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Sample records for volar triangular flap

  1. Modified cup flap for volar oblique fingertip amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadli, A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modified volar “V-Y cup” flap for volar fingertip defects that do not exceed more than half of the distal phalanx for better aesthetic and functional outcome. In seven cases out of eight, the flap was elevated with a subdermal pedicle, whereas in one case, the flap was elevated as an island on the bilateral neurovascular bundle. The fingertips have been evaluated for sensibility using standard tests, hook nail deformity and patient satisfaction. Seven flaps have survived completely. The flap with skeletonized bilateral digital neurovascular bundle has shown signs of venous insufficiency on the 5 postoperative day with consecutive necrosis. Suturing the distal edges of the flap in a “cupping” fashion provided a normal pulp contour. The modified flap can be used for defects as mentioned above. Subdermally dissected pedicle-based flap is safe and easy to elevate. The aesthetic and functional outcomes have been reported to be satisfactory.

  2. Second Toe Plantar Free Flap for Volar Tissue Defects of the Fingers

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    Yong Jin Cho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe reconstruction of volar surface defects is difficult because of the special histologic nature of the tissue involved. The plantar surface is the most homologous in shape and function and could be considered the most ideal of reconstructive options in select cases of volar surface defects. In this paper, we evaluate a single institutional case series of volar tissue defects managed with second toe plantar free flaps.MethodsA single-institution retrospective review was performed on 12 cases of reconstruction using a second toe plantar free flap. The mean age was 33 years (range, 9 to 54 years with a male-to-female ratio of 5-to-1. The predominant mechanism was crush injury (8 cases followed by amputations (3 cases and a single case of burn injury. Half of the indications (6 cases were for soft-tissue defects with the other half for scar contracture.ResultsAll of the flaps survived through the follow-up period. Sensory recovery was related to the time interval between injury and reconstruction-with delayed operations portending worse outcomes. There were no postoperative complications in this series.ConclusionsFlexion contracture is the key functional deficit of volar tissue defects. The second toe plantar free flap is the singular flap whose histology most closely matches those of the original volar tissue. In our experience, this flap is the superior reconstructive option within the specific indications dictated by the defect size and location.

  3. Second Toe Plantar Free Flap for Volar Tissue Defects of the Fingers

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    Yong Jin Cho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background  The reconstruction of volar surface defects is difficult because of the specialhistologic nature ofthe tissue involved. The plantarsurface isthe most homologousin shapeand function and could be considered the mostideal ofreconstructive optionsin select casesof volar surface defects. In this paper, we evaluate a single institutional case series of volartissue defectsmanagedwith second toe plantarfree flaps.Methods  Asingle-institution retrospective reviewwas performed on 12 cases ofreconstructionusing a second toe plantar free flap. The mean age was 33 years (range, 9 to 54 years witha male-to-female ratio of 5-to-1. The predominant mechanism was crush injury (8 casesfollowed by amputations (3 cases and a single case of burn injury. Half of the indications (6caseswere forsoft-tissue defectswith the other halfforscar contracture.Results  All ofthe flapssurvived through the follow-up period. Sensory recoverywasrelatedto the time interval between injury and reconstruction−with delayed operations portendingworse outcomes. Therewere no postoperative complicationsin thisseries.Conclusions  Flexion contracture is the key functional deficit of volar tissue defects. Thesecond toe plantar free flap is the singular flap whose histology most closely matches thoseof the original volar tissue. In our experience, this flap is the superior reconstructive optionwithin the specific indications dictated by the defectsize and location.

  4. Free toe pulp flap for finger pulp and volar defect reconstruction

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    Jyoshid R Balan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fingertip injury requiring flap cover is very common in the modern era. The ideal cover should fulfill both functional and aesthetic improvement. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to April 2016, we performed seven free toe pulp flaps for finger defect reconstruction. All patients were males. Five flaps were done in emergency post-traumatic cases, and two were done in elective set up. The cases included reconstruction of three thumbs, one index and one ring finger in an emergency set up and two ring fingers in the elective. Thumb reconstruction was done with great toe lateral pulp and the other digits reconstructed with second toe pulp flap. Follow-up evaluation included both functional and aesthetic assessment. Results: Five flaps survived completely, one suffered partial loss, and one flap failed completely. The median follow-up period was 9 months. The median duration of surgery was 255 min (range 210 to 300 min. The median two-point discrimination was 6.5 mm (range 4–8 mm. There was the return of temperature sensation in all patients; two had cold intolerance. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score varied from 3.61 to 5.07 (median filament index value 4.31/pressure value of 2 g/mm2. Three patients had delayed donor site wound healing. Conclusions: The free toe pulp flap is an efficient choice for fingertip and volar finger defects reconstruction with an excellent tissue match.

  5. Comparison of a new flap design with the routinely used triangular flap design in third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Ü; Acar, A H

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new flap design in the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars - a lingually based triangular flap - and to compare this flap design with the routinely used triangular flap. This randomized, prospective, split-mouth study involved 22 patients with impacted bilateral mandibular third molars that were symmetrically positioned, mesially angulated, and retained in bone. The impacted teeth were removed in two sessions, using two different flap designs: the new alternative flap and the traditional triangular flap. Postoperative complications (pain, swelling, trismus, alveolar osteitis, and wound dehiscence) were recorded on days 2, 7, 14, and 21. The data obtained were analysed using the χ(2) test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Pearson's correlation. In terms of the severity of postoperative facial swelling and trismus, there were no statistically significant differences between the flap designs (P>0.05). The alternative flap exhibited higher pain scores at 12h post-surgery (Pthird molar surgery.

  6. Wound Dehiscence after Wisdom Tooth Removal in Mandibular Mesioangular Class IB Impactions: Triangular Transposition Flap versus Envelope Flap

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    Amin Rahpeyma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Wound dehiscence after lower third molar surgery extends the postoperative treatment period and may cause long-standing pain. The aim of this study was to compare wound dehiscence after removal of wisdom teeth in the most prevalent mandibular impaction (mesioangular class IB by two different soft tissue flap designs. Materials and methods. Partially-erupted mandibular third molars with mesioangular class IB impaction (Pell and Gregory classification were selected. Split mouth technique was used to compare the two flap designs (envelope vs. triangular transposition flap—TTF. The patients were recalled one week and a month later and rechecked for dehiscence, infection, and dry socket formation. Results. There were no cases of infection in either group. However, three cases of dry socket in the envelope group and four in the TTF group were recorded. In the envelope group, dehiscence occurred in 43% of cases during the first week, with 67% of cases being a large dehiscence (diameters of more than 5 mm. Extra appointments (those requested by the patient exclusively related to the problem of the hole distal to the second molar were scheduled in 10% of cases in the envelope group. In the TTF group, dehiscence occurred during the first week for the same impaction in 19% of cases with large dehiscence cases occurring in 65% of cases and extra appointment rate at 4.1%. Conclusion. According to theresults in the evaluated operation, TTF may prevent postoperative wound dehiscence more probably than the envelope flap.

  7. Galeazzi fracture with volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suezie; Ward, James P; Rettig, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    Galeazzi fracture dislocations are fractures of the distal one-third of the radial diaphysis with traumatic disruption of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). This injury results in subluxation or dislocation of the ulnar head. We present a case of a Galeazzi fracture with a volar dislocation of the DRUJ. Open reduction of the DRUJ with Kirschner wire fixation in pronation was necessary to reduce the joint and maintain anatomic alignment. Repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex was also necessary to maintain stability of the DRUJ.

  8. Extended step-advancement flap for avulsed amputated fingertip--a new technique to preserve finger length: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Atalla A; El-Khatib, Hamdy A; Al-Hetmi, Talal

    2011-01-01

    The conventional step-advancement flap does not restore fingertip length after avulsion amputation with projecting bone owing to the limited size of the distal triangular flap. To overcome this problem, the extended step advancement flap using the stepladder principle, described in this article, provides an extended distal triangular flap that can be wrapped around the projecting tip of the distal phalanx while avoiding longitudinal volar scarring. The purposes of this study were to present a modification of the original step-advancement technique and to report on results in 6 patients. Between 2007 and 2009, 6 men (mean age, 29 y; range, 18-45 y) presented with a large projecting tip of exposed bone of the distal phalanx after avulsion injury. All 6 had reconstruction using the described technique. After surgery, the finger was immobilized with a splint, followed by rehabilitation. During the follow-up of 9 to 12 months, we clinically assessed flap-site skin quality, scar contractures, and finger mobility. We measured the finger's range of motion with a goniometer. Sensibility was evaluated using the static 2-point discrimination test. The postoperative course was uneventful. All flaps survived completely, except one that had mild marginal necrosis. We observed near-total active range of motion in all patients. The average static 2-point discrimination was 4 mm with a range of 3 to 5 mm. All patients resumed normal daily activities after 8 weeks. The extended step-advancement flap is ideal for closure of challenging fingertip amputation wounds because it maintains length and minimizes scars while providing a well-padded, sensate tip. It is a viable alternative to replantation of the fingertip. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Missed isolated volar dislocation of the scaphoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Lise; Larsen, Søren; Jørring, Stig;

    2007-01-01

    A patient presented with volar dislocation of the scaphoid, the diagnosis of which had been missed for two weeks. He was treated with open reduction through a combined volar and dorsal approach with decompression of the median nerve, internal fixation, and a cast for eight weeks. One year postope...

  10. "A Free thenar flap – A case report"

    OpenAIRE

    Chow Shew; Fung Boris KK; Garg Rajesh; Ip Wing

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We present a case report of a free thenar flap surgery done for a volar right hand middle finger, distal and middle phalanx degloving injury. A free thenar flap is a fasciocutaneous sensate flap supplied by a constant branch of the superficial radial artery and its variable nerve supply. It has a distinct advantage of low donor site morbidity, better cosmesis and texture of the flap. No immobilization is required postop. The donor site can be closed primiarily.

  11. Radial ridge excision for symptomatic volar tendon subluxation following de Quervain's release.

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    Collins, Evan D

    2014-09-01

    Traditional surgical release to address de Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis can lead to the rare complication of volar tendon subluxation. This study presents a surgical procedure, which entails excision of the radial ridge as an alternative treatment to relieve pain associated with symptomatic volar tendon subluxation following de Quervain's release. The procedure was performed on 6 patients complaining of painful volar tendon subluxation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), following a first dorsal compartment release and postoperative splinting. We opened the same incision sharply, with direct view of the tendons of the first dorsal compartment. The wrist was ranged through extension and flexion, and volar subluxation of the APL and EPB over the prominent radial ridge was confirmed. The bony portion of the radial ridge was excised and filed smooth. The periosteal flap is advanced over the ridge and sutured into place. The APL and EPB tendons were released from dorsal retractors. All patients reported relief upon follow-up. Excision of this ridge removes the obtrusive friction to the APL and EPB tendons, allowing them to glide painlessly over the radial styloid.

  12. Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex MR Imaging

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    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of MR imaging of the wrist may be difficult because of the small size of this joint, its complex anatomy, and its sometimes poorly unders-tood pathologic lesions. A recent study revealed that MR imaging of the wrist influences clinicians' diagnoses and management plans in most patients. "nWhich structures make up the triangular fibrocarti-lage complex (TFCC are not universally agreed upon. In most descriptions, however, the TFCC is composed of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC, the meniscus homolog, the ulnar collateral ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments and the sheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments may also be considered as part of the TFCC. These structures are a complex unit that function as a stabilizing element in the pivot movement of the radius and ulna and limit the lateral deviation of the carpus. The distal radioulnar joint is primarily stabilized by the TFCC. The TFC functions as a cushion between the ulnar head and carpal bones. Many of the structures that make up the complex are connected by fibrous bands. "nThis presentation summarizes the current diagnostic criteria that can be useful in interpreting abnormalities of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC of the wrist in this difficult topic in joint MR imaging

  13. Adolescent Volar Barton Fracture with Open Physis treated with Volar Plating using Buttressing Principle

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    Shah H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the outcome of Salter- Harris type III distal radius fracture fixed using the principle of buttressing and avoiding screw insertion through the physis. Materials and Method: Eight school going children in the age group of 11-16 years with volar Barton fractures were treated with a volar plate using the buttress principle without inserting screws in the distal fragment. Patients were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Clinical evaluation was done using the Green O’Brien criteria and radiological evaluation using the Sarmiento criteria. Results: The average union time was two months. All the patients had good to excellent functional outcome with full extension and flexion. Conclusion: Buttress plating of volar Barton fractures in the adolescent age group is an excellent technique to achieve satisfactory outcome without violation of the physis.

  14. Simultaneous triangularization

    CERN Document Server

    Radjavi, Heydar

    2000-01-01

    A collection of matrices is said to be triangularizable if there is an invertible matrix S such that S1 AS is upper triangular for every A in the collection. This generalization of commutativity is the subject of many classical theorems due to Engel, Kolchin, Kaplansky, McCoy and others. The concept has been extended to collections of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces: such a collection is defined to be triangularizable if there is a maximal chain of subspaces of the Banach space, each of which is invariant under every member of the collection. Most of the classical results have been generalized to compact operators, and there are also recent theorems in the finite-dimensional case. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of triangularizability in both the finite and infinite-dimensional cases. It contains numerous very recent results and new proofs of many of the classical theorems. It provides a thorough background for research in both the linear-algebraic and operator-theoretic aspects of tr...

  15. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

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    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  16. The distally-based island ulnar artery perforator flap for wrist defects

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    Karki Durga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the wrist with exposed tendons, joints, nerves and bone represents a challenge to plastic surgeons, and such defects necessitate flap coverage to preserve hand functions and to protect its vital structures. We evaluated the use of a distally-based island ulnar artery perforator flap in patients with volar soft tissue defects around the wrist. Materials and Methods: Between June 2004 and June 2006, seven patients of soft tissue defects on the volar aspect of the wrist underwent distally-based island ulnar artery perforator flap. Out of seven patients, five were male and two patients were female. This flap was used in the reconstruction of the post road traffic accident defects in four patients and post electric burn defects in three patients. Flap was raised on one or two perforators and was rotated to 180°. Results: All flaps survived completely. Donor sites were closed primarily without donor site morbidity. Conclusion: The distally-based island Ulnar artery perforator flap is convenient, reliable, easy to manage and is a single-stage technique for reconstructing soft tissue defects of the volar aspect of the wrist. Early use of this flap allows preservation of vital structures, decreases morbidity and allows for early rehabilitation.

  17. Biomechanical Properties of 3-Dimensional Printed Volar Locking Distal Radius Plate: Comparison With Conventional Volar Locking Plate.

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    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jo, Young-Hoon; Choi, Wan-Sun; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Bong-Gun; Kim, Joo-Hak; Lee, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a new volar locking plate made by 3-dimensional printing using titanium alloy powder and 2 conventional volar locking plates under static and dynamic loading conditions that were designed to replicate those seen during fracture healing and early postoperative rehabilitation. For all plate designs, 12 fourth-generation synthetic composite radii were fitted with volar locking plates according to the manufacturers' technique after segmental osteotomy. Each specimen was first preloaded 10 N and then was loaded to 100 N, 200 N, and 300 N in phases at a rate of 2 N/s. Each construct was then dynamically loaded for 2,000 cycles of fatigue loading in each phase for a total 10,000 cycles. Finally, the constructs were loaded to a failure at a rate of 5 mm/min. All 3 plates showed increasing stiffness at higher loads. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate showed significantly higher stiffness at all dynamic loading tests compared with the 2 conventional volar locking plates. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate had the highest yield strength, which was significantly higher than those of 2 conventional volar locking plates. A 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate has similar stiffness to conventional plates in an experimental model of a severely comminuted distal radius fracture in which the anterior and posterior metaphyseal cortex are involved. These results support the potential clinical utility of 3-dimensional printed volar locking plates in which design can be modified according the fracture configuration and the anatomy of the radius. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated volar surgical approach for the treatment of perilunate and lunate dislocations

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    Hakan Basar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The clinical and radiological results of the isolated volar surgical approach were satisfactory. The dorsal approach was not needed for reduction of dislocations during operations. Our results showed that an isolated volar approach was adequate.

  19. Si te sobreprotejo, no aprenderás a volar

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Delgado, Juan Carlos; Enríquez Lara, Mónica Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Educación desde la Diversidad). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, 2013 RESUMEN 1. Mónica Enríquez 2. Juan Carlos Ortega SI TE SOBREPROTEJO, NO APRENDERÁS A VOLAR El presente artículo se basa en la investigación denominada SI TE SOBREPROTEJO, NO APRENDERÁS A VOLAR, realizada acerca de la sobreprotección vista como otra forma de maltrato, la cual se ubica en el macroproyecto de Desarrollo Humano, Sujeto y diversidad, de...

  20. Si te sobreprotejo, no aprenderás a volar

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Delgado, Juan Carlos; Enríquez Lara, Mónica Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Educación desde la Diversidad). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, 2013 RESUMEN 1. Mónica Enríquez 2. Juan Carlos Ortega SI TE SOBREPROTEJO, NO APRENDERÁS A VOLAR El presente artículo se basa en la investigación denominada SI TE SOBREPROTEJO, NO APRENDERÁS A VOLAR, realizada acerca de la sobreprotección vista como otra forma de maltrato, la cual se ubica en el macroproyecto de Desarrollo Humano, Sujeto y diversidad, de...

  1. Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following volar plate injury.

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    Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Daniels, Alan H; Kamal, Robin N; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following non-penetrating or non-repetitive injury is rare. We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon occurring in a single digit 3 months following volar plate avulsion injury. Daily episodes of painless pallor of the digit occurred for 1 month upon any exposure to cold, resolving with warm water therapy. Symptoms resolved after the initiation of hand therapy, splinting, and range-of- motion exercises.

  2. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

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    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  3. Synthesized Optimization of Triangular Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wenqiang; YANG Wenyu

    2006-01-01

    Triangular mesh is often used to describe geometric object as computed model in digital manufacture, thus the mesh model with both uniform triangular shape and excellent geometric shape is expected. But in fact, the optimization of triangular shape often is contrary with that of geometric shape. In this paper, one synthesized optimizing algorithm is presented through subdividing triangles to achieve the trade-off solution between the geometric and triangular shape optimization of mesh model. The result mesh with uniform triangular shape and excellent topology are obtained.

  4. Unstable Distal Radius Fractures Treated by Volar Locking Anatomical Plates

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    Jose, Anto; Deniese, Pascal Noel; Babu, Abey Thomas; Rengasamy, Kanagasabai; Najimudeen, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fracture of the distal end of radius represents the most common fracture of the upper extremity accounting for 16-20% of all fractures. Plating is now emerging as the gold standard for management of distal radius fractures due to increased rate of complications such as malunion, subluxation/dislocation of distal radio-ulnar joint or late collapse of fracture. Procedures such as closed reduction and cast immobilization, ligamentotaxis with external fixator and percutaneous pin fixation are no longer acceptable. Aim The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome of unstable distal radius fractures treated with the volar locking plate. Materials and Methods We reviewed 53 patients from January 2011 to December 2015, treated for unstable distal radius fractures using a volar locking compression plate. Standard radiographic and clinical assessment after 12 months (range 12-16 months) were measured and final functional and radiological outcome were assessed using the Modified Mayo wrist scoring system and Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria respectively. Results There were 42 males and 11 females with an average age of 39.12±31.78 years (18-71 years). At the end of 12 months, 36 patients had an excellent radiological outcome and 10 patients had good radiological outcome as per Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria. Eleven patients had an excellent functional outcome and 26 patients had a good functional outcome as per modified Mayo wrist scoring system. There was one case of superficial wound infection which subsided with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusion The volar locking plate fixation helps in early mobilization of the wrist, restores anatomy, allows early return to function, prevents secondary loss of reduction and hence is an effective treatment for unstable fractures of the distal radius. PMID:28274009

  5. Ulno-volar bayonet hand: Its differential diagnosis from Madelung's deformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.

    1981-04-01

    The ulno-volar bayonet hand related to the mostly hereditary multiple exostoses is compared to Madelung's forearm deformity under clinical and roentgenological view in differential diagnosis. The ulno-volar bayonet hand is considerably more seldom, basing upon dysplasia of the lower part of the ulna, less inconvenient in function, and hardly tending to the development of early arthrosis.

  6. Pulp Rotation Flap for Lateral Oblique Fingertip Defects.

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    Ozturk, Muhammed Besir; Barutca, Seda Asfuroglu; Aksan, Tolga; Atik, Bekir

    2016-11-01

    Fingertip amputations are among the most common injuries seen in the hand. According to the geometry of the amputation, it may be classified as transverse or oblique (dorsal, volar, or lateral type). Although numerous repair techniques have been described in the literature, there are few alternatives suitable for lateral oblique type fingertip amputations. Between 2012 and 2016, we operated on 16 patients with simple rotation flap from the remaining part of the pulpa in a rotation and advancement manner for the reconstruction of lateral oblique type fingertip amputations. All but two of the flaps healed completely with full flap survival. Superficial distal flap necrosis was observed in two patients. They healed by secondary intention. No obvious hooked nail occurred in patients. Cold intolerance was observed in one patient; joint stiffness or hypersensitivity was not observed in any of the patients. Stiffness of the proximal interphalangeal joint did not occur. Two point discrimination test results were found to be normal. This technique is simple, rapid, and free from relatively major complications. This flap allows for anatomical reconstruction of the fingertip by using a similar tissue in cases of lateral oblique fingertip amputations, where only a few flap options can be successful.

  7. Bethe ansatz solution of triangular trimers on the triangular lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberkmoes, A.; Nienhuis, B.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a model consisting of triangular trimers covering the triangular lattice was introduced and its exact free energy given. In this paper we present the complete calculation leading to this exact result. The solution involves a coordinate Bethe ansatz with two kinds of particles. It is simila

  8. Fasciocutaneous flaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Tolhurst (David)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAbout that time the concept of independent myocutaneous vascular territories (Me Craw and Dibbell, 1977) was beginning to take hold but the deep fascia, sandwiched between muscles and the skin, was largely regarded as an isolating layer of dense, avascular fibrous tissue from which flaps

  9. Posterior interosseous artery flap, fasciosubcutaneous pedicle technique: a study of 25 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to improve the versatility of the posterior interosseous artery flap (PIA flap) and to decrease flap complication rate. The PIA flap was used for resurfacing 25 cases of the hand and distal forearm over a 2-year period. Observations were made on the anatomy of the PIA flap and its distal reach. Doppler analysis was made a mandatory part of the preoperative planning. Flaps were also raised from the zone of injury if Doppler confirmed the presence of good perforators. No attempt was made to identify the anastomosis between the anterior interosseous artery (AIA) and the PIA prior to flap raising since its presence was ascertained preoperatively with a Doppler and flap raising could begin straightway, saving precious tourniquet time. The surgical technique was further modified to include a large amount of fascia and subcutaneous tissue with the flap. This could perhaps be the reason for survival of larger flaps, absence of venous congestion and the low complication rate seen in our series. These flaps were used to resurface defects involving the dorsum of the hand, palm, distal forearm, wrist and fingers (both dorsal and volar surfaces). The distal reach of the flap was improved by exteriorising the pedicle and bowstringing it across the wrist which was kept in extension. The flap could thus easily reach the distal interphalangeal joint. This exteriorised pedicle was covered with a split thickness skin graft and was divided 3 weeks later under local anaesthesia making it a two-stage procedure. Adipofascial and osteocutaneous PIA flaps were also used depending on the requirement. Out of 25 flaps, 23 were of the adipofascial variety and one each of the fascial and osteocutaneous type. The majority of the patients were between 21 and 30 years old. Trauma was the leading cause of tissue deficit in our series (19/25). Within the trauma group occupational mishap (entrapment of hand in roller machine, presser machine, etc.) was the

  10. Treatment of physeal fractures of the distal radius by volar intrafocal Kapandji method: surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Orbach, Hagay; Chezar, Avi; Rozen, Nimrod

    2017-01-01

    Distal radial physeal fractures with volar displacement are rare. Several methods of operative treatment include volar plate without inserting distal screws, percutaneous technique using two anterior skin incisions and reversed Kapandji technique with pins introduced through a posterior approach and locked at the anterior cortex of the fracture. We report three cases along with a literature review of the surgical techniques described in the past and a novel surgical technique for this uncommon fracture termed "Volar Kapandji". All patients had anatomic reduction at the last follow-up radiography, and all patients had a full range of motion and VAS 0 at the last follow-up. No complications were recorded. This case study presents the minimally invasive option for treating rare cases of physeal distal radius fractures with volar displacement. V.

  11. Triangular bubble spline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

    2011-11-01

    We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness.

  12. Parameterization for fitting triangular mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hongwei; WANG Guojin; LIU Ligang; BAO Hujun

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of 3D data acquisition equipments, the study on reverse engineering has become more and more important. However, the existing methods for parameterization can hardly ensure that the parametric domain is rectangular, and the parametric curve grid is regular. In order to overcome these limitations, we present a novel method for parameterization of triangular meshes in this paper. The basic idea is twofold: first, because the isotherms in the steady temperature do not intersect with each other, and are distributed uniformly, no singularity (fold-over) exists in the parameterization; second, a 3D harmonic equation is solved by the finite element method to obtain the steady temperature field on a 2D triangular mesh surface with four boundaries. Therefore, our proposed method avoids the embarrassment that it is impossible to solve the 2D quasi-harmonic equation on the 2D triangular mesh without the parametric values at mesh vertices. Furthermore, the isotherms on the temperature field are taken as a set of iso-parametric curves on the triangular mesh surface. The other set of iso-parametric curves can be obtained by connecting the points with the same chord-length on the isotherms sequentially. The obtained parametric curve grid is regular, and distributed uniformly, and can map the triangular mesh surface to the unit square domain with boundaries of mesh surface to boundaries of parametric domain, which ensures that the triangular mesh surface or point cloud can be fitted with the NURBS surface.

  13. The interpectoral fascia flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Gertrude M; Manestar, Andrew; Manestar, Mirjana

    2008-09-01

    Despite the great number of pedicled and free flaps that are available for defect and contour repair, the number of fascia flaps with an axial blood supply are sparse. Such flaps with their gliding function are mandatory, whenever coverage with very thin, well-vascularized tissue is necessary. To the currently established fascia flaps, (the temporoparietal fascia flap, the radial forearm fascia flap, the lateral arm fascia flap, and the serratus anterior fascia flap), we want to add a new fascia flap, the interpectoral fascia flap. We dissected the interpectoral fascia flap from 20 cadavers. In each of the 40 hemichests, the trunk of the thoracoacromial vessels was selectively injected with red polyurethane and the tissue containing the pectoral branches was separated from the overlying pectoralis major muscle and converted into an independent fascia flap. The maximum flap length was 13.5 cm and the maximum breadth was 10.3 cm. The length of the vascular pedicle before entering the flap was 3.9 cm +/- 1.4 cm with a range of 1.5-6.8 cm. Concerning the arc of rotation, all 40 flaps reached the posterior axillary fold, and 29 flaps (73%) reached the mandibular border. This new fascia flap has applications as pedicled and as free flap. The pedicled flap is used in the neck region, in the axillary region and as gliding tissue between the nipple-areola complex and the pectoralis major muscle. The usage of the fascia flap as a free flap has similar characteristics as the other fascia flaps.

  14. Failure of volar locking plate fixation of an extraarticular distal radius fracture: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Kagan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volar locking plates provide significant structural stability to the distal radius. Failure of a volar locked plating is a rarely reported complication in the literature. Case Presentation A 40 year-old, obese female patient who presented with a displaced extraarticular distal radius fracture, underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using a volar locking plate. Radiographs taken at 10 weeks postoperatively showed failure of fixation with breakage of the four distal locking screws. A hardware removal was performed at 6 months, and the patient was then lost to follow-up. She presented again at 18 months after the first surgery, with significant pain, and radiographic signs of a radial collapse and a fracture-nonunion. A total wrist fusion was performed as the method of choice at that point in time. Conclusion Volar locked plating represents the new "gold standard" of distal radius fracture fixation. However, despite the stability provided by locking plates, hardware failure may occur and lead to a cascade of complications which will ultimately require a wrist fusion, as outlined in this case report. Additional structural support by bone grafting may be needed in selected cases of volar locked plating, particularly in patients with a high risk of developing a fracture-nonunion.

  15. A New Surgical Technique for Closure of Pilonidal Sinus Defects: Triangular Closure Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf, Mehmet; Temel, Metin; Koç, Mustafa Nihat

    2017-01-01

    Background We present a clinical experience with a new local flap procedure, namely the triangular closure technique, for reconstruction of sacrococcygeal skin defects resulting from excision of the pilonidal sinus. Material/Methods In this technique, the defect is surgically converted to a triangle in shape. Then, the triangular defect is closed by transposition of 2 skin flaps designed in an unequal z-plasty manner. Over 6 years, this technique has been used for closure of defects of chronic pilonidal sinus disease in 27 patients (6 females, 21 males). The size of the defect ranged between 3.5 cm and 12 cm in dimension. Results A tension-free defect closure was obtained in all patients. All flaps except one healed with no complications. A mean follow-up of 3.62±1.77 months revealed aesthetically and functionally acceptable results with the obliteration of the natal cleft in all patients. No recurrence was observed in the follow-up period. Conclusions The triangular closure technique was found to be a useful technique for the treatment of pilonidal sinus with favorable results regarding the time before return to work. PMID:28238003

  16. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation...

  17. Guaranteed-Quality Triangular Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Defense Ad, : ed Research P: jects Pgency or the U.S- Gower ment° iI Guaranteed-Quality Triangular Meshes DTIC ELECTE L. Paul Chew* JUL 1419891 TR 89-983 S... Wittchen , M. S. Shephard, K. R. Grice, and M. A. Yerry, Robust, geometrically based, automatic two-dimensional mesh generation, International Journal for

  18. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  19. On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections. Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.

  20. On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG AiJu

    2008-01-01

    We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections.Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.

  1. RANK ONE OPERATORS AND TRIANGULAR ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuFangyan; IuShijie

    1999-01-01

    Abstract, In this paper, a necessary condition for a maximal triangular algebra to be closed is given, A necessary and sufficient condition for a maxima] triangular algebra to he strongly reducible is obtained,

  2. Retrospective comparison of percutaneous fixation and volar internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A; Doornberg, Job N; Ring, David

    2008-06-01

    A change in the practice of a single surgeon provided an opportunity for retrospective comparison of comparable cohorts treated with percutaneous fixation (17 patients) or a volar plate and screws (23 patients) an average of 30 months after surgery. The final evaluation was performed according to the Gartland and Werley and Mayo rating systems and the DASH questionnaire. There were no significant differences on the average scores for the percutaneous and volar plating groups, respectively: Gartland and Werley, 4 vs 5; Mayo, 82 vs 83; and DASH score 13 for both cohorts. Motion, grip, and radiographical parameters were likewise comparable. Volar internal plate and screw fixation can achieve results comparable to percutaneous fixation techniques in the treatment of fractures of the distal radius.

  3. Treatment of distal clavicle fracture with distal radius volar locking compression plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao; SUN Yue-hua; ZHAO Chang-qing; SHI Ding-wei; WANG You

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the early clinical outcomes of the internal fixation with distal radius volar locking compression plate (LCP) in treatment of distal clavicle fracture.Methods: Six patients with unilateral distal clavicle fractures, identified as type Ⅱ according to Neer classification system, including 4 males and 2 females, were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a distal radius volar LCP. Bone union was evaluated by routine X-ray radiography, and shoulder joint function were assessed by Constant score system.Results: All fractures achieved bone union at 6 to 8 weeks postoperatively, and Constant scores ranged from 95 to 100 at the postoperative 10 to 12 weeks.Conclusion: Fixation of distal clavicle fracture with distal radius volar LCP demonstrates excellent effects of bone union with rarely early complications, thus providing a new technique to treat distal clavicle fracture.

  4. Multiple volar dislocations of the carpometacarpal joints with an associated fracture of the first metacarpal base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Siddharth Goel; Mohammad Nasim Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Multiple volar dislocations of carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are uncommon and have been reported rarely.A 25 years old male presented with injury to his left hand 6 days following a road traffic accident.Clinical examination revealed gross swelling of the hand and diffuse tenderness over the carpometacarpal area.His radiographs of the hand showed volar dislocation of the second,third and fourth CMC joints in association with an extra-articular fracture of the base of thumb metacarpal.He was treated by open reduction and percutaneous fixation using Kirschner wires.The functional results were excellent at one year follow-up.

