. The release and generation efficiency were accurately determined as 56-58 and 31-32%, respectively. The contribution of co-generated aerosol to release and generation efficiency measured by means of Cs and Ba was found negligible, only 0.40 and 0.13%, respectively, which underlines highly efficient VSG of Cu. The nature of volatile species was investigated by various approaches. The results cannot provide the decisive evidence. However, experiments with the DF, ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the generated species are not volatile in the true sense but that they are strongly associated with fine aerosol co-generated during VSG. Cu clusters or nanoparticles of very small size (copper hydride cannot be conclusively excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles Obtained by Four Different Techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm. and Evaluation for Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, were obtained by four different isolation techniques and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Also in scope of the present work, the...

  1. Arbitrage and Volatility in Chinese Stock's Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    From the point of view of no-arbitrage pricing, what matters is how much volatility the stock has, for volatility measures the amount of profit that can be made from shorting stocks and purchasing options. With the short-sales constraints or in the absence of options, however, high volatility is likely to mean arbitrage from stock market. As emerging stock markets for China, investors are increasingly concerned about volatilities of Chinese two stock markets. We estimate volatility's models for Chinese stock markets' indexes using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and GARCH. We find that estimated values of volatility parameters are very high for all data frequencies. It suggests that stock returns are extremely volatile even at long term intervals in Chinese markets. Furthermore, this result could be considered that there seems to be arbitrage opportunities in Chinese stock markets.

  2. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  3. Color and volatile analysis of peanuts roasted using oven and microwave technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alicia L; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-10-01

    Roasted peanut color and volatiles were evaluated for different time and temperature combinations of roasting. Raw peanuts were oven roasted at 135 to 204 °C, microwave roasted for 1 to 3 min, or combination roasted by microwave and oven roasting for various times and temperatures. Volatiles were measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. L* values were used to categorize peanuts as under-roasted, ideally roasted, and over-roasted. The total roasting time in order to achieve ideal color was not shortened by most of the combination treatments compared to their oven roasted equivalents. Oven before microwave roasting compared to the reverse was found to significantly increase the L* value. Peanuts with the same color had different volatile levels. Hexanal concentrations decreased then increased with roasting. Pyrazine levels increased as roasting time increased, although oven at 177 °C treatments had the highest and microwave treatments had the lowest levels. Volatile levels generally increased as roasting time or temperature increased. Oven 177 °C for 15 min generally had the highest level of volatiles among the roasting treatments tested. Soft independent modeling of class analogies based on volatile levels showed that raw peanuts were the most different, commercial samples were the most similar to each other, and oven, microwave, and combination roasting were all similar in volatile profile. Peanuts can be roasted to equivalent colors and have similar volatile levels by different roasting methods. Oven and microwave roasting technologies produced the same roasted peanut color and had similar volatile trends as roasting time increased. Combination roasting also produced ideal color and similar volatile levels indicating that microwave technology could be further explored as a peanut roasting technique. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effect of adulteration versus storage on volatiles in unifloral honeys from different floral sources and locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2013-02-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was added at 5% to 40% to Indiana wildflower honey and added at 40% to Ohio and Indiana honeys from blueberry, star thistle, clover and wildflower, and an unknown source to simulate honey adulteration. Unadulterated honeys were also stored at 37 ºC from 1 to 6 mo. The volatile composition was measured by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Most volatiles decreased in concentration with both increasing HFCS and storage time. Furfural significantly increased in concentration in all adulterated honeys and 1,3-butanediol, acetonitrile, and heptane in some adulterated honeys. During storage, the volatiles that increased were maltol, furfural, 5-methylfurfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in all honeys and also acetic acid and 1-octen-3-ol levels in some honeys. Soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA) was used to differentiate the volatile profiles of adulterated honeys from fresh and stored honeys. The volatile profiles of honeys in accelerated storage for up to 4 mo and the honeys adulterated with 40% HFCS were significantly different. Acetic acid had the most discriminating power in Ohio star thistle and blueberry honeys and unknown honey while furfural had the greatest discriminating power in Indiana blueberry, star thistle, and clover honeys. Adulteration and storage of honey both reduced the volatile levels, but since they changed the volatile composition of the fresh honey differently, SIMCA was able to differentiate adulteration from storage.  Analysis of adulterated and stored honeys determined that both decrease volatile levels, and no clear indicator volatiles were found. However, SIMCA can be used to distinguish the volatile profiles of fresh or stored honeys, from adulterated honeys. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  6. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  7. Online Information About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Katherine A; Bernat, Jennifer K; Keely O'Brien, Erin; Delahanty, Janine C

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco products and smoke contain more than 7000 chemicals (ie, constituents). Research shows that consumers have poor understanding of tobacco constituents and find communication about them to be confusing. The current content analysis describes how information is communicated about tobacco constituents online in terms of source, target audience, and message. A search was conducted in September 2015 using tobacco constituent and tobacco terms and identified 226 relevant Web sites for coding. Web sites were coded for type, target audience, reading level, constituent information, type of tobacco product, health effects, and emotional valence by two coders who independently coded half of the sample. There was a 20% overlap to assess interrater reliability, which was high (κ = .83, p content and presentation of information related to tobacco constituents. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to publicly display a list of tobacco constituents in tobacco products and tobacco smoke by brand. However, little is known about tobacco constituent information available to the public. This is the first systematic content analysis of online information about tobacco constituents. The analysis reveals that although information about tobacco constituents is available online, large information gaps exist, including incomplete information about tobacco constituent-related health effects. This study highlights opportunities to improve the content and presentation of public information related to tobacco constituents.

