WorldWideScience

Sample records for volatile chemicals interim

  1. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  2. [Chemical components of Vetiveria zizanioides volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghua; Li, Huashou; Yang, Jun; Chen, Yufen; Liu, Yinghu; Li, Ning; Nie, Chengrong

    2004-01-01

    The chemical components of the volatiles from Vetiveria zizanioides were analyzed by SPME and GC-MS. In the roots, the main component was valencene (30.36%), while in the shoots and leaves, they were 9-octadecenamide (33.50%), 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (27.46%), and 1,2-benzendicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester(18.29%). The results showed that there were many terpenoids in the volatils. In shoot volatiles, there existed 3 monoterpenes, 2 sequiterpenes and 1 triterpene. Most of the volatiles in roots were sesquiterpenes.

  3. Volatile chemical interaction between undamaged plants

    OpenAIRE

    Glinwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses whether plant chemical communication is a mechanism by which plant genetic diversity can affect the natural enemies of herbivores. Plant genetic diversity influences natural enemies, and these insects use volatile chemical cues to locate suitable habitats. However, the importance of chemical communication for these interactions has not been considered. In this chapter, the latest research on chemical communication between undamaged plants is reviewed. ...

  4. Volatility of fragrance chemicals: patch testing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah J; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic and predictive patch testing to determine contact allergy due to fragrance materials requires applying a fixed dose of material to the skin. This dose can be affected by the volatile nature of fragrances; little data exist on how the loss of fragrance dose due to volatility affects patch testing. (1) To evaluate pH dependence and evaporation rates of two fragrance chemicals, geraniol, citronellol, and a common fragrance solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and (2) Assess implications for predictive patch-testing methods for fragrances. pH analysis of each material at 1% for three values (4.0, 5.0, 7.0) was done over 40 hours. Volatility experiments for each material, nonradiolabeled and radiolabeled, were conducted over a 24-hour period, taking readings at six time points (5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours). Evaporation rates were not sensitive to pH shifts from 4.0 to 7.0. Evaporation rates for nonradiolabeled materials were low: after 24 hours, geraniol lost 8.9%, citronellol 27.0% and DEP 14.5%. The volatility data for radiolabeled materials demonstrated that geraniol loses up to 39% of its dose, citronellol loses up to 26%, and DEP up to 14% within 40 minutes. The tendency of fragrance materials to evaporate can impact the dose being applied to the patch and therefore the result of the patch and ultimately the decision-making process regarding that fragrance material's safety. These data, developed with DEP, utilized in a predictive sensitization assay cannot be generalized.

  5. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem

  6. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  7. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  8. Transport and Fate of Volatile Organic Chemical in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lis Wollesen

    Recently much attention has been paid to the behavior of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the environment. This is due to the fact that the environmental pollution with these hazardous chemicals has drastically increased during the last decades. The present study is limited to consider...... the transport and fate of VOCs in the gaseous phase, thus contributing to the overall understanding of VOCs behavior in soil, which eventually will facilitate future cleanup....

  9. [Analysis of chemical constituents of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-long; Xiong, Tian-qin; Liao, Jia-yi; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Yu-min; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Cui-xian

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the chemical components of volatile components from Jia Ga Song Tang. The volatile oils were extracted by water steam distillation. The chemical components of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS and quantitatively determined by a normalization method. 103 components were separated and 87 components were identified in the volatile oil of Zingiberis Rhizoma. 58 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Myristicae Semen. 49 components were separated and 38 components were identified in the volatile oil of Amomi Rotundus Fructus. 89 components were separated and 63 components were identified in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Eucalyptol, β-phellandrene and other terpenes were the main compounds in the volatile oil of Jia Ga Song Tang. Changes in the kinds and content of volatile components can provide evidences for scientific and rational compatibility for Jia Ga Song Tang.

  10. Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio, interim report, 1988-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.L.; Sroka, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of the application of highway deicing chemicals during winter months on ground- water quality are being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. Eight sites throughout the State were selected along major undivided highways where drainage is by open ditches and ground-water flow is approximately perpendicular to the highway. At these sites, records of deicer application rates are being kept and apparent movement of deicing chemicals through shallow, unconsolidated aquifers is being monitored by means of periodic measurements of specific con ductance and concentrations of dissolved sodium, calcium, and chloride. The counties and corre sponding sections of state routes being monitored are the following: State Route (SR) 3 in Ashland County, SR 84 in Ashtabula County, SR 29 in Champaign County, SR 4 in Clark County, SR 2 in Lucas County, SR 104 in Pickaway County, SR 14 in Portage County, and SR 97 in Richland County. The study began in January 1988 with background data collection, extensive literature review, and site selection. This process, including drilling of wells at the eight selected sites, lasted 3 years. Routine ground-water sampling at 4- to 6-week intervals began in January 1991. A relatively new type of multilevel, passive flow ground-water sampling device was constructed and used. Other conditions monitored on a regular basis included ground-water level (monitored con tinuously), specific conductance, air and soil temperature, precipitation, chloride concentration in soil samples, ground conductivity, and deicing chemical application times and rates. For the interim reporting period, water samples were collected from January 1991 through September 1993. Evidence from water analysis, specific conductance measurements, and surface geophysical measurements indicates that four of the eight sites (Ashtabula County, Lucas County, Portage County, and Richland

  11. Mechanisms of chemical generation of volatile hydrides for trace element determination (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Ulivo, A.; Dědina, Jiří; Mester, Z.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Welz, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 6 (2011), s. 1283-1340 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : borane complexes * chemical generation of volatile hydrides (CHG) * volatile hydrides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.789, year: 2011

  12. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shong, E; Lui, R

    1997-10-01

    The chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave were analyzed by GC-MS-DS. 27 constituents were identified, alpha-pinene (70.65%) and caryophyllene (10.38%) of them are main components.

  13. Chemical generation of volatile species of copper – Optimization, efficiency and investigation of volatile species nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šoukal, Jakub; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 977, JUL (2017), s. 10-19 ISSN 0003-2670 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : generation of volatile species * copper * analytical atomic spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  14. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  15. High Throughput Exposure Modeling of Semi-Volatile Chemicals in Articles of Commerce (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical components of consumer products and articles of commerce such as carpet and clothing are key drivers of exposure in the near-field environment. These chemicals include semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), some of which have been shown to alter endocrine functionality...

  16. Chemical Investigations of Volatile Oil of Salvia yosgadensis Freyn et Bornm

    OpenAIRE

    ŞARER, Engin

    1988-01-01

    There are 44 endemic species of the Salvia genera growing in Anatolia. In this research, the physical properties and the chemical composition of the volatile oil of S. yosgadensis Freyn. et Bornm. as an endemic species have been investigated. The flowers and leaves of the plant contain 0.30 per cent volatile oil. In this oil 14 monoterpene hydrocarbons and 15 oxygen-containing compounds and sesquiter

  17. Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The action consists of moving with small kicks a tin of cola refresh -without Brand-from a point of the city up to other one. During the path I avoid bollards, the slope differences between sidewalks, pedestrians, parked motorcycles, etc. Volatility wants to say exactly that the money is getting lost. That the money is losing by gentlemen and by ladies who are neither financial sharks, nor big businessmen… or similarly, but ingenuous people, as you or as me, who walk down the street.

  18. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

  19. Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willdenow) Sprengel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Sheyla Cristiane Xenofonte de; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes de; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were β-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%), β-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%), γ-muurolene (28.4%), α-humulene (26.0%), 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5%) and β-pinene (10.6%). Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with β-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS), and comparison with the literature. (author)

  20. Chemically-resolved volatility measurements of organic aerosol fom different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J A; Docherty, K S; Mohr, C; Cubison, M J; Ulbrich, I M; Ziemann, P J; Onasch, T B; Jimenez, J L

    2009-07-15

    A newly modified fast temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) was coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for rapid determination of chemically resolved volatility of organic aerosols (OA) emitted from individual sources. The TD-AMS system was used to characterize primary OA (POA) from biomass burning, trash burning surrogates (paper and plastic), and meat cooking as well as chamber-generated secondary OA (SOA) from alpha-pinene and gasoline vapor. Almost all atmospheric models represent POA as nonvolatile, with no allowance for evaporation upon heating or dilution, or condensation upon cooling. Our results indicate that all OAs observed show semivolatile behavior and that most POAs characterized here were at least as volatile as SOA measured in urban environments. Biomass-burning OA (BBOA) exhibited a wide range of volatilities, but more often showed volatility similar to urban OA. Paper-burning resembles some types of BBOA because of its relatively high volatility and intermediate atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, while meat-cooking OAs (MCOA) have consistently lower volatility than ambient OA. Chamber-generated SOA under the relatively high concentrations used intraditional experiments was significantly more volatile than urban SOA, challenging extrapolation of traditional laboratory volatility measurements to the atmosphere. Most OAs sampled show increasing O/C ratio and decreasing H/C (hydrogen-to-carbon) ratio with temperature, further indicating that more oxygenated OA components are typically less volatile. Future experiments should systematically explore a wider range of mass concentrations to more fully characterize the volatility distributions of these OAs.

  1. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The volatile pivalates of Y, Ba and Cu as prospective precursors for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iljina, E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Korjeva, A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Kuzmina, N. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Troyanov, S. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Dunaeva, K. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Martynenko, L. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation))

    1993-04-15

    The volatile pivalates of Y, Ba and Cu were synthesized and characterized by chemical and thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry. The volatilities of metal pivalates was studied; the vapour pressures, thermodynamic characteristics and rates of sublimation were investigated. The volatile pivalates of Y, Ba and Cu are new prospective accessible compounds. (orig.)

  3. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and cleanup criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-09-01

    Soil cleanup criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals, this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria that include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:861-869. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  4. Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The volatilities of different chemical species in ambient aerosols are important but remain poorly characterized. The coupling of a recently developed rapid temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD, operated in the range 54–230°C with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS during field studies in two polluted megacities has enabled the first direct characterization of chemically-resolved urban particle volatility. Measurements in Riverside, CA and Mexico City are generally consistent and show ambient nitrate as having the highest volatility of any AMS standard aerosol species while sulfate showed the lowest volatility. Total organic aerosol (OA showed volatility intermediate between nitrate and sulfate, with an evaporation rate of 0.6%·K−1 near ambient temperature, although OA dominates the residual species at the highest temperatures. Different types of OA were characterized with marker ions, diurnal cycles, and positive matrix factorization (PMF and show significant differences in volatility. Reduced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, a surrogate for primary OA, POA, oxygenated OA (OOA, a surrogate for secondary OA, SOA, and biomass-burning OA (BBOA separated with PMF were all determined to be semi-volatile. The most aged OOA-1 and its dominant ion, CO2+, consistently exhibited the lowest volatility, with HOA, BBOA, and associated ions for each among the highest. The similar or higher volatility of HOA/POA compared to OOA/SOA contradicts the current representations of OA volatility in most atmospheric models and has important implications for aerosol growth and lifetime. A new technique using the AMS background signal was demonstrated to quantify the fraction of species up to four orders-of-magnitude less volatile than those detectable in the MS mode, which for OA represent ~5% of the non-refractory (NR OA signal. Our results strongly imply that all OA types should be considered

  5. Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

  6. Chemical Diversity in Volatiles of Helichrysum plicatum DC. Subspecies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintuğ Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work three subspecies of Helichrysum plicatum DC. (Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum, Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. polyphillum (Ledeb P.H.Davis & Kupicha and Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. isauricum Parolly were investigated for the essential oil chemical compositions. The volatiles were obtained by conventional hydrodistillation of aerial parts and microdistillation of inflorescences. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS revealed chemical diversity in compositions of the volatiles analyzed. A total of 199 compounds were identified representing 73.9-98.3% of the volatiles compositions. High abundance of fatty acids and their esters (24.9-70.8% was detected in the herb volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum and H. plicatum subsp. isauricum. The inflorescences of Helichrysum subspecies were found to be rich in monoterpenes (15.0-93.1%, fatty acids (0.1-36.3% and sesquiterpenes (1.1-25.5%. The inflorescence volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. isauricum were distinguished by predomination of monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.1% with fenchene (88.3% as the major constituent

  7. Relationship between the evaporation rate and vapor pressure of moderately and highly volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John

    2008-04-01

    Volatilization of chemicals can be an important form of dissipation in the environment. Rates of evaporative losses from plant and soil surfaces are useful for estimating the potential for food-related dietary residues and operator and bystander exposure, and can be used as source functions for screening models that predict off-site movement of volatile materials. A regression of evaporation on vapor pressure from three datasets containing 82 pesticidal active ingredients and co-formulants, ranging in vapor pressure from 0.0001 to >30,000 Pa was developed for this purpose with a regression correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  8. Emissions of volatile organic compounds in the United Kingdom: a review of emission factors by species and process. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, I.T.; Richardson, S.J.; Dowsett, R.; Passant, N.R.; Coleman, P.; Loader, A.; Giddings, T.; Warde-Jones, S.; Richardson, J.L.; Lethlean, J.; McAlister, R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to prepare a comprehensive review of UK VOC emissions by species and process. The purpose was to: check that no major sources have been omitted; test the relative size ranking of sources; improve the estimate of the size of each sector; sub-divide each sector so that emissions could be related to abatement options; and add speciated data. Best emission estimates are provided for the following: solvent use, oil industry, chemical industry, stationary combustion, food industry, iron and steel, waste disposal and agriculture. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  9. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils.

  10. An environmental chamber for investigating the evaporation of volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, H K; Rumph, P F

    1998-03-01

    An inexpensive test chamber has been constructed that provides an environment appropriate for testing the effects of temperature and chemical interactions on gaseous emissions from test solutions. Temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation rate can be controlled and a well-mixed atmosphere can be maintained. The system is relatively simple and relies on heated tap water or ice to adjust the temperature. Temperatures ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C have been maintained. At an average temperature of 15.1 degrees C, temperatures at any location within the chamber vary by no more than 0.5 degree C, and the temperature of the test solution within the chamber varies by no more than 0.1 degree C. The temperatures within the chamber are stable enough to generate precise steady-state concentrations. The wind velocities within the chamber are reproducible from run to run. Consequently, the effect of velocity on the rate of evaporation of a test chemical is expected to be uniform from run to run. Steady-state concentrations can be attained in less than 1 hour at an air exchange rate of about 5 per hour.

  11. Molecular corridors and parameterizations of volatility in the chemical evolution of organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation and aging of organic aerosols (OA proceed through multiple steps of chemical reaction and mass transport in the gas and particle phases, which is challenging for the interpretation of field measurements and laboratory experiments as well as accurate representation of OA evolution in atmospheric aerosol models. Based on data from over 30 000 compounds, we show that organic compounds with a wide variety of functional groups fall into molecular corridors, characterized by a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility. We developed parameterizations to predict the saturation mass concentration of organic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur from the elemental composition that can be measured by soft-ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Field measurement data from new particle formation events, biomass burning, cloud/fog processing, and indoor environments were mapped into molecular corridors to characterize the chemical nature of the observed OA components. We found that less-oxidized indoor OA are constrained to a corridor of low molar mass and high volatility, whereas highly oxygenated compounds in atmospheric water extend to high molar mass and low volatility. Among the nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds identified in atmospheric aerosols, amines tend to exhibit low molar mass and high volatility, whereas organonitrates and organosulfates follow high O : C corridors extending to high molar mass and low volatility. We suggest that the consideration of molar mass and molecular corridors can help to constrain volatility and particle-phase state in the modeling of OA particularly for nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

  12. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Akherati, Ali; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hayes, Patrick L.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Cui, Yu Yan; Kim, Si-Wan; Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Harley, Robert A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Trainer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)—including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products—now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.

  13. Transient receptor potential channels encode volatile chemicals sensed by rat trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lübbert

    Full Text Available Primary sensory afferents of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia constantly transmit sensory information depicting the individual's physical and chemical environment to higher brain regions. Beyond the typical trigeminal stimuli (e.g. irritants, environmental stimuli comprise a plethora of volatile chemicals with olfactory components (odorants. In spite of a complete loss of their sense of smell, anosmic patients may retain the ability to roughly discriminate between different volatile compounds. While the detailed mechanisms remain elusive, sensory structures belonging to the trigeminal system seem to be responsible for this phenomenon. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the activation of the trigeminal system by volatile chemicals, we investigated odorant-induced membrane potential changes in cultured rat trigeminal neurons induced by the odorants vanillin, heliotropyl acetone, helional, and geraniol. We observed the dose-dependent depolarization of trigeminal neurons upon application of these substances occurring in a stimulus-specific manner and could show that distinct neuronal populations respond to different odorants. Using specific antagonists, we found evidence that TRPA1, TRPM8, and/or TRPV1 contribute to the activation. In order to further test this hypothesis, we used recombinantly expressed rat and human variants of these channels to investigate whether they are indeed activated by the odorants tested. We additionally found that the odorants dose-dependently inhibit two-pore potassium channels TASK1 and TASK3 heterologously expressed In Xenopus laevis oocytes. We suggest that the capability of various odorants to activate different TRP channels and to inhibit potassium channels causes neuronal depolarization and activation of distinct subpopulations of trigeminal sensory neurons, forming the basis for a specific representation of volatile chemicals in the trigeminal ganglia.

  14. Micro- and Nanostructured Metal Oxide Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. A.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.; Batra, A. K.; Aggarwal, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications warrant the development of chemical sensors which operate in a variety of environments. This technical memorandum incorporates various kinds of chemical sensors and ways to improve their performance. The results of exploratory investigation of the binary composite polycrystalline thick-films such as SnO2-WO3, SnO2-In2O3, SnO2-ZnO for the detection of volatile organic compound (isopropanol) are reported. A short review of the present status of the new types of nanostructured sensors such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanotube, etc. based on metal oxides is presented.

  15. Chemical Composition of the Semi-Volatile Grains of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Berthelier, J. J.; De Keyser, J.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Korth, A.; Mall, U.; Reme, H.; Rubin, M.; Tzou, C. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rosetta was in orbit of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from August 2014 to September 2016. On board is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) experiment that has been continuously collecting data on the chemical composition and activity of the coma from 3.5 AU to pericentre at 1.24 AU and out again to 3.5 AU. ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers, the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) and the Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF), as well as the COmet Pressure Sensor (COPS). ROSINA recorded the neutral gas and thermal plasma in the comet's coma. The two mass spectrometers have high dynamic ranges and complement each other with high mass resolution, and high time resolution and large mass range. COPS measures total gas densities, bulk velocities, and gas temperatures. Occasionally, a dust grain of cometary origin enters the ion source of a ROSINA instrument where the volatile part evaporates since these ion sources are hot. The release of volatiles from cometary dust grains was observed with all three ROSINA instruments on several occasions. Because the volatile content of such a dust grain is completely evaporated after a few seconds, the RTOF instrument is best suited for the investigation of its chemical composition since complete mass spectra are recorded during this time. During the mission 9 dust grains were observed with RTOF during the October 2014 to July 2016 time period. It is estimated that these grains contain about 10-15 g of volatiles. The mass spectra were interpreted with a set of 75 molecules, with the major groups of chemical species being hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, nitrogen-bearing molecules, sulphur-bearing molecules, halogenated molecules and others. About 70% of these grains are depleted in water compared to the comet coma, thus, can be considered as semi-volatile dust grains, and the other about 30% are water grains. The chemical composition varies considerably from grain to grain

  16. Comparison of the Chemical Composition of “Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines C. Agardh” Volatile Compounds Obtained by Different Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Bouzidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile fraction of the brown alga Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines C.Agardh is prepared from the crude extract through the following three extraction methods: Hydrodistillation (HD, focused microwave assisted hydrodistillation (FMAHD and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. The volatile fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry (GC-FID-MS, the chemical components are identified on the basis of the comparison of their retention indices with literature and their mass spectra with those reported in commercial databases. The chemical composition of the volatile fractions obtained by different extraction techniques fall into three major chemical classes: fatty acids and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, and hydrocarbons and derivatives. Others Compounds belonging to different chemical classes are found in that chemical composition.

  17. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  18. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  19. Microbes and associated soluble and volatile chemicals on periodically wet household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Misztal, Pawel K; De Cassia Pessotti, Rita; Behie, Scott W; Tian, Yilin; Goldstein, Allen H; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Taylor, John W; Traxler, Matt F; Bruns, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower. Microbial communities were studied using culture-dependent and independent techniques, including targeting RNA for amplicon sequencing. Volatile and soluble chemicals from paired samples were analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques to explore the links between the observed microbiota and chemical exudates. Microbial analysis revealed a rich biological presence on the surfaces exposed in kitchen sinks and bathroom shower stalls. Microbial composition, matched for DNA and RNA targets, varied by surface type and sampling period. Bacteria were found to have an average of 25× more gene copies than fungi. Biomass estimates based on qPCR were well correlated with measured total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Abundant VOCs included products associated with fatty acid production. Molecular networking revealed a diversity of surface-borne compounds that likely originate from microbes and from household products. Microbes played a role in structuring the chemical profiles on and emitted from kitchen sinks and shower stalls. Microbial VOCs (mVOCs) were predominately associated with the processing of fatty acids. The mVOC composition may be more stable than that of microbial communities, which can show temporal and spatial variation in their responses to changing environmental conditions. The mVOC output from microbial metabolism on kitchen sinks and bathroom showers should be apparent through careful

  20. Interim overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A H

    1976-07-01

    The construction of an interim overdenture using existing removable partial dentures with natural tooth crowns and artificial teeth can be a simple and economical method of providing patients with dentures while tissues heal and teeth are prepared and restored. A more definite prognosis for both the patient and his remaining dentition can be established before the final overdenture is completed. The procedures necessary to provide three types of interim overdentures have been outlined. Patients tolerate this method of changing their dentitions extremely well.