  5. A new flap alternative for trochanteric pressure sore coverage: distal gluteus maximus musculocutaneous advancement flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisanci, Mustafa; Sahin, Ismail; Eski, Muhitdin; Alhan, Dogan

    2015-02-01

    Management of long-term bedridden patients experiencing pressure sores still represents a surgical challenge due to limited flap alternatives and high recurrence rates after the treatment. Fasciocutaneous, musculocutaneous, local perforator-based flaps, and free flaps have all been used for treatment of trochanteric pressure sores. This study presents a new use of distal gluteus maximus (GM) muscle as an advancement musculocutaneous flap for coverage of trochanteric pressure sores in 7 patients. The technique involves design of a long V-shaped skin island over the distal fibers of the GM muscle, beginning from the inferoposterior wound edge and extending inferomedially, almost parallel to the gluteal crease. After its harvest as an island flap on the distal fibers of the GM muscle, the skin paddle can be advanced onto the trochanteric defect, whereas the muscle itself is rotated after severing its insertion to femur. If a second triangular skin island is designed on the proximal fibers of GM muscle to cover an associated sacral defect, 2 coexisting pressure sores can be reconstructed concomitantly with 2 skin paddles on a single muscle belly at 1 surgical setting. Of the 7 patients, 3 had 3 (bilateral trochanteric and sacral), 2 had 2 (sacral and trochanteric), and 2 had 1 (only trochanteric) pressure sores. All ulcers were closed successfully and all of the flaps survived totally without any complication except the one in which we experienced minimal wound dehiscence in the early postoperative period. Conclusively, our current surgical method provided a reliable coverage for trochanteric pressure sores although it was technically straightforward and fast. Additionally, it offers simultaneous closure of 2 pressure ulcers with 2 skin islands on a single muscle flap.

  6. On Skew Triangular Matrix Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei-liang; Wang Yao; Ren Yan-li

    2016-01-01

    Letαbe a nonzero endomorphism of a ring R, n be a positive integer and Tn(R,α) be the skew triangular matrix ring. We show that some properties related to nilpotent elements of R are inherited by Tn(R,α). Meanwhile, we determine the strongly prime radical, generalized prime radical and Behrens radical of the ring R[x;α]/(xn), where R[x;α] is the skew polynomial ring.

  7. Volar morphology of the distal radius in axial planes: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, Keiichiro; Oka, Kunihiro; Kawanishi, Yohei; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the cause of rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) after volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures, previous studies have examined the shape of the distal radius in the sagittal plane or in the lateral view. However, there are no reports on the anatomical shape of the volar surface concavity of the distal radius in the axial plane. We hypothesized that this concavity might contribute to the mismatch between the plate and the surface of the radius. To test this hypothesis, we constructed three-dimensional models of the radius and FPL based on computed tomography scans of 70 normal forearms. We analyzed axial cross-sectional views with 2 mm intervals. In all cases, the volar surface of the distal radius was concave in the axial plane. The concavity depth was maximum at 6 mm proximal to the palmar edge of the lunate fossa and progressively decreased toward the proximal radius. FPL was closest to the radius at 2 mm proximal to the palmar edge of the lunate fossa. The volar surface of the distal radius was externally rotated from proximal to distal. These results may help to develop new implants which fit better to the radius and decrease tendon irritation.

  8. Scaphoid dislocation associated with axial carpal dissociation during volar flexion of the wrist: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Kohei; Wada, Takuro; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    We present the first report of a patient with an isolated scaphoid dislocation with axial carpal dissociation sustained during volar flexion of the wrist. The scaphoid was dislocated to the radial side of the radial styloid process and was slightly shifted to the dorsal side. It was shown that the position of the wrist played an irrelevant role for occurring scaphoid dislocation.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of single volar subcutaneous digital block and the dorsal two injections block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Riaz Ahmed Khan; Masood, Tariq; Ahmed, Ehtisham; Obaidullah, Abdul Majeed Jaffar; Alvi, Hamid Fazeel

    2014-01-01

    Digital nerve blocks are commonly used as effective techniques of anaesthesia to allow a variety of surgical procedures performed on digits. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of volar subcutaneous single injection block and the traditional dorsal two injections digital block. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar from December. 2009-10. A total of 126 patients with pathology distal to the first palmer digital crease divided into two equal groups. Group A received volar subcutaneous digital block while group B dorsal two injections block. Efficacy of digital block was measured in terms of time of onset of anaesthesia, which was the total time duration after administering local anaesthetic to loss of pinprick sensation and total duration of anaesthesia, which was defined as the time period from onset of block (loss of pinprick sensation) till the appearance of pain which required additional local anaesthetic or postoperative analgesia. A total of 126 patients were studied, 63 in each group. Of the total patients, 102 (81%) were male and 24 (19%) female with a mean age of 27 ± 4.2 years (range 17-60 years). The mean time of onset of anaesthesia from injection till the loss of pin prick sensation was 3.32 ± 0.42 minutes for volar single injection group and 4.53 minutes ± 0.57 minutes for dorsal two injections group (p = 0.049). Similarly the mean total duration of anaesthesia for the volar subcutaneous group was 271.9 ± 29.34 minutes while for the dorsal two injections group, it was 229.52 ± 28.82 minutes (p = 0.415). Single injection volar subcutaneous digital block provides faster onset of anaesthesia, produces predictable, consistent dense anaesthesia of all of the fingers with the help of single injection prick.

  10. Expanded retroauricular skin and fascial flap in congenital microtia reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingguo; Quan, Yuzhu; Su, Yuanda; Shi, Lei; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Xinhai

    2010-04-01

    , auriculocepahalic angle, and symmetry to opposite normal ear were satisfied in the follow-up period of 6 months to 4 years. Antihelix, triangular fossa, and scapha were prominent with good result in most of the patients. Expanded retroauricular skin flap combined with fascial flap can cover the different size and height of cartilage ear framework in single surgical stage. At the same time, on the basis of structure stability and contour reality of cartilage framework, we can achieve fine structure and erect stability of constructed auricle. This method affords ideal results in microtia reconstruction.

  11. FUZZY ALGEBRA IN TRIANGULAR NORM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓秋; 潘志

    1994-01-01

    Triangular norm is a powerful tool in the theory research and application development of fuzzy sets. In this paper, using the triangular norm, we introduce some concepts such as fuzzy algebra, fuzzy o algebra and fuzzy monotone class, and discuss the relations among them, obtaining the following main conclusions.

  12. Spectral properties of random triangular matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We provide a relatively elementary proof of the existence of the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of symmetric triangular patterned matrices and also show their joint convergence. We also derive the expressions for the moments of the LSD of the symmetric triangular Wigner matrix using properties of Catalan words.

  13. Reductions of Lower Triangular Toda Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Mishina, Marina G.; Polenkova, Svetlana V.

    2007-01-01

    Deforming commutative algebras in the lower triangular (ℤ×ℤ)-matrices yields lower triangular Toda hierarchies and their associated nonlinear equations. Like for their counterpart in the ring of pseudodifferential operators, the KP-hierarchy, one also has for these hierarchies a geometric picture:

  14. Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浙; 鲁世杰

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.

  15. A case of acute trans-scaphoid volar dislocation of the lunate into the distal forearm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Al Khayarin; Mohamed Al Ateeq Al Dosari; Shibly Abdul Basith; Mohammed Waseemuddin

    2016-01-01

    Trans-scaphoid volar dislocation of the lunate with displacement into the distal forearm proximal to the radiocarpal joint is an extremely rare, high energy injury with extensive ligament disruption. They are unstable and require open reduction and internal fixation with repair of ligaments. They are associated with significant morbidity and loss of function. We report the case of a patient with this injury. Open reduction, internal fixation and ligament repair were done. The patient had a good functional outcome.

  16. Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsiu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The use of either mineral oil or ultrasound jelly as interface provides acceptable visual effects for the dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions. The use of the polarized light mode reduced the reflection and scattering of light, resulting in better visual effect than that achieved using the nonpolarized light mode. In the early diagnosis of acral melanoma, choosing the appropriate application of immersion fluid and observation mode yields the optimal visual effect.

  17. Multiple Volar Carpometacarpal Dislocations with Associated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fletcher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare injury involving volar fracture dislocations of the second to fifth carpometacarpal dislocations. Carpometacarpal dislocations are usually dorsally displaced and most commonly only involve the fourth and fifth joints. An associated carpal tunnel syndrome adds another dimension to the complexity and rarity of the injury in this index case. A high index of clinical suspicion and subsequent emergent management is of utmost importance to treat this unusual combination of injuries in order to avoid significant morbidity.

  18. The submental island flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  19. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if a propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap can be used for breast reconstruction. Fifteen women were reconstructed using a propeller TAP flap, an implant, and an ADM. Preoperative colour Doppler ultrasonography was used for patient selection...... major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  20. Constructing parametric triangular patches with boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Jun Ma; Fuhua Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The problem of constructing a parametric triangular patch to smoothly connect three surface patches is studied. Usually, these surface patches are defined on different parameter spaces. Therefore, it is necessary to define interpolation conditions, with values from the given surface patches, on the boundary of the triangular patch that can ensure smooth transition between different parameter spaces. In this paper we present a new method to define boundary conditions. Boundary conditions defined by the new method have the same parameter space if the three given surface patches can be converted into the same form through affine transformation. Consequently, any of the classic methods for constructing functional triangular patches can be used directly to construct a parametric triangular patch to connect given surface patches with G continuity. The resulting parametric triangular patch preserves precision of the applied classic method.

  1. Difference in cortical activation during use of volar and dorsal hand splints:a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang; Woo Hyuk Jang

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies reported on the difference in cortical activation during use of volar and dorsal hand splints. We attempted to investigate the difference in cortical activation in the somatosensory cortical area during use of volar and dorsal hand splints by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We recruited eight healthy volunteers. fMRI was performed while subjects who were iftted with volar or dorsal hand splints performed grasp-release movements. Regions of interest were placed on the primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and secondary somato-sensory cortex (S2). Results of group analysis of fMRI data showed that the total numbers of activated voxels in all ROIs were significantly higher during use of volar hand splint (3,376) compared with that (1,416) during use of dorsal hand splint. In each ROI, use of volar hand splint induced greater activation in all ROIs (M1:1,748, S1:1,455, PPC:23, and S2:150) compared with use of dorsal hand splint (M1:783, S1:625, PPC:0, and S2:8). The peak activated value was also higher during use of volar hand splint (t-value:17.29) compared with that during use of dorsal hand splint (t-value:13.11). Taken together, use of volar hand splint induced greater cortical activation relevant to somatosensory function than use of dorsal hand splint. This result would be important for the physiatrist and therapist to apply appropriate somatosensory input in patients with brain injury.

  2. Cervicofacial flap revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay V. Nakade

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Cervicofacial flap is simple, easy to operate, consume less operating time as compared to microvascular flap. It is less complicated and especially useful in diabetic, hypertensives and old debilitated patients with high risk of anaesthesia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4669-4674

  3. Pedicled perforator flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Ozturk, Nuray; Kelahmetoglu, Osman;

    2009-01-01

    Described in this study is a surgical concept that supports the "consider and use a pedicled perforator flap whenever possible and indicated" approach to reconstruct a particular skin defect. The operation is entirely free-style; the only principle is to obtain a pedicled perforator flap to recon......Described in this study is a surgical concept that supports the "consider and use a pedicled perforator flap whenever possible and indicated" approach to reconstruct a particular skin defect. The operation is entirely free-style; the only principle is to obtain a pedicled perforator flap...... more practical and creative to use a free-style manner during pedicled perforator flap surgery, instead of being obliged to predefined templates for this type of procedure....

  4. Guided plasmon modes of triangular and inverted triangular cross section silver nanoridges

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zeyu; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter; Sun, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Propagating two-dimensional plasmon modes guided along silver nanoridge waveguides with triangular and inverted triangular cross sections are investigated in this paper. Mode field profiles, dispersion curves, propagation distances, and figure-of-merits of the plasmon ridge modes are calculated for silver nanoridge waveguides with various triangular and inverted triangular waveguide cross sections. It is found that the triangular cross section nanoridge waveguide, if designed properly, can have longer propagation distance and higher figure-of-merit than the flat-top nanoridge waveguide of the same width. When the triangle height of the nanoridge is high, the mode approaches to the small angle wedge mode. An inverted triangular cross section nanoridge mode can be considered as a hybrid mode of two metal wedge plasmon modes. When inverted triangle depth increases, the propagation distance and the figure-of-merit decrease dramatically, suggesting the poorer performance when compared to the flat-top nanoridge pla...

  5. Treatment of intra-articular distal radius fractures by the volar intrafocal Kapandji method: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Chezar, Avi; Rinott, Micha; Bor, Noam; Rozen, Nimrod

    2013-06-01

    At present, the most common treatment for intra-articular fractures with a volar fragment is open reduction and internal fixation with a volar locking plate. This manuscript describes and evaluates the safety and efficacy of a modified Kapandji technique with insertion of a volar Kirschner wire for osteosynthesis of intra-articular distal radius fractures with a volar fragment. Four patients treated with the "volar Kapandji technique" completed follow-up of at least 12 (12 to 54) months. The mean age was 43 (23 to 53) years. The mean Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 21.7 (0 to 41) and the mean Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation score was 12.9 (0 to 25.8). The mean loss of flexion was 13.7 (0 to 30) degrees, the mean loss of extension was 10 (0 to 30) degrees, the mean loss of supination was 0 degrees, and the mean loss of pronation was 10 (0 to 20) degrees. There was no loss in dorsal angulation, radial inclination, or radial length compared with the other hand. No early or late complications were recorded.

  6. Opening the Door on Triangular Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kimberley; McMaster, Heather

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to looking solely at linear functions, a three-lesson learning progression developed for Year 6 students that incorporates triangular numbers to develop children's algebraic thinking is described and evaluated.

  7. Molecular rectification in triangularly shaped graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2013-02-15

    We present a theoretical study of electron transport in tailored zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with triangular structure using density functional theory together with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. We find significant rectification with a favorite electron transfer direction from the vertex to the right edge. The triangular ZGNR connecting to the electrode with one thiol group at each terminal shows an average rectification ratio of 8.4 over the bias range from -1.0 to 1.0 V. This asymmetric electron transport property originates from nearly zero band gap of triangular ZGNR under negative bias, whereas a band gap opens under positive bias. When the molecule is connected to the electrode by multithiol groups, the current is enhanced due to strong interfacial coupling; however, the rectification ratio decreases. The simulation results indicate that the unique electronic states of triangular ZGNR are responsible for rectification, rather than the asymmetric anchoring groups.

  8. Light transmission through a triangular air gap

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Silvania A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the recent interest in studying propagation of light through triangular air gaps, we calculate, by using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics and the multiple step technique, the transmissivity through a triangular air gap surrounded by an homogeneous dielectric medium. The new formula is then compared with the formula used in literature. Starting from the qualitative and quantitative differences between these formulas, we propose optical experiments to test our theoretical results.

  9. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos George (The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  10. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  11. Osteosynthesis with long volar locking plates for metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paritosh Gogna; Harpal Singh Selhi; Rohit Singla; Mukul Mohindra; Amit Batra; Reetadyuti Mukhopadhyay; Rajesh Rohilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius are a major treatment dilemma and orthopaedic surgeons have to pay due consideration to restoration of anatomy of distal radius together with rotation of the radial shaft and maintenance of radial bow and interosseous space.We performed this study to evaluate the clinic-radiological outcome of metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius treated with long volar locking plates.Methods:This prospective study involved 27 patients (22 males and 5 females) with metaphyseal-diaphyseal fracture of the distal radius.Their mean age was (30.12±11.48) years (range 19-52 years) and the follow-up was 26.8 months (range 22-34 months).All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a long volar locking plate.According to AO/OTA classification,there were 7 type A3,13 type C2 and 7 type C3 fractures.Subjective assessment was done based on the disabilities of the arm,shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire.Functional evaluation was done by measuring grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiological determinants included radial angle,radial length,volar angle and ulnar variance.The final assessment was done according to Gartland and Werley scoring system.Results:Postoperative radiological parameters were well maintained throughout the trial,and there was significant improvement in the functional parameters from 6 weeks to final follow-up.The average DASH scores improved from 37.5 at 6 weeks to 4.2 at final follow-up.Final assessment using Gartland and Werley scoring system revealed 66.67%(n=l8) excellent and 33.33% (n=9) good results.There was one case of superficial infection which responded to antibiotics and another carpel tunnel syndrome which was managed conservatively.Conclusion:Volar locking plate fixation for metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of distal radius is associated with excellent to good functional outcome,early rehabilitation and minimal complications.

  12. Osteosynthesis with long volar locking plates for meta- physeal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogna Paritosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius are a major treatment dilemma and orthopaedic surgeons have to pay due consideration to restoration of anatomy of distal radius together with ro- tation of the radial shaft and maintenance of radial bow and interosseous space. We performed this study to evaluate the clinic-radiological outcome of metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius treated with long volar locking plates. Methods: This prospective study involved 27 pa- tients (22 males and 5 females with metaphyseal-diaphy- seal fracture of the distal radius. Their mean age was (30.12± 11.48 years (range 19-52 years and the follow-up was 26.8 months (range 22-34 months. All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a long volar locking plate. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 7 type A3, 13 type C2 and 7 type C3 fractures. Subjective assessment was done based on the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH questionnaire. Functional evaluation was done by measuring grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiological determinants included radial angle, radial length, volar angle and ulnar variance. The final as- sessment was done according to Gartland and Werley scor- ing system. Results: Postoperative radiological parameters were well maintained throughout the trial, and there was signifi- cant improvement in the functional parameters from 6 weeks to final follow-up. The average DASH scores improved from 37.5 at 6 weeks to 4.2 at final follow-up. Final assessment using Gartland and Werley scoring system revealed 66.67% (n=18 excellent and 33.33% (n=9 good results. There was one case of superficial infection which responded to antibi- otics and another carpel tunnel syndrome which was ma- naged conservatively. Conclusion: Volar locking plate fixation for metaphy- seal-diaphyseal fractures of distal radius is associated with excellent to good

  13. Effect of fixing distal radius fracture with volar locking palmar plates while preserving pronator quadratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jian; Chen Kai; Zhu Hui; Jiang Bo; Yuan Feng; Zhu Xiaozhong; Mei Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Background L-shaped incision of pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle along its radial and distal borders was always taken for distal radius fractures reduction and internal fixation.Repair of the PQ muscle was always recommended at the end of operation for some instructive reasons.But repair of PQ is not satisfied because of poor quality of muscle and fascial tissues which may cause pain or impede forearm pronation and supination for post-operative scarring around PQ.Inserting the locking palmar plate to pass under the pronator quadratus muscle and the locking screws are inserted through miniincisions in pronator quadratus in some patients with distal radius fractures is a reasonable technique which can preserve the pronator quadratus.The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical effects after volar plating of the distal radius fractures while preserving the pronator quadratus and pronator quadratus repair.Methods Between September 2010 and April 2012,65 patients (42 males and 23 females; aged 20-68 years and a mean age of 42.5 years) with distal radius fracture underwent open reduction and internal fixation using the volar locking palmar plates (Depuy or Smith companies).The patients were classified as 23A-2 through 23C-3 according to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classifications.All surgeries were completed by the same trained team.The volar locking palmar plates of distal radius performed with preserving pronator quadratus group involved 30 patients including 19 males and 11 females and performed with pronator quadratus repair group involved 35 patients including 23 males and 12 females.We compared the two groups for wrist pain,forearm range of motion,grip strength,pedoperative complications and wrist functional recovery score.Results The minimum follow-up for the whole cohort was one year.The differences between the two groups were significant with regard to wrist pain,forearm range of motion,grip strength and wrist function at 1,2,and

  14. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint in association with a Bennett's fracture of the thumb: a rare injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    We describe a case of volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in association with a Bennett\\'s fracture of the thumb following a motorcycle accident. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint is an exceedingly rare but easily missed injury, with only a few reported cases in the literature. This report highlights the importance of a true lateral radiograph and close scrutiny of the film to detect this injury. Closed reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

  15. Spontaneous Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

  16. Review of flap design influence on the health of the periodontium after mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Inci; Simşek, Sebnem; Uğar, Dilek; Bozkaya, Süleyman

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the effect of flap design in terms of periodontal status of the preceding second molar after lower third molar surgery. Impacted lower third molar surgery may result in periodontal complications on the distal surface of the adjacent second molar. Flap design that is used during impacted third molar surgery is important to prevent those complications. Several different flap techniques, mainly envelope, triangular (vertical) flaps, and their modifications have been developed to minimize those complications. Each technique has some advantages as well as disadvantages. It is also reported that the selection of a flap design does not seem to have a lasting effect on the health of periodontal tissue. The effect of the type of flap used for lower third molar surgery on the periodontal status of the second molar, as well as the factors that may influence this outcome, has been uncertain. The decision to use on one or the other of the flaps should be based on surgeon's preference.

  17. One size does not fit all: distal radioulnar joint dysfunction after volar locking plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Lawson, Richard D

    2014-02-01

    Background Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common injuries treated by orthopedic surgeons worldwide. Failure to restore distal radius alignment can lead to fracture malunion and poor clinical outcomes, including distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability and limitation of motion. Case Description We present a unique case of DRUJ dysfunction following volar plate fixation of bilateral distal radius fractures and analyze the biomechanical causes of this complication. As a result of a relatively excessive tilt of the precontoured locking plate (in comparison to the patient's particular anatomy), the fracture on one side was "over-reduced," disrupting the biomechanics of the DRUJ, causing a supination block. Clinical Relevance Volar locking plates are not a panacea to all distal radius fractures. Plate selection and fixation technique must include consideration of patient anatomy. Robust plates offer the advantage of providing rigid fixation but can be difficult to contour when reconstructing normal anatomy. Restoration of patient-specific anatomy is crucial to the management of distal radius fractures.

  18. Biomechanical performance of variable and fixed angle locked volar plates for the dorsally comminuted distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, D; Shorez, J; Beran, C; Dass, A G; Atkinson, P

    2014-01-01

    The ideal treatment strategy for the dorsally comminuted distal radius fracture continues to evolve. Newer plate designs allow for variable axis screw placement while maintaining the advantages of locked technology. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of one variable axis plate with two traditional locked constructs. Simulated fractures were created via a distal 1 cm dorsal wedge osteotomy in radius bone analogs. The analogs were of low stiffness and rigidity to create a worst-case strength condition for the subject radius plates. This fracture-gap model was fixated using one of three different locked volar distal radius plates: a variable axis plate (Stryker VariAx) or fixed axis (DePuy DVR, Smith & Nephew Peri-Loc) designs. The constructs were then tested at physiologic loading levels in axial compression and bending (dorsal and volar) modes. Construct stiffness was assessed by fracture gap motion during the different loading conditions. As a within-study control, intact bone analogs were similarly tested. All plated constructs were significantly less stiff than the intact control bone models in all loading modes (pbending (pbending.

  19. Spatial quantum search in a triangular network

    CERN Document Server

    Abal, G; Forets, M; Portugal, R

    2010-01-01

    The spatial search problem consists in minimizing the number of steps required to find a given site in a network, under the restriction that only oracle queries or translations to neighboring sites are allowed. We propose a quantum algorithm for the spatial search problem on a triangular lattice with N sites and torus-like boundary conditions. The proposed algortithm is a special case of the general framework for abstract search proposed by Ambainis, Kempe and Rivosh [AKR05] (AKR) and Tulsi [Tulsi08], applied to a triangular network. The AKR-Tulsi formalism was employed to show that the time complexity of the quantum search on the triangular lattice is O(sqrt(N logN)).

  20. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  1. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with flap surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer. Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a type of breast ...

  2. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  3. Magnetic focusing in triangular electron billiards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Kristensen, A.; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    1999-01-01

    The classical ballistic magnetotransport in triangular electron billiards fabricated in a high mobility GaAs heterostructure has been studied at 4.2 K. The sample geometry may be viewed as a double-slit structure with a skewed injection angle. We observe a striking cancellation of the magnetic...

  4. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  5. Innervated Cross-Finger Pulp Flap for Reconstruction of the Fingertip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nae-Ho Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fingertip injuries involving subtotal or total loss of the digital pulp are commontypes of hand injuries and require reconstruction that is able to provide stable padding andsensory recovery. There are various techniques used for reconstruction of fingertip injuries,but the most effective method is functionally and aesthetically controversial. Despite somedisadvantages, cross-finger pulp flap is a relatively simple procedure without significantcomplications or requiring special techniques.Methods This study included 90 patients with fingertip defects who underwent cross-fingerpulp flap between September 1998 and March 2010. In 69 cases, neurorrhaphy was performedbetween the pulp branch from the proper digital nerve and the recipient’s sensory nerve forgood sensibility of the injured fingertip. In order to evaluate the outcome of our surgicalmethod, we observed two-point discrimination in the early (3 months and late (12 to 40months postoperative periods.Results Most of the cases had cosmetically and functionally acceptable outcomes. The averagedefect size was 1.7×1.5 cm. Sensory return began 3 months after flap application. The twopointdiscrimination was measured at 4.6 mm (range, 3 to 6 mm in our method and 7.2 mm(range, 4 to 9 mm in non-innervated cross-finger pulp flaps.Conclusions The innervated cross-finger pulp flap is a safe and reliable procedure for lateraloblique, volar oblique, and transverse fingertip amputations. Our procedure is simple to performunder local anesthesia, and is able to provide both mechanical stability and sensory recovery.We recommend this method for reconstruction of fingertip injuries.

  6. SUPERCONVERGENCE ANALYSIS FOR CUBIC TRIANGULAR ELEMENT OF THE FINITE ELEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-ding Zhu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a projection interpolation for cubic triangular ele- ment by using othogonal expansion triangular method. We show two fundamental formulas of estimation on a special partion and obtain a superconvergence result of 1 -e order higher for the placement function and its tangential derivative on the third order Lobatto points and Gauss points on each edge of triangular element.

  7. Gluteus maximus flap transfer for greater trochanter reconstruction in revision THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Leo A; Nayfeh, Tariq; Katerberg, Brian J

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the results of an operative technique used in five patients (five hips) to reconstruct the greater trochanter with a gluteus maximus flap transfer during revision total hip arthroplasty. We exposed the hip through a posterior approach that split the gluteus maximus in its midsubstance. We then raised a flap from the posterior portion of the gluteus muscle that was elevated proximally to create a triangular muscle flap. The flap was sewn into the gap between the greater trochanter and lateral cortex of the femur and secured to the inner surface of the anterior capsule of the hip. With the hip abducted 10 degrees to 15 degrees, the edges of the gluteus maximus were closed over the flap and the greater trochanter. We compared the results of these patients with those of five patients (five hips) who had the trochanter left unrepaired and those of four patients (four hips) who had excision of the greater trochanter and suture closure of the intervening gap. The flap group had less pain, lower incidence of limp and Trendelenburg sign, and less need for support than the other two groups, but range of motion decreased.

  8. Experiences and lessons about soft-tissue flaps covering of severe open tibial fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To sum up experiences and lessons about management of soft-tissue reconstruction in open tibial fracture over a 6-year period.Methods: Twenty-two flap reconstructions were performed to treat soft-tissue defect of 22 patients with open tibial fracture Type IIIB (Gustilo) from 1993 to 1998. The cases were analyzed and discussed retrospectively after follow up of 12-61 months.Results: The size of the flap ranged from 6.6 cm2 to 28.18 cm2 and the rate of flap failure was 13.6%. Besides, 3 partial necrosis and 2 postoperative infections occurred in this series.Conclusions: For soft tissuedefect of delayed open tibial fracture Type HIB, flap reconstruction is still an optimal option. The experiences we obtained are ① to design a triangular skin extension or a small Z-plasty over the pedicle to reduce the flap tension; ② to select a unilateral external fixation to provide convenience for anysecondary manipulation; and ③ to use serial debridementto diminish flap failure. de

  9. Sums of Two Triangulars and of Two Squares Associated with Sum of Corresponding Factorial and Triangular Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romer C. Castillo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Factoriangular numbers resulted from adding corresponding factorials and triangular numbers. If Ftn is the nth factoriangular number, n! is the factorial of n and Tn is the nth triangular number, then Ftn = n! + Tn. In this study, interesting results on the representations of factoriangular number as sum of two triangular numbers and as sum of two squares are presented.

  10. Repositioning and stabilization of the radial styloid process in comminuted fractures of the distal radius using a single approach: the radio-volar double plating technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi Matthias; Wahl Peter; Kohut Georges

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A possible difficulty in intra-articular fracture of the distal radius is the displacement tendency of the radial styloid process due to the tension of the brachioradialis tendon. Methods Ten patients treated within one year for complex distal radius fractures by double-plating technique with a radial buttress plate and volar locking plate, through a single volar approach, were followed prospectively during 24 months. Outcome measures included radiographic follow-up, range...

  11. Scatter integration with right triangular fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddon, R L; Dewyngaert, J K; Bjärngard, B E

    1985-01-01

    The concept of the equivalent field is used extensively in radiotherapy dose calculation algorithms. The rationale for using equivalent fields is to allow dose calculations for a wide variety of field shapes, while maintaining dose calculational data for only a few, very regularly shaped fields. A common example is the table of equivalent squares of rectangular fields presented by Day in the British Journal of Radiology. Recently, in searching for fast dose calculation algorithms for irregular fields, we introduced the concept of the equivalent square of a right triangular field. It is shown that an arbitrary irregular field of N vertices may be decomposed into 2N right triangular fields, each with a precalculated equivalent square. The scatter at the point of calculation due to the irregular field is then obtained as a sum of the scatter contributions from the equivalent squares. The scatter integration with right triangles is compared with scatter integration using program IRREG.

  12. Unilateral non-traumatic radiocarpal volar dislocation in a child: A long-term evolution Luxación radiocarpiana volar atraumática unilateral en una niña: Evolución a largo plazo

    OpenAIRE

    S. García-Mata; A.M. Hidalgo-Ovejero

    2009-01-01

    We report an eight year-old female with trisomy 21 referred to our clinic for limitation of wrist mobility. The patient had been diagnosed and treated by polyarticular juvenile chronic arthritis for six months. Clinical and radiological study revealed volar radiocarpal dislocation of the left wrist. She was treated surgically by open reduction, temporary K-w fixation with six weeks of immobilization. The dislocation relapsed but the joint remained painless. One year later she had 5º of dorsal...

  13. Hall effect on the triangular lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Millis, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the high frequency Hall effect on a two-dimensional triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping and a local Hubbard interaction. The complete temperature and doping dependencies of the high-frequency Hall coefficient $R_H$ are evaluated analytically and numerically for small, intermediate, and strong interactions using various approximation schemes. We find that $R_H$ follows the semiclassical $1/qn^*$ law near T=0, but exhibits a striking $T$-linear behavior with an inter...

  14. Human resource management in triangular employment relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Fontinha, Ana Rita Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento (co-tutela), Psicologia (Psicologia dos Recursos Humanos do Trabalho e das Organizações), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universidade de Lisboa, 2013 This dissertation concerns the triangular employment relationships of agency workers and outsourced workers. In particular, the aim was to investigate the relationship between employees’ perceptions and attributions of human resource management (HRM) practices and their dual affective organisational commitment, i.e., the...

  15. Legendre transformations on the triangular lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, V E

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that condition of invariance with respect to the Legendre transformations allows effectively isolate the class of integrable difference equations on the triangular lattice, which can be considered as discrete analogues of relativistic Toda type lattices. Some of obtained equations are new, up to the author knowledge. As an example, one of them is studied in more details, in particular, its higher continuous symmetries and zero curvature representation are found.

  16. Hash functions and triangular mesh reconstruction*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrádek, Jan; Kuchař, Martin; Skala, Václav

    2003-07-01

    Some applications use data formats (e.g. STL file format), where a set of triangles is used to represent the surface of a 3D object and it is necessary to reconstruct the triangular mesh with adjacency information. It is a lengthy process for large data sets as the time complexity of this process is O( N log N), where N is number of triangles. Triangular mesh reconstruction is a general problem and relevant algorithms can be used in GIS and DTM systems as well as in CAD/CAM systems. Many algorithms rely on space subdivision techniques while hash functions offer a more effective solution to the reconstruction problem. Hash data structures are widely used throughout the field of computer science. The hash table can be used to speed up the process of triangular mesh reconstruction but the speed strongly depends on hash function properties. Nevertheless the design or selection of the hash function for data sets with unknown properties is a serious problem. This paper describes a new hash function, presents the properties obtained for large data sets, and discusses validity of the reconstructed surface. Experimental results proved theoretical considerations and advantages of hash function use for mesh reconstruction.

  17. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp; Korn, Gundobert; Steinhauer, Felix [University of Salzburg, Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Atzwanger, Joerg [University of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria); Tauber, Mark [Shoulder and Elbow Surgery ATOS Clinic Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  18. The Gradual Expansion Muscle Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    defects can usu- ally be obtained with a rotational flap , larger size defects commonly require free tissue transfer. A number of techni- ques have...feasible.21,22 Because limb salvage situations occur in which rota- tional muscle coverage is inadequate and free flap coverage is less desirable, we...larger defects which previously would have required free tissue transfer. Surgical Technique The GEM flap for large soft tissue defects of the leg requires

  19. Sliding flap tracheoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, G A; Tucker, J A

    1989-12-01

    The optimal method for surgical management of subglottic stenosis is based upon careful assessment of the location, caliber, length, and maturity of the stenotic segment, as well as associated conditions. For patients with a mature stenosis of short length, excision of the anterior arch of the cricoid and first ring and immediate reconstruction by means of a sliding flap of the next two to three rings of trachea offer a one-stage definitive treatment without the need for grafting. We report four cases of subglottic stenosis and one case of cricoid chondroblastoma in which reconstruction of the airway was successful and prompt. For carefully selected cases, sliding flap tracheoplasty may be a useful alternative to procedures in which the airway is expanded by means of grafting.