  8. Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Olaf; Zweers, Hans; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  9. Volatiles in inter-specific bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eTyc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.

  10. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  11. Volatility at Karachi Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam Farid; Javed Ashraf

    1995-01-01

    Frequent “crashes” of the stock market reported during the year 1994 suggest that the Karachi bourse is rapidly converting into a volatile market. This cannot be viewed as a positive sign for this developing market of South Asia. Though heavy fluctuations in stock prices are not an unusual phenomena and it has been observed at almost all big and small exchanges of the world. Focusing on the reasons for such fluctuations is instructive and likely to have important policy implications. Proponen...

  12. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  13. Volatiles of Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu Abdul; Blagojević, Polina D; Radulović, Niko S; Boylan, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    Analysis by GC and GC/MS of the essential oil obtained from Malaysian Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes allowed the identification of 97 constituents, comprising 89.5% of the total oil composition. The major compounds were identified as myrcene (1; 46.5%) and β-pinene (2; 14.6%). The chemical composition of this and additional 13 oils obtained from selected Curcuma L. taxa were compared using multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis). The results of the statistical analyses of this particular data set pointed out that 1 could be potentially used as a valuable infrageneric chemotaxonomical marker for C. mangga. Moreover, it seems that C. mangga, C. xanthorrhiza Roxb., and C. longa L. are, with respect to the volatile secondary metabolites, closely related. In addition, comparison of the essential oil profiles revealed a potential influence of the environmental (geographical) factors, alongside with the genetic ones, on the production of volatile secondary metabolites in Curcuma taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  15. Volatility Informed Trading in the Options Market: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pathak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trading activity in options market based on information about expected future volatility in spot market. We employ Common Implied Volatility as a measure of expected volatility and options volume and changes in Open Interests as measures of options trading activity. We first test for simultaneous information flow in the two markets using multiple regression technique. Next, we test for information based or hedge based use of options using Trivariate Vector-auto Regression framework. We further consider the classes of options moneyness and the market trends in our analysis to examine if the trader’s preference of options changes with change in description of options intrinsic value and market environment. We use daily closing data of S&P CNX Nifty Index options traded on National Stock Exchange, India. We, for the most part, find negative and significant relationship in contemporaneous regression suggesting active trading by arbitrageurs. A feedback relationship is observed in vector auto regression analysis suggesting that options are traded in India for both information based trading and hedging purposes. We also observe the relationship to be varying when market trends and classes of options moneyness are considered. This indicates that traders are not indifferent in their choice of trading venue when market conditions and factors change. The results of this study are helpful for traders in managing the risk and return of their portfolio based on volatility forecast. This study is distinctive as it examines the scarcely researched area of volatility informed trading in an emerging market set up.

  16. [Non-alkaloid constituents of Gelsemium elegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binfeng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-09-01

    To study the non-alkaloid chemical constituents of Gelsemium elegans. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as tamarixin (1), tamarixetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), scopolin (3), scopoletin (4), uradine (5), caffeic acid (6), caffeic acid ethyl ester (7), ferulic acid ethyl ester (8), ethyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside (9), and ethyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside (10). Compounds 1-3,5-10 are firstly isolated from this plant and compounds 1, 2, and 5-10 are isolated from the genus Gelsemium for the first time.

  17. Constituent contacts can influence how legislators vote

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Does calling your legislator actually lead to results for those who are passionately for or against\\ud certain legislation? In new research, using a randomized field experiment, Daniel Bergan finds\\ud that it does. Those legislators who received at least one phone call from a constituent asking\\ud them to support a certain bill were 11-12 percent more likely to support the legislation, an effect\\ud independent of the legislators’ party, gender or the competitiveness of their district.

  18. Survey of chemical constituents of Tehran's groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1987-12-01

    One hundred and forty wells throughout the City of Tehran and its environs were sampled to determine the chemical quality of the groundwater. Total alkalinity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness and detergent concentrations were determined as well as levels of bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, fluoride, iodide and nitrate. Generally, chemical pollution of the water supplies was low. There were, however, regional elevations in nitrate, chloride and fluoride. Elevated fluoride levels were primarily in the northern regions of the city while high nitrates and chlorides were found primariiy in industrial areas. The health implications of chemical constituents in drinking water are discussed.

  19. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  20. Interactions between volatile and nonvolatile coffee components. 1. Screening of nonvolatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Bernard, Marielle; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Rytz, Andreas; Roberts, Deborah D

    2005-06-01

    This study is the first of two publications that investigate the phenomena of coffee nonvolatiles interacting with coffee volatile compounds. The purpose was to identify which coffee nonvolatile(s) are responsible for the interactions observed between nonvolatile coffee brew constituents and thiols, sulfides, pyrroles, and diketones. The overall interaction of these compounds with coffee brews prepared with green coffee beans roasted at three different roasting levels (light, medium, and dark), purified nonvolatiles, and medium roasted coffee brew fractions (1% solids after 1 or 24 h) was measured using a headspace solid-phase microextraction technique. The dark roasted coffee brew was slightly more reactive toward the selected compounds than the light roasted coffee brew. Selected pure coffee constituents, such as caffeine, trigonelline, arabinogalactans, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, showed few interactions with the coffee volatiles. Upon fractionation of medium roasted coffee brew by solid-phase extraction, dialysis, size exclusion chromatography, or anion exchange chromatography, characterization of each fraction, evaluation of the interactions with the aromas, and correlation between the chemical composition of the fractions and the magnitude of the interactions, the following general conclusions were drawn. (1) Low molecular weight and positively charged melanoidins present significant interactions. (2) Strong correlations were shown between the melanoidin and protein/peptide content, on one hand, and the extent of interactions, on the other hand (R = 0.83-0.98, depending on the volatile compound). (3) Chlorogenic acids and carbohydrates play a secondary role, because only weak correlations with the interactions were found in complex matrixes.