  1. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Luning; Sulkes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O 2 . Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  2. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.. The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  3. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  4. Adolescent Exposure to Toxic Volatile Organic Chemicals From E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Delucchi, Kevin; Benowitz, Neal L; Ramo, Danielle E

    2018-04-01

    There is an urgent need to understand the safety of e-cigarettes with adolescents. We sought to identify the presence of chemical toxicants associated with e-cigarette use among adolescents. Adolescent e-cigarette users (≥1 use within the past 30 days, ≥10 lifetime e-cigarette use episodes) were divided into e-cigarette-only users (no cigarettes in the past 30 days, urine 4-[methylnitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanol [NNAL] level 30 pg/mL; n = 16), and never-using controls ( N = 20). Saliva was collected within 24 hours of the last e-cigarette use for analysis of cotinine and urine for analysis of NNAL and levels of 8 volatile organic chemical compounds. Bivariate analyses compared e-cigarette-only users with dual users, and regression analyses compared e-cigarette-only users with dual users and controls on levels of toxicants. The participants were 16.4 years old on average. Urine excretion of metabolites of benzene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, acrolein, and acrylamide was significantly higher in dual users versus e-cigarette-only users (all P < .05). Excretion of metabolites of acrylonitrile, acrolein, propylene oxide, acrylamide, and crotonaldehyde were significantly higher in e-cigarette-only users compared with controls (all P < .05). Although e-cigarette vapor may be less hazardous than tobacco smoke, our findings can be used to challenge the idea that e-cigarette vapor is safe, because many of the volatile organic compounds we identified are carcinogenic. Messaging to teenagers should include warnings about the potential risk from toxic exposure to carcinogenic compounds generated by these products. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Chemical soil data report to support interim response actions, construction staging area, and Administration Building: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Five activities are planned to improve environmental conditions or to improve facilities at the Weldon Spring Site. Each activity must be evaluated for potential environmental impacts. Chemical soil contamination was potentially present in each affected area. A sampling program was designed and implemented to evaluate chemical soil conditions. Samples were analyzed for nitroaromatic compounds, metals, inorganic anions, semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and PCBs. This investigation documented low concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds, pesticides, PCBs and nitroaromatics. Higher concentrations of nitrate, sulfate and some metals were also detected. The contaminants detected are consistent with past operations at the WSS. The concentrations of contaminants do not significantly impact the proposed activities. Data from this investigation has been incorporated into the planning and documentation activities for each activity

  6. Chemical composition of the semi-volatile grains of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Peter; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, André; Calmonte, Ursina; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fuselier, Stefan; Gasc, Sébastien; Gombosi, Tamas; Jäckel, Annette; Korth, Axel; Le Roy, Lena; Mall, Urs; Rème, Henri; Rubin, Martin; Tzou, Chia-Yu

    2017-04-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft (Glassmeier et al., 2007) has been in orbit of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) since August 2014. On board is the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument suite (Balsiger et al., 2007). ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers, the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) and the Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF) (Scherer et al., 2006), as well as the COmet Pressure Sensor (COPS). ROSINA is designed to detect and monitor the neutral gas and thermal plasma environment in the comet's coma by in situ investigation. The two mass spectrometers have high dynamic ranges and complement each other with high mass resolution (DFMS) and high time resolution and large mass range (RTOF). Especially the unprecedented sensitivity and mass resolution of DFMS together with the large mass range of RTOF allow determining precisely light species (e.g. isotopologues) as well as detecting heavy organic species. The pressure sensor COPS measures total gas densities, bulk velocities, and gas temperatures. ROSINA has been collecting data on the composition of the coma and activity of the comet from 3.5 AU to pericentre and out again to 3.5 AU. The Rosetta mission presents a unique opportunity to directly sample the parent species in the thin cometary atmosphere of a Kuiper-belt object at distances in excess of 2.5 AU from the Sun all the way to the pericentre of the cometary orbit at 1.24 AU. The ROSINA experiment continuously measured the chemical composition of the gases in the cometary coma. Occasionally, a dust grain of cometary origin enters the ion source of a ROSINA instrument where the volatile part evaporates since these ion sources are hot. We will report on the first measurements of the volatile inventory of such dust grains. Volatile release from cometary dust grains was observed with all three ROSINA instruments on several occasions. Because the volatile content of such a dust

  7. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    undergone similar chemical processing as rBC in the atmosphere. Although the atomic O : C ratio of OOA is substantially larger than that of solid fuel OA and hydrocarbon-like OA, these three factors have similar volatility, which is inferred from the change in mass concentration after heating at 120 °C. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the mass fraction remaining (MFR of OA after heating in the TD and atomic O : C of OA and find that particles with a wide range of O : C could have similar MFR after heating. This analysis emphasizes the importance of understanding the distribution of volatility and O : C in bulk OA.

  8. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  9. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  10. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  11. Determinants of the Sensory Quality of Półgęsek in Relation to Volatile Compounds and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicka Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the sensory quality of a specific Polish traditional product made from cured and then smoked goose meat (półgęsek in relation to its volatile compounds and chemical composition. In general, the examined samples contained 66.2% water, 12.2% fat, 17.9% protein, 1.8% connective tissue, and 2.3% NaCl. Moreover, 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. The typical decomposition products derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, carbohydrate fermentation and microbial esterification were the main volatiles detected in all the samples. The volatiles generated by the smoking process and the ones originating from spices were also observed. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that all the samples of the analyzed products were characterized by a high overall quality. Results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed, however, that specific groups of products have their own unique sensory profile. Additionally, the sensory analysis confirmed the significant role of the chemical composition and volatile compounds in the development of the overall quality of półgęsek.

  12. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  13. Variations in amounts and potential sources of volatile organic chemicals in new cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines inter-brand, intra-brand and intra-model variations in volatile organic chemical (VOC) levels inside new cars. The effect of temperature on interior VOC levels was examined using model automobiles with and without the air-conditioning running. Potential sources of VOC were assessed by comparing VOC levels with two interior trims (leather and fabric) and by analyzing VOC emissions from various interior components. Five brands of new car, both domestic and imported, were tested. Twelve targeted VOCs were collected on solid sorbents and analyzed using thermal desorption and GC/FID. VOCs from interior parts and adhesives were identified using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with GC/MS. The VOC concentrations varied markedly among brands and within models, and individual VOC levels ranged from below the detection limit (a few μg per cubic meter) to thousands of μg per cubic meter. The intra-model variability (mean, 47%) in the VOC levels was approximately 50% that within each brand (mean, 95%). Although interior trim levels affected VOC levels, the effects differed among brands. Reduction of the cabin temperature reduced most VOC levels, but the impact was not statistically significant. Screening tests for VOCs from interior parts revealed that butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a common anti-oxidant, was the most common chemical. Long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, particularly C14-C17, were identified in most grease (lubricant) samples, and toluene and xylenes were ubiquitously present in adhesive samples. Process-related compounds, such as plasticizer, were also identified in interior parts. In-cabin VOC levels varied significantly among makes/models and interior trims. Concerned consumers should purchase older new cars from manufacturers since VOC levels inside car cabins normally declines over time. Improved processes or materials with lower VOC emission potential should be used to minimize in-cabin VOC sources for new cars

  14. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  15. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Szulczyński; Jacek Gębicki

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric), photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their ...

  16. Can clouds enhance long-range transport of low volatile, ionizable and surface-active chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric partitioning and transport of low volatile organic compounds is strongly influenced by the presence of water (e.g. clouds) and its deposition velocity (e.g. rainfall, snow). It was identified that the assumption of continuous rainfall underestimates the residence time and the transport....... The longer residence time predicted for some compounds in the LMT is due to the capacity of clouds to sorb non-volatile molecules in the liquid water and at the interface of cloud droplets. The efficiency of wet deposition to remove low volatile organic pollutants from the atmosphere is limited primarily...

  17. Volatile emission in dry seeds as a way to probe chemical reactions during initial asymptomatic deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; Hill, Lisa M; González-Benito, M Elena; Ibáñez, Miguel Angel; Walters, Christina

    2016-03-01

    The nature and kinetics of reactions in dry seeds determines how long the seeds survive. We used gas chromatography to assay volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from seeds of three unrelated species as a means to non-invasively probe chemical changes during very dry, dry, and humid storage (seeds were dried to 5.5, 33, and 75% relative humidity at room temperature). VOCs emitted from seeds stored in humid conditions reflected fermentation-type reactions, with methanol and ethanol being predominant in Lactuca sativa and Carum carvi, and acetaldehyde and acetone being predominant in Eruca vesicaria. Dried C. carvi seeds continued to emit fermentation-type products, although at slower rates than the seeds stored in humid conditions. In contrast, drying caused a switch in VOC emission in L. sativa and E. vesicaria seeds towards higher emission of pentane and hexanal, molecules considered to be byproducts from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Longevity correlated best with the rate of fermentation-type reactions and appeared unrelated to the rate of lipid peroxidation. Emission of VOCs decreased when seed species were mixed together, indicating that seeds adsorbed VOCs. Adsorption of VOCs did not appear to damage seeds, as longevity was not affected in seed mixtures. Collectively, the study shows similarity among species in the types of reactions that occur in dry seeds, but high diversity in the substrates, and hence the byproducts, of the reactions. Moreover, the study suggests that the most abundant VOCs arise from degradation of storage reserves within seed cells, and that these reactions and their byproducts are not, in themselves, damaging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Investigation of the Factors Influencing Volatile Chemical Fate During Steady-state Accretion on Wet-growing Hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, R. A.; Stuart, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    Phase partitioning during freezing affects the transport and distribution of volatile chemical species in convective clouds. This consequently can have impacts on tropospheric chemistry, air quality, pollutant deposition, and climate change. Here, we discuss the development, evaluation, and application of a mechanistic model for the study and prediction of volatile chemical partitioning during steady-state hailstone growth. The model estimates the fraction of a chemical species retained in a two-phase freezing hailstone. It is based upon mass rate balances over water and solute for accretion under wet-growth conditions. Expressions for the calculation of model components, including the rates of super-cooled drop collection, shedding, evaporation, and hail growth were developed and implemented based on available cloud microphysics literature. Solute fate calculations assume equilibrium partitioning at air-liquid and liquid-ice interfaces. Currently, we are testing the model by performing mass balance calculations, sensitivity analyses, and comparison to available experimental data. Application of the model will improve understanding of the effects of cloud conditions and chemical properties on the fate of dissolved chemical species during hail growth.

  19. Chemical Compositions of Achillea sivasica: Different Plant Part Volatiles, Enantiomers and Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmira Özek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Microsteam distillation - Solid phase microextraction (MSD-SPME and hydrodistillation (HD techniques were applied to obtain volatiles from Achillea sivasica, an endemic species from Turkey. GC-FID and GC/MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole (22.1% and a -pinene (9.3% were the main constituents of the hydrodistilled flower volatiles. (Z- b -Farnesene (23.9%, decanoic acid (10.1%, b- eudesmol (8.0%, tricosane (7.3% and hexadecanoic acid (7.2% were the main volatiles obtained from flowers by MSD-SPME. The leaf volatiles obtained by HD contained camphor (9.0%, b -pinene (6.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, a -pinene (6.7% and a -bisabolol (6.6% as the main constituents while the leaf volatiles obtained by MSD-SPME technique were rich in (E-geranyl acetone (10.5%, (E- b -ionone (10.3%, camphor (10.2%, 1,8-cineole (9.6%, longiverbenone (7.9%, b -eudesmol (7.5%, isopropyl myristate (6.7% and epi- a -bisabolol (6.4%. The root volatiles were rich in longiverbenone (14.1%, (E-geranyl acetone (9.3%, nonanol (12.1% and decanol (12.5%. The enantiomeric distribution of the major volatile constituents was analyzed by using different b -cyclodextrin chiral columns. (1R-(+- a -Pinene, (1S-(-- b -pinene, (4R-(+-limonene, (1R,3S,5R-(--trans-pinocarveol, (1S,2R,4S-(--borneol, (2S-(-- a -bisabolol were detected as dominant enantiomers. The lipids extracted from the flower and leaf with Folch method and methylated with BF 3 reagent contained common acids: linolenic, linoleic, hexadecanoic acids. Oleic and stearic acids were detected particularly in high amount in the flower lipids

  20. Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Rice

    Full Text Available Recent U.S. legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations, such as nonanal, decanol, o-cymene, benzaldehyde, which have more potent odor impact than previously reported marijuana headspace volatiles.

  1. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified...... by gas chromatography-olfactometry were 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, but despite their potency, none of the separated volatiles imparted a fishy or metallic odor. Two isomers, (E,Z,Z) and (E,E,Z) of 2...

  2. Chemical investigations of volatile kairomones produced by Hyphantria cunea (Drury), a host of the parasitoid Chouioia cunea Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G; Pan, L; Zhao, Y; Zhang, X; Wang, F; Yu, Y; Fan, W; Liu, Q; Zhang, S; Li, M

    2017-04-01

    In tritrophic 'plants-herbivores-natural enemies' systems, there are relatively few reports concerning the role(s) of kairomones in pupal parasitism. Chouioia cunea Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an endoparasitic chalcid wasp, parasitizes pupae of the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury). The role of host-related kairomones was investigated using electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral techniques. Chemicals from some host stages (pupae) and host by-products (frass), induced arrestment behavior of female parasitoids, while chemicals from prepupae, were inactive. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles collected from pupae, frass and prepupae using solid-phase microextration revealed seven compounds with carbon chain lengths ranging from C4 to C20. All of the chemicals elicited significant EAG responses in C. cunea. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays demonstrated a significant positive response of mated female C. cunea to 1-dodecene. These data provide a better understanding of the host location mechanisms of pupal parasitoid.

  3. EPN Chemical ecology and new techniques for below ground sampling and analyses of volatile semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that herbivory induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Utilizing this plant response has become a fundamental part of above ground IPM programs. We now know that also roots can release HIPVs and that these compounds attract beneficial organis...

  4. ISOTOPIC (14C) AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FRACTIONS - PRECURSORS TO OZONE FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important factor in the production of ozone near ground level [3]. Many hydrocarbons originate from auto exhaust. However, a number of VOCs, e.g., isoprene, are known to be natural in origin. To develop reliable models for un...

  5. Capture of Nontarget Flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, and Anthomyiidae on Traps Baited with Volatile Chemicals in Field-Crop Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Hesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp., and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp. in field crops. With lauxaniids, baiting with 2-phenylethanol on cotton-roll dispensers increased catch of H. bispina in two corn plot tests, and methyl salicylate increased trap catch in one test. Traps baited with methyl salicylate increased the catch of C. borealis. When using plastic-sachet dispensers, traps baited with methyl salicylate caught more H. bispina than ones baited with 2-phenylethanol, whereas traps baited with 2-phenylethanol caught more C. borealis than those with methyl salicylate. For chloropids, traps baited with 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine greatly increased catch of Olcella flies in corn and soybean. With anthomyiids, catch of male Delia flies in wheat increased with 2-phenylethanol on cotton rolls and with either 2-phenylethanol or methyl salicylate using plastic dispensers. In soybean, 2-phenylethanol formulated on cotton rolls or in plastic dispensers increased catch of male Delia flies, but methyl salicylate did not affect trap catch. Trap catch of female Delia flies did not vary among chemicals. In another test in soybean, trap catch of both male and female Delia flies was greater with 2-phenylethanol than with other volatile chemicals.

  6. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  7. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %), β-caryophyllene (8.2 %), piperitione (6.7 %) and α-humulene (5.1 %), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %), with the remaining major...

  8. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric, photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their metrological parameters—measurement range, limit of detection, measurement resolution, sensitivity and response time—were presented. Moreover, development trends and prospects of improvement of the metrological parameters of these sensors were highlighted.

  9. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  10. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry toward a wide array of biogenic volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Vermeuel, Michael; Novak, Gordon; Bertram, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry is a real-time, sensitive and selective measurement technique for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The benefits of CIMS technology make it highly suitable for field measurements that requires fast (10Hz and higher) response rates, such as the study of surface-atmosphere exchange processes by the eddy covariance method. The use of benzene cluster cations as a regent ion was previously demonstrated as a sensitive and selective method for the detection of select biogenic VOCs (e.g. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) [Kim et al., 2016; Leibrock and Huey, 2000]. Quantitative analysis of atmospheric trace gases necessitates calibration for each analyte as a function of atmospheric conditions. We describe a custom designed calibration system, based on liquid evaporation, for determination of the sensitivity of the benzene-CIMS to a wide range of organic compounds at atmospherically relevant mixing ratios (volatile organic compounds, Atmos Meas Tech, 9(4), 1473-1484, doi:10.5194/amt-9-1473-2016. Leibrock, E., and L. G. Huey (2000), Ion chemistry for the detection of isoprene and other volatile organic compounds in ambient air, Geophys Res Lett, 27(12), 1719-1722, doi:Doi 10.1029/1999gl010804.

  12. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  13. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  14. Direct analysis of volatile organic compounds in foods by headspace extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hurtado, P; Palmer, E; Owen, T; Aldcroft, C; Allen, M H; Jones, J; Creaser, C S; Lindley, M R; Turner, M A; Reynolds, J C

    2017-11-30

    The rapid screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by direct analysis has potential applications in the areas of food and flavour science. Currently, the technique of choice for VOC analysis is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, the long chromatographic run times and elaborate sample preparation associated with this technique have led a movement towards direct analysis techniques, such as selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and electronic noses. The work presented here describes the design and construction of a Venturi jet-pump-based modification for a compact mass spectrometer which enables the direct introduction of volatiles for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Volatile organic compounds were extracted from the headspace of heated vials into the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer using a Venturi pump. Samples were analysed directly with no prior sample preparation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate between different classes of samples. The interface is shown to be able to routinely detect problem analytes such as fatty acids and biogenic amines without the requirement of a derivatisation step, and is shown to be able to discriminate between four different varieties of cheese with good intra and inter-day reproducibility using an unsupervised PCA model. Quantitative analysis is demonstrated using indole standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.395 μg/mL and 1.316 μg/mL, respectively. The described methodology can routinely detect highly reactive analytes such as volatile fatty acids and diamines without the need for a derivatisation step or lengthy chromatographic separations. The capability of the system was demonstrated by discriminating between different varieties of cheese and monitoring the spoilage of meats. © 2017 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass

  15. Chemical Composition of the Volatile Components of Tropaeolum majus L. (Garden Nasturtium from North Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BENYELLES

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Tropaeolum majus L. aerial parts, a plant native to North Western Algeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil volatile components were identified by a combination of gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques, and NMR spectroscopy. Nine components representing 92.0 % of the essential oil total (GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The most abundant compounds were benzyl isothiocyanate (82.5 %, benzene acetonitrile (3.9 % and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate (2.9 %. Higher content in nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds accounting to 86.4 % of the volatile fraction composition of T. majus were quantified.

  16. Portuguese Thymbra and Thymus species volatiles: chemical composition and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Salgueiro, L; Miguel, M G; Faleiro, M L

    2008-01-01

    Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known in Portugal as thyme and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. The present work reports on the state of the art on the information available on the taxonomy, ethnobotany, cell and molecular biology of the Portuguese representatives of these genera and on the chemotaxonomy and antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of their essential oils and other volatile-containing extracts.

  17. Phytochemical screening and chemical variability in volatile oils of aerial parts of Morinda morindoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiazolu, J Boima; Intisar, Azeem; Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Runsheng; Wu, Zhongping; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    Morinda morindoides is an important Liberian traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, fever, worms etc. The plant was subjected to integrated approaches including phytochemical screening and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Phytochemical investigation of the powdered plant revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, steroidal compounds and volatile oil. Steam distillation followed by GC-MS resulted in the identification of 47 volatiles in its aerial parts: 28 were in common including various bioactive volatiles. Major constituents of leaves were phytol (43.63%), palmitic acid (8.55%) and geranyl linalool (6.95%) and stem were palmitic acid (14.95%), eicosane (9.67%) and phytol (9.31%), and hence, a significant difference in the percentage composition of aerial parts was observed. To study seasonal changes, similarity analysis was carried out by calculating correlation coefficient (r) and vector angle cosine (z) that were more than 0.91 for stem-to-stem and leaf-to-leaf batches indicating considerable consistency.

  18. Dynamic chemical communication between plants and bacteria through airborne signals: induced resistance by bacterial volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Zhang, Huiming; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-07-01

    Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant growth promotion in the absence of physical contact with plants via volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this article, we review the recent progess made by research into the interactions between PGPR VOCs and plants, focusing on VOC emission by PGPR strains in plants. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms by which these bacterial VOCs elicit ISR. We provide an overview of recent progress in the elucidation of PGPR VOC interactions from studies utilizing transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses. By monitoring defense gene expression patterns, performing 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and studying defense signaling null mutants, salicylic acid and ethylene have been found to be key players in plant signaling pathways involved in the ISR response. Bacterial VOCs also confer induced systemic tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought and heavy metals. A review of current analytical approaches for PGPR volatile profiling is also provided with needed future developments emphasized. To assess potential utilization of PGPR VOCs for crop plants, volatile suspensions have been applied to pepper and cucumber roots and found to be effective at protecting plants against plant pathogens and insect pests in the field. Taken together, these studies provide further insight into the biological and ecological potential of PGPR VOCs for enhancing plant self-immunity and/or adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses in modern agriculture.

  19. Why the toxic substances control act needs an overhaul, and how to strengthen oversight of chemicals in the interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sarah A; Roberts, Jody A

    2011-05-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate industrial chemicals not covered by other statutes. Today there are more than 83,000 such chemicals. However, the law is widely perceived as weak and outdated, and various stakeholders have called for its reform, citing the EPA's inability to regulate the use of asbestos, among other substances. We analyze the flaws in the act and suggest ways in which the EPA might better position itself to manage chemical risks and protect the public's health. In addition to the new tools and technologies it is adopting, the agency needs new allies-both inside and outside the government-in its efforts to identify and control hazardous chemicals.

  20. High Throughput Exposure Modeling of Semi-Volatile Chemicals in Articles of Commerce (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk due to chemical exposure is a function of both chemical hazard and exposure. Near-field exposures to chemicals in consumer products are identified as the main drivers of exposure and yet are not well quantified or understood. The ExpoCast project is developing a model that e...

  1. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cumeras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs. Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap. The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  2. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: a case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H K; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-09-12

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  3. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  4. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS

  5. Volatile organic chemicals of a shore-dwelling cyanobacterial mat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W G

    1994-02-01

    The main components of a cyanobacterial mat community of a hypersaline lake shore consist of edaphic, mat-forming strains (ecophenes), and littoral strains ofOscillatoria animalis Agardh andO. subbrevis Schmidle, other microorganisms associated with these cyanobacteria, several species ofBembidion (Carabidae: Coleoptera), and two halophytic flowering plants:Puccinellia nuttalliana (salt meadow grass) andSalicornia europaea rubra (samphire). The volatile organic compounds of this community are a blend of those emitted by each of these components such as the C17 alka(e)nes, geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol,β-cyclocitral,β-ionone, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide of cyanobacteria and associated microorganisms; alcohols, esters, and aldehydes usually associated with flowering plants; and possibly some insect-derived esters, particularly isopropyl tetradecanoate. The dominant compounds were: C11, C13, C15, and C17 alka(e)nes, methyl esters of C16 and C18:2 acids, isopropyl tetradecanoate, heptanal, 3-octanone and 2-nonanone, the acyclic terpene linalool, and the alcohols 1-heptanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-octen-1-ol. It is concluded that this community may be distinguished from related communities by its repertoire of volatile organic compounds.