  20. Cross finger flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, W H

    1979-01-01

    Proper fingertip reconstruction requires good skin and soft tissue coverage, preservation of function and as normal an appearance as possible. The cross finger flap results in negligible joint stiffness, minimal morbidity and little work-time loss. An important factor is the conservation of finger length permitted by this technique. This method of repair is underutilized. It is indicated in several types of fingertip amputations where bone shortening would be detrimental.

  1. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our....... The color Doppler ultrasonography study detected a sizeable perforator at the level of the modiolus lateral to the angle of the mouth within a radius of 1 cm. This confirms the anatomical findings of previous authors and indicates that the modiolus perforator is a consistent anatomical finding, and flaps...

  2. The Simplified Posterior Interosseous Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Rubí, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Several technical modifications have been described to avoid complications and simplify dissection. The authors describe some technical tips that make posterior interosseous flap dissection safer and more straightforward.

  3. Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish P Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55 in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects.

  4. Papilla Preservation Flap as Aesthetic Consideration in Periodontal Flap Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Olivia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Flap surgery is treatment for periodontal disease with alveolar bone destruction. Surgical periodontal flap with conventional incision will result in gingival recession and loss of interdental papillae after treatment. Dilemma arises in areas required high aesthetic value or regions with a fixed denture. It is challenging to perform periodontal flap with good aesthetic results and minimal gingival recession. This case report aimed to inform and to explain the work procedures, clinical and radiographic outcomes of surgical papilla preservation flap in the area that requires aesthetic. Case 1 was a surgical incision flap with preservation of papillae on the anterior region of teeth 11 and 12, with a full veneer crown on tooth 12. Case 2 was a surgical incision flap with preservation of papillae on the posterior region of tooth 46 with inlay restoration. Evaluation for both cases were obtained by incision papilla preservation of primary closure was perfect, good aesthetic results, minimal gingival recession and the interdental papillae can be maintained properly. In conclusion, periodontal flap surgery on the anterior region or regions that require high aesthetic value could be addressed with papilla preservation incision. Incision papilla preservation should be the primary consideration in periodontal flap surgery if possible.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.144

  5. Number and locations of screw fixation for volar fixed-angle plating of distal radius fractures: biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Isabella; Müller, Lars P; Delinsky, Katharina; Mehler, Dorothea; Burkhart, Klaus J; Rommens, Pol M

    2010-06-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of different numbers and locations of screws in a multidirectional volar fixed-angle plate in a distal radius osteotomy cadaver model. We created an extra-articular fracture in 16 pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver radiuses. The 32 specimens were randomized into 4 groups. All fractures were fixated with a multidirectional volar fixed-angle plate. We tested 4 different screw-placement options in the distal fragment. The distal fragment was fixed with 4 locking screws in the distal row of the plate in group a, and with 4 locking screws alternately in the distal and proximal rows in group b. In group c, 3 locking screws were used in the proximal row; in group d, 7 locking screws were used, filling all screw holes in the distal and proximal rows of the plate. The proximal fragment was fixed with 3 screws. The specimens were loaded with 80 N under dorsal and volar bending and with 250 N axial loading. Finally, load to failure tests were performed. Group d had the highest mean stiffness, 429 N/mm under axial compression, and was statistically significantly stiffer than the other groups. Group b had a mean stiffness of 208 N/mm, followed by group a, with 177 N/mm. Group c showed only a mean stiffness of 83 N/mm under axial compression. There were no statistically significant differences under dorsal and volar bending. In this model of distal radial fractures, there was a difference regarding the stiffness and the placement of screws in the distal rows of a volar fixed-angle plate. Inserting screws in all available holes in the distal fragment offered the highest stability. Using only the proximal row with 3 screws created an unstable situation. Based on these findings, we recommend placing at least 4 screws in the distal fragment and assigning at least 2 screws to the distal row of the multidirectional screw-holes. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroneal Flap for Tongue Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Chung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2017-07-01

    Background For large tongue defects, reconstructive surgeons have devised a variety of feasible options, such as radial forearm free flap and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. In our institution, peroneal flap has been the workhorse flap for the soft tissue defect in head and neck reconstruction. We present our experience using peroneal flap in tongue reconstruction. Patients and Methods The study included 47 patients who had undergone tongue reconstructions with peroneal flaps after tumor resection. The size and location of the defect after tumor resection determined whether the peroneal flaps could be harvested as pure septocutaneous flaps to solely reconstruct the neotongue or to carry an additional muscle bulk to fill the adjacent defect. Retrospective chart review was used to look for postoperative complications and to perform functional assessments (which were also performed through telephone inquiry). Results Of the 47 patients, 3 (6%) had flap failure and 1 (2.1%) had partial flap necrosis. The hemiglossectomy group had better results than the total glossectomy group with respect to speech and diet, but neither of these results reached statistical significance (p = 1.0 for speech and p = 0.06 for diet). The results of the subtotal glossectomy group were better than those of the total glossectomy group with respect to diet (p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted among the three groups with respect to cosmetic aspect (p = 0.64). Conclusions Considering its reasonable postoperative complication rates and functional results, peroneal flap can be considered a feasible option for tongue reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Dermoscopic findings and histological correlation of the acral volar pigmented maculae in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendagorta, Elena; Feito, Marta; Ramírez, Paloma; Gonzalez-Beato, María; Saida, Toshiaki; Pizarro, Angel

    2010-11-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is an acquired, benign, macular hyperpigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, often associated with pigmentation of the nails. Volar acral maculae on the palms and fingertips of patients affected by LHS are a typical feature of this rare entity. Dermoscopic examination of these maculae has been described in a previous report, in which authors found a parallel-furrow pattern. We describe two cases in which a parallel-ridge pattern (PRP) was found on the dermoscopic examination of the pigmented acral lesions. Histological examination showed increased melanin in basal keratinocytes, which was most prominent in those located at the crista intermedia profunda, that is, in the epidermal rete ridges underlying the surface ridges. In our study, dermoscopic features of the pigmented maculae found on LHS differed from those previously described. In addition, by means of this case report, the histological features of these lesions are described for the first time, showing an excellent correlation with dermoscopy. The reported cases prove that although the PRP is very specific of melanoma, it is also possible to find it in benign lesions. Therefore, we must be familiar with the differential diagnosis of PRP, and take into consideration the clinical context in which we find it. Further studies are needed to increase our knowledge on the histological and dermoscopic features of acral pigmented maculae of LHS.

  8. Computer-based classification of dermoscopy images of melanocytic lesions on acral volar skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Celebi, M Emre; Ogawa, Koichi; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Soyer, H Peter; Koga, Hiroshi; Saida, Toshiaki; Ohara, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Masaru

    2008-08-01

    We describe a fully automated system for the classification of acral volar melanomas. We used a total of 213 acral dermoscopy images (176 nevi and 37 melanomas). Our automatic tumor area extraction algorithm successfully extracted the tumor in 199 cases (169 nevi and 30 melanomas), and we developed a diagnostic classifier using these images. Our linear classifier achieved a sensitivity (SE) of 100%, a specificity (SP) of 95.9%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.993 using a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy (81.1% SE, 92.1% SP; considering 14 unsuccessful extraction cases as false classification). In addition, we developed three pattern detectors for typical dermoscopic structures such as parallel ridge, parallel furrow, and fibrillar patterns. These also achieved good detection accuracy as indicated by their AUC values: 0.985, 0.931, and 0.890, respectively. The features used in the melanoma-nevus classifier and the parallel ridge detector have significant overlap.

  9. Rate of Improvement following Volar Plate Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dillingham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine recovery timeline of unstable distal radius fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a locking volar plate. Methods. Data was collected prospectively on a consecutive series of twenty-seven patients during routine post-operative visits at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Range of motion measures and grip strength for both wrists were recorded. Results. Greatest gains were made within the first 3 months after surgery. Supination and pronation returned more quickly than flexion or extension, with supination and pronation both at 92% of the uninjured wrist at 3 months. Only flexion improved significantly between 3 and 6 months. All wrist motions showed some improvement until 1 year. Grip strength returned to 94% of the uninjured wrist by 12 months. Conclusions. Range of motion improvement will be greatest between 2 weeks and 3 months, with improvement continuing until 12 months. Grip strength should return to near normal by one year. Function and pain will improve, but not return to normal by the end of 12 months. Clinical Relevance. These results provide the surgeon with information that can be shared with patients on the anticipated timeline for normal recovery of function and strength.

  10. Reconstruction of Congenital Isolated Alar Defect Using Mutaf Triangular Closure Technique in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Metin; Gunal, Ertan; Kahraman, Serif Samil

    2016-06-01

    Congenital isolated alar defects are extremely rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. The patients are presented here of 2 pediatric patients operated on for congenital isolated alar defect. The reconstruction of congenital isolated alar defects was made in a 3-layered fashion. The skin defects were covered using the Mutaf triangular closure technique in which 2 cutaneous local flaps are designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner. Conchal cartilage graft was used between the skin and mucosal closure to replace the missing part of the lower lateral cartilage in these patients. The early results were promising in Patient 1, but sufficient improvement was detected in the alar cartilage postoperative follow-up period in Patient 2. Hence, this patient required revision 1 to 2 years postoperatively. This technique provides excellent aesthetic and functional results, except for this problem in Tessier 2 cleft patients. The use of the Stair step flap technique with Mutaf triangle closure technique achieved cosmetically and functionally excellent results in the reconstruction and repair of a large, irregular, narrow cleft, in the inadequate rotation of the lateral part of the lower lateral cartilage. However, because of this problem, evaluation of the long-term follow-up of patients is necessary.

  11. Predictors of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Flexion Contracture After Homodigital Island Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akito; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Kaji, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-11-01

    To identify independent predictors of postoperative proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture after direct-flow homodigital island flap transfer. Forty-four fingertip amputations in 39 patients treated with oblique triangular flaps were evaluated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Five variables were examined: patient age, injured finger, mechanism of injury, flap advancement distance, and time required for wound healing. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the extent to which these variables affected the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. The average reduction in the passive extension angle of the PIP joint was 16° at final follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated significant correlations of PIP joint flexion contracture with age, injured finger, and time for wound healing, but no significant correlation with the distance the flap was advanced. Multivariate analysis indicated that the age and duration of wound healing were independent predictors of the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. Elderly people and cases with delayed wound healing are at risk for postoperative PIP joint contracture after homodigital flap transfer. Intervention with early hand therapy and orthotics may be useful in elderly patients with delayed wound healing. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Double-dorsal versus single-volar digital subcutaneous anaesthetic injection for finger injuries in the emergency department: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shane P; Chu, Kevin H; Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Greenslade, Jaimi H; Brown, Anthony F T

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this present study is to compare pain associated with the double-dorsal versus a single-volar subcutaneous injection in the provision of digital anaesthesia for finger injuries presenting to the ED. A randomised controlled trial from November 2012 to January 2014 at a single adult tertiary-referral hospital. ED patients with finger injuries requiring digital anaesthesia was randomised to either the double-dorsal or a single-volar subcutaneous injection technique. The primary outcome was patient reported injection pain measured on a 100 mm visual analogue scale with the assessor blinded to the injection technique. The secondary outcome was success of anaesthesia defined as ability to perform the assessment and treatment without further anaesthetic supplementation after 5 min. Eighty-six patients were enrolled. Median (IQR) age was 34 (24-47) years and 79% were men. The majority (66.3%) had distal phalanx injuries. Forty patients were randomised to the double-dorsal and 46 to a single-volar subcutaneous injection technique. The mean (standard deviation) pain score of the double-dorsal injection was 39.1 (24.2) and a single-volar injection was 37.3 (24.5) with a difference of 1.8 (95% CI -8.8 to 12.3). Digital anaesthesia was successful in 64.9% of the double-dorsal and 71.7% of the single-volar subcutaneous injections, a difference of 6.8% (95% CI -12.7 to 26.3). In ED patients with finger injuries requiring digital anaesthesia, both the double-dorsal or single-volar subcutaneous injection techniques have similar pain of injection and success rates of anaesthesia. Single-volar injection appears suitable alternative to the commonly performed double-dorsal injection in the ED. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. [Frenectomy associated with a triangular gingival graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, A; Guy, J P; Cesano, B

    1991-11-01

    In periodontal therapy, frenectomy is indicated when the frenum exerts tension on the gingival margin and interferes with proper oral hygiene. The procedure is also employed when the frenum prevents closure of a diastema during orthodontic therapy. Frenectomy should be done after the canines have erupted and before retention is started to prevent separation of the teeth. For an improved surgical and cosmetic result, the authors propose a triangular-shaped gingival graft after the frenum has been excised. The advantage of the procedure is to create an area of attached gingiva and enhance healing.

  14. Osteotomias do rádio distal com uso de placa volar de ângulo fixo Osteotomy of the distal radius using a fixed-angle volar plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A consolidação viciosa do rádio distal, por sequela de fratura, pode causar incapacidade funcional, levando o paciente a apresentar dor, perda de força e diminuição da mobilidade. Baseando-se nos excelentes resultados obtidos com o tratamento cirúrgico das fraturas instáveis do rádio distal com a utilização de abordagem volar e o uso de fixação rígida com a placa volar de ângulo fixo, começamos a utilizar o mesmo método para as osteotomias do rádio distal. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão retrospectiva e encontrou-se 20 pacientes, no período de fevereiro de 2002 a outubro 2009. O tempo de acompanhamento médio foi de 43,9 meses (variando de 12-96 meses. A indicação cirúrgica foi de dor persistente, deformidade e limitação funcional após fratura de deslocamento dorsal. RESULTADOS: A deformidade média pré-operatória foi de 27º de inclinação dorsal do rádio distal, 87º de angulação ulnar e 7,3 milímetros de encurtamento do rádio. Todas as osteotomias consolidaram e a média final de angulação volar do rádio distal foi de 6,2º, com 69,3º de angulação ulnar e um milímetro de encurtamento. A mobilidade média do punho aumentou em 19,9º na flexão e em 24º na extensão. No antebraço, a supinação média aumentou em 23,5º e em 21,7º na pronação. A força do punho aumentou de 13,4 para 34,5 libras. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da placa volar de ângulo fixo por abordagem volar para as osteotomias do rádio distal permite uma correção satisfatória das deformidades e elimina a necessidade de remoção do material de síntese por complicações nos tendões.OBJETIVE: Skewed consolidation of the distal radius, due to sequelae of fractures, may cause functional incapacity, thus leading such patients to present pain, loss of strength and diminished mobility. Based on the excellent results obtained from surgical treatment of unstable fractures of the distal radius through a volar approach and use of

  15. Triangular Wavelets: An Isotropic Image Representation with Hexagonal Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Fujinoki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces triangular wavelets, which are two-dimensional nonseparable biorthogonal wavelets defined on the regular triangular lattice. The construction that we propose is a simple nonseparable extension of one-dimensional interpolating wavelets followed by a straightforward generalization. The resulting three oriented high-pass filters are symmetrically arranged on the lattice, while low-pass filters have hexagonal symmetry, thereby allowing an isotropic image processing in the sense that three detail components are distributed uniformly. Applying the triangular filter to images, we explore applications that truly benefit from the triangular wavelets in comparison with the conventional tensor product transforms.

  16. Triangular Wavelets: An Isotropic Image Representation with Hexagonal Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujinoki Kensuke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper introduces triangular wavelets, which are two-dimensional nonseparable biorthogonal wavelets defined on the regular triangular lattice. The construction that we propose is a simple nonseparable extension of one-dimensional interpolating wavelets followed by a straightforward generalization. The resulting three oriented high-pass filters are symmetrically arranged on the lattice, while low-pass filters have hexagonal symmetry, thereby allowing an isotropic image processing in the sense that three detail components are distributed uniformly. Applying the triangular filter to images, we explore applications that truly benefit from the triangular wavelets in comparison with the conventional tensor product transforms.

  17. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2016-08-09

    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels fail to achieve the percentage of the theoretical peak performance on GPUs that one would expect when running kernels with similar surface-to-volume ratio on hardware accelerators, i.e., the standard matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM). The authors propose adopting a recursive formulation, which enriches the TRMM and TRSM inner structures with GEMM calls and, therefore, reduces memory traffic while increasing the level of concurrency. The new implementation enables efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and mitigates the latency overhead, to run at the speed of the higher cache levels. Performance comparisons show up to eightfold and twofold speedups for large dense matrix sizes, against the existing state-of-the-art TRMM and TRSM implementations from NVIDIA cuBLAS, respectively, across various GPU generations. Once integrated into high-level Cholesky-based dense linear algebra algorithms, the performance impact on the overall applications demonstrates up to fourfold and twofold speedups, against the equivalent native implementations, linked with cuBLAS TRMM and TRSM kernels, respectively. The new TRMM/TRSM kernel implementations are part of the open-source KBLAS software library (http://ecrc.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Res-kblas.aspx) and are lined up for integration into the NVIDIA cuBLAS library in the upcoming v8.0 release.

  18. Graphene Triangular Ballistic Rectifier: Fabrication and Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auton, Gregory; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that graphene can demonstrate ballistic transport at room temperature. This opens up a range of practical applications that do not require graphene to have a band gap, which is one of the most significant challenges for its use in the electronics industry. Here, the very latest high mobility graphene (>100,000 cm2 V-1 s-1) fabrication techniques will be demonstrated so that one such device, called the triangular ballistic rectifier (TBR), can be characterised. The TBR is a four-terminal device with a triangular anti-dot at their intersection; two sides of the triangle are positioned and angled such that ballistic carriers from the two input electrodes are redirected like billiard balls to one of the two output contacts irrespective of the instantaneous polarity of the input. A responsivity of 2400 mV mW-1 is demonstrated at room temperature from a low-frequency input signal. The ballistic nature of the device is justified and explained in more detail with low-temperature measurements.

  19. Context-free Grammars for Triangular Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert X. J. HAO; Larry X. W. WANG; Harold R. L. YANG

    2015-01-01

    We consider context-free grammars of the form G={f →fb1+b2+1ga1+a2, g→fb1ga1+1}, where ai and bi are integers subject to certain positivity conditions. Such a grammar G gives rise to triangular arrays {T (n, k)}0≤k≤n satisfying a three-term recurrence relation. Many combinatorial sequences can be generated in this way. Let Tn(x)=? nk=0 T (n, k)xk. Based on the diff erential operator with respect to G, we define a sequence of linear operators Pn such that Tn+1(x)=Pn(Tn(x)). Applying the characterization of real stability preserving linear operators on the multivariate polynomials due to Borcea and Bra¨nd´en, we obtain a necessary and suffi cient condition for the operator Pn to be real stability preserving for any n. As a consequence, we are led to a suffi cient condition for the real-rootedness of the polynomials defined by certain triangular arrays, obtained by Wang and Yeh. Moreover, as special cases we obtain grammars that lead to identities involving the Whitney numbers and the Bessel numbers.

  20. Kondo effects in triangular triple quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Akira; Numata, Takahide; Nisikawa, Yunori; Hewson, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    We study the conductance through a triangular triple quantum dot, which is connected to two noninteracting leads, using the numerical renormalization group (NRG). It is found that the system shows a variety of Kondo effects depending on the filling of the triangle. The SU(4) Kondo effect occurs at half-filling, and a sharp conductance dip due to a phase lapse appears in the gate-voltage dependence. Furthermore, when four electrons occupy the three sites on average, a local S=1 moment, which is caused by the Nagaoka mechanism, is induced along the triangle. The temperature dependence of the entropy and spin susceptibility of the triangle shows that this moment is screened by the conduction electrons via two separate stages at different temperatures. The two-terminal and four-terminal conductances show a clear difference at the gate voltages, where the SU(4) or the S=1 Kondo effects occur[1]. We will also discuss effects of deformations of the triangular configuration, caused by the inhomogeneity in the inter-dot couplings and in the gate voltages. [4pt] [1] T.Numata, Y.Nisikawa, A.Oguri, and A.C.Hewson: arXiv:0808.3496.

  1. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701... Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a system must— (1) Be synchronized by a mechanical interconnection between the movable flap surfaces that...

  2. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional flaps - self-care; Distant flaps - self-care; Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer ... your wound To care for the graft or flap site: You may need to rest ... around it clean and free from dirt or sweat. DO NOT let the ...

  3. Dynamic gain control with a matrix inequality approach to uncertain systems with triangular and non-triangular nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Min-Sung; Choi, Ho-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We consider the global regulation problem of uncertain systems with both triangular and non-triangular nonlinearities. For the global regulation in the presence of non-triangular nonlinearities, we propose a dynamic gain controller designed by using power order conditions and a matrix inequality condition imposed on non-triangular nonlinearities. Compared with the existing results, the proposed control method allows a class of nonlinear systems that have not been treated before. Analysis and examples are given to prove the general applicability of our control method.

  4. A METHOD FOR STIFFNESS MATRIX OF TRIANGULAR TORUS ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş GÜNAY

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrices of constants for the stiffness matrices of triangular torus elements family are generated on computer by using the expression given in literature. After the matrices are generated once, it is easy to obtain the stiffness matrices for all member of family of triangular torus elements without need for numerical integration.

  5. Central Extension for the Triangular Derivation Lie Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunming LI; Ping XU

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study a class of subalgebras of the Lie algebra of vector fields on n-dimensional torus,which are called the Triangular derivation Lie algebra.We give the structure and the central extension of Triangular derivation Lie algebra.

  6. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  7. Dancing girl flap: a new flap suitable for web release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, K

    1999-12-01

    To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.

  8. [Three cases of chronic volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint that were treated with the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Jun; Sakai, Akinori; Okimoto, Nobukazu; Ohshige, Toshihisa; Murakami, Taizou; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2003-06-01

    Three cases of chronic volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint were treated with the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure. All patients were in their twenties. They visited our clinic complaining limitation of forearm wrist rotation and pain around the wrist for more than 6 weeks after an injury. Radiograph and CT scan revealed chronic volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. Closed reduction failed. The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure was required to prevent the distal radioulnar joint from becoming unstable after open reduction. Range of motion of the injured wrist improved greatly, pain disappeared and they were able to return to sports after the operation and rehabilitation. Therefore, the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure is effective in curing chronic volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint.

  9. Triangular microlasers in the ray picture

    CERN Document Server

    Stockschläder, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We apply ray-optical methods to dielectric optical microcavities in the shape of triangles made of low refractive index material. Geometrical optics is extended by the inclusion of intensity amplification along the optical path to achieve a better description of active, lasing cavities. Far-field emission patterns of triangular cavities obtained in this way agree well with experimental results. We find ray trajectories that maximize the intensity inside the cavity to determine the far-field emission characteristics and to complement the concept of the unstable manifold applicable to chaotic microlasers. As these maximum intensity trajectories need not to be periodic, we suggest that they provide a more general explanation for emission patterns of microlasers than single periodic orbits.

  10. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  11. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Adel; Koshak, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment.

  12. Follow-up of volar plate interposition arthroplasty (Tupper) of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid hands: preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, J P; Jensen, Claus Hjorth

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a three-year follow-up study of 59 interposition volar plate arthroplasties (Tupper) on metacarpophalangeal joints in 13 patients with erosive rheumatoid arthritis. The median age at the time of operation was 60 years (range 45-77). All patients reported lasting pain...... relief at rest. Improvement of hand function was, however, less satisfactory as both grip and pinch strength were compromised in all patients. Seven patients were satisfied with the outcome whereas six complained of stiffness in the operated joints. All but one patient concluded that they would have...

  13. Monolithically Integrated Micro Flapping Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical Logic • Memory Mm-Scale Ground Mobility Actuation & Mechanisms Ultrasonic Motors Reversible Adhesion Platform Design...MEMS Mm-Scale Ground Mobility PiezoMEMS Haltere Actuation & Mechanisms Ultrasonic Motors Reversible Adhesion Platform Design Flapping

  14. Active Control of Long Bridges Using Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The main problem in designing ultra-long span suspension bridges is flutter. A solution to this problem might be to introduce an active flap control system to increase the flutter wind velocity. The investigated flap control system consists of flaps integrated in the bridge girder so each flap...... is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. Additional aerodynamic derivatives are shown for the flaps and it is shown how methods already developed can be used to estimate the flutter wind velocity for a bridge section with flaps. As an example, the flutter wind velocity is calculated for different flap...... configurations for a bridge section model by using aerodynamic derivatives for a flat plate. The example shows that different flap configurations can either increase or decrease the flutter wind velocity. for optimal flap configurations flutter will not occur....

  15. The rat saphenous flap: a fasciocutaneous free flap model without panniculus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf, M; Tasaki, Y; Tanaka, K; Fujii, T

    1995-10-01

    The rat saphenous flap is described as a new experimental model for free flap studies. This is a fasciocutaneous free flap based on the saphenofemoral vascular pedicle. The flap may include the entire medial aspect of the lower leg between the knee and ankle. Thirty flaps were harvested from 15 inbred rats. Each flap was transferred to the anterior neck of a recipient rat of the same inbred strain so that 15 flaps were vascularized free flaps using the standard end-to-end microvascular technique and the other 15 flaps were nonvascularized free grafts. All but two (technical failure) of the vascularized flaps showed complete survival, whereas all nonvascularized flaps completely necrosed 2 weeks after transfer. It was concluded that the rat saphenous flap has several advantages such as a long and consistent vascular pedicle, ease of harvest, and an all-or-none survival pattern. Furthermore, as a unique feature of this flap, histological analysis revealed that the rat saphenous flap is composed of the skin and underlying fascia without panniculus carnosus. We therefore suggest that the rat saphenous flap is the first true fasciocutaneous free flap model in the rat. In this paper, in addition to illustrating the anatomy of the saphenous vessels and describing a new fasciocutaneous free flap model based on these vessels, we have documented some anatomical details of the rat leg that have never been described in the literature related to the rat anatomy.

  16. The evolution of perforator flap breast reconstruction: twenty years after the first DIEP flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Claragh; Allen, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    It is over 20 years since the inaugural deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. We review the type of flap utilized and indications in 2,850 microvascular breast reconstruction over the subsequent 20 years in the senior author's practice (Robert J. Allen). Data were extracted from a personal logbook of all microsurgical free flap breast reconstructions performed between August 1992 and August 2012. Indication for surgery; mastectomy pattern in primary reconstruction; flap type, whether unilateral or bilateral; recipient vessels; and adjunctive procedures were recorded. The DIEP was the most commonly performed flap (66%), followed by the superior gluteal artery perforator flap (12%), superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (9%), inferior gluteal artery perforator flap (6%), profunda artery perforator flap (3%), and transverse upper gracilis flap (3%). Primary reconstruction accounted for 1,430 flaps (50%), secondary 992 (35%), and tertiary 425 (15%). As simultaneous bilateral reconstructions, 59% flaps were performed. With each flap, there typically ensues a period of enthusiasm which translated into surge in flap numbers. However, each flap has its own nuances and characteristics that influence patient and physician choice. Of note, each newly introduced flap, either buttock or thigh, results in a sharp decline in its predecessor. In this practice, the DIEP flap has remained the first choice in autologous breast reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Buried free flaps in head and neck reconstruction: higher risk of free flap failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M; Harréus, U; Kisser, U; Betz, C S; Baumeister, Ph

    2017-01-01

    Thrombosis of the pedicle is central to free flap failure, and early revision of a compromised flap is the key to successfully salvage a flap. Therefore, the majority of free flaps in reconstructive head and neck surgery are used with the ability to visually examine the flap. Sometimes, due to intra-operative circumstances, it is necessary to use a flap that cannot be monitored externally. These flaps are called buried flaps and have the reputation of being put at risk. The current literature provides only limited data to support or disprove this position. A single institution retrospective review of patient charts between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Flap monitoring was carried out with hand-held Doppler of the pedicle hourly for the first 72 h in all cases. Additional duplex ultrasound was performed in the majority of buried flaps. A total of 437 flaps were included into the study. 37 flaps (7.8 %) were identified to fulfill the criteria of a buried free flap. In total, four patients had complications, three of which required operative reexploration. All interventions were successful, resulting in no flap loss in our series. An accurate operation technique combined with meticulous monitoring protocols supported by duplex ultrasound can result in satisfactory outcome of buried flaps. No enhanced risk of flap loss of buried flaps was found in our cohort.

  18. Comparative clinical study of locking screws versus smooth locking pegs in volar plating of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretto, J G; Pacher, N; Giunta, D; Gallucci, G L; Alfie, V; De Carli, P

    2014-09-01

    The present study was performed to test the null hypothesis on no difference in stability of fixation after volar plating of intra-articular distal radius fractures (AO C2-C3) with either locking smooth pegs or locking screws in a clinical setting. A retrospective evaluation included adult patients with C2-C3 AO fractures treated with a volar plate with locking smooth pegs or locking screws. Radiographic assessment was performed to evaluate extra- and intra-articular parameters in the early postoperative period and after bone union. Twenty-seven consecutive patients were included. Thirteen cases had fixation with locking screws and 14 had fixation with locking smooth pegs. Both groups had bone fragment displacement after fixation. However, there were no significant differences between the groups either in extra- or intra-articular parameters defined by Kreder et al. (1996). Our study shows that, in a clinical setting, there is no difference in stability fixation between locking screws or smooth locking pegs in C2-C3 distal radius fractures.

  19. [Postoperative morbidity in surgically treated extension fractures of the distal radius. A comparative study of dorsal and volar approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, R P; Ruchholtz, S; Taeger, G; Obertacke, U; Nast-Kolb, D

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate perioperative morbidity in operative interventions in distal radiusfractures, comparing the operative approach from volar and dorsal. Only problems, resulting from the operative approach towards the distal aspect of the radius, were examined. In a Case-Control-Study, we investigated patients with operative by plate-osteosynthesis treated distal radius-extensions-fractures. During 3 years we investigated 92 patients. 49 were operated with a volar approach, and after changing the operative management, consecutive 43 patients with a dorsal approach to the distal radius. Indications for operative treatment were not changed. The approach to the distal aspect of the radius corresponded to the recent guidelines. Further perioperative procedures were identical, including procedures in anesthesiology. Datas of patients have been investigated for epidemiology, kind of operations, point of time in treatment, duration of operation, X-Ray, immobilisation and time of inhospital stay as well as all documented complications. It has been shown, that in respect of all criterias, concerning length of operation (106 vs. 83 min), intraoperative X-Ray (3.0 vs. 1.65 min) as well as postoperative immobilisation (33 vs. 25 days), and documented incidences of complications like secondary wound-healing (19/49 vs. 0/43) or nerval irritations (13/49 vs. 1/43), the dorsal osteosynthesis is definitively to be favored.

  20. A New Triangular Flat Shell Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A new flat triangular shell element has been developed based on a newly developed triangular plate bending element by the author and a new triangular membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom. The advantage of the drilling degree of freedom is that no special precautions have to be made...... in connecting with assembly of elements. Due to the drilling rotations all nodal degrees of freedom have stiffness, and therefore no artificial suppression of degrees of freedom are needed for flat or almost flat parts of the shell structure....

  1. Logical, algebraic, analytic and probabilistic aspects of triangular norms

    CERN Document Server

    Klement, Erich Peter

    2005-01-01

    This volume gives a state of the art of triangular norms which can be used for the generalization of several mathematical concepts, such as conjunction, metric, measure, etc. 16 chapters written by leading experts provide a state of the art overview of theory and applications of triangular norms and related operators in fuzzy logic, measure theory, probability theory, and probabilistic metric spaces.Key Features:- Complete state of the art of the importance of triangular norms in various mathematical fields- 16 self-contained chapters with extensive bibliographies cover both the theoretical ba

  2. Treatment of degloving injury involving multiple fingers with combined abdominal superficial fascial flap, dorsalis pedis flap, dorsal toe flap, and toe-web flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengshan; Wang, Guangnan; Li, Gaoshan; Ping, Juan; Mao, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to summarize the treatment of degloving injury involving multiple fingers using combined abdominal superficial fascial flap, dorsalis pedis flap, dorsal toe flap, and toe-web flap. Each degloved finger was debrided under microscopic guidance and embedded in the superficial layer of the abdominal fascia. The abdominal skin was sutured to the skin on the back and side of the hand to promote circumferential healing. After removal, the only remaining injured region was on the flexor surface, and this was repaired by multiple dorsal toe flaps, toe-web flaps, and dorsalis pedis flaps to provide blood vessels and sensory nerves. All fingers had proper flap thickness 3-6 months after surgery, and required only lateral Z-plasty modification with web deepening and widening to narrow the fingers and extend their relative length. We completed flap-graft and finger narrowing for 25 fingers in eight patients. Abdominal skin flaps and dorsal toe flaps were grafted, and resulted in both firmness and softness, providing finger flexibility. The dorsal toe flap provided good blood circulation and sensory nerves, and was used to cover the finger-flexor surface to regain sensation and stability when holding objects. During the 1-8 years of follow-up, sensation on the finger-flexor side recovered to the S3-4 level, and patient satisfaction based on the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was 4-5. Flap ulcers or bone/tendon necrosis were not observed. Treatment of degloving injury involving multiple fingers with combined abdominal superficial fascial flap, dorsalis pedis flap, dorsal toe flap, and toe-web flap was effective and reliable.