  1. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These compounds were obtained by oxidation of Eucalyptus grandis charcoal, produced at charring temperatures of 350 and 450 ºC, with 4.5 mol L-1 HNO3. The charcoal was oxidized by solubilization in acidic or alkaline medium, similar to the procedure of soil organic matter fractionation (CHox350 and CHox450. CHox was characterized by C, H, O, N contents and their respective atomic relations, by the ratio E4 (absorbance 465 nm by E6 (absorbance 665 nm, and by active acidity and total acidity (CEC. The inhibitory effect of CHox on the urease activity of Canavalia ensiformis was assessed in vitro. The NH3 volatilization from urea was evaluated with and without coating of oxidized charcoal (U-CHox350 or U-CHox450 in a closed system with continuous air flow. The pH of both CHox was near 2.0, but the total acidity of CHox350 was higher, 72 % of which was attributed to carboxylic groups. The variation in the ionization constants of CHox350 was also greater. The low E4/E6 ratios characterize the high stability of the compounds in CHox. CHox did not inhibit the urease activity in vitro, although the maximum volatilization peak from U-CHox450 and U-CHox350 occurred 24 h after that observed for uncoated urea. The lowest volatilization rate was observed for U-CHox350 as well as a 43 % lower total amount of NH3 volatilized than from uncoated urea.

  2. Volatile Release From The Siberian Traps Inferred From Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Rowe, Michael C.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption with global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption. We present data from the analysis of more than 100 melt inclusions, including both homogenized inclusions and rare glassy inclusions with low crystallinity. Many melt inclusions from tuffs and flows near the base of the Siberian Traps sequence are substantially enriched in chlorine and fluorine compared to Deccan Traps and Laki melt inclusions (Self et al., 2008; Thordarson et al., 1996). These inclusions record chlorine concentrations up to ~1400 ppm, and fluorine concentrations up to ~5000 ppm. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of ~5000 ppm and substantial concentrations of chlorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine

  3. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  4. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  5. EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY AND U.S. AUTO-INDUSTRY EXPORTS: A PANEL COINTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Avsar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate goods are often neglected in the empirical studies of the impact of exchange rate volatility on bilateral trade flows. Using import unit values of 58 motor vehicle products and 193 auto-parts, which are classified by the 10-digit level of Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS, this study examines the impact of exchange rate volatility on the U.S. automotive industry exports and imports (both motor-vehicle products and auto-parts from 37 major trading partners for the period of 1996.01 to 2008.4 by using panel data cointegration techniques. We obtain substantial heterogeneity in terms of the impact of exchange rate volatility for final and intermediate goods. We also find support for the positive hypothesis that exchange rate volatility may lead to greater levels of trade.

  6. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  7. Chemical Constituents from Rhizomes of Curculigo capitulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Lei; Wang, Kai Jin; Zhu, Cui Cui; Li, Ning [Anhui University, Hefei (China)

    2010-10-15

    To compare the chemical constituents' differences of the same Curculigo species belonging to different geographical distribution and climatic conditions, we investigated the rhizomes of C. capitulata collected in Napo region of Guangxi Province, China. Recently, we reported two novel norlignan derivatives with the rearranged skeletons, named as crassifoside I and sinensigenin C, from this species collected in Napo region of Guangxi Province, China. To further search more novel compounds, the minor constituents of this plant were investigated. This paper deals with the isolation and structure elucidation of one novel norlignan derivative, named as capitulo-side B, together with eight known compounds, curcapicycloside, capituloside, breviscaside B, crassifogenin C, breviscapin A, methyl-4-O-coumaroylquinate, orcinol glucoside, and 2,6-dimethoxy-benzioc acid, from its rhizomes as shown in Figure 1. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis, especially using 2D-NMR techniques ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and comparisons of their data with literature values. Compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and compound was the first example isolated from the family.

  8. Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinhappel, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the m...

  9. Potential antidepressant constituents of Nigella sativa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab S Elkhayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs. Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,. Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg. However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents.

  10. Baryons in a chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1998-01-01

    In the low-energy regime light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of constituent quarks with confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by Goldstone bosons as well as by vector and scalar mesons. The flavor-spin structure and sign of the short-range part of the spin-spin force reduces the $SU(6)_{FS}$ symmetry down to $SU(3)_F \\times SU(2)_S$, induces hyperfine splittings and provides correct ordering of the lowest states with positive and negative parity. There is a cancellation of the tensor force from pseudoscalar- and vector-exchanges in baryons. The spin-orbit interactions from $\\rho$-like and $\\omega$-like exchanges also cancel each other in baryons while they produce a big spin-orbit force in NN system. A unified description of light and strange baryon spectra calculated in a semirelativistic framework is presented. It is demonstrated that the same short-range part of spin-spin interaction between the constituent quarks induces a strong short-range repulsion in $NN...