  6. Volatile profile and physical, chemical, and biochemical changes in fresh cut watermelon during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Luiza Ramos Pereira Xisto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing data about the aroma of fresh-cut watermelon and the metabolic changes that occur with minimal processing are scarce. Given the close relationship that exists between aroma, texture, and quality characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the changes in the volatile profile and texture of watermelon, a fruit extensively sold in supermarket chains throughout Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the volatile profile using solid phase microextraction (SPME as well as texture changes in fresh-cut watermelon stored at 5 °C for ten days. Chromatography associated with sensory analysis (sniffing led us to conclude that 9-carbon (C9 alcohols and aldehydes are the major responsible for the flavor and aroma of minimally processed watermelon stored at 5 ± 1 °C/90 ± 5% RH for ten days, and also that the aroma diminishes in intensity with storage, but it does not affect the final quality of the product. It was noted that the amount of drained liquid, soluble pectin, and weight loss increased during storage concurrently with a reduction in firmness and a structural breakdown of the cells. Pectin methyl esterase activity remained constant and polygalacturonase activity was not detected.

  7. Physico-chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Francisca; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions, and that, for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physico-chemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g fruit(-1) . Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and four organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (nine were aldehydes, three terpenes, one ester, one ketone and one linear hydrocarbon). The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, and they have a low content of Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was GAL; the GAL fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavour a long after-taste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  9. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  10. Chemical investigation of the volatile constituents of Cleome viscosa from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Olatunji

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots and some oxygenated derivatives (3% in leaves/stem; 1% in seeds/fruits and 1.5% in roots. The monoterpenes occurred frequently in the oils. Fatty acid esters especially ethyl palmitate which constituted a major constituent in the oil from the seeds/fruits was not detected in the oils from the roots.

  11. Chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without pulp contact and protease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenye ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae A1.25 with and without pulp contact and protease treatment during fermentation. Yeast cell population, total reducing sugar and methanol contents had significant differences between nonextracted and extracted wine. The nonextracted wines had significantly higher concentrations of ethyl 9-hexadecenoate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate than the extracted wines. Pulp contact also could enhance phenylethyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, ethyl palmitat and ethyl oleate. Furthermore, protease treatment can accelerate the release of fusel oils. The first principal component separated the wine from the extracted juice without protease from other samples based on the higher concentrations of medium-chain fatty acids and medium-chain ethyl esters. Sensory evaluation showed pulp contact and protease could improve the intensity and complexity of wine aroma due to the increase of the assimilable nitrogen.

  12. Metal-Organic Framework Modified Glass Substrate for Analysis of Highly Volatile Chemical Warfare Agents by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhummakupt, Elizabeth S; Carmany, Daniel O; Mach, Phillip M; Tovar, Trenton M; Ploskonka, Ann M; Demond, Paul S; DeCoste, Jared B; Glaros, Trevor

    2018-03-07

    Paper spray mass spectrometry has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e., sarin, soman) CWAs, analysis from an untreated paper substrate proved difficult. To extend the analytical lifetime of these G-agents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully integrated onto the paper spray substrates to increase adsorption and desorption. In this study, several MOFs and nanoparticles were tested to extend the analytical lifetimes of sarin, soman, and cyclosarin on paper spray substrates. It was found that the addition of either UiO-66 or HKUST-1 to the paper substrate increased the analytical lifetime of the G-agents from less than 5 min detectability to at least 50 min.

  13. Retail sales of scheduled listed chemical products; self-certification of regulated sellers of scheduled listed chemical products. Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    In March 2006, the President signed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which establishes new requirements for retail sales of over-the-counter (nonprescription) products containing the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. The three chemicals can be used to manufacture methamphetamine illegally. DEA is promulgating this rule to incorporate the statutory provisions and make its regulations consistent with the new requirements. This action establishes daily and 30-day limits on the sales of scheduled listed chemical products to individuals and requires recordkeeping on most sales.

  14. Chemical composition, bioactive compounds, and volatiles of six table grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Christophe; Chalot, Guillaume

    2018-02-01

    Six table grape cultivars (Centennial Seedless, Chasselas, Italia, Italia Rubi, Alphonse Lavallée, and Muscat de Hambourg) were analyzed for their levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C and E, carotenoids, polyphenolics and volatile compounds during two successive years. Descriptive sensory analyses of the six table grape varieties were also performed. Mainly due to anthocyanins, black cultivars had the highest total phenolic contents. Alphonse Lavallée had also both the highest levels of trans-resveratrol and piceid, and Muscat de Hambourg the highest levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and monoterpenols, well-known key aroma compounds in Muscat varieties having also interesting pharmacological properties. This study shows that the two traditional black French cultivars, Muscat de Hambourg and Alphonse Lavallée, are particularly rich in bioactive compounds and have a great potential for human health. Finally, Muscat de Hambourg was significantly rated sweeter, juicier and more aromatic than the others cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Animal Husbandry: Chemical Compositions, Separation of Sources and Animal Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are important sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We used a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) to measure VOC emissions from CAFOs in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during an aircraft campaign (SONGNEX) for regional contributions and from a mobile laboratory sampling for chemical characterizations of individual animal feedlots. The main VOCs emitted from CAFOs include carboxylic acids, alcohols, carbonyls, phenolic species, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species become more important in terms of odor activity values and NO3 reactivity, respectively. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the increase of ethanol concentrations were primarily associated with feed storage and handling. We apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to attribute the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste. VOC ratios can be potentially used as indicators for the separation of emissions from dairy and beef cattle from the regional aircraft measurements.

  16. The use of a photoionization detector to detect harmful volatile chemicals by emergency personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Patel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neil D Patel1, William D Fales1, Robert N Farrell1,21Michigan State University, Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 2Portage Fire Department, Portage, MI, USAObjective: The objective of this investigation was to determine if a photoionization detector (PID could be used to detect the presence of a simulated harmful chemical on simulated casualties of a chemical release.Methods: A screening protocol, based on existing radiation screening protocols, was developed for the purposes of the investigation. Three simulated casualties were contaminated with a simulated chemical agent and two groups of emergency responders were involved in the trials. The success–failure ratio of the participants was used to judge the performance of the PID in this application.Results: A high success rate was observed when the screening protocol was properly adhered to (97.67%. Conversely, the success rate suffered when participants deviated from the protocol (86.31%. With one exception, all failures were noted to have been the result of a failure to correctly observe the established screening protocol.Conclusions: The results of this investigation indicate that the PID may be an effective screening tool for emergency responders. However, additional study is necessary to both confirm the effectiveness of the PID and refine the screening protocol if necessary.Keywords: prehospital, device, protocol, photoionization detectors

  17. The use of a photoionization detector to detect harmful volatile chemicals by emergency personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neil D; Fales, William D; Farrell, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this investigation was to determine if a photoionization detector (PID) could be used to detect the presence of a simulated harmful chemical on simulated casualties of a chemical release. Methods A screening protocol, based on existing radiation screening protocols, was developed for the purposes of the investigation. Three simulated casualties were contaminated with a simulated chemical agent and two groups of emergency responders were involved in the trials. The success–failure ratio of the participants was used to judge the performance of the PID in this application. Results A high success rate was observed when the screening protocol was properly adhered to (97.67%). Conversely, the success rate suffered when participants deviated from the protocol (86.31%). With one exception, all failures were noted to have been the result of a failure to correctly observe the established screening protocol. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicate that the PID may be an effective screening tool for emergency responders. However, additional study is necessary to both confirm the effectiveness of the PID and refine the screening protocol if necessary. PMID:27147829

  18. Cytotoxicity of Thirdhand Smoke and Identification of Acrolein as a Volatile Thirdhand Smoke Chemical That Inhibits Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Weng, Nikki J-H; Schick, Suzaynn F; Sleiman, Mohamad; Whitehead, Jacklyn; Ibarra, Allison; Talbot, Prue

    2016-03-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a mixture of chemicals that remain on indoor surfaces after smoking has ceased. These chemicals can be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed dermally, and thus could impact human health. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and mode of action of fresh and aged THS, the toxicity of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in THS, and the molecular targets of acrolein, a VOC in THS. Experiments were done using mouse neural stem cells (mNSC), human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF), and lung A549 epithelial cells. THS-exposed cotton cloth was extracted in Dulbecco's Eagle Medium and caused cytotoxicity in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. THS extracts induced blebbing, immotility, vacuolization, cell fragmentation, severing of microfilaments and depolymerization of microtubules in mNSC. Cytotoxicity was inversely related to headspace volume in the extraction container and was lost upon aging, suggesting that VOCs in THS were cytotoxic. Phenol, 2',5'-dimethyl furan and acrolein were identified as the most cytotoxic VOCs in THS, and in combination, their cytotoxicity increased. Acrolein inhibited proliferation of mNSC and hPF and altered expression of cell cycle regulatory genes. Twenty-four hours of treatment with acrolein decreased expression of transcription factor Dp-1, a factor needed for the G1 to S transition in the cell cycle. At 48 h, WEE1 expression increased, while ANACP1 expression decreased consistent with blocking entry into and completion of the M phase of the cell cycle. This study identified acrolein as a highly cytotoxic VOC in THS which killed cells at high doses and inhibited cell proliferation at low doses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Chemical composition of the volatile extract and antioxidant activities of the volatile and nonvolatile extracts of Egyptian corn silk (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed; El-Massry, Khaled F; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2007-10-31

    A total of 36 compounds, which comprised 99.4% of the extract, were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the volatile dichloromethane extract obtained from Egyptian corn silk. The main constituents of the volatile extract were cis-alpha-terpineol (24.22%), 6,11-oxidoacor-4-ene (18.06%), citronellol (16.18%), trans-pinocamphone (5.86%), eugenol (4.37%), neo-iso-3-thujanol (2.59%), and cis-sabinene hydrate (2.28%). Dried Egyptian corn silk was also directly extracted with petroleum ether, ethanol, and water. All extracts from solvent extraction and the volatile extract described above exhibited clear antioxidant activities at levels of 50-400 microg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/linoleic acid assay. The ethanol extract inhibited DPPH activity by 84% at a level of 400 microg/mL. All samples tested via the beta-carotene bleaching assay also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity with clear dose responses. This study indicates that corn silk could be used to produce novel natural antioxidants as well as a flavoring agent in various food products.

  20. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat flowers by hydrodistillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nonanoic acid (7.58%, (E-3-hexen-1-ol (6.52%, and benzothiazole (5.08% were the major constituents among the 28 identified components which accounted for 92.89% of the total oil of F. esculentum. 2-Pentadecanone (18.61%, eugenol (17.18%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl ester (13.19%, and (E,E-farnesylacetone (7.15% were the major compounds among the 14 identified components which accounted for 88.48% of the total oil of F. tataricum. Eugenol (12.22%, (E-3-hexen-1-yl acetate (8.03%, linalool oxide (7.47%, 1-hexanol (7.07%, and benzothiazole (6.72% were the main compounds of the 20 identified components which accounted for 90.23% of the total oil of F. cymosum. The three VOs were screened to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 100.0 μg/mL to 800.0 μg/mL against the tested bacteria, and their median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were from 68.32 μg/mL to 452.32 μg/mL. Xanthomonas vesicatoria was the most sensitive bacterium. Moreover, the flower VOs of F. esculentum, F. tataricum and F. cymosum also exhibited noteworthy antioxidant capacity with the IC50 value of 354.15 μg/mL, 210.63 μg/mL, and 264.92 μg/mL for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and the value of 242.06 μg/mL, 184.13 μg/mL, and 206.11 μg/mL respectively for the β-carotene-linoleic bleaching test. These results suggested the volatile oils of buckwheat flowers could be potential resource of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  1. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  2. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  3. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  4. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  5. Chemical Composition of Volatiles; Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. (Apiaceae) Essential Oils and Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Goran M; Stamenković, Jelena G; Kostevski, Ivana R; Stojanović, Gordana S; Mitić, Violeta D; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition of the headspace volatiles (HS) and essential oils obtained from fresh Chaerophyllum aromaticum root and aerial parts in full vegetative phase, as well as biological activities of their essential oils and MeOH extracts. In HS samples, the most dominant components were monoterpene hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the essential oils consisted mainly of sesquiterpenoids, representing 73.4% of the root and 63.4% of the aerial parts essential oil. The results of antibacterial assay showed that the aerial parts essential oil and MeOH extract have no antibacterial activity, while the root essential oil and extract showed some activity. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited anticholinesterase activity (47.65% and 50.88%, respectively); MeOH extract of the root showed only 8.40% inhibition, while aerial part extract acted as an activator of cholinesterase. Regarding the antioxidant activity, extracts were found to be more effective than the essential oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  7. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  8. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  9. Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, F.P.; Carey, S.J.; Ozanyan, K.B.; McCann, H. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Winterbone, D.E.; Clough, E. [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Mfg. Engineering, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    We report an All-Opto-Electronic tomography system that is sensitive to hydrocarbon vapour distribution, or liquid spray distribution, with temporal resolution of over 3000 frames per second. A tomography system comprising 32 channels has been built and tested. For chemical sensitivity to saturated hydrocarbons, we exploit the principle of Near Infra-Red (NIR) absorption at 1700 nm relative to a reference wavelength, using laser diode sources whose technology is based on that of the communications industry. Images are obtained from a laboratory set-up incorporating both gaseous injection and a liquid Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) system. The performance of a prototype system on a running GDI engine is reported. The difficulty in performing concentration measurements of the gaseous fuel within the liquid spray region is shown, and means to improve this performance are discussed. However, it has been found possible to image the liquid spray cone using attenuation of the reference beam. These images correlate well with other techniques [1]. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber ein optoelektronisches Tomographiesystem zur Bestimmung der Verteilung von Kohlenwasserstoffdaempfen oder von Spraypartikeln, das eine hohe zeitliche Aufloesung von 3000 Aufnahmen pro Sekunde liefert. Ein System mit 32 Kanaelen wurde gebaut und getestet. Um Empfindichkeit auf gesaettigte Kohlenwasserstoffdaempfe zu erzielen, wurde die Absorption im Nahen Infrarot (NIR) bei 1700 nm, bezogen auf die bei einer Referenzwellen-laenge, genutzt. Laserdioden, deren Technologien auch in der Kommunikationstechnik Verwendung finden, kamen zum Einsatz. Von einem Laboraufbau wurden Bilder aufgenommen sowohl bei Injektion von Gas als auch bei Direkteinspritzung fluessigen Brennstoffs (GDI). Wir berichten ueber die Ergebnisse mit dem Prototyp-Messsystem an einem GDI-Motor. Es werden die Schwierigkeiten gezeigt, Messungen der Gaskonzentration innerhalb eines Spraypartikelbereichs durchzufuehren, und

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  11. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oils of Three Species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae Grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lelis Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae grown in Brazil. The chemical composition of the volatile oils of L. flavescens and L. petersonii did not show any significant seasonal variation in the major components, while for Leptospermum madidum subsp. sativum the levels of major constituents of the volatile oils varied with the harvest season. Major fluctuations in the composition of L. madidum subsp. sativum oil included α-pinene (0–15.2%, β-pinene (0.3–18.5%, α-humulene (0.8–30%, 1,8-cineole (0.4–7.1% and E-caryophyllene (0.4–11.9%. Levels of β-pinene (0.3–5.6%, terpinen-4-ol (4.7–7.2% and nerolidol (55.1–67.6% fluctuated seasonally in the L. flavescens oil. In L. petersonii, changes were noted for geranial (29.8–32.8%, citronellal (26.5–33.9% and neral (22.7–23.5%. The activity of the volatile oils against the tested bacteria differed, depending on season the oils were obtained. In general, the volatile oils were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  14. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  15. Volatile compounds and some physico-chemical properties of pastırma produced with different nitrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Akköse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different nitrate levels (150, 300, 450, and 600 ppm KNO3 on the volatile compounds and some other properties of pastırma. Methods Pastırma samples were produced under the controlled condition and analyses of volatile compounds, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as an indicator of lipid oxidation, non-protein nitrogenous matter content as an indicator of proteolysis, color and residual nitrite were carried out on the final product. The profile of volatile compounds of pastırma samples was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a solid phase microextraction. Results Nitrate level had a significant effect on pH value (p<0.05 and a very significant effect on TBARS value (p<0.01. No significant differences were determined in terms of aw value, non-protein nitrogenous substance content, color and residual nitrite between pastırma groups produced by using different nitrate levels. Nitrate level had a significant (p<0.05 or a very significant (p<0.01 effect on some volatile compounds. It was determined that the amounts and counts of volatile compounds were lower in the 450 and especially 600 ppm nitrate levels than 150 and 300 ppm nitrate levels (p<0.05. While the use of 600 ppm nitrate did not cause an increase in residual nitrite levels, the use of 150 ppm nitrate did not negatively affect the color of pastırma. However, the levels of volatile compounds decreased with an increasing level of nitrate. Conclusion The use of 600 ppm nitrate is not a risk in terms of residual nitrite in pastırma produced under controlled condition, however, this level is not suitable due to decrease in the amount of volatile compounds.

  16. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunming Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS. One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. β-Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines.

  17. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Schinusterebinthifolius Raddi from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils composition from leaves and ripe fruits of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi growing in Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Volatile oil extraction was achieved by hydrodistillation (HD using a Clevenger apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide. All plant organs, gave SFE extracts chiefly composed by a -pinene, a -phellandrene, b -phellandrene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. In the case of the fruits, both extraction techniques gave volatile oils of similar composition; whereas the comparison between the HD and SFE leave oils revealed important differences in the content of a -pinene (6.1 % vs traces, a -phellandrene (22.7 % vs 0.8 % and b -phellandrene (14.6 % vs 1.2 %. All volatile samples were evaluated against yeasts and dermatophyte strains, being more active against Cryptococcus neoformans, particularly the volatile oil from the fruits, with MIC values of (0.32-0.64 mg/mL.Moreover, this oil revealed an inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in C. albicans at sub-inhibitory concentration. At the concentration of MIC/8 the inhibition of filamentation was more than 70 %.

  18. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  19. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANNE S. FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56% and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%.

  20. Influence of Polish Climate Conditions on Content and the Chemical Variation of Volatiles in the Roots of Six Eleutherococcus Species and Their Potential Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Załuski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the term of the climate influence on essential oil and aroma components of six Eleutherococcus species [E. senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim. Maxim., E. setchuensis (Harms Nakai, E. sessiliflorus (Rupr. & Maxim. S. Y. Hu, E. gracilistylus (W. W. Smith S. Y. Hu, E. henryi Oliv., E. divaricatus (Siebold & Zucc. S. Y. Hu ] cultivated in Poland. The hydrodistilled volatiles of the samples were ranged from 0.2% to 0.4%. The components of the determined volatiles were analyzed by GC/MS/MS. Thirty of the same compounds were present in all samples. Major components of the samples were (E,E-farnesol (43.6-6.9%, (E,Z-farnesol (7.2-0.7%, (Z,E-farnesol (1.4-0.1%, tetradecanoic acid (9.91-2.08%, and pentadecanoic acid (12.8-3.5%. Highest (E,E-farnesol content (43.6% was determined in the roots of E. divaricatus. This compound may be considered as chemical marker of the species. This is the first time, when the analysis of volatiles in the roots of Eleutherococcus spp. cultivated in Poland was performed. This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation and pharmacological activity of active principles.

  1. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  2. Analysis of Non-Volatile Chemical Constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Menthae Haplocalycis herba, one kind of Chinese edible herbs, has been widely utilized for the clinical use in China for thousands of years. Over the last decades, studies on chemical constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis herba have been widely performed. However, less attention has been paid to non-volatile components which are also responsible for its medical efficacy than the volatile constituents. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the comprehensive identification of the non-volatile constituents in Menthae Haplocalycis herba using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Separation was performed with Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm with 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Based on the accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm, MS/MS fragmentation patterns and different chromatographic behaviors, a total of 64 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, including 30 flavonoids, 20 phenolic acids, 12 terpenoids and two phenylpropanoids. Finally, target isolation of three compounds named Acacetin, Rosmarinic acid and Clemastanin A (first isolated from Menthae Haplocalycis herba were performed based on the obtained results, which further confirmed the deduction of fragmentation patterns and identified the compounds profile in Menthae Haplocalycis herba. Our research firstly systematically elucidated the non-volatile components of Menthae Haplocalycis herba, which laid the foundation for further pharmacological and metabolic studies. Meanwhile, our established method was useful and efficient to screen and identify targeted constituents from traditional Chinese medicine extracts.

  3. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This volume contains five appendices

  4. New Approach to Evaluate the Antennal Response of an Adult Predator Insect to Different Volatile Chemical Compounds by using Electroantennogram Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.

    The antennal response of adult syrphid flies to selected plant volatile chemical compounds was investigated in the present study. The main chemical classes and their chemical compounds were aldehydes (nonanal and benzaldehyde), monoterpene-alcohols (linalool and alpha-terpineol), ketones (6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and 2-undecanone), hydrocarbons (tetradecane) and benzoids (methyl salicylate). Electroantennogram (EAG) records showed that the syrphid antennae were strongly responded to linalool, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and methyl salicylate even at low concentrations, in addition to the high dose concentration of nonanal comparably to the other chemical compounds. The antennae of old syrphid adults were more responsive and elicited higher levels of responses to all compounds rather than young syrphid adults. The antennal sensitivity may differ from one compound to another according to the sex. The difference in responses could be attributed to the sensitivity of olfactory receptors and/or the characterization of binding protein(s). The quality of biocontrol agent could be improved if the chemical interaction between beneficial natural enemies and the surrounding environment is intensively studied and we clearly understand the chemical ecology of each natural enemy.