  3. PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  4. Free digital artery flap: an ideal flap for large finger defects in situations where local flaps are precluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin-Ho; Teoh, Lam-Chuan; Lee, Jonathan Y-L; Yam, Andrew K-T; Khoo, David B-A; Yong, Fok-Chuan

    2008-03-01

    The heterodigital arterialized flap is increasingly accepted as a flap of choice for reconstruction of large finger wounds. However, in situations where the adjacent fingers sustained concomitant injuries, the use of this flap as a local flap is precluded. This paper describes our experience with the free digital artery flap as an evolution of the heterodigital arterialized flap. Four patients with large finger wounds were reconstructed with free digital artery flap. Our indications for digital artery free flap were concomitant injuries to adjacent fingers that precluded their use as donor sites. The arterial supply of the flap was from the digital artery and the venous drainage was from the dominant dorsal vein of the finger. The flap was harvested from the ulnar side of the finger. The digital nerve was left in situ to minimize donor morbidity. The donor site was covered with a full-thickness skin graft and secured with bolster dressings. Early intensive mobilization was implemented for all patients. All flaps survived. No venous congestion was noted and primary healing was achieved in all flaps. In addition to providing well-vascularized tissue for coverage of vital structures, the digital artery was also used as a flow-through flap for finger revascularization in one patient. Donor-site morbidity was minimal, with all fingers retaining protective pulp sensation and the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints retaining full ranges of motion. In conclusion, the free digital artery flap is a versatile flap that is ideal for coverage of large-sized finger defects in situations where local flaps are unavailable. Donor-site morbidity can be minimized by preservation of the digital nerve, firmly securing the skin graft with bolster dressings, and early mobilization of the donor finger.

  5. Feature detection of triangular meshes vianeighbor supporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chao WANG; Jun-jie CAO; Xiu-ping LIU; Bao-jun LI; Xi-quan SHI; Yi-zhen SUN

    2012-01-01

    We propose a robust method for detecting features on triangular meshes by combining normal tensor voting with neighbor supporting.Our method contains two stages:feature detection and feature refinement.First,the normal tensor voting method is modified to detect the initial features,which may include some pseudo features.Then,at the feature refinement stage,a novel salient measure deriving from the idea of neighbor supporting is developed. Benefiting from the integrated reliable salient measure feature,pseudo features can be effectively discriminated from the initially detected features and removed. Compared to previous methods based on the differential geometric property,the main advantage of our method is that it can detect both sharp and weak features.Numerical experiments show that our algorithm is robust,effective,and can produce more accurate results.We also discuss how detected features are incorporated into applications,such as feature-preserving mesh denoising and hole-filling,and present visually appealing results by integrating feature information.

  6. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adel Abdelaziz,1,2 Emad Koshak3 1Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt; 3Dean and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment. Keywords: curriculum development, teaching, learning, assessment, apprenticeship, community-based settings, health service-based settings

  7. Combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap dacryocystorhinostomy: A modification of external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Deka

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion : We believe that combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap DCR technique is simple to perform and has the advantage of both double flap DCR and anterior suspension of anterior flaps. The results of the study showed the efficacy of this simple modification.

  8. Comparison of outcomes of pressure sore reconstructions among perforator flaps, perforator-based rotation fasciocutaneous flaps, and musculocutaneous flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chew, Khong-Yik; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Lin, Pao-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Pressure sore reconstruction remains a significant challenge for plastic surgeons due to its high postoperative complication and recurrence rates. Free-style perforator flap, fasciocutaeous flap, and musculocutaneous flap are the most common options in pressure sore reconstructions. Our study compared the postoperative complications among these three flaps at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. From 2003 to 2012, 99 patients (54 men and 45 women) with grade III or IV pressure sores received regional flap reconstruction, consisting of three cohorts: group A, 35 free-style perforator-based flaps; group B, 37 gluteal rotation fasciocutaneous flaps; and group C, 27 musculocutaneous or muscle combined with fasciocutaneous flap. Wound complications such as wound infection, dehiscence, seroma formation of the donor site, partial or complete flap loss, and recurrence were reviewed. The mean follow-up period for group A was 24.2 months, 20.8 months in group B, and 19.0 months for group C. The overall complication rate was 22.9%, 32.4%, and 22.2% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The flap necrosis rate was 11.4%, 13.5%, and 0% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There was no statistical significance regarding complication rate and flap necrosis rate among different groups. In our study, the differences of complication rates and flap necrosis rate between these groups were not statistically significant. Further investigations should be conducted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Volar lunate dislocation associated with a Salter-Harris Type III fracture of the distal radial epiphysis in an 8 year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H; Azzopardi, T; Sibinski, M; Wilson, N

    2007-02-01

    Carpal fracture-dislocations in children are extremely rare injuries and are easily missed or misdiagnosed. An 8 year-old boy who presented with a volar lunate dislocation associated with a Salter Harris Type III injury of the distal radial epiphysis is reported. Open reduction without internal fixation followed by plaster immobilisation achieved good short-term results.

  10. Traumatic Forefoot Reconstructions With Free Perforator Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; He, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yi; Lv, Qian; Fan, Xin-Yv; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The forefoot is critical to normal walking; thus, any reconstruction of forefoot defects, including the soft tissues, must be carefully done. The free perforator flap, with its physiologic circulation, lower donor site morbidity, and minimal thickness is the most popular technique in plastic and microsurgery, and is theoretically the most suitable for such forefoot reconstruction. However, these flaps are generally recognized as more difficult and time-consuming to create than other flaps. In 41 patients with traumatic forefoot defects, we reconstructed the forefoot integument using 5 types of free perforator flaps. The overall functional and cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Three flaps required repeat exploration; one survived. The most common complications were insufficient perfusion and the need for second debulking. The key to our success was thoroughly debriding devitalized bone and soft tissue before attaching the flap. Forefoot reconstruction with a free perforator flap provides better function, better cosmesis, better weightbearing, and better gait than the other flaps we have used.

  11. [Development and current status of perforator flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dachuan; Zhang, Shimin; Tang, Maolin; Ouyang, Jun

    2011-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive review for development and existing problems of the perforator flaps. The related home and abroad literature concerning perforator flaps was extensively reviewed. The perforator flaps are defined as the axial flaps nourished solely by small cutaneous perforating vessels (perforating arteries and veins), which are exclusively composed of skin and subcutaneous fat. The perforator flaps have the advantages as follows: less injury at donor site, less damage to the contour of the donor site, good reconstruction and appearance of the recipient site flexible design, and short time of postoperative recovery, which have been widely used in reconstructive surgery. The perforator flaps are the new development of the microsurgery, which usher an era of small axial flaps; However, the controversies of the definition, vascular classification, the nomenclature, and the clinical application of the perforator flaps still exist, which are therefore the hot spot for future study.

  12. Coordination field analysis of rare earth complexes with triangular symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范英芳; 潘大丰; 杨频

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of the complex matrixes in odd triangular symmetry was accomplished.The configurations of the coordination unit with various triangular symmetries and different ligand numbers were discussed.On the basis of the double-sphere coordination point-charge (DSCPCF) model,the detailed forms of the DSCPCF parameters Bmk and the expressions of the perturbation matrix elements in triangular field (D3,D3h,D3d) were derived.Thereby,the calculation scheme of coordination field perturbation energy of the rare earth complexes with triangular symmetry was constructed After the calculation scheme was programmed,the Stark energies of the crystalline TbAl3(BO3)4 were calculated The results were considerably close to the experimental values

  13. Cryptographic Technique Used Lower and Upper Triangular Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KumaraswamyAchary,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main cryptographic technique we will use affine cipher used for encryption and also decryption by using one of the linear algebra technique lower and upper triangular technique

  14. The Centre of Mass of a Triangular Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarenko, Viktor; Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    We present a derivation for the coordinates of the centre of mass--or centre of gravity--of a homogeneous triangular plate by using scaling and symmetry. We scale the triangular plate by a factor of 2 and divide its area into four plates identical to the original. By symmetry, we assert that the centre of mass of two identical masses lies at the…

  15. BOUNDING PYRAMIDS AND BOUNDING CONES FOR TRIANGULAR BEZIER SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-song Deng; Fa-lai Chen; Li-li Wang

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes practical approaches on how to construct bounding pyramids and bounding cones for triangular Bézier surfaces. Examples are provided to illustrate the process of construction and comparison is made between various surface bounding volumes. Furthermore, as a starting point for the construction,we provide a way to compute hodographs of triangular Bézier surfaces and improve the algorithm for computing the bounding cone of a set of vectors.

  16. Fibular flap for mandible reconstruction in osteoradionecrosis of the jaw: selection criteria of fibula flap

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Ahn, Kang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoradionecrosis is the most dreadful complication after head and neck irradiation. Orocutaneous fistula makes patients difficult to eat food. Fibular free flap is the choice of the flap for mandibular reconstruction. Osteocutaneous flap can reconstruct both hard and soft tissues simultaneously. This study was to investigate the success rate and results of the free fibular flap for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible and which side of the flap should be harvested for better recons...

  17. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Unilateral non-traumatic radiocarpal volar dislocation in a child: A long-term evolution Luxación radiocarpiana volar atraumática unilateral en una niña: Evolución a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. García-Mata

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report an eight year-old female with trisomy 21 referred to our clinic for limitation of wrist mobility. The patient had been diagnosed and treated by polyarticular juvenile chronic arthritis for six months. Clinical and radiological study revealed volar radiocarpal dislocation of the left wrist. She was treated surgically by open reduction, temporary K-w fixation with six weeks of immobilization. The dislocation relapsed but the joint remained painless. One year later she had 5º of dorsal flexion and 25º of volar flexion and absence of pain. In spite of this situation the family said that the girl lived normal life without any limitation because of her condition, refusing further treatment. Eight years later the girl remains asymptomatic and does a normal life without limitation because of her condition. The patient and her family refused any treatment. Based in the failure of surgical treatment performed in our case we think that abstention could be the most reasonable option, mainly in the immature patients.Presentamos el caso de una niña de ocho años con trisomía 21 que fue remitida a nuestra consulta por limitación de la movilidad de la muñeca izquierda. La paciente había sido diagnosticada y tratada por artritis crónica juvenil poliarticular durante seis meses. El estudio clínico y radiológico mostraba una luxación radiocarpiana volar de la muñeca izquierda. Se le efectuó reducción abierta y fijación temporal mediante agujas de Kirschner, con seis semanas de inmovilización. La luxación recidivó, pero la articulación permanecía indolora. Un año más tarde presentaba 5º de flexión dorsal y 25º de flexión volar con ausencia de dolor. A pesar de esa situación, la familia manifestaba que la niña realizaba una vida normal, sin ninguna limitación para su condición, rehusando cualquier tratamiento posterior. Ocho años más tarde, la paciente permanecía asintomática, realizando una vida normal sin limitaciones

  19. Efficacy of radial styloid targeting screws in volar plate fixation of intra-articular distal radial fractures: a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Toshihiko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locking screws target the radial styloid, theoretically provide greater stability against radial styloid fragment. However, it is unknown whether the radial styloid locking screws increased the stability of the volar plating system fixation along the entire distal radius or not. In this study, we evaluated the stability of the volar plating system fixation with or without the radial styloid screws using a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model. Methods Six matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver wrists complete from the proximal forearm to the metacarpal bones were prepared to simulate standardized 3-part intra-articular and severe comminuted fractures. Specimens were fixed using the volar plating system with or without 2 radial styloid screws. Each specimen was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min to failure. Load data was recorded and, ultimate strength and change in gap between distal and proximal fragments were measured. Data for ultimate strength and screw failure after failure loading were compared between the 2 groups. Results The average ultimate strength at failure of the volar plate fixation with radial styloid screws (913.5 ± 157.1 N was significantly higher than that without them (682.2 ± 118.6 N. After failure loading, the average change in gap between the ulnar and proximal fragment was greater than that between the radial and proximal fragment. The number of bent or broken screws in ulnar fragment was higher than that in radial fragment. The number of specimens with bent or broken screws in cases with radial styloid screws was fewer than that in the fixation without radial styloid screws group. Conclusion The ulnar fragment is more intensively stressed than the radial fragment under axial loading of distal radius at full wrist extension. The radial styloid screws were effective in stable volar plate fixation of distal radial fractures.

  20. Triangular Clinics: The Way of The Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-09-01

    other created the incentive to try something totally different. The Triangular Clinics, chosen the best practice forprevention and care for IDUs, started in Kermanshah in 2000, as a pilot study. The concept of the Triangular Clinic is to tackle three important issues: addressing IDUs through a harm reduction approach; the treatment of STDs; and care and support for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. The problems of drug dependence, STDs and HIV are all behavioral in nature and hence the Clinic is a center for the treatment of behavioral diseases. By grouping the three together, it is possible to organize a comprehensive and integrated service to the patients(5. Such clinics deliver many services, integrating both prevention and care, as seen in figure 1. Services are provided by dedicated staff for drug abusers, people seeking voluntary HIV counseling and testing, PLWHA and their family members, high risk populations, patients with STDs and people exposed to potentially contaminated body fluids (Fig. 1. Harm reduction, as the core activity of Triangular Clinics, serves the infected ones well while other supportive services help healthy but at-risk population prevent the spread of HIV, HCV and other related ailments. We hope the already-in-place program of harm reduction gets national to cover all high risk populations including IDUs in and out of prison.

  1. Evaluation of performance and personal satisfaction of the patient with spastic hand after using a volar dorsal orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garros, Danielle dos Santos Cutrim; Gagliardi, Rubens José; Guzzo, Regina Aparecida Rossetto

    2010-06-01

    The performance and the satisfaction of the patient were quantitatively compared with the use of the volar dorsal orthosis in order to position the spastic hand. Thirty patients wearing the orthosis for eight hours daily were evaluated by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the box and blocks test, for a three-month period. Five activities were selected (among daily life activities, productive activities, and leisure activities) by the patients, which were impaired by spasticity. There was an improvement related to performance after use of orthosis, with an average of 1.4 + or - 0.5 to 6.3 + or - 0.8 (pPatient satisfaction average after wearing the orthosis was of 1.7 + or - 0.4 to 6.3 + or - 0.6 (ppatient satisfaction.

  2. Arthroscopic-Assisted Combined Dorsal and Volar Scapholunate Ligament Reconstruction with Tendon Graft for Chronic SL Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pak-Cheong; Wong, Clara Wing-Yee; Tse, Wing-Lim

    2015-11-01

    Background Both the dorsal and the volar portion of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) are major stabilizers of the scapholunate (SL) joint. Most reconstruction methods to restore SL stability do not address the volar constraints and frequently fail to reduce the SL gapping. Wrist arthroscopy allows a complete evaluation of the SL interval, accompanying ligament status, and associated SL advanced collapse (SLAC) wrist changes. It enables simultaneous reconstruction of the dorsal and palmar SL ligaments anatomically with the use tendon graft in a boxlike structure. Materials and Methods From October 2002 to June 2012, the treatment method was applied in 17 patients of chronic SL instability of average duration of 9.5 months (range 1.5-18 months). There were three Geissler grade 3 and 14 grade 4 instability cases. The average preoperative SL interval was 4.9 mm (range 3-9 mm). Dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) deformity was present in 13 patients. Six patients had stage 1 SLAC wrist change radiologically. Concomitant procedures were performed in four patients. Description of Technique With the assistance of arthroscopy and intraoperative imaging as a guide, a combined limited dorsal and volar incision exposed the dorsal and palmar SL interval without violating the wrist joint capsule. Bone tunnels of 2.4 mm were made on the proximal scaphoid and lunate. A palmaris longus tendon graft was delivered through the wrist capsule and the bone tunnels to reduce and connect the two bones in a boxlike fashion. Once the joint diastasis is reduced and any DISI malrotation corrected, the tendon graft was knotted and sutured on the dorsal surface of the SL joint extra-capsularly in a shoe-lacing manner. The scaphocapitate joint was transfixed with Kirschner wires (K-wires) to protect the reconstruction for 6-8 weeks. Results The average follow-up was 48.3 months (range 11-132 months). Thirteen returned to their preinjury job level. Eleven

  3. [Functional hemitongue reconstruction with free forearm flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gui-Qing; Su, Yu-Xiong; Liu, Hai-Chao; Li, Jin; Fahmha, Numan; Ou, De-Ming; Wang, Qin

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the clinical application of free forearm flap in the functional hemitongue reconstruction. From July 2002 to November 2006, 40 patients with tongue cancer underwent hemiglossectomy and primary hemitongue reconstruction with free forearm flaps. In some cases, the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves of the flaps were anastomosed with the lingual nerve to restore the flap sensation. All patients recovered uneventfully after surgery with no morbidity in the donor site. All free flaps survived. The average follow-up period was 2 years and 6 months. The aesthetic and functional results were both satisfactory. The swallowing and speech function were almost normal. The flap sensation was partially restored. Good functional hemitongue reconstruction can be achieved with free forearm flaps.

  4. Retrospective study of reverse dorsal metacarpal flap and compound flap: a review of 122 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lai-jin; GONG Xu; LIU Zhi-gang; ZHANG Zhi-xin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical application and discuss the operative indication of the reverse dorsal metacarpal flap and its compound flap on the skin defects of hand.Methods: From 1990 to 2003, we applied the reverse dorsal metacarpal flap and its compound flap to repair soft tissue defects of fingers in 122 cases, which included 90cases of the reverse metacarpal flap and 32 cases of its compound flaps with tendon grafts, nerve grafts or bone grafts. Based on the follow-up observations, we analyzed the indications of the reverse metacarpal flap and its compound flaps, the postoperative contours, flap colors and textures in comparison to contralateral fingers retrospectively.Results: In the series of 122 cases, flaps survived and the donor site defects were closed directly. The follow-up period ranged from 1-12 years. The postoperative contours,colors and textures of the flaps and its compound flaps were similar to those of normal fingers, although linear scar remained. According to standards of sense recovery(British Medical Research Council, BMRC ), the sense function of the flaps resumed S3 after operation for 1 year.In 10 cases with the tendon defects treated by the flap with tendon grafts, function of flexion-extension of fingers resumed 50%-75% in comparison to the contralateral fingers using the method of measurement of total active motion. In 7 cases with the phalangeal nonunion or bone defects treated by the flap with bone grafts, union occurred after operation for 3 months.Conclusions: To soft tissue defects on fingers with bone or tendon exposure, the reverse metacarpal flap and its compound flap are a better choice for repairing. The range of repairing is up to the distal interphalangeal joint of fingers. The second dorsal metacarpal artery is more consistent and larger as the choice of vascular pedicle, in comparison with other dorsal metacarpal arteries.Postoperative flap color and texture are similar to normal fingers.

  5. Internal Mammary Artery Perforator flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, P.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery evolved as a result of the enormous numbers of World War I and II victims, long before profound knowledge of the vascularity of flaps was present. Sophisticated imaging techniques have given us at present a thorough understanding of the vascularity of tissues so that randomly

  6. Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap after Parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Morsi

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve.

  7. Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap after Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%, and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%, although only 1 (9% subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve.

  8. The freestyle pedicle perforator flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Jackson, Ian T; Westvik, Tormod S;

    2015-01-01

    not widely performed by the general plastic surgeons. The aim of this paper is to present the simplicity of pedicled perforator flap reconstruction of moderate-sized defects of the extremities and torso. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 34 patients reconstructed using 34 freestyle pedicled...

  9. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: baitinger@mail.tomsknet.ru; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: kurochkinaos@yandex.ru; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V. [Research Institute of Microsurgery, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Dzyuman, A. N. [Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  10. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  11. Investigates on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Projectile with Triangular Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Wen-jun; WANG Zhong-yuan; LI Yan; QIAN Ji-sheng

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of projectiles with triangular and circular cross sections are investigated respectively by use of free-flight experiment. Processed the experiment data, curves of flight velocity variation and nutation of both projectiles are obtained, based on the curves, their aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are found out by data fitting, and their aerodynamic performances are compared and analyzed. Results show that the projectile with triangular cross section has smaller resistance, higher lift-drag ratio, better static stability, higher stability capability and more excellent maneuverability than those of the projectile with circular cross section, therefore it can be used in the guided projectiles; under lower rotation speed, the triangular section projectile has greater Magnus moment leading to bigger projectile distribution.

  12. Field-design optimization with triangular heliostat pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Bravo, Carmen-Ana; Bode, Sebastian-James; Heiming, Gregor; Richter, Pascal; Carrizosa, Emilio; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Frank, Martin; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the optimization of a heliostat field with triangular heliostat pods is addressed. The use of structures which allow the combination of several heliostats into a common pod system aims to reduce the high costs associated with the heliostat field and therefore reduces the Levelized Cost of Electricity value. A pattern-based algorithm and two pattern-free algorithms are adapted to handle the field layout problem with triangular heliostat pods. Under the Helio100 project in South Africa, a new small-scale Solar Power Tower plant has been recently constructed. The Helio100 plant has 20 triangular pods (each with 6 heliostats) whose positions follow a linear pattern. The obtained field layouts after optimization are compared against the reference field Helio100.

  13. Pattern design on 3D triangular garment surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on a pattern design method for a 3D triangular garment surface. Firstly, some definitions of 3D style lines are proposed for designing the boundaries of patterns as drawing straight lines or splines on the triangular surface.Additionally some commonly used style lines are automatically generated to enhance design efficiency. Secondly, after style lines are preprocessed, a searching method is presented for quickly obtaining the boundaries and patches of a pattern on the 3D triangular surface. Finally a new pattern design reuse method is introduced by encoding/decoding the style line information. After style lines are encoded, the pattern design information can be saved in a pattern template and when decoding this template on a new garment surface, it automates the pattern generation for made-to-measure apparel products.

  14. An Evaluation Method for Distortion Energy Parameterization of Triangular Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing; ZHAO Xiu-yang; ZHANG Cai-ming; YANG Bo

    2013-01-01

    Parameterization of triangle meshes is a fundamental problem for texture mapping, surface fitting, surface reconstruction, and mesh editing. The deformation of triangular meshes caused by the parameterized process is the measurement of parameterization. Traditional standard method has its limitation when evaluating mixture distortion energy parameterizations. Thus an evaluation method bases on distortion energy parameterization of triangular meshes is introduced for the limitation. The novel method employs an adaptive expression form to the mixture energy, and uses a weight factor to represent distortion energy distribution. By using this method, we can evaluate all kinds of parameterization in a uniform measurement and acquire a more intuitive and clear evaluation.

  15. Triangular graphene grain growth on cube-tectured Cu substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Wu, J.; Edwards, C. M.; Berrie, C. L.; Moore, D.; Chen, Z.; Maroni, V. A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Goyal, A. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Kansas); (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.)

    2011-10-21

    The growth of graphene has been carried out on cube-textured (100) oriented Cu (CTO-Cu) foils using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Well-aligned triangular grains self-assembled on CTO-Cu during CVD heating in flowing hydrogen. The nucleation of triangular graphene grains has been confirmed. This demonstrates that the shape and possible alignment of the graphene grains can potentially be tuned by changing the properties of the substrate, which should ultimately lead to improved electrical properties of the graphene. This type of graphene nucleation and alignment is novel and has not been observed in previous studies on other copper foil samples.

  16. Binding energy of donors in symmetric triangular quantum wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ye; LIANG Xi-xia

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen-like donor impurity states in symmetric triangular quantum wells are investigated by using a variational method.Both the effects of the variable effective mass of electrons and the spatially dependent dielectric constant are considered in the calculation.The numerical results show that the binding energy depends on not only the effective mass and dielectric constant but also the spatial distribution of electron probability density.The binding energies of donor states get the maximums at the well-center.The results are also compared with those obtained in parabolic and square wells.It is seen that the triangular well support the highest binding energies for donor states.

  17. Adjoint-based optimization of flapping plates hinged with a trailing-edge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the impact of wing-morphing on aerodynamic performance in the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects. We use a flapping plate hinged with a trailing-edge flap as a simplified model for flexible/morphing wings in hovering. The trailing-edge flapping motion is optimized by an adjoint-based approach. The optimized configuration suggests that the trailing-edge flap can substantially enhance the overall lift. Further analysis indicates that the lift enhancement by the trailing-edge flapping is from the change of circulation in two ways: the local circulation change by the rotational motion of the flap, and the modification of vortex shedding process by the relative location between the trailing-edge flap and leading-edge main plate.

  18. TO COMPARE FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME, COMPLICATIONS & RESULTS OF OPEN REDUCTION & INTERNAL FIXATION WITH CLOSED REDUCTION & EXTERNAL FIXATION IN VOLAR DISPLACED DISTAL RADIAL FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Distal radius fractures account for 17% of all fractures in adults. The fracture of the lower end of radius crush the mechanical foundation of man‟s most elegant tool, the hand. No other fracture has a greater potential to devastate hand function. Today, o pen reduction of the fracture with internal fixation and closed reduction of the fracture with external fixation, forms the mainstay of the treatment of an uncomplicated distal end radius fracture in a patient unless specifically contraindicated. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare functional outcome, complications & results of two commonly used surgical methods; Open reduction & internal fixation with volar placed buttress plate and Closed reduction & external fixation with „Jess fixator‟ and internal fixation with „k - wire‟ in volar displaced distal radial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Total 30 cases were included in the study. 15 patients were treated with Open reduction & internal fixation with volar placed buttress plate and 15 were treated with Closed r eduction & external fixation with „Jess fixator‟ and internal fixation with „k - wire‟ in volar displaced distal radial fractures. Patients were followed up at regular intervals and Anatomical and functional outcomes were evaluated in all the patients. RESUL TS: Patients treated with Open reduction & internal fixation, 8 showed excellent results, 5 good and 2 fair results. Patients treated with closed reduction and external fixation 4 showed excellent results, 5 good, 4 fair and 2 showed poor results. CONCLUSI ON: O.R.I.F is generally preferred modality gives better results in terms of functional recovery and decrease morbidity to patient

  19. The place of nasolabial flap in orofacial reconstruction: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rahpeyma

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Nasolabial flap is an old flap for reconstructive purposes. Over time different modifications have been introduced to expand its usage. Clear definition of the terms used with this flap is given.

  20. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  1. Dermatosurgery Rounds - The Island SKIN Infraorbital Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in dermatologic surgery is complete excision of the tumour while achieving the best possible functional and cosmetic outcome. Also we must take into account age, sex, and tumour size and site. We should also consider the patient's expectations, the preservation of the different cosmetic units, and the final cosmetic outcome. Various reconstructive methods ranging from secondary healing to free flap applications are usedfor the reconstruction of perinasal or facial defects caused by trauma or tumour surgery. Herein, we describe the nasal infraorbital island skin flap for the reconstruction in a patient with basal cell carcinoma. No complications were observed in operation field. The infraorbital island skin flap which we describe for the perinasal area reconstruction is a safe, easily performed and versatile flap. The multidimensional use of this flap together with a relatively easy reconstruction plan and surgical procedure would be effective in flap choice.

  2. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  3. Free flaps for pressure sore coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Vincent; Boulanger, Kevin; Heymans, Oliver

    2008-06-01

    Management of pressure sores still represents a major challenge in plastic surgery practice due to recurrence. The surgeon may have to face multiple or recurrent pressure ulcerations without any local flap left. In this very limited indication, free flap surgery appears to be a useful adjunct in the surgical treatment. We reviewed our charts looking for patients operated for a pressure sore of the sacral, ischial, or trochanteric region. We found 88 consecutive patients representing 108 different pressure sores and 141 flap procedures. Among these patients, 6 presented large sores that could not be covered with a pedicled flap and benefited from free flap surgery (4.2% of all procedures). Stable coverage was achieved in 80% of these patients after a mean follow-up of 32 months. Comparison between pedicled and free flaps groups showed a trend in the latest concerning the presence of diabetes, incontinence, paraplegia, and male sex.

  4. Treatment of the distal fracture in radioulna based on the volar wrist dual channel approach and postoperative X-ray diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yu, Shaoxiao; Bai, Yinwei; Lin, Huixin; Zeng, Jinhao; Ye, Xuelang; Xu, Dachuan

    2015-12-01

    The fracture of the distal ulna and radius is a kind of fracture that results in high morbidity and occurrence rate and contributes to about one-sixth of the entire body's fracture. In this study, we implemented the improved palmar wrist surgery by a volar wrist dual channel approach. Between 2011 and 2014, we have treated 67 distal radius fracture patients. We divided them into two parts randomly, and treat them by the Carpometacarpal direct approach solution and dual wrist palmar surgical approach solution respectively. After the surgery, the differences in the incidence of median nerve irritation are significant (P dual wrist palmar surgical approach solution are much less than that as compared to the Carpometacarpal direct approach solution (P dual wrist palmar surgical approach can lead to a successful treatment of the distal radius fractures volar distal radial ulnar by reducing the blind exposure problem. As such, the surgeon can complete treatment of fractures of the region under direct vision during operation. Furthermore, reducing the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and the structure of the stretch can decrease the incidence of postoperative complications. Postoperative X-ray diagnosis is then performed to examine the patients' recovery and assist in clinical follow-up. Our study proves that the volar wrist dual channel approach can be successfully achieved by a surface incision surgical implementation of the dual channel, and gives rise to a minimally invasive operation.

  5. Head and neck reconstruction with pedicled flaps in the free flap era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahieu, R.; Colletti, G.; Bonomo, P.; Parrinello, G.; Iavarone, A.; Dolivet, G.; Livi, L.; Deganello, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the transposition of microvascular free flaps is the most popular method for management of head and neck defects. However, not all patients are suitable candidates for free flap reconstruction. In addition, not every defect requires a free flap transfer to achieve good functional results.

  6. Resternal closure versus pectoral muscle flap following omental flap in treatment of deep sternal wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Rassekh

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Omental flap is safe, easy and effective technique in management of mediastinitis with DSWI following open heart surgery in CABG patients either this procedure was followed by reclosure of the sternum or bilateral pectoral flap. However, reclosure of the sternum is more physiological and less invasive than doing bilateral pectoral flap leaving the sternum unclosed.

  7. Pectoralis major flap for head and neck reconstruction in era of free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekatpure, V D; Trivedi, N P; Manjula, B V; Mathan Mohan, A; Shetkar, G; Kuriakose, M A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the selection of pectoralis major flap in the era of free tissue reconstruction for post ablative head and neck defects and flap associated complications. The records of patients who underwent various reconstructive procedures between July 2009 and December 2010 were retrospectively analysed. 147 reconstructive procedures including 79 free flaps and 58 pectoralis major flaps were performed. Pectoralis major flap was selected for reconstruction in 21 patients (36%) due to resource constrains, in 12 (20%) patients for associated medical comorbidities, in 11 (19%) undergoing extended/salvage neck dissections, and in 5 patients with vessel depleted neck and free flap failure salvage surgery. None of the flaps was lost, 41% of patients had flap related complications. Most complications were self-limiting and were managed conservatively. Data from this study suggest that pectoralis major flap is a reliable option for head and neck reconstruction and has a major role even in this era of free flaps. The selection of pectoralis major flap over free flap was influenced by patient factors in most cases. Resource constraints remain a major deciding factor in a developing country setting.

  8. Posterior interosseous free flap: various types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J J; Kim, J S; Chung, J I

    1997-10-01

    The posterior interosseous artery is located in the intermuscular septum between the extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digiti minimi muscles. The posterior interosseous artery is anatomically united through two main anastomoses: one proximal (at the level of the distal border of the supinator muscle) and one distal (at the most distal part of the interosseous space). In the distal part, the posterior interosseous artery joins the anterior interosseous artery to form the distal anastomosis between them. The posterior interosseous flap can be widely used as a reverse flow island flap because it is perfused by anastomoses between the anterior and the posterior interosseous arteries at the level of the wrist. The flap is not reliable whenever there is injury to the distal forearm or the wrist. To circumvent this limitation and to increase the versatility of this flap, we have refined its use as a direct flow free flap. The three types of free flaps used were (1) fasciocutaneous, (2) fasciocutaneous-fascia, and (3) fascia only. Described are 23 posterior interosseous free flaps: 13 fasciocutaneous flaps, 6 fasciocutaneous-fascial flaps, and 4 fascial flaps. There were 13 sensory flaps using the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The length and external diameter of the pedicle were measured in 35 cases. The length of the pedicle was on average 3.5 cm (range, 3.0 to 4.0 cm) and the external diameter of the artery averaged 2.2 mm (range, 2.0 to 2.5 mm). The hand was the recipient in 21 patients, and the foot in 2. All 23 flaps covered the defect successfully.