  11. Volatile communication in plant-aphid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Volatile communication plays an important role in mediating the interactions between plants, aphids, and other organisms in the environment. In response to aphid infestation, many plants initiate indirect defenses through the release of volatiles that attract ladybugs, parasitoid wasps, and other aphid-consuming predators. Aphid-induced volatile release in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the jasmonate signaling pathway. Volatile release is also induced by infection with aphid-transmitted viruses. Consistent with mathematical models of optimal transmission, viruses that are acquired rapidly by aphids induce volatile release to attract migratory aphids, but discourage long-term aphid feeding. Although the ecology of these interactions is well-studied, further research is needed to identify the molecular basis of aphid-induced and virus-induced changes in plant volatile release.

  12. Assessing the fate of biodegradable volatile organic contaminants in unsaturated soil filter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullner, Martin; de Biase, Cecilia; Hanzel, Joanna; Reger, Daniel; Wick, Lukas; Oswald, Sascha; van Afferden, Manfred; Schmidt, Axel; Reiche, Nils; Jechalke, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of contaminant biodegradation in the subsurface is challenged by various abiotic processes leading to a reduction of contaminant concentration without a destructive mass removal of the contaminant. In unsaturated porous media, this interplay of processes is further complicated by volatilization. Many organic contaminants are sufficiently volatile to allow for significant fluxes from the water phase into the soil air, which can eventually lead to an emission of contaminants into the atmosphere. Knowledge of the magnitude of these emissions is thus required to evaluate the efficiency of bioremediation in such porous media and to estimate potential risks due to these emissions. In the present study, vertical flow constructed wetlands were investigated at the pilot scale as part of the SAFIRA II project. The investigated wetland system is intermittently irrigated by contaminated groundwater containing the volatile compounds benzene and MTBE. Measured concentration at the in- and outflow of the system demonstrate a high mass removal rate, but the highly transient flow and transport processes in the system challenge the quantification of biodegradation and volatilization and their contribution to the observed mass removal. By a combination of conservative solute tracer tests, stable isotope fractionation and measurements of natural radon concentration is the treated groundwater is was possible to determine the contribution of biodegradation and volatilization to total mass removal. The results suggest that for the investigated volatile compounds biodegradation is the dominating mass removal process with volatilization contributing only to minor or negligible amounts. These results can be confirmed by reactive transport simulations and were further supported by laboratory studies showing that also gas phase gradients of volatile compounds can be affected by biodegradation suggesting the unsaturated zone to act as a biofilter for contaminants in the soil air.

  13. Analysis of roasted and unroasted Pistacia terebinthus volatiles using direct thermal desorption-GCxGC-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, F; Ozel, M Z; Kocak, D; Hamilton, J F; Lewis, A C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of roasting time on volatile components of Pistacia terebinthus L., a fruit growing wild in Turkey. The whole fruit samples were pan roasted for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25min at 200°C. Volatile compounds were isolated and identified using the direct thermal desorption (DTD) method coupled with comprehensive gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). The major components of the fresh hull of P. terebinthus were α-pinene (10.37%), limonene (8.93%), β-pinene (5.53%), 2-carene (4.47%) and γ-muurolene (4.29%). Eighty-three constituents were characterised from the volatiles of fresh whole P. terebinthus fruits obtained by direct thermal desorption with α-pinene (9.62%), limonene (5.54%), γ-cadinane (5.48%), β-pinene (5.46%), β-caryophyllene (5.24%) being the major constituents. The type and the number of constituents characterised were observed to change with differing roasting times. Limonene (5.56%), α-pinene (4.84%), 5-methylfurfural (4.78%), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 3.89%), dimethylmetoxyfuranone (3.67%) and 3-methyl-2(5H)furanone (3.12%) were identified as the major components among the 104 compounds characterised in the volatiles of P. terebinthus, roasted for 25min. In addition, volatiles of fully roasted P. terebinthus fruits contained furans and furanones (15.42%), pyridines (4.45%) and benzene derivatives (3.81%) as the major groups.

  14. Chemical constituents from Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Tatiana R.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Maltha, Celia R.A. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: lcab@ufv.br; Paula, Vanderlucia F. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; Nascimento, Evandro A. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-08-01

    The first chemical study of non-volatile constituents from the bark and stem of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) led to the isolation and identification of 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid (1) and five pentacyclic triterpenes: 2{alpha},3{beta},23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 2), 3{beta}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-27,28-dioic acid (melaleucic acid, 3), betulinic acid (4), betuline (5), 3{beta}-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), a mixture of fatty acids and esters, and several hydrocarbons. For 2{alpha},3{beta},23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and 3{beta}-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6) a first detailed assignment of {sup 1}H NMR is presented. (author)

  15. Constituintes químicos de Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae Chemical constituents from Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical study of non-volatile constituents from the bark and stem of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae led to the isolation and identification of 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid (1 and five pentacyclic triterpenes: 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 2, 3beta-hydroxylup-20(29-en-27,28-dioic acid (melaleucic acid, 3, betulinic acid (4, betuline (5, 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6, a mixture of fatty acids and esters, and several hydrocarbons. For 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2 and 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6 a first detailed assignment of ¹H NMR is presented.

  16. Milk Price Volatility and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Gould, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    The classified pricing of fluid milk under the Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMO) system combined with the cash settlement feature of Class IIII milk futures contracts generate a unique volatility pattern of these futures markets in the sense that the volatility gradually decreases as the USDA price announcement dates approaching in the month. Focusing on the evolution of volatility in Class III milk futures market, this study quantifies the relative importance of a set of factors driving m...