  5. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kejing; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Zhengfu; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2016-04-15

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges in preserving better quality of fruit and vegetable products after processing. Recently, many attentions have been drawn to ginger rhizome processing due to its numerous health promoting properties. In our study, ginger rhizome slices were subjected to air-drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), infrared drying (IR), microwave drying (MD) and intermittent microwave & convective drying (IM&CD). Quality attributes of the dried samples were compared in terms of volatile compounds, 6, 8, 10-gingerols, 6-shogaol, antioxidant activities and microstructure. Results showed that AD and IR were good drying methods to preserve volatiles. FD, IR and IM&CD led to higher retention of gingerols, TPC, TFC and better antioxidant activities. However, FD and IR had relative high energy consumption and drying time. Therefore, considering about the quality retention and energy consumption, IM&CD would be very promising for thermo sensitive material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Volatile Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill by HS-SPME-GC-MS Using Different Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oil and volatile obtained from the roots of Jatropha ribifolia (Pohl Baill was performed in this work. The Clevenger extractor was utilized in hydrodistillation of oil and chemical composition determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS. The identification of compounds was confirmed by retention index (Kovats index obtained from a series of straight chain alkanes (C7–C30 and by comparison with NIST and ADAMS library. A total of 61 compounds were identified in essential oil by GC-MS. The extraction of volatile was performed also by the use of the solid phase microextraction (SPME with four different fibers. The essential oil extraction was extremely rapid (15 s to avoid saturation of the fiber and the MS detector. The majority of the composition of essential oil is the terpenes: β-pinene (major compound 9.16%, β-vatirene (8.34%, α-gurjunene (6.98%, α-pinene (6.35%, camphene (4.34%, tricyclene (3.79% and dehydro aromadendrene (3.52% it and aldehydes and alcohols. Through the SPME it was possible to determine the nine volatile compounds not identified in oil 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, pinocamphone, D-verbenon, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-(2-methyl-cyclopropyl-cyclohexene, 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, and (6-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dimethylehenyl methanol.

  7. Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

    2013-02-21

    The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds.

  8. Study of chemical changes in pasteurised orange juice during shelf-life: A fingerprinting-kinetics evaluation of the volatile fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Grauwet, Tara; Kebede, Biniam Tamiru; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-09-01

    The current work used fingerprinting-kinetics for the first time to monitor shelf-life changes in a low-pH, pasteurised, shelf-stable product, more particular in orange juice. Orange juice samples were stored as a function of time at four different storage temperatures (20, 28, 35 and 42°C). To obtain insight into chemical changes in the volatile food fraction, samples were fingerprinted with headspace GC-MS. The objectives of this work were twofold: (i) to identify major chemical changes of pasteurised orange juice during shelf-life and (ii) to study the kinetics of selected shelf-life compounds in the context of accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT). At 20°C, changes in terpenes and a decrease in aldehydes were observed. Oxides and sulphur compounds increased and esters decreased at increased storage temperatures (at 28°C and above). Concerning ASLT, four volatile compounds had clear temperature and time dependent kinetics within the investigated temperature range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  10. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  11. Development of Assessment Methodology of Chemical Behavior of Volatile Iodide under Severe Accident Conditions Using EPICUR Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Jong Il; Kim, Do Sam; Han Chul

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is one of the most important fission products produced in nuclear power plants. Under severe accident condition, iodine exists as a variety of species in the containment such as aqueous iodide, gaseous iodide, iodide aerosol, etc. Following release of iodine from the reactor, mostly in the form of CsI aerosol, volatile iodine can be generated from the containment sump and release to the environment. Especially, volatile organic iodide can be produced from interaction between nonvolatile iodine and organic substances present in the containment. Volatile iodide could significantly influence the alienated residents surrounding the nuclear power plant. In particular, thyroid is vulnerable to radioiodine due to its high accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to develop an evaluation model which can simulate iodine behavior in the containment following a severe accident. KINS also needs to make up its methodology for radiological consequence analysis, based on MELCOR-MACCS2 calculation, by coupling a simple iodine model which can conveniently deal with organic iodides. In the long term, such a model can contribute to develop an accident source term, which is one of urgent domestic needs. Our strategy for developing the model is as follows: 1. Review the existing methodologies, 2. Develop a simple stand-alone model, 3. Validate the model using ISTP-EPICUR (Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) experimental data. In this paper we present the context of development and validation of our model named RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model)

  12. Development of Assessment Methodology of Chemical Behavior of Volatile Iodide under Severe Accident Conditions Using EPICUR Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Jong Il [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Han Chul [Korea Institue of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Iodine is one of the most important fission products produced in nuclear power plants. Under severe accident condition, iodine exists as a variety of species in the containment such as aqueous iodide, gaseous iodide, iodide aerosol, etc. Following release of iodine from the reactor, mostly in the form of CsI aerosol, volatile iodine can be generated from the containment sump and release to the environment. Especially, volatile organic iodide can be produced from interaction between nonvolatile iodine and organic substances present in the containment. Volatile iodide could significantly influence the alienated residents surrounding the nuclear power plant. In particular, thyroid is vulnerable to radioiodine due to its high accumulation. Therefore, it is necessary for the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to develop an evaluation model which can simulate iodine behavior in the containment following a severe accident. KINS also needs to make up its methodology for radiological consequence analysis, based on MELCOR-MACCS2 calculation, by coupling a simple iodine model which can conveniently deal with organic iodides. In the long term, such a model can contribute to develop an accident source term, which is one of urgent domestic needs. Our strategy for developing the model is as follows: 1. Review the existing methodologies, 2. Develop a simple stand-alone model, 3. Validate the model using ISTP-EPICUR (Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) experimental data. In this paper we present the context of development and validation of our model named RAIM (Radio-active iodine chemistry model)

  13. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  14. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  15. Iodine volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany

  16. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  17. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  18. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations. Interim Revision, March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of the equations and computer program for computations involving chemical equilibria in complex systems is given. A free-energy minimization technique is used. The program permits calculations such as (1) chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states (T,P), (H,P), (S,P), (T,V), (U,V), or (S,V), (2) theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion, (3) incident and reflected shock properties, and (4) Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties. The program considers condensed species as well as gaseous species.

  19. Herbivore-induced volatile production by Arabidopsis thaliana leads to attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia rubecula: chemical, behavioral, and gene-expression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poecke, R.M.P.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many plant species defend themselves against herbivorous insects indirectly by producing volatiles in response to herbivory. These volatiles attract carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. Research on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. has contributed considerably to the unraveling of

  20. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  1. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  2. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2015-08-01

    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident. The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application. Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models. A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-certification and employee training of mail-order distributors of scheduled listed chemical products. Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    On October 12, 2010, the President signed the Combat Methamphetamine Enhancement Act of 2010 (MEA). It establishes new requirements for mail-order distributors of scheduled listed chemical products. Mail-order distributors must now self-certify to DEA in order to sell scheduled listed chemical products at retail. Sales at retail are those sales intended for personal use; mail-order distributors that sell scheduled listed chemical products not intended for personal use, e.g., sale to a university, are not affected by the new law. This self-certification must include a statement that the mail-order distributor understands each of the requirements that apply under part 1314 and agrees to comply with these requirements. Additionally, mail-order distributors are now required to train their employees prior to self certification. DEA is promulgating this rule to incorporate the statutory provisions and make its regulations consistent with the new requirements and other existing regulations related to self-certification.

  4. Reverse chemical ecology: Olfactory proteins from the giant panda and their interactions with putative pheromones and bamboo volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao; Arena, Simona; Spinelli, Silvia; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Cambillau, Christian; Scaloni, Andrea; Wang, Guirong; Pelosi, Paolo

    2017-11-14

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca belongs to the family of Ursidae; however, it is not carnivorous, feeding almost exclusively on bamboo. Being equipped with a typical carnivorous digestive apparatus, the giant panda cannot get enough energy for an active life and spends most of its time digesting food or sleeping. Feeding and mating are both regulated by odors and pheromones; therefore, a better knowledge of olfaction at the molecular level can help in designing strategies for the conservation of this species. In this context, we have identified the odorant-binding protein (OBP) repertoire of the giant panda and mapped the protein expression in nasal mucus and saliva through proteomics. Four OBPs have been identified in nasal mucus, while the other two were not detected in the samples examined. In particular, AimelOBP3 is similar to a subset of OBPs reported as pheromone carriers in the urine of rodents, saliva of the boar, and seminal fluid of the rabbit. We expressed this protein, mapped its binding specificity, and determined its crystal structure. Structural data guided the design and preparation of three protein mutants bearing single-amino acid replacements in the ligand-binding pocket, for which the corresponding binding affinity spectra were measured. We also expressed AimelOBP5, which is markedly different from AimelOBP3 and complementary in its binding spectrum. By comparing our binding data with the structures of bamboo volatiles and those of typical mammalian pheromones, we formulate hypotheses on which may be the most relevant semiochemicals for the giant panda.

  5. A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY and Oriental (ORI respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key

  6. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common...... in Finance. Nonparametric estimators are well suited for these events due to the flexibility of their functional form and their good asymptotic properties. However, the local polynomial kernel estimators are not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break. The estimator presented...

  7. Chemical-specific screening criteria for interpretation of biomonitoring data for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--application of steady-state PBPK model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Kirman, Chris R; Blount, Ben C; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) generates population-representative biomonitoring data for many chemicals including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood. However, no health or risk-based screening values are available to evaluate these data from a health safety perspective or to use in prioritizing among chemicals for possible risk management actions. We gathered existing risk assessment-based chronic exposure reference values such as reference doses (RfDs), reference concentrations (RfCs), tolerable daily intakes (TDIs), cancer slope factors, etc. and key pharmacokinetic model parameters for 47 VOCs. Using steady-state solutions to a generic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model structure, we estimated chemical-specific steady-state venous blood concentrations across chemicals associated with unit oral and inhalation exposure rates and with chronic exposure at the identified exposure reference values. The geometric means of the slopes relating modeled steady-state blood concentrations to steady-state exposure to a unit oral dose or unit inhalation concentration among 38 compounds with available pharmacokinetic parameters were 12.0 microg/L per mg/kg-d (geometric standard deviation [GSD] of 3.2) and 3.2 microg/L per mg/m(3) (GSD=1.7), respectively. Chemical-specific blood concentration screening values based on non-cancer reference values for both oral and inhalation exposure range from 0.0005 to 100 microg/L; blood concentrations associated with cancer risk-specific doses at the 1E-05 risk level ranged from 5E-06 to 6E-02 microg/L. The distribution of modeled steady-state blood concentrations associated with unit exposure levels across VOCs may provide a basis for estimating blood concentration screening values for VOCs that lack chemical-specific pharmacokinetic data. The screening blood concentrations presented here provide a tool for risk assessment-based evaluation of population biomonitoring data for VOCs and

  8. Volatiles in the Martian regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.C.; Baird, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of released volatiles on Mars has been derived based upon Viking measurements of atmospheric and surface chemical composition, and upon the inferred mineralogy of a ubiquitous regolith, assumed to average 200m in depth. This model is consistent with the relative abundances of volatiles (except for S) on the Earth's surface, but implies one-fifteenth of the volatile release of Earth if starting materials were comparable. All constituents are accommodated as chemical components of, or absorbed phases on, regolith materials--without the necessity of invoking unobservable deposits of carbonates, nitrates, or permafrost ice

  9. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the condi......The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  10. The impact of the fuel chemical composition on volatile organic compounds emitted by an in-service aircraft gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, A.; Kuo, Y. Y.; Brem, B.; Durdina, L.; Gerecke, A. C.; Heeb, N. V.; Haag, R.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Aircraft emissions received increased attention recently because of the steady growth of aviation transport in the last decades. Aircraft engines substantially contribute to emissions of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the upper and lower troposphere. Among all the pollutants emitted by aircrafts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are particularly important because they are mainly emitted at ground level, posing a serious health risk for people living or working near airports. A series of measurements was performed at the aircraft engine testing facility of SR Technics (Zürich airport, Switzerland). Exhausts from an in-service turbofan engine were sampled at the engine exit plane by a multi-point sampling probe. A wide range of instruments was connected to the common sampling line to determine physico-chemical characteristics of non-volatile particulate matter and gaseous pollutants. Conventional Jet A-1 fuel was used as the base fuel, and measurements were performed with the base fuel doped with two different mixtures of aromatic compounds (Solvesso 150 and naphthalene-depleted Solvesso 150) and an alternative fuel (hydro-processed esters and fatty acids [HEFA] jet fuel). During this presentation, we will show results obtained for VOCs. These compounds were sampled with 3 different adsorbing cartridges, and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS, for Tenax TA and Carboxen 569) and by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS, for DNPH). The total VOC concentration was also measured with a flame ionization detector (FID). In addition, fuel samples were also analyzed by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared to the VOCs emitted via engine exhaust. Total VOCs concentrations were highest at ground idle (>200 ppm C at 4-7% thrust), and substantially lower at high thrust (engine were mainly constituted of alkanes, oxygenated compounds, and aromatics. More than 50 % of the

  11. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  12. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  13. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  14. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part B: tropospheric degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Jenkin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC have been used to define a mechanism development protocol, which has been used to construct degradation schemes for 18 aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. This is complementary to the treatment of 107 non-aromatic VOC, presented in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the degradation chemistry to first generation products via a number of competitive routes, and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on describing where the treatment differs from that applied to the non-aromatic VOC. The protocol is based on work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 18 aromatic VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. These show distinct differences from POCP values calculated previously for the aromatics, using earlier versions of the MCM, and reasons for these differences are discussed.

  15. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  16. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part A: tropospheric degradation of non-aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Saunders

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the production of secondary pollutants, have previously been used to define a protocol which underpinned the construction of a near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism. In this paper, an update to the previous protocol is presented, which has been used to define degradation schemes for 107 non-aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. The treatment of 18 aromatic VOC is described in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the reactions of the radical intermediates and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on updating the previous information, and outlining the methodology which is specifically applicable to VOC not considered previously (e.g. a- and b-pinene. The present protocol aims to take into consideration work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Application of MCM v3 in appropriate box models indicates that the representation of isoprene degradation provides a good description of the speciated distribution of oxygenated organic products observed in reported field studies where isoprene was the dominant emitted hydrocarbon, and that the a-pinene degradation chemistry provides a good description of the time dependence of key gas phase species in a-pinene/NOX photo-oxidation experiments carried out in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 106 non-aromatic non-methane VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. Where applicable, the values are compared with

  17. Electrolytic extraction drives volatile fatty acid chain elongation through lactic acid and replaces chemical pH control in thin stillage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen J; Candry, Pieter; Basadre, Thais; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are building blocks for the chemical industry. Sustainable, biological production is constrained by production and recovery costs, including the need for intensive pH correction. Membrane electrolysis has been developed as an in situ extraction technology tailored to the direct recovery of VFA from fermentation while stabilizing acidogenesis without caustic addition. A current applied across an anion exchange membrane reduces the fermentation broth (catholyte, water reduction: H2O + e(-) → ½ H2 + OH(-)) and drives carboxylate ions into a clean, concentrated VFA stream (anolyte, water oxidation: H2O → 2e(-) + 2 H(+) + O2). In this study, we fermented thin stillage to generate a mixed VFA extract without chemical pH control. Membrane electrolysis (0.1 A, 3.22 ± 0.60 V) extracted 28 ± 6 % of carboxylates generated per day (on a carbon basis) and completely replaced caustic control of pH, with no impact on the total carboxylate production amount or rate. Hydrogen generated from the applied current shifted the fermentation outcome from predominantly C2 and C3 VFA (64 ± 3 % of the total VFA present in the control) to majority of C4 to C6 (70 ± 12 % in the experiment), with identical proportions in the VFA acid extract. A strain related to Megasphaera elsdenii (maximum abundance of 57 %), a bacteria capable of producing mid-chain VFA at a high rate, was enriched by the applied current, alongside a stable community of Lactobacillus spp. (10 %), enabling chain elongation of VFA through lactic acid. A conversion of 30 ± 5 % VFA produced per sCOD fed (60 ± 10 % of the reactive fraction) was achieved, with a 50 ± 6 % reduction in suspended solids likely by electro-coagulation. VFA can be extracted directly from a fermentation broth by membrane electrolysis. The electrolytic water reduction products are utilized in the fermentation: OH(-) is used for pH control without added chemicals, and H2 is

  18. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  19. ETF interim design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    A three-day ETF Interim Design Review was conducted on July 23-25, 1980, at the Sheraton Potomac Inn in Rockville, Maryland. The intent of the review was to provide a forum for an in-depth assessment and critique of all facets of the ETF design by members of the fusion community. The review began with an opening plenary session at which an overview of the ETF design was presented by D. Steiner, manager of the ETF Design Center, complemented by a physics overview by P.H. Rutherford, chairman of the ETF/INTOR Physics Committee. This was followed by six concurrent review sessions over the next day and a half. The review closed with a plenary session at which the Design Review Board presented its findings. This document consists of the viewgraphs for the opening plenary session and an edited version of the presentations made by Steiner and Rutherford

  20. Interim geotechnical data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This issue, the Interim Geotechnical Field Data Report, presents information obtained from the geotechnical activities at the WIPP site underground facilities since the last quarterly report. It also includes cumulative plots which contain all previous data. Finally, it continues the geotechnical analyses and interpretations of the data. The GFDR is organized into two principal parts. The first part, Geotechnical Field Data, presents in graphical form all the data collected since April 1982 from the geomechanical instruments. Presented in the second part, Evaluation and Analyses, are preliminary interpretations and analyses of the data. In this report, continuing geotechnical assessment of all the facility features is presented. Also included in the second part are separate sections on evaluation and interpretation of the instrumentation measurements, and an updated description and evaluation of observed behavior of the underground openings

  1. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  2. Comparison of ChemicalComposition and Free Radical Scavenging Ability of Glycosidically Bound andFree Volatiles from Bosnian Pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. var. leucodermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Milos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained show that Bosnian pine is richin glycosidically bound volatile compounds with strong free radical scavengingproperties. Since volatiles can be released from nonvolatile glycosideprecursors, these compounds can be considered as a hidden potential source ofantioxidant substances and may contribute to the total free radical scavengingability of Bosnian pine.

  3. Stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces the concept of stochastic volatility of volatility in continuous time and, hence, extends standard stochastic volatility (SV) models to allow for an additional source of randomness associated with greater variability in the data. We discuss how stochastic volatility...... of volatility can be defined both non-parametrically, where we link it to the quadratic variation of the stochastic variance process, and parametrically, where we propose two new SV models which allow for stochastic volatility of volatility. In addition, we show that volatility of volatility can be estimated...

  4. Primary emissions and chemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from laboratory biomass burning sources during the 2016 FIREX FireLab campaign: measurements from a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, M. M.; Warneke, C.; Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; Yuan, B.; Lim, C. Y.; Hagan, D. H.; Kroll, J. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emitted by biomass burning constitute a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere. Once emitted, these compounds may undergo series of reactions with the OH radical and nitrogen oxides to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone, or other health-impacting products. The complex emission profile and strong variability of biomass burning NMOG play an important, yet understudied, role in the variability of air quality outcomes such as SOA and ozone. In this study, we summarize measurements of biomass burning volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted using a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+-CIMS) during the 2016 FIREX laboratory campaign in Missoula, MT. Specifically, we will present data demonstrating the chemical evolution of biomass burning VOCs artificially aged in a field-deployable photooxidation chamber and an oxidation flow reactor. More than 50 OH-oxidation experiments were conducted with biomass types representing a range of North American fuels. Across many fuel types, VOCs with high SOA and ozone formation potential, such as aromatics and furans, were observed to quickly react with the OH radical while oxidized species were generated. We compare the calculated OH reactivity of the primary emissions to the calculated OH reactivity used in many photochemical models and highlight areas requiring additional research in order to improve model/measurement comparisons.

  5. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Chemicals Volatile ...

  6. Multilayer perceptron classification of unknown volatile chemicals from the firing rates of insect olfactory sensory neurons and its application to biosensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Luqman R; Unsworth, Charles P; Newcomb, Richard D; Crampin, Edmund J

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we use the firing rates from an array of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to distinguish different chemical classes of volatile odorants. Bootstrapping is implemented for the optimized networks, providing an accurate estimate of a network's predicted values. Initially a simple linear predictor was used to assess the complexity of the data and was found to provide low prediction performance. A nonlinear ANN in the form of a single multilayer perceptron (MLP) was also used, providing a significant increase in prediction performance. The effect of the number of hidden layers and hidden neurons of the MLP was investigated and found to be effective in enhancing network performance with both a single and a double hidden layer investigated separately. A hybrid array of MLPs was investigated and compared against the single MLP architecture. The hybrid MLPs were found to classify all vectors of the validation set, presenting the highest degree of prediction accuracy. Adjustment of the number of hidden neurons was investigated, providing further performance gain. In addition, noise injection was investigated, proving successful for certain network designs. It was found that the best-performing MLP was that of the double-hidden-layer hybrid MLP network without the use of noise injection. Furthermore, the level of performance was examined when different numbers of OSNs used were varied from the maximum of 24 to only 5 OSNs. Finally, the ideal OSNs were identified that optimized network performance. The results obtained from this study provide strong evidence of the usefulness of ANNs in the field of olfaction for the future realization of a signal processing back end for an artificial olfactory biosensor.

  7. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Benedetto, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Martini, M.; Prior, G.; Ballett, P.; Pascoli, S.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kopp, J.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Neuffer, D.; Parke, S.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Blondel, A.; Dufour, F.; Laing, A.; Soler, F.J.P; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Dornan, P.; Eccleston, R.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Bogacz, A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, D.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Zisman, M.; Cline, D.; Stratakis, D.; Ding, X.; Coloma, P.; Donini, A.; Gavela, B.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Maltoni, M.; Bromberg, C.; Bonesini, M.; Hart, T.; Kudenko, Y.; Mondal, N.; Antusch, S.; Blennow, M.; Ota, T.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Beard, K.B.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; de Gouvea, A.; Graves, V.B.; Kuno, Y.; Peltoniemi, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Witte, H.; Mezzetto, M.; Rigolin, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Snopok, P.; Tortora, L.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, R.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Samulyak, R.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Dracos, M.; Yasuda, O.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Li, T.; Martin-Albo, J.; Huber, P.; Back, J.; Barker, G.; Harrison, P.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  8. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lead-Paint Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1330 Interim controls. Interim..., cleanable covering or coating, such as metal coil stock, plastic, polyurethane, or linoleum. (3) Surfaces...