  9. Free flap pulse oximetry utilizing reflectance photoplethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, T.; Kyriacou, P. A.; Pal, S.

    2013-01-01

    The successful salvage of a free flap is dependent on the continuous monitoring of perfusion. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available post-operative monitoring technique to reliably assess the viability of free flaps by continuously monitoring free flap blood oxygen saturation. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the current techniques a reflectance photoplethysmographic (PPG) processing system has been developed with the capability of real-time estimation of arteri...

  10. Four Flaps Technique for Neoumbilicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Taek Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The absence or disfigurement of the umbilicus is both cosmetically and psychologically distressing to patients. The goal of aesthetically pleasing umbilical reconstruction is to create a neoumbilicus with sufficient depth and good morphology, with natural-looking superior hooding and minimal scarring. Although many reports have presented techniques for creating new and attractive umbilici, we developed a technique that we term the "four flaps technique" for creating a neoumbilicus in circumstances such as the congenital absence of the umbilicus or the lack of remaining umbilical tissue following the excision of a hypertrophic or scarred umbilicus. This method uses the neighboring tissue by simply elevating four flaps and can yield sufficient depth and an aesthetically pleasing shape with appropriate superior hooding.

  11. Dynamic stall in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana; Tropea, Cameron

    2007-11-01

    We report on experiments concerning unsteady effects in flapping flight, conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel of the TU Darmstadt using a mechanical flapping-wing model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis parallel and perpendicular to the flow field. A sensitivity analysis of the main flight parameters has been performed, with specific attention to the flight envelope of 26,500 dynamic stall effect could be verified by the direct force measurement as well as the flow visualization. The observation of the leading-edge vortex for typical bird flight reduced frequencies shows that this flow cannot be approximated as being quasi- steady. This in effect proves that adaptive wings are necessary to fully control these unsteady flow features, such as dynamic stall.

  12. Clinical study of reconstructing the medial malleolus with free grafting of fibular head composite tendon bone flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shui-pei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore new surgical procedure for repairing and reconstructing medial malleolus and soft tissue defect.Methods: According to the size of medial malleolus and composite soft tissue defect, vascular fibular head composite tendon bone flap free grafting using anterior tibial recurrent vessel as the perforating branch was designed to reconstruct the medial malleolar saddle and triangular ligament, and composite back broadest muscle flap free grafting was designed to repair the medical malleolar wound surface. From January 2000 to December 2006, the technique was used in 5 male patients who were injured by machine or in traffic accidents, causing bone and soft tissue defect. The size of wound surface ranged from 19 cm×12 cm to 24 cm×12 cm.Results: The wound surface was healed at the first stage in 4 cases, and the other case had infection and was cured in 6 months with anti infection therapy. Postoperative follow-ups from 6 months to 6 years showed that grafted bones and free cutaneous flaps were healed well, malleolar joints were stable, joint movement was normal, and the appearance was satisfactory. The overall outcome was good.Conclusion: Fibular head composite tendon bone flap free grafting is effective for repairing medical malleolar defect.

  13. Flapping Wing Flight Dynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    von Karman, T. and Burgers, J. M., Gerneral Aerodynamic Theory - Perfect Fluids , Vol. II, Julius Springer , Berlin, 1935. [24] Pesavento, U. and Wang...L., Methods of Analytical Dynamics , McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970. [34] Deng, X., Schenato, L., Wu, W. C., and Sastry, S. S., Flapping...Micro air vehicle- motivated computational biomechanics in bio ights: aerodynamics, ight dynamics and maneuvering stability, Acta Mechanica

  14. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds number, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propul...

  15. Microsurgical free flaps at Kathmandu Model Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S M; Grinsell, D; Hunter-Smith, D; Corlett, R; Nakarmi, K; Basnet, S J; Shakya, P; Nagarkoti, K; Ghartimagar, M; Karki, B

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgery is an emerging subspecialty in Nepal. Microsurgery was started at Kathmandu Model Hospital in 2007 with the support from Interplast Australia and New Zealand. This study will be useful for establishing a baseline for future comparisons of outcome variables and for defining the challenges of performing microsurgical free flaps in Nepal. A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using the clinical records of all the microsurgical free flaps performed at Kathmandu Model Hospital from April 2007 to April 2014. Fifty-six free flaps were performed. The commonest indication was neoplasm followed by post-burn contracture, infection and trauma. Radial artery forearm flap was the commonest flap followed by fibula, antero-lateral thigh, rectus, tensor facia lata, lattisimus dorsi, deep inferior epigastric artery perforator, and deep circumflex iliac artery flap. Radial artery forearm flaps and anterolateral thigh flaps were mostly used for burn contracture reconstructions. Twelve of the 13 (92%) fibulae were used for mandibular reconstruction for oral cancer and ameloblastoma. Rectus flaps were used mainly for covering defects over tibia. Hospital stay ranged from six to 67 days with an average of fourteen. Fifteen patients (26%) developed complications. The duration of operation ranged from six hours to 10.5 hours with an average of nine hours. The longest follow up was for four years. Microsurgery can be started even in very resource-poor center if there is support from advanced centers and if there is commitment of the institution and surgical team.

  16. Extended locoregional use of intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaki, Semih; Diyarbakirlioglu, Murat; Sahin, Ugur; Kucuksucu, Muge Anil; Turna, Akif; Baca, Bilgi; Aydın, Yağmur

    2017-05-01

    Besides conventional flaps, intercostal artery perforator flaps have been reported to cover trunk defects. In this report the use of anterior intercostal artery perforator (AICAP) flap, lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) flap and dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DICAP) flap for thoracic, abdominal, cervical, lumbar and sacral defects with larger dimensions and extended indications beyond the reported literature were reevaluated. Thirty-nine patients underwent surgery between August 2012 and August 2014. The age of the patients ranged between 16 and 79 with a mean of 49 years. The distribution of defects were as follows; 12 thoracic, 8 parascapular, 3 cervical, 8 abdominal, 4 sacral and 4 lumbar. AICAP, LICAP and DICAP flaps were used for reconstruction. Fifty-two ICAP flaps were performed on 39 patients. Flap dimensions ranged between 6 × 9 cm and 14 × 35 cm. Twenty-six patients had single flap coverage and 13 patients had double flap coverage. Forty-six flaps have been transferred as propeller flaps and 6 flaps have been transferred as perforator plus flap. Forty flaps (75%) went through transient venous congestion. In one DICAP flap, 30% of flap was lost. No infection, hematoma or seroma were observed in any patient. Follow-up period ranged between 3 and 32 months with a mean of 9 months. The ICAP flaps provide reliable and versatile options in reconstructive surgery and can be used for challenging defects in trunk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. On the robustness of ILU smoothers on triangular grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, M.A.V.; Rodrigo, C.; Gaspar Lorenz, F.J.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, incomplete factorization techniques are used as smoothers within a geometric multigrid algorithm on triangular grids. A local Fourier analysis is proposed to study the smoothing properties of these methods, as well as the asymptotic convergence of the whole multigrid procedure. With th

  18. Characterization of Lie Higher Derivations on Triangular Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fei QI

    2013-01-01

    Let A and B be unital rings,and M be an (A,B)-bimodule,which is faithful as a left A-module and also as a right B-module.Let U =Tri(A,M,B) be the triangular algebra.In this paper,we give some different characterizations of Lie higher derivations on U.

  19. Anisotropic Adhesion Properties of Triangular-Tip-Shaped Micropillars

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2011-06-01

    Directional dry adhesive microstructures consisting of high-density triangular-tip-shaped micropillars are described. The wide-tip structures allow for unique directional shear adhesion properties with respect to the peeling direction, along with relatively high normal adhesion. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Euler y la Conjetura de Fermat sobre Números Triangulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la historia de como Euler demostró la existencia de infinitos números triangulares bicuadráticos, desde su correspondencia con su amigo Christian Goldbach hasta la publicación de sus resultados en la Academia de San Petesburgo.

  1. Approximating Runge-Kutta matrices by triangular matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hoffmann; J.J.B. de Swart (Jacques)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe implementation of implicit Runge-Kutta methods requires the solution of large systems of non-linear equations. Normally these equations are solved by a modified Newton process, which can be very expensive for problems of high dimension. The recently proposed triangularly implicit

  2. Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…

  3. Selectively colorimetric detection of cysteine with triangular silver nanoprisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Wu; Yuan Fang Li; Cheng Zhi Huang

    2009-01-01

    Triangular silver nanoprisms were prepared and applied to make colorimetric detection of cysteine based on our findings that cysteine could lead to the blue shift of the dipole plasmon resonance absorption,but other 19 kinds of natural amino acids could not.Cysteine with a concentration 160 nmol/L can result in a color change that can be discerned with naked eyes.

  4. The Numerical Integration of Discrete Functions on a Triangular Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the application of Hammer integral formulas of a continuousfunction on a triangular element, the numerical integral formulas of some discrete functions on the element are derived by means of decomposition and recombination of base functions. Hammer integral formulas are the special examples of those of the paper.

  5. Modelonderzoek meetpunt Slenaken : "Flat - 5 triangular profile weir"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, J.; Pitlo, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    In de buurt van de Belgische grens werd in de Gulp te Slenaken (Zd. Limburg) door Rijkswaterstaat een meetstuw gebouwd van het type "Flat-V triangular profile weir". Een schaalmodel van de meetstuw is in Wageningen geijkt. De afvoergegevens zullen ook worden gebruikt door de "Studiegroep Gulp".

  6. Estilo de afrontamiento y resultados del tratamiento de exposición en sujetos con fobia a volar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Miró

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo cuasi-experimental es doble. Por una parte, se trata de estudiar si el estilo de afrontamiento de los pacientes (buscadores y evitadores de información; monitoring y blunting está relacionado con los efectos de la terapia de exposición; por otra, examinar si este estilo está relacionado con sesgos de atención. Aplicamos el CAFFT (Computer Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment, esto es, un programa de exposición asistido por ordenador, a una muestra de 17 personas con miedo a volar en avión. Para la evaluación del estilo de afrontamiento empleamos la versión española de la Miller Behavioural Style Scale, mientras que los sesgos de atención fueron valorados mediante el test Stroop . Los resultados muestran que el tratamiento fue efectivo, y si bien no detectan relación con el estilo de afrontamiento, se observa que el estilo de búsqueda de información (por ejemplo, monitoring está asociado con mayores trastornos antes del tratamiento, aunque éstos desaparecen tras el mismo. Nuestros datos también muestran una relación estadísticamente significativa entre sesgo de atención y estilo de afrontamiento.

  7. ¿Caos en el electrocardiograma de estudiantes con miedo a volar? Un análisis de no linealidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llabrés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Teoría del Caos proporciona una nueva forma de analizar las respuestas psicofisiológicas asociadas a los trastornos de ansiedad. Pero para poder aplicar los métodos de análisis no lineal de esta relativamente reciente teoría, primero es necesario comprobar la existencia de algún tipo de no linealidad que justifique su uso. En este estudio experimental se analiza, mediante el procedimiento de los datos vicarios, la no linealidad de las señales generadas por el sistema cardiovascular (ECG de estudiantes con y sin miedo a volar, en diferentes condiciones de estimulación. Los errores de predicción de las series vicarias fueron siempre mayores que los de las correspondientes series empíricas (p < 0,05, demostrándose así que las señales ECG, en todos los sujetos y en todas las condiciones, presentan propiedades no lineales y que por tanto resulta adecuado analizarlas desde planteamientos no lineales para obtener conocimiento acerca de su complejidad, entropía, regularidad, etc.

  8. Treatment of obsolete volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint by Sauvé-Kapandji procedure%Sauvé-Kapandji术治疗陈旧性下尺桡关节掌侧脱位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谦; 王建东; 高伟; 李凡; 汪方; 王秋根; 黄建华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure in the treatment of obsolete volar dislocation of the distal radiounlar joint (DRUJ).Methods From March 2008 to March 2012,we treated 3 patients with obsolete DRUJ volar dislocation using the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure.They were 2 men and one woman,with an average age of 45 years (from 31 to 45 years).They all presented with limited rotation of the wrist and pain.The surgical protocol was developed after the diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray and 3D-CT scan before operation.The clinical outcomes were assessed postoperatively by visual analogue scale (VAS) score,range of motion (ROM) of the wrist,grip strength,Disabilities of the Arm,Shoulder and Hanl (DASH) and Mayo scores.Results The 3 patients were followed up for 1.5 to 3.0 years (2.3 years on average).Their dislocation was corrected with no occurrence of instability of the proximal ulna.The VAS score decreased from preoperative 5.3 points to postoperative 2.0 points.The wrist flexion increased from preoperative 29.3° to postoperative 60.7°,the wrist extension from preoperative 26.0° to postoperative 53.7°,the radial deviation from preoperative 11.7° to postoperative 19.0°,the ulnar deviation from preoperative 7.0° to postoperative 17.7°,the DASH score from preoperative 33 points to postoperative 73 points,the Mayo score from preoperative 41 points to postoperative 82 points,and the grip strength from preoperative 29.3 % to postoperative 72.7% of the healthy side.Conclusion Sauvé-Kapandji procedure is a fine treatment of DRUJ volar dislocation,because it leads to satisfactory clinical outcomes in addition to preservation of the ulnar head and triangular fibrocartilage complex.%目的 探讨应用Sauvé-Kapandji术治疗陈旧性下尺桡关节(DRUJ)掌侧脱位的疗效.方法 回顾性分析2008年3月至2012年3月采用Sauvé-Kapandji术治疗的3例陈旧性DRUJ掌侧脱位患者资料,男2例,女1例;平均年龄45岁(35 ~51岁).3例患者均

  9. Reconstruction of Complex Facial Defects Using Cervical Expanded Flap Prefabricated by Temporoparietal Fascia Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Qinghua; Jiang, Haiyue; Liu, Ge; Huang, Wanlu; Dong, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of complex facial defects using cervical expanded flap prefabricated by temporoparietal fascia flap. Complex facial defects are required to restore not only function but also aesthetic appearance, so it is vital challenge for plastic surgeons. Skin grafts and traditional flap transfer cannot meet the reconstructive requirements of color and texture with recipient. The purpose of this sturdy is to create an expanded prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap to repair complex facial defects. Two patients suffered severe burns on the face underwent complex facial resurfacing with prefabricated cervical flap. The vasculature of prefabricated flap, including the superficial temporal vessel and surrounding fascia, was used as the vascular carrier. The temporoparietal fascia flap was sutured underneath the cervical subcutaneous tissue, and expansion was begun in postoperative 1 week. After 4 to 6 months of expansion, the expander was removed, facial scars were excised, and cervical prefabricated flap was elevated and transferred to repair the complex facial defects. Two complex facial defects were repaired successfully by prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap, and prefabricated flaps survived completely. On account of donor site's skin was thinner and expanded too fast, 1 expanded skin flap was rupture during expansion, but necrosis was not occurred after the 2nd operation. Venous congestion was observed in 1 patient, but after dressing, flap necrosis was not happened. Donor site was closed primarily. Postoperative follow-up 6 months, the color, texture of prefabricated flap was well-matched with facial skin. This method of expanded prefabricated flap may provide a reliable solution to the complex facial resurfacing.

  10. Analysis of biplane flapping flight with tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tay, W.B.; Bijl, H.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to examine the interference effects between an upstream flapping biplane airfoil arrangement and a downstream stationary tail at a Reynolds number of 1000, which is around the regime of small flapping micro aerial vehicles. The objective is to investigate th

  11. Piezoelectrically actuated insect scale flapping wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2010-04-01

    An energy method is used in order to derive the non-linear equations of motion of a smart flapping wing. Flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT unimorph in the piezofan configuration. Dynamic characteristics of the wing, having the same size as dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor, are analyzed using numerical simulations. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the smart wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

  12. Energy management - The delayed flap approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

  13. Blood flow autoregulation in pedicled flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian T; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Elberg, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical work on the blood perfusion in skin and muscle flaps has suggested that some degree of blood flow autoregulation exists in such flaps. An autoregulatory mechanism would enable the flap to protect itself from changes in the perfusion pressure. The purpose of the present study...... was to evaluate if, and to what extent, a tissue flap could compensate a reduction in blood flow due to an acute constriction of the feed artery. Further, we wanted to examine the possible role of smooth muscle L-type calcium channels in the autoregulatory mechanism by pharmacological intervention with the L......-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine and the vasodilator papaverine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pedicled flaps were raised in pigs. Flow in the pedicle was reduced by constriction of the feed artery (n=34). A transit time flow probe measured the effect on blood flow continuously. Following this, three different...

  14. Energy management - The delayed flap approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

  15. White light spectroscopy for free flap monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Paige M; Zeidler, Kamakshi; Carey, Joseph; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-03-01

    White light spectroscopy non-invasively measures hemoglobin saturation at the capillary level rendering an end-organ measurement of perfusion. We hypothesized this technology could be used after microvascular surgery to allow for early detection of ischemia and thrombosis. The Spectros T-Stat monitoring device, which utilizes white light spectroscopy, was compared with traditional flap monitoring techniques including pencil Doppler and clinical exam. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed. Results from 31 flaps revealed a normal capillary hemoglobin saturation of 40-75% with increase in saturation during the early postoperative period. One flap required return to the operating room 12 hours after microvascular anastomosis. The T-stat system recorded an acute decrease in saturation from ~50% to less than 30% 50 min prior to identification by clinical exam. Prompt treatment resulted in flap salvage. The Spectros T-Stat monitor may be a useful adjunct for free flap monitoring providing continuous, accurate perfusion assessment postoperatively.

  16. DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle positioning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Rosaria; Longo, Benedetto; Sorotos, Michail; Pagnoni, Marco; Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    Although clinical examination alone or in combination with other techniques is the only ubiquitous method for flap monitoring, it becomes problematic with buried free-tissue transfer. We present a DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle (SSP) positioning algorithm and its reliability is also investigated using a standardized monitoring protocol. All DIEP flaps were monitored with hand-held Doppler examination and clinical observation beginning immediately after surgery in recovery room and continued postoperatively at the ward. Skin paddle (SP) position was preoperatively drawn following mastectomy type incisions; in skin-sparing mastectomies types I-III a small SP (sSP) replaces nipple-areola complex; in skin-sparing mastectomy type IV, SSP is positioned between wise-pattern branches while in type V between medial/lateral branches. In case of nipple-sparing mastectomy SSP is positioned at inframammary fold or in lateral/medial branches of omega/inverted omega incision if used. Three hundred forty-seven DIEP flap breast reconstructions were reviewed and stratified according to SP type into group A including 216 flaps with large SP and group B including 131 flaps with SSP and sSP. Sixteen flaps (4.6%) were taken back for pedicle compromise, 13 of which were salvaged (81.25%), 11 among 13 from group A and 2 among 3 from group B. There was no statistical difference between the groups concerning microvascular complication rate (P = 0.108), and time until take-back (P = 0.521) and flap salvage rate (P = 0.473) resulted independent of SP type. Our results suggest that early detection of perfusion impairment and successful flaps salvage could be achieved using SSP for buried DIEP flap monitoring, without adjunctive expensive monitoring tests.

  17. Local full-thickness skin graft of the donor arm--a novel technique for the reduction of donor site morbidity in radial forearm free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, B; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Al-Dam, A; Gröbe, A; Blessmann, M; Wikner, J

    2015-08-01

    A novel technique to reduce donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) harvest, using a local full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), is described. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing RFFF for head and neck reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective study. Donor site defect closure was performed with spindle-shaped FTSGs excised from the wavelike skin incision made for the vascular pedicle. Both the removal site of the FTSG on the volar forearm and the covered RFFF donor site healed uneventfully in 29 cases, with no impairment of function related to the skin graft. No skin graft failure and no exposure, tenting, or adherence of the flexor tendons occurred. All patients expressed satisfaction with postoperative pain, the functional outcome, and cosmetic appearance. Primary donor site defect closure could be achieved in all cases with the use of a local FTSG. This graft can be gained at the access incision for the vascular pedicle, avoids expansion of the incision for a local flap technique, and does not prolong wound healing, and thus reduces both donor site and graft site morbidity of the RFFF. This technique leads to an inconspicuous aesthetic result with no apparent relevant functional deficits and avoids the need for a second donor site.

  18. Exotic wakes of flapping fins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis

    We present, in 8 chapters, experiments on and numerical simulations of bodies flapping in a fluid. Focus is predominantly on a rigid foil, a model fish, that performs prescribed pitching oscillations where the foil rotates around its leading edge. In a flowing soap film is measured, with unpreced...... of frequencies. Drag reductions up to a factor 3 are measured. Many results presented are obtained through flow visualisations. A great effort is made to produce visualisations of primarily high scientific quality, but often also with a certain aesthetic appeal....

  19. Use of rotation scalp flaps for treatment of occipital baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri, J; Juri, C; Arufe, H N

    1978-01-01

    We have used 25 rotation scalp flaps to treat occipital baldness associated with fronto-parietal baldness (the third flap), and 35 such flaps for the correction of isolated occipital baldness. We have not had any flap necrosis, and our patients have been well satisfied with the results of this surgery.

  20. (2-1)-Ideal amenability of triangular banach algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Etemad; M Ettefagh

    2015-05-01

    Let $\\mathcal{A}$ and $\\mathcal{B}$ be two unital Banach algebras and let $\\mathcal{M}$ be an unital Banach $\\mathcal{A}$, $\\mathcal{B}$-module. Also, let $\\mathcal{T}=\\left[\\begin{smallmatrix} \\mathcal{A} & \\mathcal{M}\\\\ & \\mathcal{B}\\end{smallmatrix}\\right]$ be the corresponding triangular Banach algebra. Forrest and Marcoux (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 354 (2002) 1435–1452) have studied the -weak amenability of triangular Banach algebras. In this paper, we investigate (2-1)-ideal amenability of $\\mathcal{T}$ for all ≥ 1. We introduce the structure of ideals of these Banach algebras and then, we show that (2-1)-ideal amenability of $\\mathcal{T}$ depends on (2-1)-ideal amenability of Banach algebras $\\mathcal{A}$ and $\\mathcal{B}$.

  1. Recurrence Relations for Orthogonal Polynomials on Triangular Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedallah Rababah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Farouki et al, 2003, Legendre-weighted orthogonal polynomials P n , r ( u , v , w , r = 0 , 1 , … , n , n ≥ 0 on the triangular domain T = { ( u , v , w : u , v , w ≥ 0 , u + v + w = 1 } are constructed, where u , v , w are the barycentric coordinates. Unfortunately, evaluating the explicit formulas requires many operations and is not very practical from an algorithmic point of view. Hence, there is a need for a more efficient alternative. A very convenient method for computing orthogonal polynomials is based on recurrence relations. Such recurrence relations are described in this paper for the triangular orthogonal polynomials, providing a simple and fast algorithm for their evaluation.

  2. Many body localization in two dimensional square and triangular lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Paredes, R

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold interacting Bose atoms placed in disordered two dimensional optical lattices with square and triangular symmetries are found to be localized above a certain disorder strength amplitude. From a Gross-Pitaevskii mean analysis we determine the localization length as a function of the disorder strength and investigate the energy spectrum in terms of the disorder magnitude. We found that the localization length is observed to decrease faster in triangular geometries than in square ones. In the presence of a harmonic confinement localization is observed at the center of the trap. The analysis of the energy spectrum reveals that discrete energy levels acquire a finite width that is always smaller than the distance among energy levels.

  3. Edge-dependent selection rules in magic triangular graphene flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, J.; Heiskanen, H. P.; Manninen, M.

    2008-05-01

    The electronic shell and supershell structure of triangular graphene quantum dots has been studied using density functional and tight-binding methods. The density functional calculations demonstrate that the electronic structure close to the Fermi energy is correctly described with a simple tight-binding model, where only the pz orbitals perpendicular to the graphene layer are included. The results show that (i) both at the bottom and at the top of the pz band, a supershell structure similar to that of free electrons confined in a triangular cavity is seen, (ii) close to the Fermi level, the shell structure is that of free massless particles, (iii) triangles with armchair edges show an additional sequence of levels (“ghost states”) absent for triangles with zigzag edges while the latter exhibit edge states, and (iv) the observed shell structure is rather insensitive to the edge roughness.

  4. Block-triangular preconditioners for PDE-constrained optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Rees, Tyrone

    2010-11-26

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a block-triangular preconditioner for saddle point problems arising in PDE-constrained optimization. In particular, we focus on a conjugate gradient-type method introduced by Bramble and Pasciak that uses self-adjointness of the preconditioned system in a non-standard inner product. We show when the Chebyshev semi-iteration is used as a preconditioner for the relevant matrix blocks involving the finite element mass matrix that the main drawback of the Bramble-Pasciak method-the appropriate scaling of the preconditioners-is easily overcome. We present an eigenvalue analysis for the block-triangular preconditioners that gives convergence bounds in the non-standard inner product and illustrates their competitiveness on a number of computed examples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Seven Means, Generalized Triangular Discrimination, and Generating Divergence Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Jeet Taneja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jensen-Shannon, J-divergence and Arithmetic-Geometric mean divergences are three classical divergence measures known in the information theory and statistics literature. These three divergence measures bear interesting inequality among the three non-logarithmic measures known as triangular discrimination, Hellingar’s divergence and symmetric chi-square divergence. However, in 2003, Eve studied seven means from a geometrical point of view, which are Harmonic, Geometric, Arithmetic, Heronian, Contra-harmonic, Root-mean square and Centroidal. In this paper, we have obtained new inequalities among non-negative differences arising from these seven means. Correlations with generalized triangular discrimination and some new generating measures with their exponential representations are also presented.

  6. Clinical application of Reading man flap%Reading man皮瓣及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾; 刘安堂; 赵耀忠; 朱晓海; 江华; 张文俊

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨应用Reading man皮瓣修复圆形或椭圆形创面的效果,并评价其优缺点.方法 在非对称Z瓣的基础上,共设计F1(三角皮瓣)、F2(矩形瓣)2个皮瓣,修复切除病变组织或清创后残留的0.8 cm ×O.8 cm~9.0 cm ×8.0 cm圆形或椭圆形创面.结果 2008至2011年采用此法共修复32例,所设计的皮瓣均能完全覆盖创面,且无感染、无明显猫耳形成,仅有1例皮瓣发生面积小于5%局部坏死,经换药后自行愈合,5例切口延迟愈合,术后瘢痕均不明显.结论 Reading man皮瓣设计灵活,是修复圆形或椭圆形皮肤组织缺损的良好选择.%Objective To investigate the effect of Reading man flap for the closure of round or elliptical-shaped defect.Methods Based on the asymmetric Z flaps,F1 (triangular flap) and F2 (rectangular flap) flaps were designed to cover the round or elliptical-shaped defects.The flaps size ranged from 0.8 cm × 0.8 cm to 9.0 cm × 8.0 cm.Results From 2008 to 2011,32 cases were treated without infection or dog-ear deformity.Less than 5% of local necrosis happened in one flap,which healed spontaneously after dressing.Delayed healing happened in 5 cases.The scar after operation was inconspicuous.Conclusions Reading man flap can be designed flexibly.It is a good option for the closure of round or elliptical-shaped defects.

  7. Total endoscopic free flap harvest of a serratus anterior fascia flap for microsurgical lower leg reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdmann, Alfons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: A tremendous number of free flaps have been developed in the past. As the surgical result depends not only on a successful flap transfer but also on the harvest, this paper details the procedures for undertaking the first total endoscopic harvest of a serratus fascia flap for free flap transplantation to the lower leg. Patient and methods: In September 2012 we performed the first total endoscopic serratus anterior fascia free flap harvest. The incision of 2.5 cm length was made 10 cm in front of anterior muscle border of the latissimus dorsi at level with the midthorax. After insertion of a flexible laparoscopic single port system we started CO gas insufflation. We used this setting to meticulously prepare a neo cavity between atissimus dorsi and M. serratus anterior. The vessels were dissected and the thoraco-dorsal nerve was separated. With a second auxiliary incision we used a clamp to support the raising of the fascia flap from the underlying muscle. Finally we clipped the vessels to the latissimus dorsi muscle and the flap vessels at the Arteria and Vena axillaris. The flap was extracted via the 2.5 cm incision.Results: We were able to perform a total endoscopic harvest of a serratus fascia flap for free flap reconstruction of soft tissues. With this new operative technique we were able to avoid a long skin incision, which in our view lowers the morbidity at the harvest area.Conclusion: We describe a new method for the total endoscopic harvest of the serratus fascia flap for free flap transfer. The flap was harvested within reasonable time and following surgery leaves the patient with minimal donor site morbidity compared to the open technique.

  8. Characterization of Generalized Jordan Higher Derivations on Triangular rings

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\mathcal A$ and $\\mathcal B$ be unital rings and $\\mathcal M$ be a $(\\mathcal A, \\mathcal B)$-bimodule, which is faithful as a left $\\mathcal A$-module and also as a right $\\mathcal B$-module. Let ${\\mathcal U}={\\rm Tri}(\\mathcal A, \\mathcal M, \\mathcal B)$ be the associated triangular ring. It is shown that every additive generalized Jordan (triple) higher derivation on $\\mathcal U$ is a generalized higher derivation.

  9. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  10. New triangular and quadrilateral plate-bending finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, R.

    1974-01-01

    A nonconforming plate-bending finite element of triangular shape and associated quadrilateral elements are developed. The transverse displacement is approximated within the element by a quintic polynomial. The formulation takes into account the effects of transverse shear deformation. Results of the static and dynamic analysis of a square plate, with edges simply supported or clamped, are compared with exact solutions. Good accuracy is obtained in all calculations.

  11. RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayne Martin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficult problems in structural bioinformatics are often studied in simple exact models to gain insights and to derive general principles. Protein folding, for example, has long been studied in the lattice model. Recently, researchers have also begun to apply the lattice model to the study of RNA folding. Results We present a novel method for predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots: first simulate the folding dynamics of the RNA sequence on the 3D triangular lattice, next extract and select a set of disjoint base pairs from the best lattice conformation found by the folding simulation. Experiments on sequences from PseudoBase show that our prediction method outperforms the HotKnot algorithm of Ren, Rastegari, Condon and Hoos, a leading method for RNA pseudoknot prediction. Our method for RNA secondary structure prediction can be adapted into an efficient reconstruction method that, given an RNA sequence and an associated secondary structure, finds a conformation of the sequence on the 3D triangular lattice that realizes the base pairs in the secondary structure. We implemented a suite of computer programs for the simulation and visualization of RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice. These programs come with detailed documentation and are accessible from the companion website of this paper at http://www.cs.usu.edu/~mjiang/rna/DeltaIS/. Conclusion Folding simulation on the 3D triangular lattice is effective method for RNA secondary structure prediction and lattice conformation reconstruction. The visualization software for the lattice conformations of RNA structures is a valuable tool for the study of RNA folding and is a great pedagogic device.

  12. Procrustes Problems for General, Triangular, and Symmetric Toeplitz Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Toeplitz Procrustes problems are the least squares problems for the matrix equation AX=B over some Toeplitz matrix sets. In this paper the necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained about the existence and uniqueness for the solutions of the Toeplitz Procrustes problems when the unknown matrices are constrained to the general, the triangular, and the symmetric Toeplitz matrices, respectively. The algorithms are designed and the numerical examples show that these algorithms are feasible.

  13. Antiplane response of isosceles triangular hill to incident SH waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Faqiang; Liu Diankui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, antiplane response of an isosceles triangular hill to incident SH waves is studied based on the method of complex function and by using moving coordinate system. The standing wave function, which can satisfy the governing equation and boundary condition, is provided. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented; the influences of wave number and angle of the incident waves and the angle of the hill's peak on ground motion are discussed.

  14. NEW SECOND ORDER NONCONFORMING TRIANGULAR ELEMENT FOR PLANAR ELASTICITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaochun; Zheng Yanjun; Mao Shipeng

    2011-01-01

    In the use of finite element methods to the planar elasticity problems, one difficulty is to overcome locking when elasticity constant λ→∞. In the case of traction boundary condition, another difficulty is to make the discrete Korn's second inequality valid. In this paper, a triangular element is presented. We prove that this element is locking-free, the discrete Korn's second inequality holds and the convergence order is two.

  15. Photonic Crystal Waveguides in Triangular Lattice of Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    Photonic nanopillars waveguides have been analysed. Dielectric nanopillars are arranged in such way that they from a tringular lattice of 2D photonic crystal. Dispersion of the modes depends on the direction of the triangular lattice, Ã-J or Ã-X, in which nanopillars arrays are extended. Light....... Transmission spectra calculated by FDTD method completely reflect peculiarities of modes dispersion, showing up to 80% transmission for a realistic SOI nanopillar structure....