  17. DOES VOLATILITY RESPOND ASYMMETRIC TO PAST SHOCKS?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Botoc

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to examine if the stock market volatility exhibits asymmetric or an asymmetric response to past shocks, for certain CEE countries (Romania,Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland) over the period May 2004 - September 2014. For the stock marketsfrom East Europe the results are in line with the symmetric volatility, i.e. volatility is similaraffected by both positive and negative returns with the same magnitude. For the stock marketsfrom Central Europe the results are consistent ...

  18. The Determinants of Public Deficit Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the political, institutional and economic sources of public deficit volatility. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models and a sample of 125 countries analyzed from 1980 to 2006, we show that higher public deficit volatility is typically associated with higher levels of political instability and less democracy. In addition, public deficit volatility tends to be magnified for small countries, in the outcome of hyper-inflation episodes ...

  19. Exchange Rate Volatility in BRICS Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper measures the impact of bilateral exchange rates, the world agricultural GDP and third-country exchange rate volatilities (Yen/USD and Euro/USD) on the BRICS agricultural exports using a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Two measures of volatility are used: the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of the rates of change of the real exchange rates. We found that most variables are integrated of order two except the third-country exchange rate volatilities which are st...

  20. GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components of Echinacea Species%不同紫锥花种属中挥发性组分的气相色谱/质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚兴东; 聂园梅; Nirmalendu Datta-Gupta

    2004-01-01

    The volatile constituents of three Echinacea species are investigated with GC/MS analysis of their ethanol extracts. The results show different Echinacea species have different constituents; the volatile parts may also have contribution to the medicinal effect of herb.%通过气相色谱/质谱联用技术分析了三种常见紫锥花种属E. Angustifolia, E. Pallida和 E. Purpurea中挥发性组分.从结果分析,这些挥发性组分对于其药效也有部分贡献.

  1. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  2. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio [National Institute of Health Services, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Combustion of wet pulverized coal in reactor flow; Combustao de particulas de carvao pulverizado contendo umidade em seu interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Valdeci Jose [Universidade do Planalto Catarinense (UNIPLAC), Lages, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas]. E-mail: vcosta@iscc.com.br; Krioukov, Viktor [Universidade Regional do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUI), Ijui, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica]. E-mail: krioukov@main.unijui.tche.br; Maliska, Clovis Raimundo [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work I propose a numeric study destined to the combustion of wet pulverized coal in reacting flow. The mathematical model is composed by equations for the concentration of the substances in the reacting flow, written based in the chemical kinetics and exponential form, conservation equations and devolatilization equations, combustion of the carbon and residues. The study detects fluctuation among the temperatures of the gas and of the particles. The inclusion of the humidity as constituent part of the volatile matter doesn't affect the performance of the model, however, its presence alters the temperature profiles and the gaseous composition. With the increase of the humidity in the coal have a slight reduction in the time of combustion of the particle, what agrees with experimental data. The model foresees an increment in the difference Tp-Tg and a smaller production of CO with the increase of the wetness rate. The volatile ones, in spite of they have its fraction relatively reduced with the wetness presence they are liberated more slowly with its increment, provoking change in the position of front flame. (author)

  4. Mars Accreted a Volatile Element-Depleted Late Veneer Indicating Early Delivery of Martian Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Wang, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Chalcophile elements in SNC meteorites are used to constrain abundances in the Martian mantle. Strong depletion of Te relative to highly siderophile elements suggests a volatile element-depleted late veneer, requiring that volatiles arrived earlier.

  5. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  6. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  7. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  8. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  9. Bioactive constituents of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çulhaoğlu, Burcu; Yapar, Gönül; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2013-03-01

    The dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf (Lamiaceae), which is an endemic species to south-western Anatolia, was studied for non-volatile secondary metabolites for the first time in this study. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as sclareol, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the pure isolates were investigated to establish their antioxidant potential. Their anticholinesterase activity was carried out by the Ellman assay against both enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, and diterpene sclareol exhibited fairly good activity against both the enzymes while the two triterpenoids oleanolic and ursolic acids exhibited selective activity against AChE.

  10. [Studies on chemical constituents of Saussurea laniceps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawa, Zhuo-Ma; Zhou, Yan; Bai, Yang; Gesang, Suo-Lang; Xie, Ping; Ding, Li-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Saussurea laniceps. The ethanol extract of S. laniceps was separated by means of silica gel chromatography. The compounds isolated from the plant were identified by their spectral evidence. Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as beta-stiosterol (1), umbelliferone (2), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (3), scopoletin (4), isoscopoletin (5), xuelianlactone (6), methyl 3-(2', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoate (7), apigenin (8), neoechinulin A (9), daucosterol (10), scopolin (11), xuelianlactone 8-O-beta-D-glcuoside (12), apigenin 7-glcuoside (13), apigenin 7-lutinoside (14) and syringin (15). Compounds 5-15 were isolated from S. laniceps, and among them, 7 and 9 were isolated from genus Saussurea for the first time.

  11. Mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, A.; Darwin, D.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of the mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression was studied and a simple analytic model was developed to represent its cyclic behavior. Experimental work consisted of monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of mortar. Two mixes were used, with proportions corresponding to concretes having water cement ratios of 0.5 and 0.6. Forty-four groups of specimens were tested at ages ranging from 5 to 70 days. complete monotonic and cyclic stress strain envelopes were obtained. A number of loading regimes were investigated, including cycles to a constant maximum strain. Major emphasis was placed on tests using relatively high stress cycles. Degradation was shown to be a continuous process and a function of both total strain and load history. No stability or fatigue limit was apparent.