  9. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  10. New methods for field collection of human skin volatiles and perspectives for their application in the chemical ecology of human-pathogen-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; McKey, Doyle; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Odours emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields, with practical applications in forensics, health diagnostic tools and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Convenient methods are required for sampling human skin volatiles under field conditions. We experimentally compared four modern methods for sampling skin odours: solvent extraction, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), and two new techniques not previously used for the study of mammal volatiles, contact SPME and dynamic headspace with a chromatoprobe design. These methods were tested and compared both on European subjects under laboratory conditions and on young African subjects under field conditions. All four methods permitted effective trapping of skin odours, including the major known human skin volatile compounds. In both laboratory and field experiments, contact SPME, in which the time of collection was restricted to 3 min, provided results very similar to those obtained with classical headspace SPME, a method that requires 45 min of collection. Chromatoprobe sampling also proved to be very sensitive, rapid and convenient for the collection of human-produced volatiles in natural settings. Both contact SPME and chromatoprobe design may considerably facilitate the study of human skin volatiles under field conditions, opening new possibilities for examining the olfactory cues mediating the host-seeking behaviour of mosquito vectors implicated in the transmission of major diseases.

  11. Efficient generation of volatile species for cadmium analysis in seafood and rice samples by a modified chemical vapor generation system coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xin-an; Chi, Miao-bin; Wang, Qing-qing; Zhang, Wang-bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a modified chemical vapor generation method coupled with AFS for the determination of cadmium. • The response of Cd could be increased at least four-fold compared to conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. • A simple mixing sequences experiment is designed to study the reaction mechanism. • The interference of transition metal ions can be easily eliminated by adding DDTC. • The method is successfully applied in seafood samples and rice samples. - Abstract: A vapor generation procedure to determine Cd by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) has been established. Volatile species of Cd are generated by following reaction of acidified sample containing Fe(II) and L-cysteine (Cys) with sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH 4 ). The presence of 5 mg L −1 Fe(II) and 0.05% m/v Cys improves the efficiency of Cd vapor generation substantially about four-fold compared with conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. Three experiments with different mixing sequences and reaction times are designed to study the reaction mechanism. The results document that the stability of Cd(II)–Cys complexes is better than Cys–THB complexes (THB means NaBH 4 ) while the Cys–THB complexes have more contribution to improve the Cd vapor generation efficiency than Cd(II)–Cys complexes. Meanwhile, the adding of Fe(II) can catalyze the Cd vapor generation. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Cd is 0.012 μg L −1 ; relative standard deviations vary between 0.8% and 5.5% for replicate measurements of the standard solution. In the presence of 0.01% DDTC, Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) have no significant influence up to 5 mg L −1 , 10 mg L −1 and 10 mg L −1 , respectively. The accuracy of the method is verified through analysis of the certificated reference materials and the proposed method has been applied in the determination of Cd in seafood and rice samples

  12. Efficient generation of volatile species for cadmium analysis in seafood and rice samples by a modified chemical vapor generation system coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xin-an, E-mail: 13087641@qq.com; Chi, Miao-bin, E-mail: 1161306667@qq.com; Wang, Qing-qing, E-mail: wangqq8812@163.com; Zhang, Wang-bing, E-mail: ahutwbzh@163.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We develop a modified chemical vapor generation method coupled with AFS for the determination of cadmium. • The response of Cd could be increased at least four-fold compared to conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. • A simple mixing sequences experiment is designed to study the reaction mechanism. • The interference of transition metal ions can be easily eliminated by adding DDTC. • The method is successfully applied in seafood samples and rice samples. - Abstract: A vapor generation procedure to determine Cd by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) has been established. Volatile species of Cd are generated by following reaction of acidified sample containing Fe(II) and L-cysteine (Cys) with sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH{sub 4}). The presence of 5 mg L{sup −1} Fe(II) and 0.05% m/v Cys improves the efficiency of Cd vapor generation substantially about four-fold compared with conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. Three experiments with different mixing sequences and reaction times are designed to study the reaction mechanism. The results document that the stability of Cd(II)–Cys complexes is better than Cys–THB complexes (THB means NaBH{sub 4}) while the Cys–THB complexes have more contribution to improve the Cd vapor generation efficiency than Cd(II)–Cys complexes. Meanwhile, the adding of Fe(II) can catalyze the Cd vapor generation. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Cd is 0.012 μg L{sup −1}; relative standard deviations vary between 0.8% and 5.5% for replicate measurements of the standard solution. In the presence of 0.01% DDTC, Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) have no significant influence up to 5 mg L{sup −1}, 10 mg L{sup −1}and 10 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The accuracy of the method is verified through analysis of the certificated reference materials and the proposed method has been applied in the determination of Cd in seafood and rice samples.

  13. 7 CFR 1735.75 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1735.75 Section 1735.75... Involving Loan Funds § 1735.75 Interim financing. (a) A borrower may submit a written request for RUS approval of interim financing if it is necessary to close an acquisition before the loan to finance the...

  14. 7 CFR 1738.21 - Interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim financing. 1738.21 Section 1738.21... Interim financing. (a) Upon notification by RUS that an applicant's application is considered complete, the applicant may enter into an interim financing agreement with a lender other than RUS or use its...

  15. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  16. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  17. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements

  18. Continuous solvent extraction feed adjustment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. Interim development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, L.J.

    1978-06-01

    The two-cycle Acid-Thorex solvent extraction process requires that the feed stream to each thorium cycle be processed to reduce its nitric acid concentration (feed adjustment). This interim development report presents the results of bench-scale and pilot-plant-scale feed adjustment experiments using a continuous mode of operation. An examination of formic acid denitration and fluoride ion volatilization is also included

  19. Diethyldithiocarbamate enhanced chemical generation of volatile palladium species, their characterization by AAS, ICP-MS, TEM and DART-MS and proposed mechanism of action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyhnanovský, Jaromír; Kratzer, Jan; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Mester, Z.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1005, APR (2018), s. 16-26 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311202 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : generation of volatile species * palladium * analytical atomic spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Nano-materials (production and properties) (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  20. Changes in the volatile compounds and in the chemical and physical properties of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Cv. Pondoh during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi; Suhardi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Koichi; Muto, Tokie; Fujita, Akira; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2002-12-18

    During the maturation of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Pondoh, the contents of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and volatile compounds changed drastically. The glucose, fructose, and volatile compounds contents showed their maximum levels at the end of maturation; however, the sucrose content decreased. During maturation, the flesh firmness tended to increase; however, at the end of maturation (6 months), the flesh became soft. The major volatile aroma in solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solvent extracts were identified to be methyl esters of butanoic acids, 2-methylbutanoic acids, hexanoic acids, pentanoic acids, and the corresponding carboxylic acids. Furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) was also identified as a minor aroma constituent in the SAFE residue. The methyl esters were found to increase dramatically during stages 4-6 (5-6 months after the pollination) to exceed the amounts of carboxylic acids, whereas the acid amount increased gradually until stage 5 (5.5 months after the pollination) to reach the maximum at stage 6 (6 months after the pollination).

  1. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  2. Agenda 21 interim balance, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Five years after the `United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)`, an interim balance was drawn up to see what was done to meet the ambitious challenges adopted in Agenda 21 during this conference. Such a balance is presented in this report and the complementary brochure, `Developments in Sustainability 1992-1997`, reflecting societal developments and changes in environmental quality, as well as changes in responses to environmental concerns. 24 figs., 12 tabs., 68 refs.

  3. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  4. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  5. External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver — A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Pang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera, also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%, were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.

  6. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  7. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  8. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  9. Atmospheric transport of persistent semi-volatile organic chemicals to the Arctic and cold condensation in the mid-troposphere – Part 1: 2-D modeling in mean atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this study for revisiting the cold condensation effect on global distribution of semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs, the atmospheric transport of SVOCs to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere in a mean meridional atmospheric circulation over the Northern Hemisphere was simulated by a two-dimensional (2-D atmospheric transport model. Results show that under the mean meridional atmospheric circulation the long-range atmospheric transport of SVOCs from warm latitudes to the Arctic occurs primarily in the mid-troposphere. Although major sources are in low and mid-latitude soils, the modeled air concentration of SVOCs in the mid-troposphere is of the same order as or higher than that near the surface, demonstrating that the mid-troposphere is an important pathway and reservoir of SVOCs. The cold condensation of the chemicals is also likely to take place in the mid-troposphere over a source region of SVOCs in warm low latitudes through interacting with clouds. We demonstrate that the temperature dependent vapour pressure and atmospheric degradation rate of SVOCs exhibit similarities between lower atmosphere over the Arctic and the mid-troposphere over a tropical region. Frequent occurrence of atmospheric ascending motion and convection over warm latitudes carry the chemicals to a higher altitude where some of these chemicals may partition onto solid or aqueous phase through interaction with atmospheric aerosols, cloud water droplets and ice particles, and become more persistent at lower temperatures. Stronger winds in the mid-troposphere then convey solid and aqueous phase chemicals to the Arctic where they sink by large-scale descending motion and wet deposition. Using calculated water droplet-air partitioning coefficient of several persistent organic semi-volatile chemicals under a mean air temperature profile from the equator to the North Pole we propose that clouds are likely important sorbing media for SVOCs and pathway of

  10. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  11. Proboscis extension reflex platform for volatiles and semi-volatiles detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingo, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Kirsten J. (Los Alamos, NM); Haarmann, Timothy K. (Jemez Pueblo, NM)

    2010-11-30

    The present invention provides an apparatus for the detection of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals using the olfactory abilities of honey bees that are trained to respond to the presence of a specific chemical in a sample of gas with the proboscis extension reflex (PER). In particular, the geometry and arrangement of the parts of the apparatus are such that the amount of surface area in contact with the sample of gas prior to its introduction to the bees is minimized to improve the detection of particular volatile and semi-volatile that have a tendency to "stick" to contacting surfaces, especially certain chemicals associated with explosives and narcotics. According to another aspect of the present invention, a pre-concentrating means is incorporated with the device to effectively increase the concentration of "sticky" chemicals presented to the insects.

  12. 76 FR 58790 - Notice of Interim Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The third rate alternative... an interim basis to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The third... allocated on an interim basis to the customers. Rate Scenario 3--Original Cumberland Marketing Policy The...

  13. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; eds.

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of `IFMIF-CDA Interim Report` were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the `Interim Report`. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  14. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of 'IFMIF-CDA Interim Report' were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the 'Interim Report'. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  15. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  16. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  17. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  18. Interim and final storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpfrock, L.; Kockelmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a huge social challenge in Germany and all over the world. As is well known the search for a site for a final repository for high-level waste in Germany is not complete. Therefore, interim storage facilities for radioactive waste were built at plant sites in Germany. The waste is stored in these storage facilities in appropriate storage and transport casks until the transport in a final repository can be carried out. Licensing of the storage and transport casks aimed for use in the public space is done according to the traffic laws and for handling in the storage facility according to nuclear law. Taking into account the activity of the waste to be stored, different containers are in use, so that experience is available from the licensing and operation in interim storage facilities. The large volume of radioactive waste to be disposed of after the shut-down of power generation in nuclear power stations makes it necessary for large quantities of licensed storage and transport casks to be provided soon.

  19. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  20. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  1. Search for Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Characterizing Tobacco Leaves Using Liquid Chromatography / Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les regards se sont principalement tournés sur les composants à faible polarité dans la résine de feuilles de tabac en raison de leur lien probable avec le goût et l’arôme des produits du tabac, l’absence d’une méthode praticable et d’un outil analytique a longtemps fait obstacle à l’identification des composants non-volatils à faible polarité. L’auteur a, en l’occurrence, porté son attention sur l’analyse recourant à la chromatographie en phase inverse non aqueuse couplée à un détecteur à barrettes de photodiodes et à un détecteur de spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique à pression atmosphérique. Cette analyse fut considérée applicable à la séparation des composants nonvolatils significatifs mais inconnus. Son application a permis, avec succès, de séparer, détecter et quantifier simultanément plus de 100 composants non-volatils présentant des polarités faibles et différenciées. Ces composantes furent, entre autres, des solanésols, des triacylglycérides, des phytostérols et des chlorophylles. Cependant, les données concernant les différences de composition parmi les diverses feuilles de tabac demeurent encore partielles et basées sur une analyse ciblée plutôt que globales et basées sur une analyse exhaustive. Aucune étude n’a été, à ce jour, accomplie qui recense les composants essentiels permettant de distinguer, parmi les feuilles de tabac, les différents goûts, arômes, variétés, cultivars, processus de séchage et régions de culture. Par conséquent, toutes les données de quantification ont été consolidées dans le but de former une matrice multidimensionnelle complète et ont subi un traitement statistique qui a mis en exergue les catégories et les composants-clés des diverses feuilles de tabac grâce à une analyse en composantes principales et une classification hiérarchique. Les feuilles de tabac ont, dans un premier temps, été ventilées en

  2. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  3. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  4. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  5. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  6. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may use interim financing for all Project costs except the Borrower's contribution. Any source (including...

  7. Interim Guidance for the Sanitary Control and Surveillance of Field Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-15

    on field water site/area restoration , including the removal and disposal of waste (see chapter 11 and FM 4-02.17). CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION TO...chemical addition, coagulation, sedimentation, and various kinds of filtration including multimedia filtration, cartridge filtration, microfiltration ... microfiltration membrane-based pretreatment system. Interim Guidance Pending Publication of TBMED 577 15 July 2005 53 Figure 9-1

  8. Interim reliability evaluation program (IREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Murphy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP), sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently applying probabilistic risk analysis techniques to two PWR and two BWR type power plants. Emphasis was placed on the systems analysis portion of the risk assessment, as opposed to accident phenomenology or consequence analysis, since the identification of risk significant plant features was of primary interest. Traditional event tree/fault tree modeling was used for the analysis. However, the study involved a more thorough investigation of transient initiators and of support system faults than studies in the past and substantially improved techniques were used to quantify accident sequence frequencies. This study also attempted to quantify the potential for operator recovery actions in the course of each significant accident

  9. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  10. Airborne submicron particulate (PM1) pollution in Shanghai, China: chemical variability, formation/dissociation of associated semi-volatile components and the impacts on visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming

    2014-03-01

    Hourly mass concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM1 and gasses (NH3, HNO3, HCl) were on-line measured with a Monitor for AeRosols and Gases Analyzer (MARGA) in Shanghai from Oct. 1 to Nov. 16, 2012. During the field campaign, 7 haze episodes (total 157 h) were identified. 845 h were identified as non-haze periods, excluding fog events and wet precipitation. The average mass concentration of PM1 and total water-soluble ions (TWSI) in PM1 in haze episodes were 78.9 ± 29.9 μg/m(3) and 47.2 ± 17.2 μg/m(3), 3.11 times (from 1.49 to 4.06 times) and 3.28 times (1.96 to 4.34 times) as those in non-haze periods, respectively. TWSI accounted for 60.4 ± 18.8% of PM1 mass loading in the whole campaign. With the ascending PM1 mass concentration from 2.5 to 125.0 μg/m(3) from non-haze periods to haze episodes, average contribution of TWSI to PM1 mass loading decreased from 86.1% to 54.2%, while different species altered. Contribution of NO3(-) increased from 14.0% to 26.8%, while SO4(2-) decreased from 39.5% to 15.0% and NH4(+) remained around 13.7%. Relationship of visibility with PM1 and TWSI was addressed in specific RH ranges. It was found that hourly TWSI mass concentration showed better correlation with visibility. Formation/dissociation of semi-volatiles (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) was also investigated and demonstrated. NH4NO3 and NH4Cl tended to partition into gas phase in non-haze periods. Particularly, strong dissociation from 11:00 LT to 17:00 LT was observed. In haze episodes, HNO3 and HCl tended to react with NH3 to form particulate matters. Interestingly, we found that formation/dissociation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl exerted great impacts on visibility. Excluding the strong dissociation hours (11:00 LT to 17:00 LT) in correlation analysis of PM1 and visibility, correlation coefficients (R(2)) increased from 0.5762 to 0.7738 at RHPM1 under high RH condition and contributed to visibility degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. VOLATILIZATION RATES FROM WATER TO INDOOR AIR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated water can lead to volatilization of chemicals to residential indoor air. Previous research has focused on only one source (shower stalls) and has been limited to chemicals in which gas-phase resistance to mass transfer is of marginal significance. As a result, attempts to extrapolate chemical emissions from high-volatility chemicals to lower volatility chemicals, or to sources other than showers, have been difficult or impossible. This study involved the development of two-phase, dynamic mass balance models for estimating chemical emissions from washing machines, dishwashers, and bathtubs. An existing model was adopted for showers only. Each model required the use of source- and chemical-specific mass transfer coefficients. Air exchange (ventilation) rates were required for dishwashers and washing machines as well. These parameters were estimated based on a series of 113 experiments involving 5 tracer chemicals (acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene, ethylbenzene, and cyclohexane) and 4 sources (showers, bathtubs, washing machines, and dishwashers). Each set of experiments led to the determination of chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients (overall, liquid-phase, gas-phase), and to an assessment of the importance of gas- phase resistance to mass transfer. Stripping efficiencies ranged from 6.3% to 80% for showers, 2.6% to 69% for bathtubs, 18% to 100% for dishwashers, and 3.8% to 100% for washing machines. Acetone and cyclohexane al

  12. Composition control of low-volatile solids through chemical vapor transport reactions. III. The example of gallium monoselenide: Control of the polytypic structure, non-stoichiometry and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavrazhnov, A.; Naumov, A.; Sidey, V.; Pervov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work is devoted to the composition control of solids with selective CVT method. ► Phase identity and non-stoichiometry of solids (GaSe, etc.) depend on CVT-temperatures. ► The interrelation between the properties of GaSe and CVT conditions is also found. ► For iodide transporting system the diagram of phase stability of solids is adjusted. ► High temperatures and Se-rich non-stoichiometry are necessary for γ-GaSe stability. - Abstract: By means of particular examples, the present work demonstrates the possibility of directed delicate non-destructive control of structure, composition and properties of inorganic solids using the method of selective chemical vapor transport (SCVT). Gallium monoselenide GaSe is the main model object. Additional, though less detailed, explanation is given by the example of gallium monosulfide GaS. Experimental evidences on the possibility of the control of polytypic structure, non-stoichiometry and properties of gallium monoselenide were obtained in non-isothermal variant of selective chemical vapor transport which has non-destructive character. Diagnostics of the phase (polytypic) composition and non-stoichiometry of GaSe was performed with the use of X-ray diffractometry as well as with the use of cathode luminescence spectra. It was experimentally found that there exists a connection of non-stoichiometry and the properties of gallium selenides with the determining conditions of selective chemical vapor transport: temperature of controlled sample (T 2 ) and the difference of temperatures between the hot and cold zones (ΔT). It is shown that the phase diagram of Ga–Se system needs to be partially revised near the composition of Ga 1 Se 1 . The reason for such revision is the fact that two polytypes (ε-GaSe and γ-GaSe) exist on this phase diagram as independent phases.

  13. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runde, W.; Kim, J.I.

    1994-09-01

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO 2 -free atmosphere and 10 -2 atm CO 2 partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [de

  14. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and health effects of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their properties such as their chemical composition. Aerosol chemical composition can be studied indirectly by measuring volatility of aerosol particles. The volatility of submicron aerosol particles (20-500 nm) was studied in a boreal forest site at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) station (Vesala et al., 1998) in Hyytiälä, Finland, during 01/2008-05/2010. The instrument used for the measurements was VDMPS (Volatility Differential Mobility Particle Sizer), which consists of two separate instruments: DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Aalto et al., 2001) and TD (Thermodenuder, Wehner et al., 2002). Aerosol evaporation was examined by heating the aerosol and comparing the total aerosol mass before and after heating. In the VDMPS system ambient aerosol sample was heated up to temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 280 °C. The higher the heating temperature was the more aerosol material was evaporated. There was a non-volatile residual present in aerosol particles when heated up to 280 °C. This residual explained (20±8)% of the total aerosol mass. Aerosol non-volatile mass fraction was highest during winter and smallest during summer months. The role of black carbon in the observed non-volatile residual was determined. Black carbon explained 40 to 90% of the non-volatile mass. Especially during colder seasons noticeable amount of non-volatile material, something else than black carbon, was observed. According to Kalberer et al. (2004) some atmospheric organic species can form polymers that have high evaporation temperatures. Also low-volatile organic salts may contribute to the non-volatile aerosol (Smith et al., 2010). Aerosol mass composition measured directly with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Jayne et al., 2000) was analyzed in order to examine the properties of the non-volatile material (other than black carbon). The AMS measurements were performed

  15. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  16. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Glass packages in interim storage; Les verres dans les stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO{sub 2}. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ``source term`` models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs.

  18. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  19. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, R. Sam; Grimmett, Tami; Vang, Leng; McGrath, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V and V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  20. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  1. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  2. Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation

  3. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola M. Labib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR. Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13% and palmitic acid (9.34% constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1, whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2, delta, kappa, and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials.

  4. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Rola M; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Ross, Samir A

    2017-08-29

    The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO) was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR). Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13%) and palmitic acid (9.34%) constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), delta , kappa , and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials.

  5. Integrated Chemical and Microorganism Monitoring of Air Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Mobility Spectometry: Toward an Expanded-Use Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this research program originated with the choice by NASA of an ion mobility spectrometer for air quality monitoring on-board the international spacestation. Though the gas chromatograph-ion mobility spectrometer analyzer known as VOA met or exceeded expectations, limitations in the basic understanding of response and the utilization of foundational principles into usable technology was considered unacceptable. In this research program, a comprehensive model for the origins of mobility spectra was proposed, tested and verified. The principles considered responsible for the appearance of mobility spectra have now been elucidated through this project. This understanding has been applied in automated identification of mobility spectra using neural networks and routine procedures for this now exist. Finally, the limitation on linear range has been shown to be a technical limitation and not a fundamental limitation so that a hardware component was crafted to extend the linear range of a mobility spectrometer by 10X. This project has led to one Ph.D. dissertation and one MS thesis. In addition, over ten public presentations at professional meetings and six journal publications have resulted from this program of research. The findings are so plentiful that total analysis of the findings may require four to six years or more. The findings confirm that the decision to use VOA was sound and that the chemical and physical principles of mobility spectrometry are both understandable and predictable.

  6. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  7. Shannon Entropy of Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilized Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic loss of ammonia (NH3) volatilization from chemical N fertilizers applied to farmlands worldwide is 11.6 billion US dollars per year. The economic impact of negative environmental effects resulted from NH3 volatilization, i.e., formation of potent greenhouse gas (N2O) and PM2.5, is diffi...

  8. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas chromatograpghy-mass ...

  9. Understanding Financial Market Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Opschoor (Anne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Volatility has been one of the most active and successful areas of research in time series econometrics and economic forecasting in recent decades. Loosely speaking, volatility is defined as the average magnitude of fluctuations observed in some phenomenon over

  10. Improving Garch Volatility Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many researchers use GARCH models to generate volatility forecasts. We show, however, that such forecasts are too variable. To correct for this, we extend the GARCH model by distinguishing two regimes with different volatility levels. GARCH effects are allowed within each regime, so that our model

  11. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  12. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawroski, S.; Vogel, R. C.; Levenson, Milton; Munnecke, V. H.