  16. Parabolic similariton Yb-fiber laser with triangular pulse evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel mode-locked fiber laser design which features a passive nonlinear triangular pulse formation and self-similar parabolic pulse amplification intra cavity. Attribute to the nonlinear reshaping progress in the passive fiber, a triangular-profiled pulse with negative-chirp is generated and paved the way for rapid and efficient self-similar parabolic evolution in a following short-length high-gain fiber. In the meanwhile, the accompanied significantly compressed narrow spectrum from this passive nonlinear reshaping also gives the promise of pulse stabilization and gain-shaping robustness without strong filtering. The resulting short average intra-cavity pulse duration, low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and low intra-cavity power loss are essential for the low-noise operation. Simulations predict this modelocked fiber laser allows for high-energy ultra-short transform-limited pulse generation exceeding the gain bandwidth. The output pulse has a de-chirped duration (full-width at half maximum, FWHM) of 27 fs. In addition to the ultrafast laser applications, the proposed fiber laser scheme can support low-noise parabolic and triangular pulse trains at the same time, which are also attractive in optical pulse shaping, all-optical signal processing and high-speed communication applications.

  17. Triangular and honeycomb lattices of cold atoms in optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Shabnam; Miniatura, Christian; Grémaud, Benoît.

    2015-10-01

    We consider a two-dimensional homogeneous ensemble of cold bosonic atoms loaded inside two optical cavities and pumped by a far-detuned external laser field. We examine the conditions for these atoms to self-organize into triangular and honeycomb lattices as a result of superradiance. By collectively scattering the pump photons, the atoms feed the initially empty cavity modes. As a result, the superposition of the pump and cavity fields creates a space-periodic light-shift external potential and atoms self-organize into the potential wells of this optical lattice. Depending on the phase of the cavity fields with respect to the pump laser, these minima can either form a triangular or a hexagonal lattice. By numerically solving the dynamical equations of the coupled atom-cavity system, we have shown that the two stable atomic structures at long times are the triangular lattice and the honeycomb lattice with equally populated sites. We have also studied how to drive atoms from one lattice structure to another by dynamically changing the phase of the cavity fields with respect to the pump laser.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  19. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing-wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  20. Outcomes and financial implications of intra-articular distal radius fractures: a comparative study of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plates versus nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Dong Hao; Premchand, Rex Antony Xavier; Sim, Jane; Vaikunthan, Rajaratnam

    2017-02-02

    To evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes, as well as the treatment costs, of closed displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures treated with either open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plates or nonoperative treatment with plaster cast immobilisation. A total of 60 patients (32 receiving ORIF, 28 receiving nonoperative treatment) with closed intra-articular distal radius fractures were included. The mean age was 52.1 and 57.4, respectively. Functional and radiographic assessments were carried out at 12 months post-injury. Patients' treatment costs, median salaries and lengths of medical leave were obtained. DASH and MAYO wrist score in the ORIF group did not differ significantly from those in the nonoperative group. Apart from superior ulnar deviation in the ORIF group (p = 0.0096), differences in the range of motion of the injured wrists were not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences in grip strength and visual analog scale for pain. Volar tilt (p = 0.0399), radial height (p = 0.0087), radial inclination (p = 0.0051) and articular step-off (p = 0.0002) were all significantly superior in the ORIF group. There was a 37-fold difference in mean treatment costs between ORIF (SGD 7951.23) and nonoperative treatment (SGD 230.52). Our study shows no difference in overall functional outcomes at 12 months for closed displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures treated with either ORIF with volar locking plates or plaster cast immobilisation, and this is independent of radiographic outcome. A longer follow-up, nevertheless, is needed to determine whether the development of post-traumatic arthritis will have an effect on function. The vast difference in treatment costs should be taken into consideration when deciding on the treatment option. Level 3.

  1. Reconstruction of lateral forefoot using reversed medial plantar flap with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Masaki; Hayashida, Kenji; Senju, Chikako

    2014-01-01

    Skin defects of the heel have frequently been reconstructed using the medial plantar flap; however, forefoot coverage has remained a challenge, because the alternatives for flap coverage have been very limited. We describe a case of malignant melanoma on the lateral forefoot that was radically removed and reconstructed successfully with a distally based medial plantar flap, together with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The advantages of this flap include that it does not reduce the vascular supply to the foot owing to reconstruction of the medial plantar vascular systems, reduces the risk of flap congestion, minimizes donor site morbidity, and enables the transport of structurally similar tissues to the plantar forefoot. We believe this technique is a reasonable reconstructive option for large lateral plantar forefoot defects.

  2. Pedicled Supraclavicular Artery Island Flap Versus Free Radial Forearm Flap for Tongue Reconstruction Following Hemiglossectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Wei; Cao, Gang; Dong, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the tongue function and donor-site morbidity of patients with malignant tumors who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction after hemiglossectomy were observed. Twelve patients were reconstructed using the pedicled supraclavicular artery island flap (PSAIF) and 15 patients using the free radial forearm flap (FRFF). Flap survival, speech and swallowing function, and donor-site morbidity at the 6-month follow-up were evaluated. All the flaps were successfully transferred. No obvious complications were found in either the transferred flaps or donor regions. Age, sex, defect extent, speech and swallowing function were comparable between the 2 groups. Donor-site complications were less frequent with PSAIF reconstruction than FRFF reconstruction. The PSAIF is reliable and well suited for hemiglossectomy defect. It has few significant complications, and allows preservation of oral function.

  3. Monitoring of free TRAM flaps with microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udesen, A; Løntoft, E; Kristensen, S R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to follow the metabolism of free TRAM flaps using microdialysis. Microdialysis is a new sampling technique that provide opportunities to follow the biochemistry in specific organs or tissues. A double-lumen microdialysis catheter or probe, with a dialysis membrane at the end, is introduced into the specific tissue. Perfusion fluid is slowly pumped through the catheter and equilibrates across the membrane with surrounding extracellular concentrations of low molecular weight substances. The dialysate is collected in microvials and analyzed by an instrument using very small volumes. Glucose, glycerol, and lactate concentrations were measured in the flaps and compared with those in a reference catheter that was placed subcutaneously in the femur. The investigation continued 72 hr postoperatively. The study group consisted of 14 women who underwent reconstruction with a free TRAM flap, and one woman with a double TRAM flap. During flap ischemia, the concentration of glucose was reduced, while the lactate and glycerol levels increased. The differences between the flaps and controls were statistically highly significant. After reperfusion of the flaps, the concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol approached normal. One flap failed because of an arterial anastomosis thrombosis. This was clearly demonstrated by the samples from the microdialysis: the concentration of glucose fell to an unmeasurable level; the concentration of lactate increased for a period before it stopped due to lack of glucose; and the concentration of glycerol increased to a very high level, probably because ischemia caused damage to the cell membranes of which glycerol is an important part. The authors concluded that microdialysis can detect ischemia in free flaps at an early stage, making early surgical intervention possible.

  4. Regional flaps in head and neck reconstruction: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Giacomo; Tewfik, Karim; Bardazzi, Alessandro; Allevi, Fabiana; Chiapasco, Matteo; Mandalà, Marco; Rabbiosi, Dimitri

    2015-03-01

    Starting from our experience with 45 consecutive cases of regional pedicled flaps, we have underlined the effectiveness and reliability of a variety of flaps. The marketing laws as applied to surgical innovations are reviewed to help in the understanding of why regional flaps are regaining wide popularity in head and neck reconstruction. From January 2009 to January 2014, 45 regional flaps were harvested at San Paolo Hospital to reconstruct head and neck defects. These included 35 pectoralis major muscular and myocutaneous flaps, 4 lower trapezius island or pedicled flaps, 3 supraclavicular flaps, 2 latissimus dorsi pedicled flaps, and 1 fasciocutaneous temporal flap. The basic literature of marketing regarding the diffusion of new products was also reviewed. Two myocutaneous pectoralis major flaps were complicated by necrosis of the cutaneous paddle (one complete and one partial). No complete loss of any of the 45 flaps was observed. At 6 months of follow-up, 2 patients had died of multiple organ failure after prolonged sepsis. The 43 remaining patients had acceptable morphologic and functional results. Regional and free flaps appear to compete in many cases for the same indications. From the results of the present case series, regional flaps can be considered reliable reconstructive choices that are less expensive than their free flap alternatives. The "resurrection" of regional flaps can be partially justified by the changes in the global economy and the required adaptation of developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  6. The Clinical Application of Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chou Lee

    2011-01-01

    Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe.

  7. New drag laws for flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Classical aerodynamic theory predicts that a steadily-moving wing experiences fluid forces proportional to the square of its speed. For bird and insect flight, however, there is currently no model for how drag is affected by flapping motions of the wings. By considering simple wings driven to oscillate while progressing through the air, we discover that flapping significantly changes the magnitude of drag and fundamentally alters its scaling with speed. These measurements motivate a new aerodynamic force law that could help to understand the free-flight dynamics, control, and stability of insects and flapping-wing robots.

  8. Foot and ankle reconstruction: an experience on the use of 14 different flaps in 226 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; Wang, Yi; He, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Min; Li, Fu-Bin; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this report was to present our experience on the use of different flaps for soft tissue reconstruction of the foot and ankle. From 2007 to 2012, the soft tissue defects of traumatic injuries of the foot and ankle were reconstructed using 14 different flaps in 226 cases (162 male and 64 female). There were 62 pedicled flaps and 164 free flaps used in reconstruction. The pedicled flaps included sural flap, saphenous flap, dorsal pedal neurocutaneous flap, pedicled peroneal artery perforator flap, pedicled tibial artery perforator flap, and medial plantar flap. The free flaps were latissimus musculocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous flap, groin flap, lateral arm flap, anterolateral thigh perforator flap, peroneal artery perforator flap, thoracdorsal artery perforator flap, medial arm perforator flap. The sensory nerve coaptation was not performed for all of flaps. One hundred and ninety-four cases were combined with open fractures. One hundred and sixty-two cases had tendon. Among 164 free flaps, 8 flaps were completely lost, in which the defects were managed by the secondary procedures. Among the 57 flaps for plantar foot coverage (25 pedicled flaps and 32 free flaps), ulcers were developed in 5 pedicled flaps and 6 free flaps after weight bearing, and infection was found in 14 flaps. The donor site complications were seen in 3 cases with the free anterolateral thigh perforator flap transfer. All of limbs were preserved and the patients regained walking and daily activities. All of patients except for one regained protective sensation from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Our experience showed that the sural flap and saphenous flap could be good options for the coverage of the defects at malleolus, dorsal hindfoot and midfoot. Plantar foot, forefoot and large size defects could be reconstructed with free anterolateral thigh perforator flap. For the infected wounds with dead spce, the free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap remained to

  9. A Novel Method for Multiattribute Decision Making with Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Triangular Linguistic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiattribute decision making (MADM problems in which the attribute values take the form of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements and the weights of attributes take the form of real numbers. Firstly, to solve the situation where the membership degree and the nonmembership degree of an element to a triangular linguistic variable, the concept, operational laws, score function, and accuracy function of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements (DHFTLEs are defined. Then, some dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic geometric aggregation operators are developed for aggregating the DHFTLEs, including dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (DHFTLWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (DHFTLOWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic hybrid geometric (DHFTLHG operator, generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (GDHFTLWG operator, and generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (GDHFTLOWG operator. Furthermore, some desirable properties of these operators are investigated in detail. Based on the proposed operators, an approach to MADM with dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic information is proposed. Finally, a numerical example for investment alternative selection is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  10. Paramedian forehead flap combined with hinge flap for nasal tip reconstruction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerci, Felipe Bochnia; Dellatorre, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    The paramedian forehead flap is a great option for restoration of complex nasal defects. For full-thickness defects, it may be used alone or in combination with other methods. We present a patient with a basal cell carcinoma on the distal nose treated by Mohs micrographic surgery, and a resulting full-thickness defect repaired with paramedian forehead flap combined with a hinge flap. For optimal results with the paramedian forehead flap, adequate surgical planning, patient orientation and meticulous surgical technique are imperative.

  11. Behind the performance of flapping flyers

    CERN Document Server

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Thiria, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Saving energy and enhancing performance are secular preoccupations shared by both nature and human beings. In animal locomotion, flapping flyers or swimmers rely on the flexibility of their wings or body to passively increase their efficiency using an appropriate cycle of storing and releasing elastic energy. Despite the convergence of many observations pointing out this feature, the underlying mechanisms explaining how the elastic nature of the wings is related to propulsive efficiency remain unclear. Here we use an experiment with a self-propelled simplified insect model allowing to show how wing compliance governs the performance of flapping flyers. Reducing the description of the flapping wing to a forced oscillator model, we pinpoint different nonlinear effects that can account for the observed behavior ---in particular a set of cubic nonlinearities coming from the clamped-free beam equation used to model the wing and a quadratic damping term representing the fluid drag associated to the fast flapping mo...

  12. Periodic and Chaotic Flapping of Insectile Wings

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the desired energy level, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating condit...

  13. Vascular anatomy of the anteromedial thigh flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Mingfa Sun

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The anatomy of the RFB, which is critical in the blood supply of the AMT flap, is constant and predictable. The location of the perforators is predictable, which aids preoperative planning.

  14. A dynamical system for interacting flapping swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by the recent experiments of Becker et al., who studied a one-dimensional array of self-propelled flapping wings that swim within each other's wakes in a water tank. They discovered that the system adopts certain ``schooling modes'' characterized by specific spatial phase relationships between swimmers. To rationalize these phenomena, we develop a discrete dynamical system in which the swimmers are modeled as heaving airfoils that shed point vortices during each flapping cycle. We then apply our model to recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab, in which two tandem flapping airfoils are free to choose both their speed and relative positions. We expect that our model may be used to understand how schooling behavior is influenced by hydrodynamics in more general contexts. Thanks to the NSF for its support.

  15. The flow around a flapping foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano, Francisco; Malaga, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The flow around a two-dimensional flapping foil immersed in a uniform stream is studied numerically using a Lattice-Boltzmann model, for Reynolds numbers between 100 and 250, and flapping Strouhal numbers between 0 . 01 and 0 . 6 . The computation of the hydrodynamic force on the foil is related to the wake structure. When the foil's is fixed in space, numerical results suggest a relation between drag coefficient behaviour and the flapping frequency which determines the transition from the von Kármán to the inverted von Kármán wake. When the foil is free of translational motion up-stream swimming at constant speed is observed at certain values of the flapping Strouhal. This work was partially supported by UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT Grant Number IN115316.

  16. Interpreting laser Doppler recordings from free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Holmberg, J; Svedman, P

    1993-01-01

    Although the transfer of free flaps is nowadays accomplished with an increasing degree of safety, thrombosis of the microvascular anastomoses is still a problem. In order to avoid delay in re-operating, various methods for objective blood flow monitoring have been tried, among them Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). When one reviews the literature, it is apparent that opinions differ about whether or not LDF is a reliable technique for this purpose. To focus on the need to interpret continuous recordings, this paper reports our findings in six latissimus dorsi free flaps chosen from our series of LDF monitoring procedures. One uneventful flap, no. 1, had an immediate postoperative LDF value of 4.5 perfusion units (PU). LDF values improved during the recovery period and the graphic recording showed fluctuations due to normal physiological variations of the blood flow in the flap. Another uneventful flap, no. 4, showed the same pattern, though at an appreciably lower level, 2 PU, on average. Flap no. 2 had an acceptably high value of 3.5 PU despite suffering a venous thrombosis. However, the LDF recording showed no fluctuations and the value declined gradually. Another flap, no. 3, showed fluctuations and blood flow was normal although the value decreased to 2.5 PU. In flap no. 5, any value between 2 and 3.5 PU could be obtained merely by adjusting the position of the probe in the holder. In no. 6, the LDF value suddenly dropped, accompanied by a decrease in the total amount of backscattered light, indicating venous obstruction which was confirmed at re-operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yong Lee; Ji Min Kim; Ho Kwon; Sung-No Jung; Hyung Sup Shim; Sang Wha Kim

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosi...

  18. Radial forearm free flap pharyngoesophageal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, B; Yafai, S; Rawnsley, J D; Abemayor, E; Sercarz, J A; Calcaterra, T C; Berke, G S; Blackwell, K E

    2001-05-01

    This study evaluates the outcome of pharyngoesophageal reconstruction using radial forearm free flaps with regard to primary wound healing, speech, and swallowing in patients requiring laryngopharyngectomy. Retrospective review in the setting of a tertiary, referral, and academic center. Twenty patients underwent reconstruction of the pharyngoesophageal segment using fasciocutaneous radial forearm free flaps. All free flap transfers were successful. An oral diet was resumed in 85% of the patients after surgery. Postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistulas occurred in 4 patients (20%) with 3 resolving spontaneously. Distal strictures also occurred in 20% of the patients. Five patients who underwent tracheoesophageal puncture achieved useful speech. Advantages of radial forearm free flaps for microvascular pharyngoesophageal function include high flap reliability, limited donor site morbidity, larger vascular pedicle caliber, and the ability to achieve good quality tracheoesophageal speech. The swallowing outcome is similar to that achieved after jejunal flap pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. The main disadvantage of this technique relates to a moderately high incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistulas, which contributes to delayed oral intake in affected patients.

  19. Mastoid fascia kite flap for cryptotia correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, François; Celerier, Charlotte; Garabedian, Erea-Noël; Denoyelle, Françoise

    2016-11-01

    Cryptotia is one of the most common malformations of the upper auricle with aesthetic and functional consequences, however there is no standard treatment. We present the surgical technique and results of a kite flap procedure which can be used in the different cryptotia subtypes. We reviewed all patients treated in our department from 2010 to 2015, using a mastoid fascia kite flap technique. The incision of this local flap follows the retro-auricular sulcus along the rim of the helix superiorly and drawing a skin paddle inferiorly. The mastoid fascia is exposed and a superiorly and posteriorly based flap is drawn and detached from the skull. Finally, the skin paddle is rotated and sutured between the superior helix and temporal skin creating the superior sulcus. The retro-auricular incision is closed directly inferiorly. Six patients (mean age 12) and seven ears were studied. One patient had bilateral cryptotia and only two had a normal contralateral ear. Mean follow-up was of 45 months. There was no skin necrosis, no complications reported and no revision surgery. We describe a reliable flap with a simple design and improved aesthetic result, as the thickness of the flap projects the helix well, the scar is entirely hidden in the retro-auricular sulcus and the direct suture induces a harmonious medialization of the inferior part of the ear and earlobe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the Construction of Jointly Superregular Lower Triangular Toeplitz Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Østergaard, Jan; Kudahl, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    superregular and product preserving jointly superregular matrices, and extend our explicit constructions of superregular matrices to these cases. Jointly superregular matrices are necessary to achieve optimal decoding capabilities for the case of codes with a rate lower than 1/2, and the product preserving......Superregular matrices have the property that all of their submatrices, which can be full rank are so. Lower triangular superregular matrices are useful for e.g., maximum distance separable convolutional codes as well as for (sequential) network codes. In this work, we provide an explicit design...

  1. CLOSED SMOOTH SURFACE DEFINED FROM CUBIC TRIANGULAR SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-zhong Feng; Ren-hong Wang

    2005-01-01

    In order to construct closed surfaces with continuous unit normal, we introduce a new spline space on an arbitrary closed mesh of three-sided faces. Our approach generalizes an idea of Goodman and is based on the concept of 'Geometric continuity' for piecewise polynomial parametrizations. The functions in the spline space restricted to the faces are cubic triangular polynomials. A basis of the spline space is constructed of positive functions which sum to 1. It is also shown that the space is suitable for interpolating data at the midpoints of the faces.

  2. THE EFFECT OF AN ELASTIC TRIANGULAR INCLUSION ON A CRACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦贵德; 王银邦

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between an elastic triangular inclusion and a crack is investigated. The problem is formulated using the boundary integral equations for traction boundary value problems derived by Chau and Wang as basic equations. By using the continuity condition of traction and displacement on interface as supplement equations, a set of equations for solving the interaction problem between an inclusion and a crack are obtained, which are solved by asing a new boundary element method. The results in terms of stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated for a variety of crack-inclusion arrangements and the elastic constants of the matrix and the inclusion. The results are valuable for studying new composite materials.

  3. Triangular Dynamic Architecture for Distributed Computing in a LAN Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Fuad, M Muztaba; Deb, Debzani

    2011-01-01

    A computationally intensive large job, granulized to concurrent pieces and operating in a dynamic environment should reduce the total processing time. However, distributing jobs across a networked environment is a tedious and difficult task. Job distribution in a Local Area Network based on Triangular Dynamic Architecture (TDA) is a mechanism that establishes a dynamic environment for job distribution, load balancing and distributed processing with minimum interaction from the user. This paper introduces TDA and discusses its architecture and shows the benefits gained by utilizing such architecture in a distributed computing environment.

  4. General Equilibrium Property of Spherical Torus Configurations with Large Triangularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren

    2003-01-01

    In magnetic fusion research, two sorts of axi-symmetric toroidal equilibrium configuration are mostly interested. One is the conventional tokamak that has an aspect ratio 2. 8triangular deformation usually has the merit of stabilizing higher beta plasma and better confinement scaling so that higher βN/li value can be attained. This was also verified theoretically in the ballooning mode analysis.

  5. Bistable Chimera Attractors on a Triangular Network of Oscillator Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas

    2010-01-01

    . This triangular network is the simplest discretization of a continuous ring of oscillators. Yet it displays an unexpectedly different behavior: in contrast to the lone stable chimera observed in continuous rings of oscillators, we find that this system exhibits two coexisting stable chimeras. Both chimeras are......, as usual, born through a saddle-node bifurcation. As the coupling becomes increasingly local in nature they lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to breathing chimeras, which in turn get destroyed through a homoclinic bifurcation. Remarkably, one of the chimeras reemerges by a reversal...

  6. Multiple Discrete Endogenous Variables in Weakly-Separable Triangular Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jae Jun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model in which an outcome depends on two discrete treatment variables, where one treatment is given before the other. We formulate a three-equation triangular system with weak separability conditions. Without assuming assignment is random, we establish the identification of an average structural function using two-step matching. We also consider decomposing the effect of the first treatment into direct and indirect effects, which are shown to be identified by the proposed methodology. We allow for both of the treatment variables to be non-binary and do not appeal to an identification-at-infinity argument.

  7. Triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems with a penalty term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klawonn, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Triangular preconditioners for a class of saddle point problems with a penalty term are considered. An important example is the mixed formulation of the pure displacement problem in linear elasticity. It is shown that the spectrum of the preconditioned system is contained in a real, positive interval, and that the interval bounds can be made independent of the discretization and penalty parameters. This fact is used to construct bounds of the convergence rate of the GMRES method used with an energy norm. Numerical results are given for GMRES and BI-CGSTAB.

  8. The valuation of life contingencies: A symmetrical triangular fuzzy approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Sánchez, Jorge de; González-Vila Puchades, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends the framework for the valuation of life insurance policies and annuities by Andrés- Sánchez and González-Vila (2012, 2014) in two ways. First we allow various uncertain magnitudes to be estimated by means of fuzzy numbers. This applies not only to interest rates but also to the amounts to be paid out by the insurance company. Second, the use of symmetrical triangular fuzzy numbers allows us to obtain expressions for the pricing of life contingencies and their variability th...

  9. Algorithms for Computing Triangular Decompositions of Polynomial Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    We propose new algorithms for computing triangular decompositions of polynomial systems incrementally. With respect to previous works, our improvements are based on a {\\em weakened} notion of a polynomial GCD modulo a regular chain, which permits to greatly simplify and optimize the sub-algorithms. Extracting common work from similar expensive computations is also a key feature of our algorithms. In our experimental results the implementation of our new algorithms, realized with the {\\RegularChains} library in {\\Maple}, outperforms solvers with similar specifications by several orders of magnitude on sufficiently difficult problems.

  10. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jason H; Wiedrich, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in athletes can be caused by acute trauma, chronic repetitive loading, or a combination of both. Regardless of cause, the management of TFCC injuries in the high-performance athlete is often different from the basic tenets applied to the general population. The diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation regimen should be individualized and sport-specific in athletes, taking into consideration the priorities and needs of the athlete while striking a balance between healing, return to play, and long-term well-being.

  11. Triangular and Trapezoidal Fuzzy State Estimation with Uncertainty on Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeghi Sarcheshmah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for uncertainty analysis in fuzzy state estimation is proposed. The uncertainty is expressed in measurements. Uncertainties in measurements are modelled with different fuzzy membership functions (triangular and trapezoidal. To find the fuzzy distribution of any state variable, the problem is formulated as a constrained linear programming (LP optimization. The viability of the proposed method would be verified with the ones obtained from the weighted least squares (WLS and the fuzzy state estimation (FSE in the 6-bus system and in the IEEE-14 and 30 bus system.

  12. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    serratus fascia flap, the connective tissue over the serratus muscle, for dorsal hand coverage. The flap consists of thin and well-vascularized pliable tissue, with gliding properties excellent for covering exposed tendons. It is based on the branches of the thoracodorsal artery, which are raised...... in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  13. Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap has become a popular option for treating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined with a segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALT fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC and myocutaneous flaps.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performed between 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twenty-four patients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases and reconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC flap (12 cases. Postoperative complications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied.ResultsComplete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted in one case (marginal dehiscence of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in the VL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site, and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences in the mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group.ConclusionsThe VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survival rates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevated without myocutaneous perforator injury.

  14. Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap has become a popular option fortreating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined witha segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALTfasciocutaneous (ALT-FC and myocutaneous flaps.Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performedbetween 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twentyfourpatients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases andreconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC flap (12 cases. Postoperativecomplications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied.Results Complete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted inone case (marginal dehiscence of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in theVL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site,and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences inthe mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group.Conclusions The VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survivalrates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevatedwithout myocutaneous perforator injury.

  15. Rescue of Primary Incomplete Microkeratome Flap with Secondary Femtosecond Laser Flap in LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Razgulyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK retreatments with a previous unsuccessful mechanical microkeratome-assisted surgery, some surgical protocols have been described as feasible, such as relifting of the flap or the creation of a new flap and even the change to a surface ablation procedure (photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. This case shows the use of femtosecond technology for the creation of a secondary flap to perform LASIK in a cornea with a primary incomplete flap obtained with a mechanical microkeratome. As we were unable to characterize the interface of the first partial lamellar cut, a thick flap was planned and created using a femtosecond laser platform. As the primary cut was very thick in the nasal quadrant, a piece of loose corneal tissue appeared during flap lifting which was fitted in its position and not removed. Despite this condition and considering the regularity of the new femtosecond laser cut, the treatment was uneventful. This case report shows the relevance of a detailed corneal analysis with an advanced imaging technique before performing a secondary flap in a cornea with a primary incomplete flap. The femtosecond laser technology seems to be an excellent tool to manage such cases successfully.

  16. The Internal Pudendal Artery Perforator Thigh Flap: A New Freestyle Pedicle Flap for the Ischial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hashimoto, MD

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The perforator vessels of the internal pudendal artery are very close to the ischial tuberosity. Blood flow to the flap is reliable when careful debridement of the pressure sore is performed. The iPap thigh flap is a new option for soft-tissue defects in the ischial region, including ischial pressure sores.

  17. The prepuce free flap in 10 patients : modifications in flap design and surgical technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, Paul M N

    The prepuce free flap was used in 10 oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions. During the course of this study, various modifications took place. Residual penile skin necrosis and skin island necrosis early in the series led to modification of flap design. This solved the donor-site problem by placing

  18. The prepuce free flap in 10 patients : modifications in flap design and surgical technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, Paul M N

    2002-01-01

    The prepuce free flap was used in 10 oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions. During the course of this study, various modifications took place. Residual penile skin necrosis and skin island necrosis early in the series led to modification of flap design. This solved the donor-site problem by placing

  19. Triangular Differential Quadrature for Bending Analysis of Reissner Plates with Curved Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华永霞; 钟宏志

    2003-01-01

    The recently proposed concept of the triangular differential quadrature method (TDQM) is applied to the bending analysis of Reissner plates with various curvilinear geometries subjected to various combinations of boundary conditions. A unit isosceles right triangle is used as the standard triangle for all the derivatives expressed using the triangular differential quadrature rule. Geometric transformations are introduced using basis functions to determine the weighting coefficients for the triangular differential quadrature to map an arbitrary curvilinear triangle into the standard triangle. The triangular differential quadrature method provides good accuracy and rapid convergence relative to other available exact and numerical results.

  20. Automatic Shape Control of Triangular B-Splines of Arbitrary Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying He; Xian-Feng Gu; Hong Qin

    2006-01-01

    Triangular B-splines are powerful and flexible in modeling a broader class of geometric objects defined over arbitrary, non-rectangular domains. Despite their great potential and advantages in theory, practical techniques and computational tools with triangular B-splines are less-developed. This is mainly because users have to handle a large number of irregularly distributed control points over arbitrary triangulation. In this paper, an automatic and efficient method is proposed to generate visually pleasing, high-quality triangular B-splines of arbitrary topology. The experimental results on several real datasets show that triangular B-splines are powerful and effective in both theory and practice.

  1. On the interference rejection capabilities of triangular antenna array for cellular base stations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of the triangular antenna arrays in terms of the interference rejection capability. In this context, we derive an expression to calculate the spatial interference suppression coefficient for the triangular antenna array with variable number of antenna elements. The performance of the triangular antenna array has been compared with the circular antenna array with respect to interference suppression performance, steering beam pattern, beamwidth and directivity. Simulation results show that the triangular array with large number of elements produces a sharper beamwidth and better interference suppression performance than the circular antenna array. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Versatility of the Anterolateral Thigh Free Flap: The Four Seasons Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Candia, Michele; Lie, Kwok; Kumiponjera, Devor; Simcock, Jeremy; Cormack, George C.; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the following academic meetings: ○ 56th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (SICPRE) Fasano (Brindisi), Italy, September 26-29, 2007 ○ 42nd Meeting of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), Warsaw, Poland, May 21-24, 2008 ○ Winter Meeting, British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons, (BAPRAS) London, December 1-3, 2009 Background: The anterolateral free flap has become increasingly popular at our institution year on year. We decided to review our experience with this flap and study the reasons for this trend. Methods: A retrospective review of all anterolateral thigh free flaps performed at Addenbrooke's University Hospital from the available charts was carried out. This chart review included patients' demographics, indications, flap size, recipient vessels used, ischemia time, flap, and donor site outcomes. All flap perforator vessels were located preoperatively using a handheld Doppler ultrasound probe. Results: From October 1999 to December 2008, 55 anterolateral thigh flaps were performed in 55 patients to reconstruct a variety of soft-tissue defects (upper and lower limbs, chest wall, skull base, head and neck). Flap size ranged 12 to 35 cm in length and 4 to 11 cm in width. During flap elevation, the main supply to the flap was found to be a direct septocutaneous perforator in 41% (n = 23) of the cases as opposed to a musculocutaneous perforator, which was found in 59% (n = 32). The mean ischemia time was 82 minutes (range, 62-103). The overall flap success rate was 100%. Two flaps were successfully salvaged after reexploration for venous congestion. The donor site morbidity was minimal. The mean follow-up time was 18 months (range, 2-48). Discussion and Conclusion: The anterolateral thigh free flap was found to be a very reliable flap (100% success) across a wide range of clinical indications. It facilitates microvascular anastomoses as evidenced by the short

  3. [Flap techniques in secondary alveoloplasty: a comparison between two types of flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, M; Dojcinovic, I; Richter, M

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two surgical soft tissue coverage techniques of secondary alveolar grafts in cleft lip and palate patients: the gingival mucoperiostal slidind flap and the mucosal rotation flap. Fifty-two secondary alveolar bone grafts were retrospectively included in the study. Four clinical parameters were evaluated: post-operative dehiscence, oro-nasal fistula relapse, canine eruption through the graft and postoperative secondary periodontal procedures. Gingival mucoperiostal flaps had less postoperative dehiscence, more fistula relapse and needed less secondary periodontal procedures. Based on this study and on literature data, gingival mucoperiostal flap provides better quality of soft tissue coverage. Flap design doesn't influence canine eruption. Bone graft complications are increased with poor oral hygiene, if canine eruption occurred before surgery and in older patients.

  4. Functional results of microvascular reconstruction after hemiglossectomy: free anterolateral thigh flap versus free forearm flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, A; Vietti, M V; Cipriani, R; Marchetti, C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess functional outcomes after hemiglossectomy and microvascular reconstruction. Twenty-six patients underwent primary tongue microvascular reconstruction after hemiglossectomy. Twelve patients were reconstructed using a free radial forearm flap and 14 with an anterolateral thigh flap. Speech intelligibility, swallowing capacity and quality of life scores were assessed. Factors such as tumour extension, surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy appeared to be fundamental to predict post-treatment functional outcomes. The data obtained in the present study indicate that swallowing capacity after hemiglossectomy is better when an anterolateral thigh flap is used. No significant differences were seen for speech intelligibility or quality of life between free radial forearm flap and anterolateral thigh flap.