  12. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  13. Chemical Constituents in Charred Sanguisorbae Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-li; ZHONG Ying; XIA Hong-min; ZHOU Qian; LV Jia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents in the effective fractions of charred Sanguisorbae Radix.Methods The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results Five compounds were isolated and identified as 3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-17,19,21-trien (1),3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-12,17-dien (2),3 β,19α-dihydroxyurs-13 (18)-en-28-oic acid (3),3β-[(α-L-arabin-opyranosyl) oxy]-28-norurs-12,17-dien (4),and pomolic acid (5).Conclusion Compounds 1,3,and 4 are novel compounds belong to triterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins,named as sanguisorbigenins Z,Y1,and Y2,respectively.

  14. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wagner, William R; Antaki, James F

    2016-01-01

    Based on the transport model of Sorensen et al. (1999), an improved mathematical model describing the process of thrombus deposition and growth was developed. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are modeled using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations. These represent three main processes: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: mural thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and thrombus deposition in a small (125 x 95 micros) crevice observed in vitro. For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. These promising results encourage further simulations to investigate clinical conditions and design factors that affect the risk of t...

  15. Antimelanoma and antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chih-Yu; Liu, Po-Len; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  16. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  17. [Chemical constituents from fruits of Ailanthus altissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunchao; Shao, Jianhua; Li, Xian

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from the extract of the fruits of Ailanthus altissimrna. Twelve compounds were isolated by chromatography and identified by spectral data. The compounds obtained were identified as (+)-isolariciresinol (1), isolariciresinol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), gallic acid (3), D-sorbitol (4), vanillin (5), 6,7-dihydroxy-coumarin (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (7), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6,9 (11), 22E-trien-3beta-ol (8), ergosta-4,6,8 (14), 22E-tetraen-3-one (9), cycloeucalenol (10), lupeol (11), betulinic acid (12). Compounds 1-12 were isolated from this genus for the first time.

  18. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  19. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  20. Constraining the Volatility Distributions and Possible Diffusion Limitations of Secondary Organic Aerosols Using Laboratory Dilution Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q.; Robinson, E. S.; Mahfouz, N.; Sullivan, R. C.; Donahue, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate the mass of fine particles in the atmosphere. Their formation involves both oxidation of volatile organics from various sources that produce products with uncertain volatilities, and diffusion of these products into the condensed phase. Therefore, constraining volatility distribution and diffusion timescales of the constituents in SOA are important in predicting size, concentration and composition of SOA, as well as how these properties of SOA evolve in the atmosphere. In this work, we demonstrate how carefully designed laboratory isothermal dilution experiments in smog chambers can shed light into the volatility distribution and any diffusion barriers of common types of SOA over time scales relevant to atmospheric transport and diurnal cycling. We choose SOA made from mono-terpenes (alpha-pinene and limonene) and toluene to represent biogenic and anthropogenic SOA. We look into how moisture content can alter any evaporation behaviors of SOA by varying relative humidity during SOA generation and during dilution process. This provides insight into whether diffusion in the condensed phase is rate limiting in reaching gas/particle equilibrium of semi-volatile organic compounds. Our preliminary results show that SOA from alpha-pinene evaporates continuously over several hours of experiments, and there is no substantial discernible differences over wide ranges of the chamber humidity. SOA from toluene oxidation shows slower evaporation. We fit these experimental data using absorptive partitioning theory and a particle dynamic model to obtain volatility distributions and to predict particle size evolution. This in the end will help us to improve representation of SOA in large scale chemical transport models.

  1. Improving riverine constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ball, William P.

    2017-04-01

    Regression-based approaches are often employed to estimate riverine constituent concentrations and fluxes based on typically sparse concentration observations. One such approach is the recently developed WRTDS (;Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season;) method, which has been shown to provide more accurate estimates than prior approaches in a wide range of applications. Centered on WRTDS, this work was aimed at developing improved models for constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions. Twelve modified models were developed and tested, each of which contains one additional flow variable to represent antecedent conditions and which can be directly derived from the daily discharge record. High-resolution (∼daily) data at nine diverse monitoring sites were used to evaluate the relative merits of the models for estimation of six constituents - chloride (Cl), nitrate-plus-nitrite (NOx), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS). For each site-constituent combination, 30 concentration subsets were generated from the original data through Monte Carlo subsampling and then used to evaluate model performance. For the subsampling, three sampling strategies were adopted: (A) 1 random sample each month (12/year), (B) 12 random monthly samples plus additional 8 random samples per year (20/year), and (C) flow-stratified sampling with 12 regular (non-storm) and 8 storm samples per year (20/year). Results reveal that estimation performance varies with both model choice and sampling strategy. In terms of model choice, the modified models show general improvement over the original model under all three sampling strategies. Major improvements were achieved for NOx by the long-term flow-anomaly model and for Cl by the ADF (average discounted flow) model and the short-term flow-anomaly model. Moderate improvements were achieved for SS, TP, and TKN

  2. Innovative framework to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban combined sewer catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, V. M.; Quijano, J. C.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a probabilistic model to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban watersheds. The approach implemented here extends previous studies that rely on the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph concept to include nonconservative constituents. This is implemented with a factor χ that affects the transfer functions and therefore accounts for the loss (gain) of mass associated with the constituent as it travels through the watershed. Using this framework, we developed an analytical solution for the dynamics of dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in urban networks based on the Streeter and Phelps model. This model breaks down the catchment into a discreet number of possible flow paths through the system, requiring less data and implementation effort than well-established deterministic models. Application of the model to one sewer catchment in the Chicago area with available BOD information proved its ability to predict the BOD concentration observed in the measurements. In addition, comparison of the model with a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) of another sewer catchment from the Chicago area showed that the model predicted the BOD concentration as well as the widely accepted SWMM. The developed model proved to be a suitable alternative to simulate the fate and transport of constituents in urban catchments with limited and uncertain input data.