    1963-07-01

    Work reported includes: Chemical-Metallurgical Processing; Fuel Cycle Applications of Volatility and Fluidization Techniques; Calorimetry; Reactor Safety; Energy Conversion; and Determination of Nuclear Constants.

  13. The volatility of HOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.

    1985-01-01

    The volatility of HOI has been measured using a mass spectrometer to analyze the gas phase above an aqueous solution. The HOI in solution was generated continuously in a flow reactor that combined I/sup -/ and OCl/sup -/ solutions. The analysis has resulted in a lower limit of 6X10/sup 3/ mol . dm/sup -3/ . atm/sup -1/ for the equilibrium constant for the reaction HOI(g)/equilibrium/HOI(aq). This value is a factor 30 greater than the best previous estimate. This new limit for HOI volatility results in higher total iodine partition coefficients, particularly for solutions with pH>8. The upper limit for the equilibrium constant is consistent with essentially zero volatility for HOI. The effect of HOI volatility on total iodine volatility is briefly discussed as a function of solution chemistry and kinetics

  14. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  15. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-04

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  16. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  17. Volatilization of iodine from soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1985-04-01

    Elevated levels of 129 I, a long-lived fission product, are present in the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing and fuel reprocessing. To aid in understanding the anomalous behavior of this element, relative to natural I ( 127 I), in the vicinity of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, preliminary laboratory-growth chamber studies were undertaken to examine the possible formation of volatile inorganic and organic I species in soil and plant systems. Inorganic 129 I added to soil was volatilized from both the soil and plant during plant growth, at average ratios of 2 x 10 -3 %/day soil and 9 x 10 -3 %/day foliage, respectively. Volatilization rates from soil were an order of magnitude less in the absence of growing roots. Less than 2% of soil or plant volatiles was subsequently retained by plant canopies. Volatile I, chemically characterized by selective sorption methods, consisted principally of alkyl iodides formed by both soil and plant processes. However, plants and soils containing actively growing roots produced a larger fraction of volatile inorganic I than soil alone. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  19. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  20. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  1. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  2. Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Marie Thielke; Neubrander, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in higher education. A survey was given to current and recent interim administrators in four-year public universities and colleges across the United States. The goals were to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using and serving as interims, and to solicit…

  3. An Approach for Evaluating the Technical Quality of Interim Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Marion, Scott; Perie, Marianne; Gong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of schools and districts have expressed interest in interim assessment systems to prepare for summative assessments and to improve teaching and learning. However, with so many commercial interim assessments available, schools and districts are struggling to determine which interim assessment is most appropriate to their needs.…

  4. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  5. Lessons for outsourcing and interim management relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, W; Kostyack, P T

    1999-01-01

    Few decisions can affect an organization more than the selection of an outsourcing or interim management partner. More and more health care organizations face such decisions in today's competitive market in order to face new business needs. Making these relationships successful can be important for health care organizations seeking competitive advantages or seeking immediately accessible management support. These relationships, however, require careful partner selection and development. Success in outsourcing and interim management relationships is contingent upon a thorough selection process, a strong contract that has clearly and explicitly detailed responsibilities and a culture-sensitive business rapport between the client and selected partner.

  6. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  7. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vickers, C.; Bongers, M.; Liu, Q.; Delatte, T.L.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural

  8. Análise da madeira de Pinus oocarpa parte I: estudo dos constituintes macromoleculares e extrativos voláteis Chemical analysis of Pinus oocarpa wood part I: quantification of macromolecular components and volatile extractives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados os principais componentes químicos da madeira de Pinus oocarpa, cultivado na região do cerrado. A composição química dessa madeira foi: 59,05% de a-celulose, 21,22% de hemiceluloses A e B, 25,18% de lignina, 2,78% de extrativos em diclorometano, 4,38% de extrativos em etanol:tolueno, 4,31% de extrativos em água quente e 1,26% de cinzas. O conteúdo de celulose foi relativamente elevado, indicando que essa madeira possui grande potencial para produção de pasta de celulose. Investigou-se, também, a composição dos extrativos. Os principais constituintes do extrato diclorometano dessa madeira foram os ácidos diterpênicos, além dos ácidos palmítico e oléico. No óleo essencial, extraído por aparelho de Clevenger, os principais componentes identificados foram aromadendreno, ledano, hexadecanal e ácido oléico.The chemical composition of Pinus oocarpa wood cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado was established. The obtained results were: a-cellulose (59.05%, hemicelluloses A and B (21.22%, lignin (25.18%, dichloromethane extractives (2.78%, ethanol:toluene extractives (4.38%, hot water extractives (4.31% and ash (1.26%. The cellulose content was high. This result opens perspectives for using Pinus oocarpa wood in pulp and paper industries. Most of the dichloromethane extractives were diterpenic, palmitic and oleic acids. The volatile composition, obtained by means of the Clevenger method followed by GC-MS analysis was constituted mainly by aromadendrene, ledane, hexadecanal and oleic acid.

  9. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at a radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past eight years, several interim remedial actions have been taken at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), primarily to reduce radon and gamma radiation exposures and to consolidate radioactive waste into a waste containment facility. Interim remedial actions have included capping of vents, sealing of pipes, relocation of the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transfer and consolidation of waste, upgrading of storage buildings, construction of a clay cutoff wall (to limit the potential groundwater transport of contaminants), treatment and release of contaminated water, interim use of a synthetic liner, and emplacement of an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. 6 refs., 3 figs

  10. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  11. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  12. Interim storage of radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report covers all the principal aspects of production and interim storage of radioactive waste packages. The latest design solutions of waste storage facilities and the operational experiences of developed countries are described and evaluated in order to assist developing Member States in decision making and design and construction of their own storage facilities. This report is applicable to any category of radioactive waste package prepared for interim storage, including conditioned spent fuel, high level waste and sealed radiation sources. This report addresses the following issues: safety principles and requirements for storage of waste packages; treatment and conditioning methods for the main categories of radioactive waste; examples of existing interim storage facilities for LILW, spent fuel and high level waste; operational experience of Member States in waste storage operations including control of storage conditions, surveillance of waste packages and observation of the behaviour of waste packages during storage; retrieval of waste packages from storage facilities; technical and administrative measures that will ensure optimal performance of waste packages subject to various periods of interim storage

  13. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  14. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monitoring and assessment; (ii) Be provided to the independent scientific review panel established in.... The interim goals shall be developed through the use of appropriate models and tools and shall provide... to be required to meet long-term hydrological and ecological restoration goals, based on best...

  15. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Speed, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  16. 19 CFR 354.8 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconsider imposition of interim sanctions on the basis of new and material evidence or other good cause... Secretary may petition a presiding official to impose such sanctions. (b) The presiding official may impose... person to return material previously provided by the Department and all other materials containing the...

  17. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  18. A Non-Traditional Interim Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane; Ward, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    Describes a project initiated by the Foreign Language Department of Birmingham-Southern College for their Interim term and discusses an interdisciplinary course focusing on Medieval Europe. The course included presentations on German and French language and literature, as well as lectures on the arts, philosophy, and family life of the period.…

  19. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  20. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  1. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  2. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  3. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements.

  4. Waste resources utilization program. Interim report, June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    This is an interim report on the effects of the combined use of heat and ionizing radiation (thermoradiation) as a treatment for ridding sewage sludge of pathogenic organisms as well as its effect on the physical-chemical properties. This activity couples two major environmental problems, disposition of human and of nuclear waste, in an attempt to provide a framework in which both will become useful resources. This combined treatment might be chosen to inactivate both heat labile (but possibly radiation resistant) and radiation labile (but possibly heat resistant) organisms. The cost-effective analyses of such a treatment are being examined. Sludge treated with thermoradiation offers considerable potential for use as a fertilizer in agriculture or a soil conditioner for land reclamation free of the potential health hazards associated with conventional methods of land disposal. Treated sludge may also provide a low-cost substitute for high-nutritional components in ruminant diets

  5. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  6. Graphene Chemical Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop graphene based miniaturized chemical sensors that will be able to detect gaseous and volatile molecules with high sensitivity, good reproducibility and wide...

  7. Graphene Chemical Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop graphene based miniaturized chemical sensors that will be able to detect gaseous and volatile molecules with high sensitivity, good reproducibility and wide...

  8. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  9. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  10. Volatile organometallic and semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on a project concerned with the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of mercury-cadmium telluride (MCT) undertaken by a research consortium based in the Clayton area involving Monash University Chemistry Department, Telecom Research Laboratories, and CSIRO Division of Material Sciences and Technology. An M.R. Semicon 226 MOCVD reactor, operating near atmospheric presure with hydrogen carrier gas has been used. Most applications of MCT are direct consequence of its responsiveness to radiation in infrared region spectrum. The main aims of the project were to prepare and assess a range of volatile organometallics that might find use as a dopant sources for MCT, to prepare and study the properties of a range of different lanthanide complexes for MOCVD applications and to fully characterize the semiconductor wafers after growth. 19 refs., 3 figs

  11. Spent fuel interim management: 1995 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of interim away-from-reactor spent fuel storage and storage in spent fuel pools at the reactor site are discussed. An overview of the state-of-the-art in the USA, Europe, and Japan is presented. The technical facilities for away-from-reactor storage are briefly described, including wet storage pools, interactive concrete systems, metallic containers, and passive concrete systems. Reprocessing technologies are mostly at the design stage only. It is predicted that during the 20 years to come, about 50 000 tonnes of spent fuel will be stored at reactor sites regardless of the advance of spent fuel reprocessing or interim storage projects. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Pathways to deep decarbonization - Interim 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The interim 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), coordinated and published by IDDRI and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), presents preliminary findings of the pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Teams with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C. The DDPP is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations who develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. Each DDPP Country Research Team has developed an illustrative road-map for the transition to a low-carbon economy, with the intent of taking into account national socio-economic conditions, development aspirations, infrastructure stocks, resource endowments, and other relevant factors. The interim 2014 report focuses on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization

  13. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on returns are tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component is much more important for the volatility dynamic process than is the volatile component. However, the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most...

  14. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    In this paper a two-component volatility model based on the component's first moment is introduced to describe the dynamic of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and persistent part of volatility respectively. Then the model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock m......, a positive or risk-premium effect exists between return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for return dynamic process....... markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets...

  15. Groundwater Interim Measures Work Plan for the Former Chemical Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    May 2012 Groundwater IMWP, revised per EPA's approval, focuses on the installation of a groundwater containment system to mitigate groundwater migration from the former plant. A prior 2002 work plan is included in its entirety in Appendix B.

  16. A dynamic two-dimensional system for measuring volatile organic compound volatilization and movement in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, S E; Yates, S R; Ernst, F F; Gan, J

    2002-01-01

    There is an important need to develop instrumentation that allows better understanding of atmospheric emission of toxic volatile compounds associated with soil management. For this purpose, chemical movement and distribution in the soil profile should be simultaneously monitored with its volatilization. A two-dimensional rectangular soil column was constructed and a dynamic sequential volatilization flux chamber was attached to the top of the column. The flux chamber was connected through a manifold valve to a gas chromatograph (GC) for real-time concentration measurement. Gas distribution in the soil profile was sampled with gas-tight syringes at selected times and analyzed with a GC. A pressure transducer was connected to a scanivalve to automatically measure the pressure distribution in the gas phase of the soil profile. The system application was demonstrated by packing the column with a sandy loam in a symmetrical bed-furrow system. A 5-h furrow irrigation was started 24 h after the injection of a soil fumigant, propargyl bromide (3-bromo-1-propyne; 3BP). The experience showed the importance of measuring lateral volatilization variability, pressure distribution in the gas phase, chemical distribution between the different phases (liquid, gas, and sorbed), and the effect of irrigation on the volatilization. Gas movement, volatilization, water infiltration, and distribution of degradation product (Br-) were symmetric around the bed within 10%. The system saves labor cost and time. This versatile system can be modified and used to compare management practices, estimate concentration-time indexes for pest control, study chemical movement, degradation, and emissions, and test mathematical models.

  17. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  18. Tribal child welfare. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is issuing this interim final rule to implement statutory provisions related to the Tribal title IV-E program. Effective October 1, 2009, section 479B(b) of the Social Security Act (the Act) authorizes direct Federal funding of Indian Tribes, Tribal organizations, and Tribal consortia that choose to operate a foster care, adoption assistance and, at Tribal option, a kinship guardianship assistance program under title IV-E of the Act. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 requires that ACF issue interim final regulations which address procedures to ensure that a transfer of responsibility for the placement and care of a child under a State title IV-E plan to a Tribal title IV-E plan occurs in a manner that does not affect the child's eligibility for title IV-E benefits or medical assistance under title XIX of the Act (Medicaid) and such services or payments; in-kind expenditures from third-party sources for the Tribal share of administration and training expenditures under title IV-E; and other provisions to carry out the Tribal-related amendments to title IV-E. This interim final rule includes these provisions and technical amendments necessary to implement a Tribal title IV-E program.

  19. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  20. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  1. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  2. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  3. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  4. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  5. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  6. Response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 131-146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Erbilgin; S.R. Mori; J.H. Sun; J.D. Stein; D.R. Owen; L.D. Merrill; R. Campos Bolande; os; K.F. Raffa; T. Mendez Montiel; D.L. Wood; N.E.  Gillette

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) have specialized feeding habits, and commonly colonize only one or a few closely related host genera in their geographical ranges. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, has a broad geographic distribution in North America and exploits volatile cues from a wide variety of pines...

  7. Compilation of interim technical research memoranda. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    Four interim technical research memoranda are presented that describe the results of numerical simulations designed to investigate the dynamics of energetic plasma beams propagating across magnetic fields

  8. Noctuidae-induced plant volatiles: current situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanusa Rodrigues Horas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noctuids are phytophagous lepidopterans with some species causing significant damage to agriculture. The host plants, in turn, have developed defense mechanisms to cope with them, for instance chemical defenses. In this study we review the literature on plant volatiles induced by noctuids, and discuss the methodologies used to induce the production of volatiles that are usually employed in plant defense mechanisms. Future prospects involving this line of research in pest control are also discussed.

  9. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  10. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  11. Essays on nonparametric econometrics of stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Volatility is a concept that describes the variation of financial returns. Measuring and modelling volatility dynamics is an important aspect of financial econometrics. This thesis is concerned with nonparametric approaches to volatility measurement and volatility model validation.

  12. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Claudia E; Bongers, Mareike; Liu, Qing; Delatte, Thierry; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-08-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural functions include roles as insect attractants and repellents, abiotic stress protectants in pathogen defense, etc. Industrial applications include use as pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, fuels, fuel additives, etc. Here we will examine the ways in which researchers have so far found to exploit volatile isoprenoids using biotechnology. Production and/or modification of volatiles using metabolic engineering in both plants and microorganisms are reviewed, including engineering through both mevalonate and methylerythritol diphosphate pathways. Recent advances are illustrated using several case studies (herbivores and bodyguards, isoprene, and monoterpene production in microbes). Systems and synthetic biology tools with particular utility for metabolic engineering are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the practical realities of various applications in modern biotechnology, explore possible future applications, and examine the challenges of moving these technologies forward so that they can deliver tangible benefits. While this review focuses on volatile isoprenoids, many of the engineering approaches described here are also applicable to non-isoprenoid volatiles and to non-volatile isoprenoids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  14. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  15. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection...... and identified or characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 120 VOCs were characterized by retention index and mass spectra. Fifty-three compounds were characterized as terpenoid compounds, among which 18 could be identified. Among the VOCs were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, esters, ketones....... The relationship between the excretion of geosmin and the production of spores was examined for one isolate. A good correlation between headspace geosmin and the number of spores was observed, suggesting that VOCs could be used to indicate the activity of these microorganisms in heterogeneous substrates....

  16. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  17. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  18. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  19. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  1. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994

  2. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs

  3. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-12-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  4. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  5. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... apply to: (i) All gasoline sold or transferred to a party who sells or transfers gasoline to the...

  6. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707...

  7. 12 CFR 541.18 - Interim Federal savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an existing savings and loan holding company or to facilitate any other transaction the Office may... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim Federal savings association. 541.18... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.18 Interim Federal savings association. The term...

  8. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  9. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  10. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kyongsun; Jacobus, Susanna; Uno, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  11. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  12. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51.715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from a...

  13. Do Interim Assessments Reduce the Race and SES Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei; Miller, Shazia R.; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined differential effects of interim assessments on minority and low socioeconomic status students' achievement in Grades K-6. They conducted a large-scale cluster randomized experiment in 2009-2010 to evaluate the impact of Indiana's policy initiative introducing interim assessments statewide. The authors used 2-level models to…

  14. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment... During Construction.'' This ISG provides guidance to the NRC staff on the Preliminary Amendment Request...-ISG-025 ``Interim Staff Guidance on Changes during Construction under 10 CFR Part 52'' is available...

  15. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  16. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-06-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The present contribution deals with the cases named under (3) and (4). Cases (1) and (2) were dealt with in a previous article. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed.

  17. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-05-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between: 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The contribution at hand deals with the cases under 1) and 2); cases 3) and 4) are dealt with in an article to be published. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed. 41 references.

  18. Interim Reliability Evaluation Program procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Gallup, D.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Kolb, G.J.; Stack, D.W.; Lofgren, E.; Horton, W.H.; Lobner, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion

  19. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B

    2002-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  20. Bacterial contribution to iodine volatilization in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amachi, S; Kasahara, M; Fujii, T [Chiba Univ., Dept. of Bioresources Chemistry, Matsudo, Chiba (Japan); Muramatsu, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    The roles of microorganisms in iodine volatilization from the environment were studied. More than 100 bacterial strains were isolated from various environments such as soils, seawater and marine sediments, and were examined their capacities for volatilizing iodine. Approximately 40% of these bacteria showed significant capacities for volatilizing iodine. Gas chromatographic determinations revealed that the chemical species of gaseous iodine is methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S ribosomal DNA showed that these 'iodine-volatilizing bacteria' are widely distributed through the bacterial domain. The iodide-methylating reaction was mediated by an enzyme protein with S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. We then estimated bacterial contribution to iodine volatilization from soils. Iodine in soils was volatilized mainly as CH{sub 3}I. CH{sub 3}I emission was enhanced in the presence of glucose or yeast extract, but was inhibited by autoclaving of soils. Little CH{sub 3}I was produced under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, the addition of streptomycin and tetracycline, antibiotics which inhibit bacterial growth, strongly inhibited CH{sub 3}I emission, while a fungal inhibitor cycloheximide caused little effect. These results suggest that iodine in soils is volatilized as CH{sub 3}I mainly by the action of aerobic soil bacteria. Similar experiment was carried out by using sea water samples. The emission of iodine from sea waters occurred biologically, and bacterial (and also other microbial) contribution was confirmed. Our results suggest that iodine is methylated and volatilized into the atmosphere as a result of bacterial activities. Since bacteria are so abundant and widespread in the environments, they may significantly contribute to global iodine volatilization. This indicates that if {sup 129}I would be released from nuclear facilities, weapons testing or ground storage of nuclear wastes, the pathway of volatilization by

  1. The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) A new rapid separation and alpha-detection system for on-line chemical studies of highly volatile osmium and hassium (Z=108) tetroxides

    CERN Document Server

    Kirbach, U W; Gregorich, K E; Lee, D M; Ninov, V; Omtvedt, J P; Patin, J B; Seward, N K; Strellis, D A; Sudowe, R; Türler, A; Wilk, P A; Zielinski, P M; Hoffman, D C; Nitsche, H

    2002-01-01

    The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) was designed and constructed for rapid, continuous on-line separation and simultaneous detection of highly volatile compounds of short-lived alpha-decaying isotopes of osmium and hassium (Hs, Z=108). A flowing carrier gas containing the volatile species is passed through a channel formed by two facing rows of 32 alpha-particle detectors, cooled to form a temperature gradient extending from 247 K at the channel entrance down to 176 K at the exit. The volatile species adsorb onto the SiO sub 2 -coated detector surfaces at a characteristic deposition temperature and are identified by their observed alpha-decay energies. The CTS was tested on-line with OsO sub 4 prepared from sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 3 Os isotopes produced in sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 sup , sup 1 sup 2 sup 0 Sn( sup 5 sup 6 Fe, 3,4,5n) reactions. An adsorption enthalpy for OsO sub 4 of -40.2+-1.5 kJ/mol on SiO sub 2 was deduced by comparing the measured deposition distribution with Monte Carlo...

  2. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  3. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos, E-mail: danielamicheline@foa.unesp.br [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano [Technological Plasma Laboratory (LaPTec), Experimental Campus of Sorocaba, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tres de Março Av., 511, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, 18087-180 (Brazil); Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  4. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  5. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  6. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  7. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  8. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  9. Sustainable Solutions for Nuclear used Fuels Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Marc; Favet, Dominique; Issard, Herve; Le Jemtel, Amaury; Drevon, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    AREVA has a unique experience in providing sustainable solutions for used fuel management, fitted with the needs of different customers in the world and with regulation in different countries. These solutions entail both recycling and interim storage technologies. In a first part, we will describe the various types of solutions for Interim Storage of UNF that have been implemented around the world for interim storage at reactor or centralized Pad solution in canisters dry storage, vault type storages for dry storage, dry storage of transportation casks (dual purpose) pools for wet storage, The experience for all these different families of interim storages in which AREVA is involved is extensive and will be discussed with respect to the new challenges: increase of the duration of the interim storage (long term interim storage) increase of burn up of the fuels In a second part of the presentation, special recycling features will be presented. In that case, interim storage of the used fuels is ensured in pools. This provides in the long term good conditions for the behaviour of the fuel and its retrievability. With recycling, the final waste (Universal Canister of vitrified fission products and compacted hulls and end pieces): is stable and licensed in many countries for the final disposal (France, UK, Belgium, NL, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, upcoming: Spain, Australia, Italy). Presents neither safety criticality risks nor proliferation risks (AREVA conditioned HLW and LL-ILW are free of IAEA safeguard constraints thanks to AREVA process high recovery and purification yields). It can therefore be safely stored in interim storage for more than 100 years before final disposal. Some economic considerations will also be discussed. In particular, in the case of long term interim storage of used fuels, there are growing uncertainties regarding the future needs of repackaging and transportation, which can result in future cost overruns. Meanwhile, in the recycling policy

  10. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  11. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in

  12. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The persistent nature of equity volatility is investigated by means of a multi-factor stochastic volatility model with time varying parameters. The parameters are estimated by means of a sequential matching procedure which adopts as auxiliary model a time-varying generalization of the HAR model f...