  5. Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-08-07

    Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat.

  6. Lateral thoracic artery perforator (LTAP) flap in partial breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, Stephen J; Schaverien, Mark V; Tan, Veronique K M; Macmillan, R Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Partial breast reconstruction using pedicled perforator flaps from the thoracodorsal (TDAP) and lateral intercostal arteries (LICAP) is well described. The article introduces the lateral thoracic artery perforator (LTAP) flap as an additional valuable option from the lateral chest wall and reports clinical experience and outcomes. The anatomy of the LTAP flap is reviewed and the results of a consecutive series are reported. In a series of 75 consecutive cases of lateral chest wall perforator flaps used for reconstruction of partial breast defects, 12 (17%) were raised as pure LTAP flaps, and a further 19 (27%) as combined LTAP/LICAP flaps. The LTAP was therefore used in 44% of flaps overall. One LTAP flap (delayed case) had early venous compromise that settled spontaneously. The LTAP flap is a reliable option for partial breast reconstruction from the lateral chest wall, particularly in the immediate setting. It allows comparable flap size to be harvested compared to LICAP flaps. The LTAP flap can be raised on its own pedicle allowing greater mobilization or it can be incorporated into the more commonly used LICAP flap to augment perfusion. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Triangular Geometrized Sampling Heuristics for Fast Optimal Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hussain Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT-based algorithms have become increasingly popular due to their lower computational complexity as compared with other path planning algorithms. The recently presented RRT* motion planning algorithm improves upon the original RRT algorithm by providing optimal path solutions. While RRT determines an initial collision-free path fairly quickly, RRT* guarantees almost certain convergence to an optimal, obstacle-free path from the start to the goal points for any given geometrical environment. However, the main limitations of RRT* include its slow processing rate and high memory consumption, due to the large number of iterations required for calculating the optimal path. In order to overcome these limitations, we present another improvement, i.e, the Triangular Geometerized-RRT* (TGRRT* algorithm, which utilizes triangular geometrical methods to improve the performance of the RRT* algorithm in terms of the processing time and a decreased number of iterations required for an optimal path solution. Simulations comparing the performance results of the improved TG-RRT* with RRT* are presented to demonstrate the overall improvement in performance and optimal path detection.

  8. Corrosion processes of triangular silver nanoparticles compared to bulk silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, V. J., E-mail: vicki.keast@newcastle.edu.au; Myles, T. A. [University of Newcastle, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (Australia); Shahcheraghi, N.; Cortie, M. B. [University of Technology Sydney, Institute for Nanoscale Technology (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Excessive corrosion of silver nanoparticles is a significant impediment to their use in a variety of potential applications in the biosensing, plasmonic and antimicrobial fields. Here we examine the environmental degradation of triangular silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in laboratory air. In the early stages of corrosion, transmission electron microscopy shows that dissolution of the single-crystal, triangular, AgNP (side lengths 50–120 nm) is observed with the accompanying formation of smaller, polycrystalline Ag particles nearby. The new particles are then observed to corrode to Ag{sub 2}S and after 21 days nearly full corrosion has occurred, but some with minor Ag inclusions remaining. In contrast, a bulk Ag sheet, studied in cross section, showed an adherent corrosion layer of only around 20–50 nm in thickness after over a decade of being exposed to ambient air. The results have implications for antibacterial properties and ecotoxicology of AgNP during corrosion as the dissolution and reformation of Ag particles during corrosion will likely be accompanied by the release of Ag{sup +} ions.

  9. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong

    2001-10-01

    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  10. Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection efficiency than that of slab-based nanocavities, and eliminates the need for a pre-existing membrane. The nanobeam is fabricated by Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) patterning. The cavity is characterized by a confocal photoluminescence. The modes display quality factors of Q ~220 and are deviated in wavelength by only ~1.7nm from the NV- color center zero phonon line (ZPL). The measured results are found in good agreement with 3D Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations. A more advanced cavity design with Q=22,000 is model...

  11. Analysis of moving bottlenecks considering a triangular fundamental diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fadhloun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of research efforts have studied and analyzed the case in which a vehicle is moving slower than the traffic stream. This phenomenon, known as a moving bottleneck, results in a disruption of traffic flow and may significantly impact the traffic stream behavior upstream, downstream and abreast the slow moving vehicle. In this paper, a macroscopic approach for modeling moving bottlenecks is developed using microscopically derived data considering a triangular fundamental diagram. The passing flow rates of different moving bottleneck scenarios are determined using a previously developed microscopic model based on simulated data derived from the INTEGRATION software. Using the simulation results, an explicit expression of the bottleneck diagram, a flow-density relationship that defines the phenomenon macroscopically is proposed and the behavior of the traffic stream downstream and abreast the moving obstruction is depicted. It is demonstrated that the behavior of the traffic stream downstream of the slow vehicle as well as the acceleration behavior while passing is governed by the demand level. Such a result is coherent and consistent, to a significant extent, with two decades of research related to modeling moving bottlenecks and constitutes a potential feasible and more detailed description of the phenomenon in the case of a triangular fundamental diagram. Finally, it is noteworthy that the research subject of this paper could be considered as a first step in developing a numerical and practitioner-friendly framework for the analysis of moving bottlenecks that does not involve approaching the problem from its theoretical perspective.

  12. Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-03-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors.

  13. High magnetic field magnetization of a new triangular lattice antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Stritzinger, Laurel Elaine Winter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-23

    In CsV(MoO4)2, the magnetic V3+ ions with octahedral oxygen-coordination form a geometrically frustrated triangular lattice. So fare, there is no magnetic properties reported on it. Recently, we successfully grew single crystals of CsV(MoO4)2 by using flux method. The susceptibility shows a sharp drop around 24 K, representing a long range magnetic ordering. To understand the physical properties of this new triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), we pursued high field magnetization measurements to answer two questions: (i) what is the saturation field, which will be very useful to calculate the exchange interaction of the system? (ii) Will it exhibit spin state transition, such as the up up down phase with 1/3-saturation moment as other TLAFs? Recently, we performed VSM measurements in Cell 8, Tallahassee, NHMFL, the results show that the magnetization reaches 0.38 MuB at 34 T, which is just 19% of the full moment of 2 MuB for V3+ (3d2) ions. Apparently we need higher field to reach 1/3 value or full moment.

  14. RKKY interaction in triangular MoS2 nanoflakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Diego; Avalos-Ovando, Oscar; Ulloa, Sergio

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, possess unique electronic and optical properties, making them promising for optospintronics. Exfoliation and CVD growth processes produce nanoflakes of different shapes, often triangular with zigzag edges. Magnetic impurities in this material interact indirectly through the TMD conduction electrons/holes. Using an effective 3-orbital tight-binding model, we study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between magnetic impurities in p-doped triangular flakes with zigzag termination. We analyze the interaction as function of impurity separation along high symmetry directions in the nanoflake, considering hybridization to different Mo orbitals, and different fillings. The interaction is anisotropic for impurities in the interior of the flake. However, when impurities lie on the edges of the crystallite, the effective exchange is Ising-like, reflecting the presence of z2-orbitals associated with edge states. Other interactions are possible by selecting impurity positions and orbital character of the states in their neighborhood. Our results can be tested with local probes, such as spin-polarized STM Supported by NSF DMR-1508325.

  15. Exploring Simple Triangular and Hexagonal Grid Polygons Online

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Daniel; Langetepe, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the online exploration problem (aka covering) of a short-sighted mobile robot moving in an unknown cellular environment with hexagons and triangles as types of cells. To explore a cell, the robot must enter it. Once inside, the robot knows which of the 3 or 6 adjacent cells exist and which are boundary edges. The robot's task is to visit every cell in the given environment and to return to the start. Our interest is in a short exploration tour; that is, in keeping the number of multiple cell visits small. For arbitrary environments containing no obstacles we provide a strategy producing tours of length S <= C + 1/4 E - 2.5 for hexagonal grids, and S <= C + E - 4 for triangular grids. C denotes the number of cells-the area-, E denotes the number of boundary edges-the perimeter-of the given environment. Further, we show that our strategy is 4/3-competitive in both types of grids, and we provide lower bounds of 14/13 for hexagonal grids and 7/6 for triangular grids.

  16. Triangular Geometrized Sampling Heuristics for Fast Optimal Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hussain Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT-based algorithms have become increasingly popular due to their lower computational complexity as compared with other path planning algorithms. The recently presented RRT* motion planning algorithm improves upon the original RRT algorithm by providing optimal path solutions. While RRT determines an initial collision-free path fairly quickly, RRT* guarantees almost certain convergence to an optimal, obstacle-free path from the start to the goal points for any given geometrical environment. However, the main limitations of RRT* include its slow processing rate and high memory consumption, due to the large number of iterations required for calculating the optimal path. In order to overcome these limitations, we present another improvement, i.e, the Triangular Geometerized-RRT* (TG-RRT* algorithm, which utilizes triangular geometrical methods to improve the performance of the RRT* algorithm in terms of the processing time and a decreased number of iterations required for an optimal path solution. Simulations comparing the performance results of the improved TG-RRT* with RRT* are presented to demonstrate the overall improvement in performance and optimal path detection.

  17. Modified Streaming Format for Direct Access Triangular Data Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We define in this paper an extended solution to improve an Out-of-Core data structure which is the streaming format, by adding new information allowing to reduce file access cost, reducing the neighborhood access delay to constant time. The original streaming format is conceived to manipulate huge triangular meshes. It assumes that the whole mesh cannot be loaded entirely into the main memory. That's why the authors did not include the neighborhood in the file structure. However, almost all of the applications need the neighborhood information in the triangular structures. Using the original streaming format does not allow us to extract the neighborhood information easily. By adding the neighbor indices to the file in the same way as the original format, we can benefit from the streaming format, and at the same time, guarantee a constant time access to the neighborhood. We have adapted our new structure so that it can allow us to apply our direct access algorithm to different parts of the structure without having to go through the entire file.

  18. Mott transition and magnetism on the anisotropic triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheche, S.; Reymbaut, A.; Charlebois, M.; Sénéchal, D.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Spin-liquid behavior was recently suggested experimentally in the moderately one-dimensional organic compound κ -H3 (Cat-EDT-TTF)2. This compound can be modeled by the one-band Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice with t'/t ≃1.5 , where t' is the minority hopping. It thus becomes important to extend previous studies, that were performed in the range 0 ≤t'/t ≤1.2 , to find out whether there is a regime where Mott insulating behavior can be found without long-range magnetic order. To this end, we study the above model in the range 1.2 ≤t'/t ≤2 using cluster dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT). We argue that it is important to choose a symmetry-preserving cluster rather than a quasi-one-dimensional cluster. We find that, upon increasing t'/t beyond t'/t ≈1.3 , the Mott transition at zero temperature is replaced by a first-order transition separating a metallic state from a collinear magnetic insulating state excluding the possibility to find a quantum spin liquid for the physically relevant value t'/t ≃1.5 . The phase diagram obtained in this study can provide a working basis for moderately one-dimensional compounds on the anisotropic triangular lattice.

  19. Morbidity after flap reconstruction of hypopharyngeal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jonathan R; Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan; Brown, Dale; Neligan, Peter; Gullane, Patrick J

    2006-02-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reconstruction continues to challenge in terms of operative morbidity and optimal functional results. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether complications can be predicted on the basis of reconstruction in patients undergoing pharyngectomy for tumors involving the hypopharynx. In addition, we detail a reconstructive algorithm for management of partial and total laryngopharyngectomy defects. A retrospective review was performed of 153 patients undergoing flap reconstruction for 85 partial and 68 circumferential pharyngectomies at a single institution over a 10-year period. There were 118 males and 35 females, the median age was 62 years, and mean follow up was 3.1 years. Pharyngectomy was performed for recurrence after radiotherapy in 80 patients and as primary surgery in 73. Free flap reconstruction was used in 42%, with 30 jejunal, 15 radial forearm, 11 anterolateral thigh, five rectus abdominis, and three gastro-omental flaps. Gastric transposition and pectoralis major pedicle flap was used in 14% and 44% of patients, respectively. Morbidity was analyzed according to extent of defect, regional versus free flap, enteric versus fasciocutaneous free flap reconstruction, and the effect of laparotomy. The total operative morbidity and mortality rate was 71% and 3%, respectively. The most common complications were hypocalcemia in 45%, pharyngocutaneous fistula in 33%, and wound complications in 25%. The late complication and stricture rate was 26% and 15%, respectively. On univariate analysis, circumferential defects were associated with increased total (P=.046) and flap-related morbidity (P=.037), hypocalcemia (Pspeech was the method of voice restoration in 44% of patients. Oral diet was achieved in 93% of patients; however, 16% required gastrostomy tube feeds for either total or supplemental nutrition. The operative morbidity associated with pharyngeal reconstruction is substantial in terms of early and late complications. We were

  20. Libertad para volar

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Olalla

    2008-01-01

    La formación, el empleo y la arquitectura sin barreras son aspectos esenciales para la integración del colectivo de personas con discapacidad. Sin embargo, la independencia y la normalización son un grado más en la lucha por la igualdad de trato y es ahí donde entran en juego factores como el ocio y el tiempo libre.

  1. Libertad para volar

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Olalla

    2008-01-01

    La formación, el empleo y la arquitectura sin barreras son aspectos esenciales para la integración del colectivo de personas con discapacidad. Sin embargo, la independencia y la normalización son un grado más en la lucha por la igualdad de trato y es ahí donde entran en juego factores como el ocio y el tiempo libre.

  2. Microsurgical free flap reconstructions of the head and neck region: Shanghai experience of 34 years and 4640 flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Sun, J; Zhu, H; Xu, L; Ji, T; He, Y; Yang, W; Hu, Y; Yang, X; Zhang, Z

    2015-06-01

    This study represents the surgical experience of 4481 microvascular free flap cases performed at the authors' institution in China, between 1979 and 2013. Four thousand four hundred and eighty-one patients underwent reconstruction with 4640 flaps: 56% radial forearm flaps, 8% iliac crest flaps, 13% fibula flaps, 10% anterolateral thigh flaps, and other flaps. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the flap transfer was required following tumour resection (97.5%). Three hundred and twenty minor complications (6.9%) occurred. One hundred and eighteen major complications (2.5%) were encountered: 114 cases of failure (2.4%) and four deaths. Among the 118 cases with major complications, 26 - 22.0% - had received radiotherapy; this proportion was higher than the 6.9% in the minor complications group and 8.1% in the non-intervention group. Venous thrombosis was the most common complication at the recipient site and was the main cause of flap failure. When a compromised flap is identified, surgical re-exploration should not be delayed. This study confirms that free flaps are reliable in achieving successful reconstruction in the head and neck region; however this technique requires extensive clinical experience. Owing to the large number of flap options, microsurgeons should always pay attention to the details of the different surgical defects and choose the most appropriate flap.

  3. Intraoperative flap complications in lasik surgery performed by ophthalmology residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Romero-Diaz-de-Leon

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Flap-related complications are common intraoperative event during LASIK surgery performed by in-training ophthalmologists. Keratometries and surgeon's first procedure represent a higher probability for flap related complications than some other biometric parameters of patient's eye.

  4. Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap for Bone Graft Coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 42. Anterior Palatal Island ... prosthodontic treatments should have ideal characteristics, as .... are rotated palatal flap and palatal advanced flap.

  5. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  6. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  7. Paramedian forehead flap thinning using a flexible razor blade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiniano, Hilda; Edwards, Julia; Eisen, Daniel B

    2009-03-15

    Paramedian forehead flaps are sometimes required to resurface large or deep nasal defects. The flap often needs to be thinned to match the contour of the surrounding skin at the recipient site. We describe a technique to thin the distal potion of the paramedian forehead flap using a flexible razor blade, the Dermablade. Once familiar with it, this same technique may be applied to thin other interpolation flaps.

  8. The aerodynamic and structural study of flapping wing vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on the aerodynamic and structural study carried out on flapping wings and flapping vehicles. Theoretical and experimental investigation of aerodynamic forces acting on flapping wings in simple harmonic oscillations is undertaken in order to help conduct and optimize the aerodynamic and structural design of flapping wing vehicles. The research is focused on the large scale ornithopter design of similar size and configuration to a hang glider. By means of Theodorsen’s th...

  9. The forked flap repair for hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The "Forked-Flap" repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip-flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit′s prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

  10. Comparative Study Between Two Flaps—Trapezoidal flap (TZF) and Ocshenbein-Leubke Flap (OLF) in Periapical Surgeries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed, Mohd Viqar; Rastogi, Sanjay; Baad, Rajendra K; Gupta, Anurag K; Nishad, Sumita G; Bansal, Mansi; Kumar, Sanjeev; Oswal, Rakesh; Mahendra, P; Bhatnagar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    .... The large variety of flaps available for periapical surgeries reflects the number of variables to be considered before choosing an appropriate flap design. In this study; Ocshenbein-Leubke (OL) and trapezoidal (TZ...

  11. [Boomerang flap. A true single-stage pedicled cross finger flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaillard, P; Grangier, Y; Casoli, V; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    1996-06-01

    The indications for cover of long fingers have been considerably modified over recent years as a result of the concept of retrograde flow flaps. However, in some cases in which the dorsal digital networks cannot be used, cross-finger flaps are still indicated for cover of long fingers beyond the PIP joint. The authors present a new flap eliminating the need for this rather complicated procedure. The donor site takes advantage of the rich dorsal collateral arterial network of P1 of an adjacent healthy finger. The flap can be raised due to the constant existence of a bifurcation between the collateral dorsal digital arterial networks and the anastomoses situated at various levels between the dorsal and palmar collateral networks of the long fingers, which are constant as far as the PIP joint. A dorsolateral flap can therefore be raised from a healthy finger and transferred to the injured finger by raising the fatty connective tissue, including the dorsal collateral pedicles, in the shape of a boomerang. This flap covers distal defects from the PIP joint to the fingertip. The authors describe the anatomical basis for raising of the flap, the operative technique and report six clinical cases with a mean follow-up of 11 months.

  12. [Reconstruction of the oral cavity: the free radial forearm flap versus the free jejunal flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, E; Cicconetti, A; Matteini, C

    1995-05-01

    The concentration in a restricted area such as the oral cavity of the essential anatomic structures for mastication, deglutition, speech, salivary drainage and respiration makes it indispensable to ensure not only the structural reconstruction of the region but also, and above all, a functional reconstruction of the anatomic unit affected by resection. The use of revascularised flaps has extended both the quantity and quality of reconstructive methods available. In the context of the oral cavity the most widely used flaps are the radial forearm free flap and jejunum free flap. In this paper the authors report their personal experience in a group of 13 patients (6 radial forearm and 7 jejunum) undergoing oral cavity reconstruction using free flap. For each flap the authors describe the microsurgical procedure, the clinical characteristics of the post-operative period, the locoregional complications, the donor site and lastly the long-term clinical, anatomopathological and functional modifications 6-12 months after primary treatment. Moreover, they highlight the varying characteristics of the two flaps and make a critical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of using one or other method. Lastly, in the light of their experience and a review of international literature, the authors underline the importance of making a careful choice and personalized reconstruction, and finally outline their own criteria of choice.

  13. Existence and stability of triangular points in the restricted three-body problem with numerical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that the locations of the triangular points and their linear stability are affected by the oblateness of the more massive primary in the planar circular restricted three-body problem, considering the effect of oblateness for J 2 and J 4. After that, we show that the triangular points are stable for 0Caliban systems.

  14. The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen Saeter

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…

  15. 26 CFR 1.1502-30 - Stock basis after certain triangular reorganizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock basis after certain triangular... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-30 Stock basis after certain triangular reorganizations. (a) Scope. This section provides...

  16. The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen Saeter

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…

  17. Bilateral Temporal Triangular Alopecia Associated with Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis Type IV Successfully Treated with Follicular Unit Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Unger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal triangular alopecia (TTA, also known as congenital triangular alopecia, is a nonscarring, noninflammatroy, circumscribed form of alopecia. TTA has been associated with several disorders, such as Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis. Hair restoration surgery using follicular unit transplantation has been a successful treatment modality for TTA. Herein we report such a success that was sustained for over six years.

  18. Prospective evaluation of outcome measures in free-flap surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, John L

    2004-08-01

    Free-flap failure is usually caused by venous or arterial thrombosis. In many cases, lack of experience and surgical delay also contribute to flap loss. The authors prospectively analyzed the outcome of 57 free flaps over a 28-month period (January, 1999 to April, 2001). The setting was a university hospital tertiary referral center. Anastomotic technique, ischemia time, choice of anticoagulant, and the grade of surgeon were recorded. The type of flap, medications, and co-morbidities, including preoperative radiotherapy, were also documented. Ten flaps were re-explored (17 percent). There were four cases of complete flap failure (6.7 percent) and five cases of partial failure (8.5 percent). In patients who received perioperative systemic heparin or dextran, there was no evidence of flap failure (p = .08). The mean ischemia time was similar in flaps that failed (95 +\\/- 29 min) and in those that survived (92 +\\/- 34 min). Also, the number of anastomoses performed by trainees in flaps that failed (22 percent), was similar to the number in flaps that survived (28 percent). Nine patients received preoperative radiotherapy, and there was complete flap survival in each case. This study reveals that closely supervised anastomoses performed by trainees may have a similar outcome to those performed by more senior surgeons. There was no adverse effect from radiotherapy or increased ischemia time on flap survival.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  20. Haemodynamics and viability of skin and muscle flaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    In reconstructive surgery, occasional free flap failures occur despite the clinical and technical advances in microsurgery of the past few years. To minimize these losses a better understanding of basic flap physiology must be achieved. The objectives of this work were the investigation of the haemodynamic characteristics of skin and muscle flaps in normal and compromised circumstances, the viability of skin and muscle flaps after pedicle ligation or ischaemia, and the possible interrelationship of haemodynamics and viability. A Wistar rat groin island skin flap model was used to assess flap survival following vascular compromise produced by vessel ligation. Survival was seen earliest following loss of the artery and was not dependent on circulation through the vascular pedicle after 5 days. A study using free groin flaps in rats gave similar results. Normal free groin flaps were then transferred to irradiated Fischer F344 rats. Delayed neovascularization was shown at a time corresponding to the onset of the late phase of the response to skin radiation. A canine inferior epigastric free skin flap model was established to determine the normal haemodynamic parameters during free flap transfer. A canine gracilis free muscle flap model was developed. Normal haemodynamic parameters are given. These parameters were examined after ischaemia. Survival of the muscle followed ischaemia of 4 hours or less. Flap survival is not dependent solely on arterial input or venous drainage. More complex phenomena such as the reactive hyperaemia following ischaemia are implicated in survival.

  1. Posttraumatic eyebrow reconstruction with hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The temporoparietal fascia flap has been extensively used in craniofacial reconstructions. However, its use for eyebrow reconstruction has been sporadically reported. We describe a successfully repaired hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap after traumatic avulsion of eyebrow. Temporoparietal fascia flap is a versatile tool and should be considered as a therapeutic option by all plastic surgeons.

  2. Posttraumatic eyebrow reconstruction with hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The temporoparietal fascia flap has been extensively used in craniofacial reconstructions. However, its use for eyebrow reconstruction has been sporadically reported. We describe a successfully repaired hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap after traumatic avulsion of eyebrow. Temporoparietal fascia flap is a versatile tool and should be considered as a therapeutic option by all plastic surgeons. PMID:25993077

  3. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores. PMID:25075362

  4. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Min Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50% had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months. In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%, wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%, but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6% recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  5. Constructing triangular patch by basic approximation operator plus additional interpolation operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiming; Jl Xiuhua; YANG Xingqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method for constructing triangular patches is presented. The triangular patch that interpolates the given boundary curves and cross-boundary slopes is constructed by a basic approximation operator plus an additional interpolation operator. The basic approximation operator is constructed by a polynomial surface of degree five which approximates the given interpolation conditions. The additional interpolation operator is formed by the side-vertex method. The basic and the additional operators have different roles in constructing the triangular patch: the first one makes the triangular patch approximate the given interpolation conditions with a polynomial approximation precision of degree five, while the second one makes it satisfy the given interpolation conditions. The triangular patch reproduces polynomial surfaces of degree five. Comparison results of the new method with the other two methods are included.

  6. New high fill-factor triangular micro-lens array fabrication method using UV proximity printing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, T -H; Chao, C -K

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective method to fabricate a high fill-factor triangular microlens array using the proximity printing in lithography process is reported. The technology utilizes the UV proximity printing by controlling a printing gap between the mask and substrate. The designed approximate triangle microlens array pattern can be fabricated the high fill-factor triangular microlens array in photoresist. It is due to the UV light diffraction to deflect away from the aperture edges and produce a certain exposure in photoresist material outside the aperture edges. This method can precisely control the geometric profile of high fill factor triangular microlens array. The experimental results showed that the triangular micro-lens array in photoresist could be formed automatically when the printing gap ranged from 240 micrometers to 840 micrometers. The gapless triangular microlens array will be used to increases of luminance for backlight module of liquid crystal displays.

  7. The Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of spanning trees and Steiner trees arises naturally in applications, such as in the design of integrated circuit boards, communication networks, power networks and pipelines of minimum cost. In such applications the Steiner ratio is an indication of how badly a minimum spanning tree performs compared to a Steiner minimal tree. In this paper a short proof is presented for the Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice in the Euclidean plane. A Steiner tree in two dimensions is "lifted" to become a rectilinear tree in three dimensions, where it is altered. The rectilinear tree is then projected back into the plane and the result readily follows. A short note at the end of the paper compares our three-dimensional rectilinear trees to "impossible objects" such as Escher's "Waterfall."

  8. A flat triangular shell element with Loof nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    In the formulation of flat shell elements it is difficult to achieve inter-element compatibility between membrane and transverse displacements for non-coplanar elements. Many elements lack proper nodal degrees of freedom to model intersections making the assembly of elements troublesome. A flat...... triangular shell element is established by a combination of a new plate bending element DKTL and the well-known linear membrane strain element LST, and for this element the above-mentioned deficiences are avoided. The plate bending element DKTL is based on Discrete Kirchhoff Theory and Loof nodes. The nodal...... configuration of the element is similar to the SemiLoof element, and the formulation is an improvement of a previous formulation. The element is used for both linear statics, linear buckling and geometrical non-linear analysis, and numerical examples are presented to show the robustness, accuracy and quick...

  9. Acoustic control study of turbofan nozzles with triangular chevrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a small part dealing with the notion of chevron and the process that helps reducing the noise pollution. Based on the gas dynamics and the geometrical parameters of the turbofan jet engine a model of CFD data processing is created. In this process the influence of chevrons on acoustic wave intensity produced by the jet is observed by analyzing this process. A series of tests have been made on 10 si 20 lobed chevrons. The combination between them and the 7 resulting cases have been studied, namely the triangular chevrons in order to settle the influence of the geometrical parameters on the flow and on the jet acoustics. Finally the contribution of the chevrons in noise pollution reduction has been highlighted.

  10. Success Factors of Biotechnology Industry Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; LEI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of competitive advantage and value chain, this paper establishes the indicator system, and develop the strategic framework using the fuzzy Delphi method. Then the triangular fuzzy number model is established using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, and the key factors influencing biotechnology industry are extracted. The results show that in terms of weight, the key factors influencing the success of biotechnology industry are sequenced as follows: "open innovation capacity", "quality and cost control ability", "advanced customer-oriented product manufacturing capacity", "technology R & D personnel’s capacity", "brand image building capacity", "logistics and sales capacity", "grasping the market demand trends". The manufacturers and government decision-making body can use this as the basis, to promote the development of the biotechnology industry.

  11. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: mike.zhitomirsky@cea.fr [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  12. Real Time Clustering of Time Series Using Triangular Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacchiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the problem of computing investment portfolio weightin gs we investigate various methods of clustering as alternatives to traditional mean-v ariance approaches. Such methods can have significant benefits from a practical point of view since they remove the need to invert a sample covariance matrix, which can suffer from estimation error and will almost certainly be non-stationary. The general idea is to find groups of assets w hich share similar return characteristics over time and treat each group as a singl e composite asset. We then apply inverse volatility weightings to these new composite assets. In the course of our investigation we devise a method of clustering based on triangular potentials and we present as sociated theoretical results as well as various examples based on synthetic data.

  13. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  14. Bilinear-biquadratic anisotropic Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, A.S.T., E-mail: antpires@fisica.ufmg.br

    2013-08-15

    Motivated by the fact that the study of disordered phases at zero temperature is of great interest, I study the spin-one quantum antiferromagnet with a next-nearest neighbor interaction on a triangular lattice with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and a single ion anisotropy, using a SU(3) Schwinger boson mean-field theory. I calculate the critical properties, at zero temperature, for values of the single ion anisotropy parameter D above a critical value D{sub C}, where a quantum phase transition takes place from a higher D disordered phase to a lower D ordered phase. - Highlights: • The quantum phase transition of the bilinear-biquadratic anisotropic antiferromagnet is studied. • The effect of competing interaction is analyzed. • The zero temperature phase diagram is obtained.

  15. Electromagnetic Scattering at the Waveguide Step between Equilateral Triangular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Morán-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the electromagnetic scattering at discontinuities between equilateral triangular waveguides is studied. The complete electromagnetic solution is derived using analytical closed form expressions for the mode spectrum of the equilateral waveguide. The mathematical formulation of the electromagnetic scattering problem is based on the quasi-analytical Mode-Matching method. This method benefits from the electromagnetic field division into symmetries as well as from the plane wave formulation presented for the expressions involved. The unification of the surface integrals used in the method thanks to the plane wave formulation is revealed, leading to expressions that are very well suited for its implementation in an electromagnetic analysis and design code. The obtained results for some cases of interest (building blocks for microwave components for communication systems are verified using other numerical methods included in a commercial software package, showing the potential of the presented approach based on quasi-analytic expressions.

  16. Dimer site-bond percolation on a triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, L. S.; De la Cruz Félix, N.; Centres, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    A generalization of the site-percolation problem, in which pairs of neighbor sites (site dimers) and bonds are independently and randomly occupied on a triangular lattice, has been studied by means of numerical simulations. Motivated by considerations of cluster connectivity, two distinct schemes (denoted as S{\\cap}B and S{\\cup}B ) have been considered. In S{\\cap}B (S{\\cup}B ), two points are said to be connected if a sequence of occupied sites and (or) bonds joins them. Numerical data, supplemented by analysis using finite-size scaling theory, were used to determine (i) the complete phase diagram of the system (phase boundary between the percolating and nonpercolating regions), and (ii) the values of the critical exponents (and universality) characterizing the phase transition occurring in the system.

  17. Higher-order hybrid stress triangular Mindlin plate element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan; Ma, Xu; Xili, Jing; Chen, Wanji

    2016-12-01

    A 6-node triangular hybrid stress element is presented for Mindlin plate in this paper. The proposed element, denoted by TH6-27β, can pass both the zero shear stress patch test and the non-zero constant shear stress enhanced patch test and, it can be employed to analyze very thin plate. To accomplish this purpose, special attention is devoted to selecting boundary displacement interpolation and stress approximation in domain. The arbitrary order Timoshenko beam function is used successfully to derive the displacement interpolation along each side of the element. According to the equilibrium equations, an appropriate stress approximation is rationally obtained. The assumed stress field is modified by using 27β instead of 15β to improve the accuracy. Numerical results show that the element is free of shear locking, and reliable for thick and thin plates. Moreover, it has no spurious zero energy modes and with geometric invariance (coordinate invariance, node sequencing independence).

  18. Model of Vertical Product Differentiation Based on Triangular Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-bing; WANG He-ping; SHEN Yun-hong

    2007-01-01

    Supposing that the consumer preference complies with triangular distribution instead of uniform distribution, we establish the model of vertical product differentiation. The simulation shows that there exists stable equilibrium along with unstable equilibrium. In stable equilibrium, high quality products gain an advantage over low quality products. In unstable equilibrium, the former does not possess an apparent advantage in competition, likely to be at a disadvantage. In order to evolve from unstable equilibrium to stable equilibrium, it is necessary for firms to solve such problems as high prices and consumers' perception of scarcity on product qualities. In general, both product qualities and firm profits increase with the consuming capacity and quality perception, and the latter more rapidly.

  19. The angel flap for nipple reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy W; Hiersche, Matthew A; Martin, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Creation of an aesthetically pleasing nipple plays a significant role in breast reconstruction as a determining factor in patient satisfaction. The goals for nipple reconstruction include minimal donor site morbidity and appropriate, long-lasting projection. Currently, the most popular techniques used are associated with a significant loss of projection postoperatively. Accordingly, the authors introduce the angel flap, which is designed to achieve nipple projection with lasting results. The lateral edges of the flap and the area surrounding the top of the nipple are de-epithelialized and the flaps are wrapped to create a nipple mound composed primarily of dermis. Decreasing the amount of fat within core of the nipple and enhancing dermal content promotes long-lasting projection. Furthermore, the incision pattern fits within a desired areolar size, preventing unnecessary superfluous extension of the incisions. Thus, the technique described herein achieves the goals of nipple reconstruction, including adequate and long-lasting projection, without extension of the lateral limb scars.