  3. Measurement of surface emission flux rates for volatile organic compounds at Technical Area 54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, V.; Morgenstern, M.; Krier, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gilkeson, R. [Weirich and Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The survey described in this report was conducted to estimate the mass of volatile organic compounds venting to the atmosphere from active and inactive waste disposal sites at Technical Area 54. A large number of nonintrusive passive sample collection devices were placed on the ground surface for 72 hours to characterize an area of approximately 150 acres. Results provided an indication of the boundary location of the known volatile organic plume, plume constituents, and isolated high concentration areas. The data from this survey enhanced existing data from a limited number of monitor wells currently used for plume surveillance. Results indicate that the estimated mass emission to the atmosphere is orders of magnitude lower than what is considered a small flux rate at a spill site or a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act landfill and is far below the threshold limit established by the State of New Mexico as an air quality concern.

  4. Phytotoxic activity of foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Labiatae family, were investigated for their phytotoxic activities on seed germination and root growth of crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and weed species (Lolium perenne L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Foliar volatiles of C. nepeta (L.) Savi strongly inhibited both germination and root growth of lettuce, and its essential oils, especially at 125, 250 and 500 μL/L, inhibited both processes in lettuce, radish and A. retroflexus L. species, while displaying a little effect on L. perenne L. By GC-MS, 28 chemicals were identified: 17 monoterpenes, 8 sesquiterpenes, 1 diterpene and 2 miscellaneous. Pulegone was the main constituent of the C. nepeta (L.) Savi essential oils. The terpenic components of essentials oils were probably responsible for the phytotoxic activities.

  5. Concentrations of selected constituents in surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from streams in and near an area of oil and natural-gas development, south-central Texas, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Crow, Cassi L.

    2014-01-01

    During 2011–13, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority and the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, analyzed surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from 10 sites in the San Antonio River Basin to provide data for a broad range of constituents that might be associated with hydraulic fracturing and the produced waters that are a consequence of hydraulic fracturing. Among surface-water samples, all sulfide concentrations were less than the method detection limit of 0.79 milligrams per liter. Four glycols—diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and triethylene glycol—were analyzed for in surface-water samples collected for this study, and none were detected. Of the 91 semivolatile organic compounds analyzed for this study, there were six detections, all but one of which were in storm-runoff samples. The base-flow sample collected at the San Antonio River at Goliad, Tex. (SAR Goliad), site contained bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride and a constituent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The storm-runoff samples collected at the San Antonio River near Elmendorf, Tex. (SAR Elmendorf), and Ecleto Creek at County Road 326 near Runge, Tex. (Ecleto 2), sites also contained bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The storm-runoff sample collected at the SAR Elmendorf site contained the plasticizer diethyl phthalate. Both storm-runoff samples collected at the Ecleto Creek near Runge, Tex. (Ecleto 1), and Ecleto 2 sites contained benzyl alcohol, a solvent commonly used in paints. Of the 67 volatile organic compounds analyzed in this study, there were a total of six detections, all of which were in base-flow samples. The surface-water sample collected at the SAR Elmendorf site contained bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and trichloromethane, all of which are disinfection byproducts associated with the chlorination of municipal water supplies and of treated municipal wastewater. The

  6. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  7. Organic Nitrates: A Complex Family of Atmospheric Trace Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Fischer, R. G.; Grünert, A.; Kastler, J.; Schneider, M.; Woidich, S.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic and geogenic hydrocarbons are the precursors of organic nitrates that are formed as tropospheric photo-oxidation products in the presence of NOx. Air chemistry leads to a very complex pattern of nitric acid esters: alkyl nitrates, aryl-alkyl nitrates, and bifunctional nitrates like alkyl dinitrates, hydroxy alkyl nitrates and carbonyl alkyl nitrates. We have analyzed the pattern of organic nitrates in air samples after adsorption/thermal desorption (low volume sampling-LVS) or adsorption/solvent desorption (high volume sampling-HVS) by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture (ECD) and mass spectrometric detection (MSD) using air aliquotes of 100 up to 3000 liters on column. The complexity of the organic nitrates found in air requires a group pre-separation by normal phase liquid chromatography. A detection limit per compound of 0.005 ppt(v) is achieved by our approach. We have synthesized a broad spectrum of organic nitrates as reference compounds. Air samples were taken from central Europe, the US West (Utah, Nevada, California), and the North- and South Atlantic including Antarctica. Levels and patterns of the regional and global occurrence of the various groups of C1-C12 organic nitrates including dinitrates and hydroxy nitrates and nitrates of isoprene (2-methylbutadiene) are presented. Werner G., J. Kastler, R. Looser, K. Ballschmiter: "Organic nitrates of isoprene as atmospheric trace compounds" Angewandte Chemie - International Edition (1999) 38: 1634-1637. Woidich S., O. Froescheis, O. Luxenhofer, K. Ballschmiter: "EI- and NCI-mass spectrometry of arylalkyl nitrates and their occurrence in urban air" Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1999) 364 : 91-99. Kastler, J; Jarman, W; Ballschmiter, K.: "Multifunctional organic nitrates as constituents in European and US urban photo-smog" Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (2000) 368:244-249. Schneider M., K. Ballschmiter: "C3-C14 alkyl nitrates in remote South Atlantic air" Chemosphere (1999) 38: 233-244. Fischer

  8. Ion mobility spectrometry for detection of skin volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Mochalski, Pawel; Schmid, Alex; Wiesenhofer, Helmut; Klieber, Martin; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2012-12-12

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by humans through their skin were investigated in near real time using ion mobility spectrometry after gas chromatographic separation with a short multi-capillary column. VOCs typically found in a small nitrogen flow covering the skin are 3-methyl-2-butenal, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, sec-butyl acetate, benzaldehyde, octanal, 2-ethylhexanol, nonanal and decanal at volume fractions in the low part per billion-(ppb) range. The technique presented here may contribute to elucidating some physiological processes occurring in the human skin.