  13. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  14. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  15. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  16. Interim report and accounts 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    An interim set of accounts and reports is presented here for 1993/1994 for the health science company Amersham International. The company's research programs focus on developments in life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance, with particular expertise in the application of radioactivity to labelling and detection at the molecular level. This report which covers the half-year to 30 September 1993 shows promising financial results, with turnover, operating profits and earnings per share all having risen. All life science markets report growth although difficult trading conditions are being reported in Europe. Two products in the Healthcare business have achieved progress, a pain palliation agent for bone metastases has been launched in the United States, and European approval has been gained for a new technetium based heart imaging agent. Further growth is expected for the company. (UK)

  17. Safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc. (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An (interim) report by an ad hoc expert committee to the Nuclear Safety Commission, on the safety regulations for radioisotopes, etc., was presented. For the utilization of radioisotopes, etc., there is the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injury Due to Radioisotopes, etc. with the advances in this field and the improvement in international standards, the regulations by the law have been examined. After explaining the basic ideas of the regulations, the problems and countermeasures in the current regulations are described: legal system, rationalization in permission procedures and others, inspection on RI management, the system of the persons in charge of radiation handling, RI transport, low-level radioactive wastes, consumer goods, definitions of RIs, radiation and sealed sources, regulations by group partitioning, RI facilities, system of personnel exposure registration, entrusting of inspection, etc. to private firms, and reduction in the works for permission among governmental offices. (author)

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jj of... - List of Volatile Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Volatile Hazardous Air Pollutants 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... JJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—List of Volatile Hazardous Air Pollutants Chemical name...

  19. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  20. AGR-1 Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Machael

    2009-01-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the data streams associated with the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) experiment, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY09 qualification status of the AGR-1 data to date. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category, which is assigned by the data generator, and include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing, to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documentation that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent QA program. The interim qualification status of the following four data streams is reported in this document: (1) fuel fabrication data, (2) fuel irradiation data, (3) fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data, and (4) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operating conditions data. A final report giving the NDMAS qualification status of all AGR-1 data (including cycle 145A) is planned for February 2010

  1. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogerson, Kirsten; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Barupal, Dinesh K; Fiehn, Oliver

    2011-08-04

    Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase) is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity) from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species). Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http://vocbinbase.fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu). The Bin

  2. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barupal Dinesh K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species. Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  3. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  4. Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers

    OpenAIRE

    Dündaröz, Ruşen; Ceylan, Süleyman; Denli, Metin; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Balım, Elvan; Özışık, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Eylül; 6(3) Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers Ruşen Dündaröz, Süleyman Ceylan, Metin Denli, Cengiz Han Açıkel, Elvan Balım, Tahir Özışık Abstract Glue sniffing is a frequent problem among teenagers. Various chemical substances, especially toluene and benzene, contained in the glues kave been reported to be hematotoxic. The hematological parameters of 44 healthy teenagers ~...

  5. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  6. Fundamental volatility is regime specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.

    2006-01-01

    A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more

  7. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  8. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  9. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  10. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  11. Nonparametric methods for volatility density estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van Bert; Spreij, P.J.C.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic volatility modelling of financial processes has become increasingly popular. The proposed models usually contain a stationary volatility process. We will motivate and review several nonparametric methods for estimation of the density of the volatility process. Both models based on

  12. Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Interim Report

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2013-01-01

    Click here to download Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Interim Report PDF 44kb Click here to download Strategic Review of Medical Training and Career Structure Terms of Reference PDF 59KB

  13. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility

  14. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  15. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  16. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  17. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  18. EPA's Revised Interim Financial Assistance Conflict of Interest Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has established the following revised interim policy governing disclosure of actual and potential conflicts of interest (COI Policy) by applicants for, and recipients of, federal financial assistance awards from EPA.

  19. Interim report on long range plan for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The interim report on the updated NSAC Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics will be presented to the community for discussion and comment before submission to the funding agencies. The presentation will be coordinated by E. Moniz chair of NSAC

  20. Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang ( Koompassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang ( Koompassia excelsa ) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. ... Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted ...

  1. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  2. Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie; Burgues, Alexandre; Signori, Ombretta

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of incorporating strategic exposure to equity volatility into the investment-opportunity set of a long-term equity investor. We consider two standard volatility investments: implied volatility and volatility risk premium strategies. To calibrate and assess the risk/return profile of the portfolio, we present an analytical framework offering pragmatic solutions for long-term investors seeking exposure to volatility. The benefit of volatility exposure for a co...

  3. TWRS HLW interim storage facility search and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify and provide an evaluation of interim storage facilities and potential facility locations for the vitrified high-level waste (HLW) from the Phase I demonstration plant and Phase II production plant. In addition, interim storage facilities for solidified separated radionuclides (Cesium and Technetium) generated during pretreatment of Phase I Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant feed was evaluated.

  4. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  5. Interim Report by Asia International Grid Connection Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, Ryo

    2018-01-01

    The Asia International Grid Connection Study Group Interim Report examines the feasibility of developing an international grid connection in Japan. The Group has investigated different cases of grid connections in Europe and conducted research on electricity markets in Northeast Asia, and identifies the barriers and challenges for developing an international grid network including Japan. This presentation introduces basic contents of the interim report by the Study Group.

  6. ITER interim design report package and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents the technical basis which underlay the Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis submitted to the ITER Councils (IC-8 and IC-9) Records of decisions and the ''ITER Interim Design Report Package''. This publication contains ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions, TAC-8 Report, SRG Report, CP's Report on Tentative Sequence of Events and Parties' Views on the IDR Package and Parties' Technical Comments on the IDR Package. Figs, tabs

  7. Materials behavior in interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Inman, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Interim storage has emerged as the only current spent-fuel management method in the US and is essential in all countries with nuclear reactors. Materials behavior is a key aspect in licensing interim-storage facilities for several decades of spent-fuel storage. This paper reviews materials behavior in wet storage, which is licensed for light-water reactor (LWR) fuel, and dry storage, for which a licensing position for LWR fuel is developing

  8. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  9. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  10. Parallel Prediction of Stock Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Jenq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a measurement of the risk of financial products. A stock will hit new highs and lows over time and if these highs and lows fluctuate wildly, then it is considered a high volatile stock. Such a stock is considered riskier than a stock whose volatility is low. Although highly volatile stocks are riskier, the returns that they generate for investors can be quite high. Of course, with a riskier stock also comes the chance of losing money and yielding negative returns. In this project, we will use historic stock data to help us forecast volatility. Since the financial industry usually uses S&P 500 as the indicator of the market, we will use S&P 500 as a benchmark to compute the risk. We will also use artificial neural networks as a tool to predict volatilities for a specific time frame that will be set when we configure this neural network. There have been reports that neural networks with different numbers of layers and different numbers of hidden nodes may generate varying results. In fact, we may be able to find the best configuration of a neural network to compute volatilities. We will implement this system using the parallel approach. The system can be used as a tool for investors to allocating and hedging assets.

  11. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Marcussen, J.

    2015-01-01

    produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl......Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles...... to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile...

  12. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil.

  13. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...... variance in out-of-sample evaluations rather than the squared return. We derive the theoretical results in a general framework that is not specific to the comparison of volatility models. Similar problems can arise in comparisons of forecasting models whenever the predicted variable is a latent variable....

  14. Evaluation of ERA-Interim precipitation data in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation controls a large variety of environmental processes, which is an essential input parameter for land surface models e.g. in hydrology, ecology and climatology. However, rain gauge networks provides the necessary information, are commonly sparse in complex terrains, especially in high mountainous regions. Reanalysis products (e.g. ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR) as surrogate data are increasing applied in the past years. Although they are improving forward, previous studies showed that these products should be objectively evaluated due to their various uncertainties. In this study, we evaluated the precipitation data from ERA-Interim, which is a latest reanalysis product developed by ECMWF. ERA-Interim daily total precipitation are compared with high resolution gridded observation dataset (E-OBS) at 0.25°×0.25° grids for the period 1979-2010 over central Alps (45.5-48°N, 6.25-11.5°E). Wet or dry day is defined using different threshold values (0.5mm, 1mm, 5mm, 10mm and 20mm). The correspondence ratio (CR) is applied for frequency comparison, which is the ratio of days when precipitation occurs in both ERA-Interim and E-OBS dataset. The result shows that ERA-Interim captures precipitation occurrence very well with a range of CR from 0.80 to 0.97 for 0.5mm to 20mm thresholds. However, the bias of intensity increases with rising thresholds. Mean absolute error (MAE) varies between 4.5 mm day-1 and 9.5 mm day-1 in wet days for whole area. In term of mean annual cycle, ERA-Interim almost has the same standard deviation of the interannual variability of daily precipitation with E-OBS, 1.0 mm day-1. Significant wet biases happened in ERA-Interim throughout warm season (May to August) and dry biases in cold season (November to February). The spatial distribution of mean annual daily precipitation shows that ERA-Interim significant underestimates precipitation intensity in high mountains and northern flank of Alpine chain from November to March while pronounced

  15. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Šetka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  16. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  17. 340 Waste Handling Facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the interim safety basis (ISB) for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). An ISB is a documented safety basis that provides a justification for the continued operation of the facility until an upgraded final safety analysis report is prepared that complies with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The ISB for the 340 Facility documents the current design and operation of the facility. The 340 Facility ISB (ISB-003) is based on a facility walkdown and review of the design and operation of the facility, as described in the existing safety documentation. The safety documents reviewed, to develop ISB-003, include the following: OSD-SW-153-0001, Operating Specification Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1990); OSR-SW-152-00003, Operating Limits for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1989); SD-RE-SAP-013, Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Railroad Liquid Waste Tank Cars (Mercado 1993); SD-WM-TM-001, Safety Assessment Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (Berneski 1994a); SD-WM-SEL-016, 340 Facility Safety Equipment List (Berneski 1992); and 340 Complex Fire Hazard Analysis, Draft (Hughes Assoc. Inc. 1994)

  18. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  19. The EMEFS model evaluation. An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dennis, R.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Seilkop, S.K. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, ON (Canada); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N. [Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Karamchandani, P.; Venkatram, A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Camarillo, CA (United States); Fung, C.; Misra, P.K. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hansen, D.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chang, J.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1991-12-01

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  1. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  2. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  3. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  4. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ''organic Watch List tanks.'' Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ''safety issue.''

  5. FY17 Status Report: Research on Stress Corrosion Cracking of SNF Interim Storage Canisters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alexander, Christopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This progress report describes work done in FY17 at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. Work in FY17 refined our understanding of the chemical and physical environment on canister surfaces, and evaluated the relationship between chemical and physical environment and the form and extent of corrosion that occurs. The SNL corrosion work focused predominantly on pitting corrosion, a necessary precursor for SCC, and process of pit-to-crack transition; it has been carried out in collaboration with university partners. SNL is collaborating with several university partners to investigate SCC crack growth experimentally, providing guidance for design and interpretation of experiments.

  6. Manipulation of natural subsurface processes: Field research and validation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Often the only alternative for treating deep subsurface contamination is in situ manipulation of natural processes to change the mobility or form of contaminants. However, the complex interactions of natural subsurface physical, chemical, and microbial processes limit the predictability of the system-wide impact of manipulation based on current knowledge. This report is a summary of research conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State by introducing chemical reagents and microbial nutrients. The experiment would allow the testing of concepts and hypotheses developed from fundamental research in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Subsurface Science Program. Furthermore, the achievement of such control is expected to have implications for in situ remediation of dispersed aqueous contaminants in the subsurface environment at DOE sites nationwide, and particularly at the Hanford Site. This interim report summarizes initial research that was conducted between July 1990 and October 1991

  7. Industrial complementarities between interim storage and reversible geological repository - 59237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The French Act voted in 2006 made the choice of deep geological disposal as the reference option for the long term management of high level (HLW) and intermediate level long-lived waste. The CIGEO repository project aims at avoiding or limiting burden to future generations, which could not be achieved by the extension in time of interim storage. The reversibility as provided by the Act will maintain a liberty of choice for waste management on a duration which is comparable to new storage facility. Interim storage is required to accommodate waste as long as the repository is not available. The commissioning of the repository in 2025 will not suppress needs for interim storage. The paper describes the complementarities between existing and future interim storage facilities and the repository project: repository operational issues and planning, HLW thermal decay, support for the reversibility, etc. It shows opportunities to prepare a global optimization of waste management including the utilization at best of storage capacities and the planning of waste emplacement in the repository in such a way to facilitate operational conditions and to limit cost. Preliminary simulations of storage-disposal scenarios are presented. Thanks to an optimal use of the waste management system, provision can be made for a progressive increase of waste emplacement flow during the first operation phase of the repository. It is then possible to stabilize the industrial activity level of the repository site. An optimal utilization of interim storage can also limit the diversity of waste packages emplaced simultaneously, which facilitates the operation of the repository. 60 years minimum interim storage duration is generally required with respect to HLW thermal output. Extending this interim storage period may reduce the underground footprint of the repository. Regarding reversibility, the capability to manage waste packages potentially retrieved from the repository should be analyzed. The

  8. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  9. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  10. Xe isotopic constraints on cycling of deep Earth volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern deep Earth volatile budget reflects primordial volatiles delivered during accretion, radiogenic ingrowth of volatile species (e.g., 40Ar produced by 40K decay), outgassing in association with mantle processing, and regassing via subduction. The noble gases are unique volatile tracers in that they are chemically inert, but are thought to be trapped within hydrous alteration phases in downwelling lithologies. Noble gases thus provide a tracer of volatile transport between the deep Earth and surface reservoirs. Constraints on the fluxes of noble gases between deep Earth and surface reservoirs over time can accordingly be used to provide insight into temperature conditions at subduction zones, limits on volatile cycling, and the evolving distribution of major volatile species in terrestrial reservoirs over time. Xe isotope systematics in mantle-derived rocks show that 80-90% of the mantle Xe budget is derived from recycling of atmospheric Xe, indicating that atmospheric Xe is retained in subducting slabs beyond depths of magma generation in subduction zones over Earth history. We present an integrated model of Xe cycling between the mantle and atmosphere in association with mantle processing over Earth history. We test a wide variety of outgassing and regassing rates and take the evolution of the atmospheric Xe isotopic composition [e.g., 1] into account. Models in which the deep Earth transitions from a net outgassing to net regassing regime best satisfy Xe isotopic constraints from mantle-derived rocks [2-6]. [1] Avice et al., 2017; Nature Communications, 8; [2] Mukhopadhyay, 2012, Nature 486, 101-104; [3] Parai et al., 2012, EPSL 359-360, 227-239; [4] Parai and Mukhopadhay, 2015, G-cubed 16, 719-735; [5] Peto et al., 2013, EPSL 369-370, 13-23; [6] Tucker et al., 2012, EPSL 355-356, 244-254.

  11. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: (1) Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing - 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. (2) Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram - 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  12. Next Generation Melter Optioneering Study - Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.F.; Calmus, R.B.; Ramsey, G.; Lomax, J.; Allen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D 2 0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  13. Volatility Properties of Polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    2002-06-01

    Thermodynamical constants to describe evaporation processes of polonium are summarized and critically discussed. Additionally, systematic changes of the properties of the chalcogenes are analyzed, empirical correlations are proofed and cyclic processes are balanced. Accordingly, the existing values of entropies for polonium are acceptable. Questionable, however, are those values of enthalpies, which have been deduced from results of the experimental investigations of the vapor pressure temperature dependency, of the melting point, and of the boiling temperatures. Technical difficulties and possible error sources of the measurements resulting from the radioactive decay properties of 210 Po are discussed. Using extrapolative standard enthalpies and entropies as well as their temperature dependency, the equilibrium partial pressure of the monomeric and dimeric polonium above the pure condensed phase and the equilibrium constant of the dimerization reaction in the gas phase are calculated: log p/pa Po (g) = (11.797 ± 0.024) -(9883.4 ± 9.5)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (10.661 ± 0.057) - (9328.4 ± 4.9)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log p/pa Po 2 (g) = (13.698 ± 0.049) - (8592.3 ± 19.6)/T (for T = 298-600 K); = (11.424 ± 0.124) - (7584.1 ± 98.1)/T (for T = 500-1300 K); log K (dim) = (-4.895 ± 0.012) + (11071 ± 6)/T. According to these calculations and in contrast to other works, polonium evaporates in the entire temperature range between 298 and 1300 K in the dimeric state. Hence, 'latent heats' of the volatilization processes are clearly larger compared to literature data. Especially in the temperature range of the solid polonium the calculated vapor pressure curve shifts significantly to lower values, whereas the boiling point was almost reproduced by the calculation. The results of the extrapolation for the standard enthalpy of the gaseous monomeric polonium and the dimerization enthalpy ΔH 0 298 Po (g) = 188.9 kJ/mol and ΔH 0 298 (form) Po 2 (g) = 211.5 kJ/mol are

  14. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  15. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  16. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  17. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE's Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  18. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  19. 10 CFR 431.401 - Petitions for waiver, and applications for interim waiver, of test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Each Application for Interim Waiver must reference the Petition... Renewable Energy. (e) Provisions specific to interim waivers—(1) Disposition of application. If... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for waiver, and applications for interim waiver...

  20. 78 FR 67442 - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...] Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Interim Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Comment. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing Interim Guidance on the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality.../environment/air_quality/cmaq/policy_and_guidance/2008_guidance/ guidance/. DATES: This Interim Guidance is...

  1. Rapid analytical extraction of volatile fermentation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, N B; Flickinger, M C; Tsao, G T

    1979-10-01

    With renewed interest in production of liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks from carbohydrates, numerous authors have utilized gas-liquid chromatography (GC) for quantification of volatile products. Poor separation and short column life will result if residual sugars present in the medium are not separated from the volatile compounds before injection. In our current investigation of 2,3-butanediol production from xylose, we have developed a rapid GC assay for 2,3-butanediol, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin), 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), and ethanol. This method extracts the fermentation products at high pH from residual xylose before injection into the GC. This routine is a modification of the method of Kolfenbach et al. and is more rapid than the method of separation of diacetyl and acetoin from carbohydrates by distillation reported by Gupta et al. Their erroneous reports of yields of 640 mg diacetyl + acetoin/g sugar are 30% higher than the theoretical maximum for Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 27613) and points out the need for a reliable, accurate assay for these products.

  2. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jinghui; Kobayashi, Masahito; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The proposed test is a stochastic volatility version of the co-movement test proposed by Engle and Susmel (1993), who investigated whether international equity markets have volatility co-movement using t...

  3. Interim data quality objectives for waste pretreatment and vitrification. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Conner, J.M.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Mobley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for storing, processing, and immobilizing the Hanford Site tank wastes. Characterization information on the tank wastes is needed so that safety concerns can be addressed, and retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes can be designed, permitted, and implemented. This document describes the near-term tank waste sampling and characterization needs of the Pretreatment, High-Level Waste (HLW) Disposal, and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs to support the TWRS disposal mission. The final DQO (Data Quality Objective) will define specific waste tanks to be sampled, sample timing requirements, an appropriate analytical scheme, and a list of required analytes. This interim DQO, however, focuses primarily on the required analytes since the tanks to be sampled in FY 1994 and early FY 1995 are being driven most heavily by other considerations, particularly safety. The major objective of this Interim DQO is to provide guidance for tank waste characterization requirements for samples taken before completion of the final DQO. The characterization data needs defined herein will support the final DQO to help perform the following: Support the TWRS technical strategy by identification of the chemical and physical composition of the waste in the tanks and Guide development efforts to define waste pretreatment processes, which will in turn define HLW and LLW feed to vitrification processes

  4. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  5. An interim report on the State of Nevada socioeconomic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This Interim Report is a report on work in progress and presents findings from the research to date on the potential consequences of a repository for the citizens of Nevada. The research and findings in the Report have been subjected to rigorous peer review as part of the state's effort to insure independent, objective analysis that meets the highest professional standards. The basic research effort will continue through June 1990 and will enable the state to refine and clarify the findings presented in this Interim Report

  6. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  7. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  8. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  9. Multiscaling and clustering of volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Michele; Serva, Maurizio

    1999-07-01

    The dynamics of prices in stock markets has been studied intensively both experimentally (data analysis) and theoretically (models). Nevertheless, while the distribution of returns of the most important indices is known to be a truncated Lévy, the behaviour of volatility correlations is still poorly understood. What is well known is that absolute returns have memory on a long time range, this phenomenon is known in financial literature as clustering of volatility. In this paper we show that volatility correlations are power laws with a non-unique scaling exponent. This kind of multiscale phenomenology is known to be relevant in fully developed turbulence and in disordered systems and it is pointed out here for the first time for a financial series. In our study we consider the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) daily index, from January 1966 to June 1998, for a total of 8180 working days.

  10. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  11. Human skin microbiota and their volatiles as odour baits for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Host seeking by the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly guided by volatile chemicals present in human odours. The skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of these volatiles, and skin bacteria grown on agar plates attract An. gambiae

  12. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  13. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  14. Volatile monoterpenes in a stand of Picea abies (L.) Karst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, W.; Eichstaedter, G.; Steinbrecher, R.; Schoenwitz, R.; Gabriel, R.; Karbach, I.; Zufall, N.; Ziegler, H.

    1992-01-01

    Natural emissions of terpene and their fate in the atmosphere were investigated in a forest stand of the Bayerischer Wald mountains. Terpenes are volatile hydrocarbons whose relevance for air chemistry has increased considerably in the past few years. The investigation compared different sources of terpene in order to determine their strength as a function of meteorological, air-chemical and biological parameters. (orig./BBR) [de

  15. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  16. New York State interim waste management cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.S.; Watts, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.R.; Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the comparative costs associated with including or excluding Class A utility wastes at a centralized interim waste management facility in New York State. The objective of the study is to assess the unit costs and total statewide costs associated with two distinct scenarios: (1) the case where non-utility Class A LLRW is received, incinerated and stored at the centralized interim facility, and utility Class A wastes are held without incineration at respective nuclear power plant interim onsite facilities without incineration; and (2) the alternative case where both utility and non-utility Class A wastes are accepted, incinerated and stored at the centralized facility. Unit costs to waste generators are estimated for each of the two cases described. This is followed by an estimation of the statewide cost impact to the public. The cost impact represents the cost differential resulting from the exclusion of utility Class A waste from the centralized NYS interim waste management facility. The principal factors comprising the cost differential include (1) higher unit disposal fees charged to non-utility waste generators, which are passed along in the costs of products and services; and (2) costs to utilities due to construction of additional onsite storage capacity, which in turn are charged to electric rate payers

  17. Options for the interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    1995-01-01

    Different concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel arising from operation of a NPP are discussed. We considered at reactor as well as away from reactor storage options. Included are enhancements of existing storage capabilities and construction of a new wet or dry storage facility. (author)

  18. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance)

  19. 17 CFR 210.8-03 - Interim financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim financial statements... AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE... ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of...