  9. RESOLVE (Regolith & Environmental Science Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Captain, Janine; Cryderman, Kate; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The RESOLVE Project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer for the Surge Tank (NIRST), WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  10. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOTAL VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM LEAVES OF CITRUS LIMON LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steamdistillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by meansof Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatilecomponents were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing theirretention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification wasdone by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RIvalues and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standardavailable literature.

  11. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivities from Colombian Kyllinga pumila Michx (Cyperaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Eugenia Jaramillo-Colorado; Eduardo Luis Martínez-Cáceres; Edisson Duarte-Restrepo

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Kyllinga pumila (Michx) was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-eight volatile compounds were identified, major constituents of the oil were Methyl E,E-10,11-epoxyfarnesoate (43.8%), β-elemene (12.5%), Z-caryophyllene (11.3%), germacrene D (7.1%) and E-caryophyllene (5.6%). Repellent and fumigant activities of the oil against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), we...

  12. COMPARISON OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN TEUCRIUM POLIUM L. BY HEADSPACE AND HYDRODISTILLATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aerial parts of Teucrium polium were subjected to headspace (HS) and hydro-distillation (HD) techniques after drying, then headspace volatiles and the essential oil were analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight and Thirty-nine constituents were identified in hydro-distillation and CombiPAL system which represented 99.7% and 99.8% of the oils, respectively. hydro-distillation method were α-pinene (30.8%), β- pinene (12.0%), myrcene (8.9%), limonene (7.9%), (E)-caryophyllene (5.6%), Germacrene D (6.9%), ...

  13. Information focus, syntactic weight and postverbal constituent order in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Heidinger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Spanish, postverbal constituents – such as direct object, locative adjunct or depicitive – can be ordered in different ways (e.g. Juan bailó desnudo en su casa vs. Juan bailó en su casa desnudo. The present paper examines two possible factors for postverbal constituent order: information focus and syntactic weight. Based on data from a perception experiment it will be shown that information focus and syntactic weight indeed influence in postverbal constituent order in Spanish: both the focalization of a constituent and the increase of the weight of a constituent increase the frequency with which the respective constituent takes up the sentence final position. As concerns the strength of the two factors, our results suggest that information focus and syntactic weight influence in postverbal constituent order to a similar extent. As concerns the syntatic position of narrow information focus in Spanish, our results show that the sentence final position is the preferred position for narrowly focused constituents, but such constituents are not limited to the sentence final position.

  14. Constituent Model of Extremal non-BPS Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gimon, Eric; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    We interpret extremal non-BPS black holes in four dimensions as threshold bound states of four 1/2-BPS constituents. We verify the no-force condition for each of the primitive constituents in the probe approximation. Our computations are for a seed solution with $\\bar{D0}-D4$ charges and equal $B$-fields, but symmetries extend the result to any U-dual frame. We make the constituent model for the $D0-D6$ system explicit, and also discuss a duality frame where the constituents are $D3$ branes a...

  15. Belief biases and volatility of assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei-Sun, Wen-Zou, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on an overlapping generation model, this paper introduces the noise traders with belief biases and rational traders. With an equilibrium analysis, this paper examines the volatility of risky asset. The results show that the belief biases, the probability of economy state, and the domain capability are all the factors that have effects on the volatility of the market.

  16. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    empirical link between e ective tax rates and output volatility, with some evidence of a cointegrating relationship. In accordance with theory, taxes on labor income and corporate income empirically are found to be negatively related to volatility of macro aggregates whereas the capital tax ratio has...

  17. Effects of Idiosyncratic Volatility in Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the effects of the aggregate market volatility components - average volatility and average correlation - on the pricing of portfolios sorted by idiosyncratic volatility, using Brazilian data. The study investigates whether portfolios with high and low idiosyncratic volatility - in relation to the Fama and French model (1996 - have different exposures to innovations in average market volatility, and consequently, different expectations for return. The results are in line with those found for US data, although they portray the Brazilian reality. Decomposition of volatility allows the average volatility component, without the disturbance generated by the average correlation component, to better price the effects of a worsening or an improvement in the investment environment. This result is also identical to that found for US data. Average variance should thus command a risk premium. For US data, this premium is negative. According to Chen and Petkova (2012, the main reason for this negative sign is the high level of investment in research and development recorded by companies with high idiosyncratic volatility. As in Brazil this type of investment is significantly lower than in the US, it was expected that a result with the opposite sign would be found, which is in fact what occurred.

  18. Some recent developments in stochastic volatility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Nicolato, Elisa; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and puts in context some of our recent work on stochastic volatility (SV) modelling for financial economics. Here our main focus is on: (i) the relationship between subordination and SV, (ii) OU based volatility models, (iii) exact option pricing, (iv) realized power variation...

  19. Volatility Determination in an Ambit Process Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Graversen, Svend-Erik

    The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness.......The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness....

  20. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...