  20. ASPECTS CONCERNING INTERIM FINANCIAL REPORTING IN ROMANIA: STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms employed for the communication of accounting information that is necessary for users in their economic decision-making process consist of the financial statements of an entity. All legal entities, no matter the domain of their activity, have the obligation to draw up annual financial statements for every completed financial year. For certain categories of entities, reporting obligations are also required for periods other than the annual reporting, throughout the financial year. It is the case of interim financial reporting. At the level of the international accounting framework, the aspects related to interim financial reporting are the subject of a separate standard, namely, IAS 34 Interim Financial Reporting. In Romania, the current system of accounting regulations concerning the annual financial statements comprises accounting regulations that comply with the European directives and which apply to the various categories of entities, on the one hand and, on the other, accounting regulations in line with the IFRS, which are applicable to other classes of entities from certain activity sectors. The accounting regulations that apply to each category refer to, among other things, the contents and the format of financial statements that have to be presented. Analysing the system of norms and regulations, this article identifies the requirements concerning interim financial reporting in Romania, with reference to the different types of entities.

  1. 39 CFR 211.4 - Interim personnel regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim personnel regulations. 211.4 Section 211.4... under the Postal Reorganization Act. (b) Continuation of Personnel Provisions of Former title 39, U.S.C... collective bargaining agreement under the Postal Reorganization Act, all provisions of former title 39, U.S.C...

  2. Students' interim literacies as a dynamic resource for teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the notion of 'interim literacies'by drawing on data from a research project which used linguistic and intertextual analysis of first year student writing in economics to investigate the intersection of academic discourse and student voice. This research has provided a rich set of data to illustrate the ways in ...

  3. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  4. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  5. Guidelines for interim storage of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.; Castagnacci, A.; Clymer, G.; Kelly, J.; Naughton, M.; Saunders, P.; Stoner, P.; Walker, N.; Cazzolli, R.; Dettenmeier, R.; Loucks, L.; Rigsby, M.; Spall, M.; Strum, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents an overview of on-site storage of Low Level Waste while providing guidelines for using the complete Interim On-Site Storage of Low Level Waste report series. Overall, this report provides a methodology for planning and implementing on-site storage

  6. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-01-01

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline

  7. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  8. 78 FR 70244 - Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background To be... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0104] RIN 0960-AH45 Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. 14 CFR 136.41 - Interim operating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.41 Interim operating... terminate 180 days after the date on which an air tour management plan is established for the park and tribal lands; (6) Shall promote protection of national park resources, visitor experiences, and tribal...

  10. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  11. Public School Finance Problems in Texas. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Research League, Austin.

    The U.S. District Court ruling in Rodriguez vs San Antonio Independent School District, which struck down Texas' school finance system as inequitable and unconstitutional, provided the impetus for publishing this interim report. The report documents the growing cost of State-supported public school programs--the primary concern prior to the…

  12. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  13. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...

  14. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  15. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  16. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  17. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  18. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    We present and test a model relating a firm's idiosyncratic cost, its exporting status, and the volatilities of its domestic and export sales. In prior models of trade, supply costs for domestic and exports were linear and thus additively separable. We introduce a nonlinear cost function in order...... to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...... has several testable predictions. First, larger firms have lower total and domestic sales volatilities. Second, foreign market volatility increases domestic sales volatilities for exporters. Third, exporters allocate output across both markets in order to reduce total sales volatility. We find...

  19. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  20. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  1. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and tritrophic interactions across spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsma, Yavanna; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes. The volatile mosaic may be exploited differentially by different parasitoid species, in relation to species traits such as sensory ability to perceive volatiles and the physical ability to move towards the source. Understanding how HIPVs influence parasitoids at larger spatial scales is crucial for our understanding of tritrophic interactions and sustainable pest management in agriculture. However, there is a large gap in our knowledge on how volatiles influence the process of host location by parasitoids at the landscape scale. Future studies should bridge the gap between the chemical and behavioural ecology of tritrophic interactions and landscape ecology. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. A nonparametric approach to forecasting realized volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Clements; Ralf Becker

    2009-01-01

    A well developed literature exists in relation to modeling and forecasting asset return volatility. Much of this relate to the development of time series models of volatility. This paper proposes an alternative method for forecasting volatility that does not involve such a model. Under this approach a forecast is a weighted average of historical volatility. The greatest weight is given to periods that exhibit the most similar market conditions to the time at which the forecast is being formed...

  3. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  4. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  5. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  6. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  7. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  8. Testing for Volatility Co-movement in Bivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chen (Jinghui); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper considers the problem of volatility co-movement, namely as to whether two financial returns have perfectly correlated common volatility process, in the framework of multivariate stochastic volatility models and proposes a test which checks the volatility co-movement. The

  9. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  10. Dynamic Factor Models for the Volatility Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Michel; Ozturk, Sait R.; Dijk, Dick van

    The implied volatility surface is the collection of volatilities implied by option contracts for different strike prices and time-to-maturity. We study factor models to capture the dynamics of this three-dimensional implied volatility surface. Three model types are considered to examine desirable...

  11. Determination of Partition coefficients for a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds in Rats and Humans at Different Life Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, Deidre A; Gearhart, Jeffrey M; Godfrey, Richard J; Mattie, David R; Cook, Robert S; Grisby, Claude C

    2004-01-01

    .... Partition coefficients (PCs) are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals across life stages can help reduce the uncertainty in risk assessment...

  12. Wintertime hygroscopicity and volatility of ambient urban aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Mikkilä, Jyri; Németh, Zoltán; Kulmala, Markku; Salma, Imre

    2018-04-01

    Hygroscopic and volatile properties of atmospheric aerosol particles with dry diameters of (20), 50, 75, 110 and 145 nm were determined in situ by using a volatility-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA) system with a relative humidity of 90 % and denuding temperature of 270 °C in central Budapest during 2 months in winter 2014-2015. The probability density function of the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) showed a distinct bimodal distribution. One of the modes was characterised by an overall mean HGF of approximately 1.07 (this corresponds to a hygroscopicity parameter κ of 0.033) independently of the particle size and was assigned to nearly hydrophobic (NH) particles. Its mean particle number fraction was large, and it decreased monotonically from 69 to 41 % with particle diameter. The other mode showed a mean HGF increasing slightly from 1.31 to 1.38 (κ values from 0.186 to 0.196) with particle diameter, and it was attributed to less hygroscopic (LH) particles. The mode with more hygroscopic particles was not identified. The probability density function of the volatility GF (VGF) also exhibited a distinct bimodal distribution with an overall mean VGF of approximately 0.96 independently of the particle size, and with another mean VGF increasing from 0.49 to 0.55 with particle diameter. The two modes were associated with less volatile (LV) and volatile (V) particles. The mean particle number fraction for the LV mode decreased from 34 to 21 % with particle diameter. The bimodal distributions indicated that the urban atmospheric aerosol contained an external mixture of particles with a diverse chemical composition. Particles corresponding to the NH and LV modes were assigned mainly to freshly emitted combustion particles, more specifically to vehicle emissions consisting of large mass fractions of soot likely coated with or containing some water-insoluble organic compounds such as non-hygroscopic hydrocarbon-like organics. The hygroscopic

  13. Money growth volatility and the demand for money in Germany: Friedman's volatility hypothesis revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Imke; Nautz, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Bundesbank claimed that monetary targeting has become considerably more diffcult by the increased volatility of short-term money growth. The present paper investigates the impact of German money growth volatility on income velocity and money demand in view of Friedman's money growth volatility hypothesis. Granger-causality tests provide some evidence for a velocity-volatility linkage. However the estimation of volatility-augmented money demand functions reveals that - in contras...

  14. Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test.

  15. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

  17. Impact of microorganism on polonium volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Ishida, A.; Fukuda, A.; Yoshinaga, C.

    2007-01-01

    Volatilization of polonium by microorganisms, Chromobacterium violaceum, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was examined for pure cultures in LB medium at 30 deg C, showing relative Po emission intensity 100, 10 and 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum pre-cultured in LB medium without Po and suspended in water with Po showed high Po volatilization in spite of poor nutriment condition. Antibiotics inhibit volatilization of Po and cultivation at low temperature greatly reduced volatilization. The results strongly support the biological effects on Po volatilization. (author)

  18. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hook, Gary L

    2003-01-01

    ..., is: What chemicals are present? In order to answer this question rapidly, there is increasing demand for field analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds with instrumentation that provides definitive identification...

  19. Volatile constituents of Trichothecium roseum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelen, M; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R; Geeraerts, J

    1978-06-01

    In the course of investigation of Trichothecium roseum (Fungi Imperfecti) for its attractancy against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cheese mite), the twenty following volatile compounds produced at a very low concentration by the microfungus were identified by gc, gc/ms, gc/c.i.ms and tlc: 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, octa-1,5-dien-3 one, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, octa-1,5-dien-3 ol, furfural, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpineol (alpha and beta) citronellyl acetate, nerol, citronellol, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol geranyl acetate, 1-phenyl ethanol and nerolidol. Octa-1,5-dien-3-ol and octa-1,5-dien-3-one have not been previously isolated from fungi; octa-1,5-dien-3-ol is the most potent attractant amount the volatile compounds detected by gc.

  20. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  1. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  2. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  3. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  4. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  5. Volatility measurement of atmospheric submicron aerosols in an urban atmosphere in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Ming; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Min; He, Ling-Yan

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol pollution has been a very serious environmental problem in China for many years. The volatility of aerosols can affect the distribution of compounds in the gas and aerosol phases, the atmospheric fates of the corresponding components, and the measurement of the concentration of aerosols. Compared to the characterization of chemical composition, few studies have focused on the volatility of aerosols in China. In this study, a thermodenuder aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS) system was deployed to study the volatility of non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1) species during winter in Shenzhen. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report of the volatilities of aerosol chemical components based on a TD-AMS system in China. The average PM1 mass concentration during the experiment was 42.7±20.1 µg m-3, with organic aerosol (OA) being the most abundant component (43.2 % of the total mass). The volatility of chemical species measured by the AMS varied, with nitrate showing the highest volatility, with a mass fraction remaining (MFR) of 0.57 at 50 °C. Organics showed semi-volatile characteristics (the MFR was 0.88 at 50 °C), and the volatility had a relatively linear correlation with the TD temperature (from the ambient temperature to 200 °C), with an evaporation rate of 0.45 % °C-1. Five subtypes of OA were resolved from total OA using positive matrix factorization (PMF) for data obtained under both ambient temperature and high temperatures through the TD, including a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, accounting for 13.5 %), a cooking OA (COA, 20.6 %), a biomass-burning OA (BBOA, 8.9 %), and two oxygenated OAs (OOAs): a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA, 39.1 %) and a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA, 17.9 %). Different OA factors presented different volatilities, and the volatility sequence of the OA factors at 50 °C was HOA (MFR of 0.56) > LO-OOA (0.70) > COA (0.85) ≈ BBOA (0.87) > MO-OOA (0.99), which was not completely consistent with the sequence of their O

  6. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives

  7. Forecasting volatility for options valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaifa, M.; Morimune, K.

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector plays a neuralgic role in the basement of world economies, and market actors (producers, intermediates, as well as consumers) are continuously subjected to the dynamics of unstable oil market. Huge amounts are being invested along the production chain to make one barrel of crude oil available to the end user. Adding to that are the effect of geopolitical dynamics as well as geological risks as expressed in terms of low chances of successful discoveries. In addition, fiscal regimes and regulations, technology and environmental concerns are also among some of the major factors that contribute to the substantial risk in the oil industry and render the market structure vulnerable to crises. The management of these vulnerabilities require modern tools to reduce risk to a certain level, which unfortunately is a non-zero value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to provide a modern technique to capture the oil price stochastic volatility that can be implemented to value the exposure of an investor, a company, a corporate or a Government. The paper first analyses the regional dependence on oil prices, through a historical perspective and then looks at the evolution of pricing environment since the large price jumps of the 1970s. The main causes of oil prices volatility are treated in the third part of the paper. The rest of the article deals with volatility models and forecasts used in risk management, with an implication for pricing derivatives. (author)

  8. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  9. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  11. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl 4 and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies

  12. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  14. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open...... group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients...... in the control group had the adjudicated primary end point (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.31). After the inclusion of end points pending adjudication, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.32). There were no statistically significant differences between the rosiglitazone...

  15. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  17. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  18. Ad interim legal remedy in case of large projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limberger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Action for ad interim judicial relief in response to large projects approved of by the authorities very frequently take several years until a decision is taken by the court. Experience has shown that this applies in particular to large projects such as the construction of nuclear power plants, large-size industrial plants, or airports. It has become regular practice by the authorities concerned to issue an order for immediate execution upon the plan approving decision and granting of licence for said projects, in accordance with section 80, sub-section (2), no.4 of the VwGO. The problems thus created with regard to interim legal remedy sought by the parties concerned are of great significance. The book in hand discusses the question as to whether the practice of the administrative authorities and the courts satisfies the requirements embodied in the law, to provide for efficient legal protection. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Hydrazine blending and storage facility, interim response action, draft implementation document for rinsewater transfer, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-09

    This Draft Implementation Document (ID) for Rinsewater Transfer has been prepared as a requirement for conducting and completing the Interim Response Action (IRA) at the Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility (HBSF) located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Commerce City, Colorado. This document has been prepared in accordance with requirements set forth in the October 1988 Final Decision Document for the HBSF IRA (Peer, 1988) and the Amendment to the Final Decision Document (HLA, 1991). The HBSF IRA task was separated into two phases that comprise complete decommissioning of the HBSF as cited in the Federal Facility Agreement. The design portion of Phase I of the HBSF IRA included analytical methods development and laboratory certification for analysis of hydrazine fuel compounds (hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine) (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) and n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in HBSF rinsewater, chemical characterization of hydrazine rinsewater, bench- and pilot-scale testing of ultraviolet (UV) light/chemical oxidation treatment systems for treatment of hydrazine rinsewater, full-scale startup testing of a UV light/chemical oxidation treatment system, and air monitoring during startup testing as described in the Draft Final Treatment Report (HLA, 1991).

  20. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements

  1. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  2. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ison, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D and D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  3. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  4. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    An abbreviated fault tree method is used to evaluate and model Browns Ferry systems in the Interim Reliability Evaluation programs, simplifying the recording and displaying of events, yet maintaining the system of identifying faults. The level of investigation is not changed. The analytical thought process inherent in the conventional method is not compromised. But the abbreviated method takes less time, and the fault modes are much more visible

  5. Interim dry storage system technologies and innovations VARNA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, P.; Guenon, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The main concepts of the TN24 Family and NUHOMS System are explained in the paper. It is discussed how the NPPs specific requirements and economics trends contributes to the growing families of interim dry storage systems delivered under COGEMA LOGICTICS license. It is concluded that modular solutions are currently dominating because they are derived from main concepts evolved over time, benefited from both the transport aspects with internationally recognised stringent regulations, and various specific ISFSI requirements and economic trends

  6. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HORNER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a

  7. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings

  8. A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert P; Highfield, David A; Jaffe, Jerome H; Brady, Joseph V; Butler, Carol B; Rouse, Charles O; Callaman, Jason M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Battjes, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Effective alternatives to long waiting lists for entry into methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment are needed to reduce the complications of continuing heroin dependence and to increase methadone treatment entry. To compare the effectiveness of interim methadone maintenance with that of the usual waiting list condition in facilitating methadone treatment entry and reducing heroin and cocaine use and criminal behavior. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial using 2 conditions, with treatment assignment on a 3:2 basis to interim maintenance-waiting list control. A methadone treatment program in Baltimore. A total of 319 individuals meeting the criteria for current heroin dependence and methadone maintenance treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either interim methadone maintenance, consisting of an individually determined methadone dose and emergency counseling only for up to 120 days, or referral to community-based methadone treatment programs. Entry into comprehensive methadone maintenance therapy at 4 months from baseline; self-reported days of heroin use, cocaine use, and criminal behavior; and number of urine drug test results positive for heroin and cocaine at the follow-up interview conducted at time of entry into comprehensive methadone treatment (or at 4 months from baseline for participants who did not enter regular treatment). Significantly more participants assigned to the interim methadone maintenance condition entered comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment by the 120th day from baseline (75.9%) than those assigned to the waiting list control condition (20.8%) (Pmethadone maintenance results in a substantial increase in the likelihood of entry into comprehensive treatment, and is an effective means of reducing heroin use and criminal behavior among opioid-dependent individuals awaiting entry into a comprehensive methadone treatment program.

  9. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  10. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  11. Transport casks help solve spent fuel interim storage problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierkes, P.; Janberg, K.; Baatz, H.; Weinhold, G.

    1980-01-01

    Transport casks can be used as storage modules, combining the inherent safety of passive cooling with the absence of secondary radioactive waste and the flexibility to build up storage capacity according to actual requirements. In the Federal Republic of Germany, transport casks are being developed as a solution to its interim storage problems. Criteria for their design and licensing are outlined. Details are given of the casks and the storage facility. Tests are illustrated. (U.K.)

  12. Dry storage of spent fuel elements: interim facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quihillalt, O.J.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the existing facilities to storage nuclear fuel elements at Argentina's nuclear power stations, a new interim storage facility has been planned and projected by the Argentinean Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) that will be constructed by private group. This article presents the developments and describes the activities undertaken until the national policy approach to the final decision for the most suitable alternative to be adopted. (B.C.A.). 09 refs, 01 fig, 09 tabs

  13. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  14. Interim data report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlund, Fredrik; Andersson, Johan

    2004-08-01

    This document is the interim data report in the project SR-Can. The purpose of the data report is to present input data, with uncertainty estimates, for the SR-Can assessment calculations. Besides input data, the report also describes the standardised procedures used when deriving the input data and the corresponding uncertainty estimates. However, in the present interim version of the report (written in the initial stage of the project when site characterisation has yet not been completed) the standardised procedures have not been possible to apply for most of the data and, in order to present a compilation of the data used in the assessment, much of the input data is presented without following the standardised procedures. This will however be changed for the final version of the SR-Can data report, in order to show the methodology that will be used in the final version one example of how input data will be presented is included (migration data for buffer) . The recommended input data for the assessment calculations are, for the interim version, mainly based on SR 97 Beberg data, these are merely presented without any background or uncertainty discussion (this is presented in the SR 97 data report)

  15. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, Alex [Merrill Lynch, Mlfc Main, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ (United Kingdom); Sepp, Artur [Merrill Lynch, 4 World Financial Center, New York, NY 10080 (United States)], E-mail: Alex_Lipton@ml.com, E-mail: Artur_Sepp@ml.com

    2008-08-29

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  16. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-08-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.

  17. Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur

    2008-01-01

    We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics

  18. Uncertainty of Volatility Estimates from Heston Greeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pfante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a widely recognized measure of market risk. As volatility is not observed it has to be estimated from market prices, i.e., as the implied volatility from option prices. The volatility index VIX making volatility a tradeable asset in its own right is computed from near- and next-term put and call options on the S&P 500 with more than 23 days and less than 37 days to expiration and non-vanishing bid. In the present paper we quantify the information content of the constituents of the VIX about the volatility of the S&P 500 in terms of the Fisher information matrix. Assuming that observed option prices are centered on the theoretical price provided by Heston's model perturbed by additive Gaussian noise we relate their Fisher information matrix to the Greeks in the Heston model. We find that the prices of options contained in the VIX basket allow for reliable estimates of the volatility of the S&P 500 with negligible uncertainty as long as volatility is large enough. Interestingly, if volatility drops below a critical value of roughly 3%, inferences from option prices become imprecise because Vega, the derivative of a European option w.r.t. volatility, and thereby the Fisher information nearly vanishes.

  19. An overview of plant volatile metabolomics, sample treatment and reporting considerations with emphasis on mechanical damage and biological control of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Smith, Lincoln; Baig, Nausheena

    2014-01-01

    The technology for the collection and analysis of plant-emitted volatiles for understanding chemical cues of plant-plant, plant-insect or plant-microbe interactions has increased over the years. Consequently, the in situ collection, analysis and identification of volatiles are considered integral to elucidation of complex plant communications. Due to the complexity and range of emissions the conditions for consistent emission of volatiles are difficult to standardise. To discuss: evaluation of emitted volatile metabolites as a means of screening potential target- and non-target weeds/plants for insect biological control agents; plant volatile metabolomics to analyse resultant data; importance of considering volatiles from damaged plants; and use of a database for reporting experimental conditions and results. Recent literature relating to plant volatiles and plant volatile metabolomics are summarised to provide a basic understanding of how metabolomics can be applied to the study of plant volatiles. An overview of plant secondary metabolites, plant volatile metabolomics, analysis of plant volatile metabolomics data and the subsequent input into a database, the roles of plant volatiles, volatile emission as a function of treatment, and the application of plant volatile metabolomics to biological control of invasive weeds. It is recommended that in addition to a non-damaged treatment, plants be damaged prior to collecting volatiles to provide the greatest diversity of odours. For the model system provided, optimal volatile emission occurred when the leaf was punctured with a needle. Results stored in a database should include basic environmental conditions or treatments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by polytetra-fluor ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    The sorption of organic vapours by microporous polytetra-fluor ethylene has been studied gravimetrically using a Mc Bain-Baker type sorption balance. The amount of sorption, the peculiarities observed on the isotherm curves, the small influence of temperature, and smallness of hysteresis suggests that mainly physical adsorption occurs when the temperature is around 25 deg. C. The values of the surface areas obtained from the adsorption isotherms using organic vapours differ greatly from those derived from N 2 adsorption measurements. This discrepancy cannot be completely attributed to differences in the structure and chemical function of the adsorbate molecules, or to the porous structure of the adsorbent. On the contrary, the surface area values obtained by sorbing high volatile freons conform with those measured by nitrogen adsorption, which seems to imply a connection between the area of sorbed monolayers and volatility of the adsorbate. (author) [fr