  20. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  1. A transient, quadratic nodal method for triangular-Z geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLorey, T.F.

    1993-06-01

    Many systematically-derived nodal methods have been developed for Cartesian geometry due to the extensive interest in Light Water Reactors. These methods typically model the transverse-integrated flux as either an analytic or low order polynomial function of position within the node. Recently, quadratic nodal methods have been developed for R-Z and hexagonal geometry. A static and transient quadratic nodal method is developed for triangular-Z geometry. This development is particularly challenging because the quadratic expansion in each node must be performed between the node faces and the triangular points. As a consequence, in the 2-D plane, the flux and current at the points of the triangles must be treated. Quadratic nodal equations are solved using a non-linear iteration scheme, which utilizes the corrected, mesh-centered finite difference equations, and forces these equations to match the quadratic equations by computing discontinuity factors during the solution. Transient nodal equations are solved using the improved quasi-static method, which has been shown to be a very efficient solution method for transient problems. Several static problems are used to compare the quadratic nodal method to the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) method. The quadratic method is shown to give more accurate node-averaged fluxes. However, it appears that the method has difficulty predicting node leakages near reactor boundaries and severe material interfaces. The consequence is that the eigenvalue may be poorly predicted for certain reactor configurations. The transient methods are tested using a simple analytic test problem, a heterogeneous heavy water reactor benchmark problem, and three thermal hydraulic test problems. Results indicate that the transient methods have been implemented correctly.

  2. [Reconstruction of full-thickness nasal alar defect with combined nasolabial flap and free auricular composite flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weihai; Rong, Li; Wang, Wangshu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Duo

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the technique and its effect of combined nasolabial flap and free auricular composite flap for full-thickness nasal alar defect. From March 2010 to March 2013, 9 patients with full-thickness nasal alar defects were treated with combined nasolabial flaps and free auricular composite flaps. Composite auricular flap was used as inner lining and cartilage framework. The nasolabial flap at the same side was used as outer lining. All the patients were followed up for 6-18 months (average, 12 months). All the 9 composite auricular flaps survived completely. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 1 nasolabial flap. Alar rim was almost normal and symmetric nose was achieved in 6 cases. The arc and the thickness of the alar rim was not enough in 3 cases, resulting in asymmetric appearance. The survival area of auricular composite flap can be enlarged with nasolabial flap. The auricular helix edge can be reserved to reconstruct nasal alar rim with smooth and natural arc. Large full-thickness nasal alar defedts can be reconstructed with combined nasolabial flaps and free auricular composite flaps.

  3. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekner, D.D.; Roeling, TAP; van Cann, EM

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were injecte

  4. The transversely split gracilis twin free flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyaya Divya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gracilis muscle is a Class II muscle that is often used in free tissue transfer. The muscle has multiple secondary pedicles, of which the first one is the most consistent in terms of position and calibre. Each pedicle can support a segment of the muscle thus yielding multiple small flaps from a single, long muscle. Although it has often been split longitudinally along the fascicles of its nerve for functional transfer, it has rarely been split transversely to yield multiple muscle flaps that can be used to cover multiple wounds in one patient without subjecting him/her to the morbidity of multiple donor areas .

  5. Pre-expanded Intercostal Perforator Super-Thin Skin Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunjun; Luo, Yong; Lu, Feng; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Gao, Jianhua; Jiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces pre-expanded super-thin intercostal perforator flaps, particularly the flap that has a perforator from the first to second intercostal spaces. The key techniques, advantages and disadvantages, and complications and management of this flap are described. At present, the thinnest possible flap is achieved by thinning the pre-expanded flap that has a perforator from the first to second intercostal spaces. It is used to reconstruct large defects on the face and neck, thus restoring function and cosmetic appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fascia-only anterolateral thigh flap for extremity reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Paige; Endress, Ryan; Sen, Subhro; Chang, James

    2014-05-01

    The ability to use the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap as a vascularized fascial flap, without skin or muscle, was first documented by Koshima et al in 1989. The authors mention the possibility of using the fascia alone for dural reconstruction. Despite its description more than 20 years ago, little literature exists on the application of the ALT flap as a vascularized fascial flap. In our experience, the ALT flap can be used as a fascia-only flap for thin, pliable coverage in extremity reconstruction. After approval from the institutional review board, the medical records and photographs of patients who had undergone fascia-only ALT free flaps for extremity reconstruction were reviewed. Photographic images of patients were then matched to patients who had undergone either a muscle-only or a fasciocutaneous free flap reconstruction of an extremity. Photographs of the final reconstruction were then given to medical and nonmedical personnel for analysis, focusing on aesthetics including color and contour. Review of cases performed over a 2-year period demonstrated similar ease of harvest for fascia-only ALT flaps compared to standard fasciocutaneous ALT flaps. Fascia-only flaps were used for thin, pliable coverage in the upper and lower extremities. There was no need for secondary procedures for debulking or aesthetic flap revision. In contrast to muscle flaps, which require muscle atrophy over time to achieve their final appearance, there was a similar flap contour from approximately 1 month postoperatively throughout the duration of follow-up. When a large flap is required, the fascia-only ALT has the advantage of a single-line donor-site scar. Photograph comparison to muscle flaps with skin grafts and fasciocutaneous flaps demonstrated improved color, contour, and overall aesthetic appearance of the fascia-only ALT over muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The fascia-only ALT flap provides reliable, thin, and pliable coverage with improved contour and color over

  7. The study of expanded tri-lobed flap in a rabbit model: possible flap model in ear reconstruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüreklý Yakup

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local flaps are widely used in reconstructive surgery. Tri-lobed skin flap is a relatively new flap and there has been no experimental model of this flap. This flap can be used for repair of full thickness defects in the face, ears and alar region. Based on the size of ears in a rabbit, we designed a model of ear reconstruction using expanded tri-lobed flap. Local flaps are more advantageous in that they provide excellent color and texture matching up with those of the face, adequately restore ear contour, place scars in a favorable location and ideally accomplish these goals in a single stage with minimal donor site morbidity. Methods Eight adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. 50 ml round tissue expander were implanted to four rabbits. After completion of the expansion, a superiorly based tri-lobed flap was elevated and a new ear was created from the superior dorsal skin of each rabbit. Scintigraphy with Technetium-99m pertecnetate was performed to evaluate flap viability. Results Subtotal flap necrosis was seen in all animals in non-expanded group. New ear in dimensions of the original ear was created in expanded group without complication. Perfusion and viability of the flaps were proved by Technetium-99m pertecnetate scintigraphy. Conclusion According to our knowledge this study is the first to demonstrate animal model in tri-lobed flap. Also, our technique is the first application of the trilobed flap to the possible ear reconstruction. We speculated that this flap may be used mastoid based without hair, in human. Also, tri-lobed flap may be an alternative in reconstruction of cylindrical organs such as penis or finger.

  8. A Generalization of the Formula for the Triangular Number of the Sum and Product of Natural Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiru, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This note generalizes the formula for the triangular number of the sum and product of two natural numbers to similar results for the triangular number of the sum and product of "r" natural numbers. The formula is applied to derive formula for the sum of an odd and an even number of consecutive triangular numbers.

  9. Perforator-based fasciocutaneous flap for pressure sore reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsun; Ma, Hsu

    2012-12-01

    Pressure sore reconstruction is always a challenge for plastic surgeons due to its high recurrence rate. In addition to the myocutaneous flap, the perforator-based fasciocutaneous flap has become a new entity used for pressure sore reconstruction. This study presents a series of 26 perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps for pressure sore reconstruction, with good outcomes in 21 patients from July 2008 to April 2011. The flaps were advanced, transposed, or rotated to obliterate the defects. Twenty of 26 flaps healed uneventfully without complication. One patient had a flap that totally necrosed, one had partial flap necrosis (flap rotated 180° in the above two cases), one had infection and healed by a secondary flap, one had minor wound dehiscence, one died of pneumonia 1 week postoperatively, and recurrence developed in one patient. The perforator-based fasciocutaneous flap is a reliable method and produced good results in this series. These flaps are well vascularised, have enough soft tissue bulk, and have a high degree of mobilisation freedom.

  10. Effect of Systemic Antioxidant Allopurinol Therapy on Skin Flap Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti Ardakani, Mehdi; Al-Dam, Ahmed; Rashad, Ashkan; Shayesteh Moghadam, Ali

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been reported that systemic administration of allopurinol improves cell survival. This study was aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol on skin flaps in dogs. METHODS Twenty dogs underwent one skin flap surgery with a 2-week interval. The first procedure was performed according to the standard protocols. The second phase was started by a 1-week pretreatment with allopurinol. Length of the necrotic zone was measured and recorded daily. At each phase, flaps were removed and sent for histopathological study after 1 week observation. RESULTS Mean length of the necrotic zone in allopurinol treated skin flaps has been significantly less than normal flaps over all 7 days of observation (p<0.0001). Histopathology study showed less inflammation and more normal tissue structure in the allopurinol treated skin flaps. CONCLUSION It was demonstrated that systemic administration of allopurinol significantly improved skin flap survival. PMID:28289614

  11. Breast reconstruction by pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Jefta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the amputated breast in female patients after surgical management of breast carcinoma is possible with the use of autologous tissue, synthetic implants, or by combining autologous tissue and synthetic materials. Autologous tissue provides soft and sufficiently elastic tissue which is usable for breast reconstruction and eventually obtains original characteristics of the surrounding tissue on the chest wall. The use of the TRAM flap for breast reconstruction was introduced in 1982 by Hartrampf Scheflan, and Black. The amount of the TRAM flap tissue allows breast reconstruction in the shape most adequate to the remaining breast. The possibilities of using the TRAM flap as pedicled myocutaneous flap or as free TRAM flap make this flap a superior choice for breast reconstruction in comparison with other flaps.

  12. Functional results of microvascular reconstruction after hemiglossectomy: free anterolateral thigh flap versus free forearm flap

    OpenAIRE

    TARSITANO, A.; VIETTI, M.V.; Cipriani, R; MARCHETTI, C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study is to assess functional outcomes after hemiglossectomy and microvascular reconstruction. Twenty-six patients underwent primary tongue microvascular reconstruction after hemiglossectomy. Twelve patients were reconstructed using a free radial forearm flap and 14 with an anterolateral thigh flap. Speech intelligibility, swallowing capacity and quality of life scores were assessed. Factors such as tumour extension, surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy ...

  13. Immediate locally advanced breast cancer and chest wall reconstruction: surgical planning and reconstruction strategies with extended V-Y latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo; Okada, Alberto; Brasil, José Augusto; Gemperli, Rolf; Filassi, José Roberto; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2011-06-01

    Surgical resection in locally advanced breast cancer produces large defects that may not be suitable for primary closure. Immediate reconstruction is controversial and presents a complicated scenario for breast surgeons and plastic surgeons. In this study, a different design was planned for the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap with primary closure in V-Y for the correction of major lesions in the anterior chest wall. Twenty-five patients underwent immediate locally advanced breast cancer reconstruction with a V-Y latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. This flap was raised from adjacent tissue located on the lateral and posterior thoracic region and presented a triangular shape whose base was the lateral aspect of the mastectomy wound. The technique was indicated in patients with large thoracic wounds. Mean follow-up time was 16 months. Closure was obtained in the donor and recipient sites without the use of skin grafts or other more major procedures. Complications occurred in nine patients (36 percent), including dorsal wound dehiscence in five patients and seroma in three. All cases except one were treated by a conservative approach with a good result. No total flap loss was reported. All patients achieved a satisfactory thoracic reconstruction and adequate wound care. The V-Y latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is a reliable technique for immediate locally advanced breast cancer reconstruction. The technique is advantageous because the V-Y design allows primary closure of the chest wound and donor defect. Success depends on patient selection, coordinated planning with the breast cancer surgeon, and careful intraoperative management.

  14. Dorsalis Pedis Free Flap: The Salvage Option following Failure of the Radial Forearm Flap in Total Lower Lip Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoros Stathas; Georgios Tsinias; Dimitra Tsiliboti; Aris Tsiros; Nicholas Mastronikolis; Panos Goumas

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction after resection of large tumors of the lower lip requires the use of free flaps in order to restore the shape and the function of the lip, with the free radial forearm flap being the most popular. In this study we describe our experience in using the dorsalis pedis free flap as a salvage option in reconstruction of total lower lip defect in a patient with an extended lower lip carcinoma after failure of the radial forearm free flap, that was initially used. The flap was integra...

  15. To flap or not to flap: a discussion between a fish and a jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Roh, Chris; Idrees, Suhail; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    Fish and jellyfish are known to swim by flapping and by periodically contracting respectively, but which is the more effective propulsion mechanism? In an attempt to answer this question, an experimental comparison is made between simplified versions of these motions to determine which generates the greatest thrust for the least power. The flapping motion is approximated by pitching plates while periodic contractions are approximated by clapping plates. A machine is constructed to operate in either a flapping or a clapping mode between Reynolds numbers 1,880 and 11,260 based on the average plate tip velocity and span. The effect of the total sweep angle, total sweep time, plate flexibility, and duty cycle are investigated. The average thrust generated and power required per cycle are compared between the two modes when their total sweep angle and total sweep time are identical. In general, operating in the clapping mode required significantly more power to generate a similar thrust compared to the flapping mode. However, modifying the duty cycle for clapping caused the effectiveness to approach that of flapping with an unmodified duty cycle. These results suggest that flapping is the more effective propulsion mechanism within the range of Reynolds numbers tested. This work was supported by the Charyk Bio-inspired Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469, and the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships program.

  16. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  17. Microsurgery flap in endodontic surgery: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetti, F; Ricci, S; DI Giorgio, G; Pisacane, C; Ottria, L

    2009-01-01

    In periodontal plastic surgery it is increasingly more evident the relavance of the protection of the gingival marginal anatomy through the realization of a conservative flap. Minimizing the recession of the treated tissue. A correct healing always needs to take into account the diameter and type of the suture and the time of removal from the wound.

  18. Pearls for perfecting the mastoid interpolation flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiniano, Hilda; Eisen, Daniel B

    2009-06-15

    Helical rim ear defects can present a reconstructive challenge to the Mohs surgeon. Multiple options exist including wedge excision, helical rim advancement flaps, bilobed flap, and grafts, to name a few. Wedge excision of the ear may result in a noticeable anteverted, smaller ear, and disrupts auricular cartilage with the possibility of chondritis and excess pain. Helical rim advancements can result in anteversion of the ear and a smaller lobule. Mastoid interpolation flaps, which are also called retroauricular to auricular flaps, can be a useful alternative in patients who are willing to return for a second procedure. They are easy to perform and can result in a highly aesthetic reconstruction in which the ear size and form are maintained. The donor skin comes from an area that is hidden from view and heals with minimal complications. We present our suggestions for performing these reconstructions. Ways to optimize results, potential pitfalls, and postoperative care instructions are discussed. Step by step videos are included with this manuscript.

  19. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  20. Osteosíntesis percutánea con placas volares bloqueadas en fracturas metafisarias distales de radio Descripción de la técnica y resultados preliminares. [Percutaneous volar locked plate fixation in metaphyseal fractures of distal radius: technical description and preliminary results].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia del Milagro Gutierrez Olivera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar resultados objetivos y subjetivos obtenidos luego de realizar osteosíntesis con placas en T bloqueadas volares, colocadas con técnica mínimamente invasiva, en fracturas del radio distal con extensión metafisaria. Material y Métodos Evaluación retrospectiva de seis pacientes adultos que presentaron fracturas inestables de radio distal, extra-articulares o articulares parciales, con extensión  metafisaria, tratadas quirúrgicamente con placas en T largas de compresión bloqueadas volares, mediante  técnica mínimamente invasiva, entre 2007 y  2012. Edad promedio 40,6 años. Todas las fracturas fueron cerradas, clasificadas como tipo 23A3 (n: 5 y 23B1 (n: 1 según el Sistema AO/ASIF. Se realizó reducción indirecta de la fractura, bajo visión radioscópica, a través de dos pequeñas incisiones se deslizó en forma percutánea una placa bloqueada volar en T. Se analizaron  parámetros radiológicos (angulación volar, inclinación radial y altura radial, el rango de movimiento y la fuerza. Los resultados subjetivos fueron evaluados usando la Escala de DASH y la Escala Visual Análoga. Resultados Tiempo de consolidaron promedio de 2,3 meses. Los resultados radiográficos no mostraron diferencias significativas entre el primer y el último control radiográfico al año de seguimiento. Flexión y extensión promedio 70° y 60°, pronación y supinación 79° y 80° respectivamente. Fuerza de prensión promedio 78,4%. El score de DASH 19,84 puntos y el EVA 1,5 puntos. Conclusión Las técnicas mínimamente invasivas reducen el daño quirúrgico y complicaciones. Son una opción en pacientes con daño severo de partes blandas, conminución metafisaria y trauma de alta energía. Pequeñas incisiones alejadas del sitio de fractura respetan los tejidos blandos y la biología ósea, contribuyendo a lograr la consolidación. La colocación de placas volares bloqueadas percutáneas es un procedimiento técnicamente demandante

  1. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  2. Form factors of the half-infinite XXZ spin chain with a triangular boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Baseilhac, P

    2014-01-01

    The half-infinite XXZ spin chain with a triangular boundary is considered in the massive regime. Two integral representations of form factors of local operators are proposed using bosonization. Sufficient conditions such that the expressions for triangular boundary conditions coincide with those for diagonal boundary conditions are identified. The expressions are compared with known results upon specializations.Using the spin-reversal property which relates the Hamiltonian with upper and lower triangular boundary conditions, new identities between multiple integrals of infinite products are extracted.

  3. Morphological and anthropological aspects of human triangular deciduous lower first molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Y; Manabe, Y; Oyamada, J; Rokutanda, A

    1996-04-01

    The crown and root morphology, and bilateral occurrence of human deciduous lower first molars that exhibited a triangular occlusal outline, taken from excavated samples of Japanese, Jomonese and Iraqi origin, were investigated. The crowns of triangular teeth had smaller mesiodistal and larger buccolingual diameters than normally shaped deciduous lower first molars. An elongated buccolingual diameter was derived from the buccal projection of the distobuccal cusp and lingual projection of the portion between the metaconid and distolingual cusp. In this analysis, all triangular deciduous lower first molars in which root morphology could be observed were accompanied by additional distolingual roots. Correlation between the right- and left-hand sides of this trait was high.

  4. [Vestibularly displaced flap with bone augmentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalian, V L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve esthetic gingival contours with the help of less traumatic mucogingival surgeries. 9 Patients were operated with horizontal deficiencies in 9 edentulous sites, planned to be restored with fixed partial dentures. In all cases there was lack of keratinized tissues. Temporary bridges were fabricated to all patients. Before surgery the bridges were removed and the abutment teeth were additionally cleaned with ultrasonic device. A horizontal incision was made from lingual (palatal) side between the abutment teeth, which was connected with two vertical releasing incisions to the mucogingival junction from the vestibular side. The horizontal incision was made on a distance 6-10 mm from the crest of the alveolar ridge. A partial thickness flap in the beginning 3-5 mm, then a full thickness flap up to the mucogingival junction, then a partial thickness flap was made. The flap was mobilized and displaced vestibularly. In the apical part the cortical bone was perforated, graft material was put and the flap was sutured. In all 9 cases the horizontal defect was partially or fully eliminated. The width of the keratinized tissues was also augmented in all cases. The postoperative healing was without complications, discomfort and painless. The donor sites also healed without complications. The application of Solcoseryl Dental Adhesive Paste 3 times a day for 7-10 days helped for painless healing of the donor site. The offered method of soft tissue and bone augmentation is effective in the treatment of horizontal defects of edentulous alveolar ridges of not big sizes. It makes possible to achieve esthetic results without traumatizing an additional donor-site.

  5. Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp treated with serial free flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    dorsi flaps and one anterolateral thigh flap. No total flap loss was seen, but partial flap necrosis called for secondarily reconstruction. The final result was cosmetically acceptable and the patient is of good health. In conclusion, serial free microvascular flaps may be used with good results when...

  6. Reconstruction of the anterior floor of the mouth with the inferiorly based nasolabial flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, MP; Damen, A; Nauta, JM; Lichtendahl, DHE; Dhar, BK

    2000-01-01

    The results of reconstruction of the anterior floor of the mouth, using 105 nasolabial flaps in 79 patients were reviewed in a retrospective study. Of those flaps, 82% healed uneventfully; flap survival was 95%. Considerable flap loss occurred in 5%. Primary dehiscence was observed in 5% of all flap

  7. Pedicle versus free flap reconstruction in patients receiving intraoperative brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Erik J; Basques, Bryce A; Chang, Christopher C; Son, Yung; Sasaki, Clarence T; McGregor, Andrew; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak

    2016-08-01

    Introduction This study compared complication rates between pedicle flaps and free flaps used for resurfacing of intraoperative brachytherapy (IOBT) implants placed following head and neck tumour extirpation to help clarify the ideal reconstructive procedure for this scenario. Patients and methods A retrospective review of reconstructions with IOBT at our institution was conducted. Patient and treatment details were recorded, as were the number and type of flap complications, including re-operations. Logistic regressions compared complications between flap groups. Results Fifty free flaps and 55 pedicle flaps were included. On multivariate analysis, free flap reconstruction with IOBT was significantly associated with both an increased risk of having any flap complication (OR = 2.9, p = 0.037) and with need for operative revision (OR = 3.5, p = 0.048) compared to pedicle flap reconstruction. Conclusions In the setting of IOBT, free flaps are associated with an increased risk of having complications and requiring operative revisions.

  8. Effect of flapping trajectories on the dragonfly aerodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of translational, figure-eight and double-figure-eight flapping trajectories on the dragonfly aerodynamics were numerically studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. There is a common characteristic regarding the lift/drag force coefficients that the downstroke flapping provides the lift forces while the upstroke flapping creates the thrust forces for different flapping trajectories. The maximum lift force coefficient exceeds five for the translational trajectory. It is greater than six for the figure-eight and double-figure-eight flapping trajectories, which is sufficiently larger than unity under the steady state flight condition. The ellipse and double-figure-eight flapping trajectories yield the decrease of the lift force, while the figure-eight flapping trajectory yields higher lift force as well as the thrust force than the translational flapping one. During the insect flight, the wing flapping status should be changed instantaneously to satisfy various requirements. Study of the flapping trajectories on the insect aerodynamics is helpful for the design of the Micro-air-vehicles (MAVs).

  9. Three-sublattice skyrmion crystal in the antiferromagnetic triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, H. D.; Cabra, D. C.; Pujol, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The frustrated classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions on the triangular lattice is studied under a magnetic field by means of semiclassical calculations and large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. We show that even a small DM interaction induces the formation of an antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystal (AF-SkX) state. Unlike what is observed in ferromagnetic materials, we show that the AF-SkX state consists of three interpenetrating skyrmion crystals (one by sublattice), and most importantly, the AF-SkX state seems to survive in the limit of zero temperature. To characterize the phase diagram we compute the average of the topological order parameter which can be associated with the number of topological charges or skyrmions. As the magnetic field increases this parameter presents a clear jump, indicating a discontinuous transition from a spiral phase into the AF-SkX phase, where multiple Bragg peaks coexist in the spin structure factor. For higher fields, a second (probably continuous) transition occurs into a featureless paramagnetic phase.

  10. Behaviour of Lagrangian triangular mixed fluid finite elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Gopalakrishnan; G Devi

    2000-02-01

    The behaviour of mixed fluid finite elements, formulated based on the Lagrangian frame of reference, is investigated to understand the effects of locking due to incompressibility and irrotational constraints. For this purpose, both linear and quadratic mixed triangular fluid elements are formulated. It is found that there exists a close relationship between the penalty finite element approach that uses reduced/selective numerical integration to alleviate locking, and the mixed finite element approach. That is, performing reduced/selective integration in the penalty approach amounts to reducing the order of pressure interpolation in the mixed finite element approach for obtaining similar results. A number of numerical experiments are performed to determine the optimum degree of interpolation of both the mean pressure and the rotational pressure in order that the twin constraints are satisfied exactly. For this purpose, the benchmark solution of the rigid rectangular tank is used. It is found that, irrespective of the degree of mean and the rotational pressure interpolation, the linear triangle mesh, with or without central bubble function (incompatible mode), locks when both the constraints are enforced simultaneously. However, for quadratic triangle, linear interpolation of the mean pressure and constant rotational pressure ensures exact satisfaction of the constraints and the mesh does not lock. Based on the results obtained from the numerical experiments, a number of important conclusions are arrived at.

  11. Evidence for Triangular D_3h Symmetry in 12C

    CERN Document Server

    Marin-Lambarri, D J; Freer, M; Gai, M; Kokalova, Tz; Parker, D J; Wheldon, C

    2014-01-01

    We report a measurement of a new high spin Jp = 5- state at 22.4(0.2) MeV in 12C which fits very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a D_3h symmetry characterized by the sequence 0+, 2+, 3-, 4+/-, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D_3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules and it is observed here for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular the observation (or non-observation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha-particle composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C.

  12. Comparison of some isoparametric mappings for curved triangular spectral elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquetti, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Using the spectral element method (SEM), or more generally hp-finite elements (hp-FEM), it is possible to solve with high accuracy various kinds of problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs), see e.g. [1,2]. However, as soon as the physical domain is not polygonal, the accuracy quickly deteriorates if curved elements are not implemented. This is the reason why various methods have been developed during the last decades, starting from the celebrated transfinite interpolation proposed for quadrangular elements in [3]. In this note we revisit this problem for triangular elements, based on the use of Fekete points for interpolations and of Gauss points for quadratures, i.e. when using the so-called Fekete-Gauss approximation. As detailed in [4], such an approach shows the so-called spectral accuracy. However, differently to the quadrangles based SEM, it does not involve diagonal mass matrices, see e.g. [5-7] and references herein for works trying to preserve this nice property that is especially useful when addressing evolution problems with an explicit time marching. In the frame of the Fekete-Gauss TSEM (T, for triangle), the present study clearly points out the importance of a good choice of the bending procedure by comparing different isoparametric mappings for the Poisson and Grad-Shafranov PDEs.

  13. Generation of Triangular Meshes for Complex Domains on the Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Glut

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physical phenomena can be modeled by partial differential equations. The development of numerical methods based on the spatial subdivision of a domain into finite elements immediately extended interests to the tasks of generating a mesh. With the availability of versatile field solvers and powerful computers, the simulations of ever incrcasing geometrical and physical complexity are attempted. At some point the main bottleneck becomes the mesh generation itself. The paper presents a detailed description of the triangular mesh generation scheme on the plane based upon the Delaunay triangulation. A mesh generator should be fully automatic and simplify input data as much as possible. It should offer rapid gradation from small to large sizes of elements. The generated mesh must be always valid and of good quality. All these requirements were taken into account during the selection and elaboration of utilized algorithms. Successive chapters describe procedures connected with the specification of a modeled domain, generation and triangulation of boundary vertices, introducing inner nodes, improving the quality of the created mesh, and renumbering of vertices.

  14. MULTIPLICATIVE GROUP AUTOMORPHISMS OF INVERTIBLE UPPER TRIANGULAR MATRICES OVER FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Suppose F is a field of characteristic not 2 and F* its multiplicative group.Let T* n (F) be the multiplicative group of invertible upper triangular n × n matrices over F and ST±n(F) its subgroup {(aij) ∈ T * n(F)|aii = +1,i}.This paper proves that f:T * n(F) → T * n(F) is a group automorphism if and only if there exist a matrix Q in T * n(F) and a field automorphism σ of F such that either σ -1 f(A) = ψ(A)QAσQ-1,A = (aij) ∈ T * n(F) or f(A) = ψ(A-1)Q[J(Aσ)-TJ]Q-1,A =(aij) ∈ T * n(F),where Aσ = (σ(aij)),A-T is the transpose inverse of A,J = n∑i=1 Ei n+1-i,and ψ :i=1 T * n(F) → F* is a homomorphism which satisfies {ψ(xIn)σ(x)|x ∈ F*} = F* and {x ∈F*|ψ(xIn)σ(x) = 1} = {1}.Simultaneously,they also determine the automorphisms of ST±n(F).

  15. Spin-dynamics simulations of the triangular antiferromagnetic XY model*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.

    2003-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have studied the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. We calculated the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_KT (Kosteritz-Thouless transition), both the in-plane (S^xx) and out-of-plane (S^zz) components exhibit very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks. Well above T_KT, S^xx and S^zz apparently display a central peak, and spin-wave signatures are still seen in S^zz. In addition, we also observed an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w below Tc (Ising transition), where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1]. We found that our results demonstrate the consistency of the dynamic finite-size scaling theory for the characteristic frequency wm and S(q,w). *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)

  16. Spin-dynamics simulations of the antiferromagnetic triangular XY model*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.

    2002-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have simulated the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. From space-and time-displaced spin-spin correlation functions and their space-time Fourier transforms we obtained the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_c, where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1], S(q,w) exhibits very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks in the in-plane-component S^xx. We also observe two-spin-wave peaks at low w and an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w. Above T_c, a weak spin-wave peak persists but the domain-wall peak disappears for all q. We have calculated the dispersion relation and the linewidth of the spin-wave peak in S^xx by fitting the line shape to simple Lorentzians. *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation in a frustrated triangular optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Peter; Huang, Wen-Min; Mathey, L.

    2016-12-01

    The recent experimental condensation of ultracold atoms in a triangular optical lattice with a negative effective tunneling parameter paves the way for the study of frustrated systems in a controlled environment. Here, we explore the critical behavior of the chiral phase transition in such a frustrated lattice in three dimensions. We represent the low-energy action of the lattice system as a two-component Bose gas corresponding to the two minima of the dispersion. The contact repulsion between the bosons separates into intra- and intercomponent interactions, referred to as V0 and V12, respectively. We first employ a Huang-Yang-Luttinger approximation of the free energy. For V12/V0=2 , which corresponds to the bare interaction, this approach suggests a first-order phase transition, at which both the U (1 ) symmetry of condensation and the Z2 symmetry of the emergent chiral order are broken simultaneously. Furthermore, we perform a renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order. We demonstrate that the coupling regime 0 1 we show that V0 flows to a negative value, while V12 increases and remains positive. This results in a breakdown of the effective quartic-field theory due to a cubic anisotropy and, again, suggests a discontinuous phase transition.

  18. Improved Radiation and Bandwidth of Triangular and Star Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramkumar Prabhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a hexagonal shape Defected Ground Structure (DGS implemented on two element triangular patch microstrip antenna array. The radiation performance of the antenna is characterized by varying the geometry and dimension of the DGS and also by locating the DGS at specific position which were simulated. Simulation and measurement results have verified that the antenna with DGS had improved the antenna without DGS. Measurement results of the hexagonal DGS have axial ratio bandwidth enhancement of 10 MHz, return loss improvement of 35%, mutual coupling reduction of 3 dB and gain enhancement of 1 dB. A new wideband and small size star shaped patch antenna fed capacitively by a small diamond shape patch is proposed. To enhance the impedance bandwidth, posts are incorporated under the patch antenna. HFSS high frequency simulator is employed to analyze the proposed antenna and simulated results on the return loss, the E- and H-plane radiation patterns and Gain of the proposed antenna are presented at various frequencies. The antenna is able to achieve in the range of 4-8.8 GHz an impedance bandwidth of 81% for return loss of less than-10 dB.

  19. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  20. Phase diagram of the triangular-lattice Potts antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Salas, Jesús; Scullard, Christian R.

    2017-08-01

    We study the phase diagram of the triangular-lattice Q-state Potts model in the real (Q, v) -plane, where v=e^J-1 is the temperature variable. Our first goal is to provide an obviously missing feature of this diagram: the position of the antiferromagnetic critical curve. This curve turns out to possess a bifurcation point with two branches emerging from it, entailing important consequences for the global phase diagram. We have obtained accurate numerical estimates for the position of this curve by combining the transfer-matrix approach for strip graphs with toroidal boundary conditions and the recent method of critical polynomials. The second goal of this work is to study the corresponding Ap-1 RSOS model on the torus, for integer p=4, 5, \\ldots, 8 . We clarify its relation to the corresponding Potts model, in particular concerning the role of boundary conditions. For certain values of p, we identify several new critical points and regimes for the RSOS model and we initiate the study of the flows between the corresponding field theories.

  1. Versatilidad del colgajo en hacha para reconstrucción de lesiones en punta de dedo Versatility of the hatchet flap for reconstruction of fingertip injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El colgajo en hacha descrito por Emmet, ha sido recientemente aplicado por Tuncali et al. en amputaciones de punta de dedo. Este sencillo colgajo triangular puede ser utilizado tanto en amputaciones transversas como oblicuas. El objetivo del estudio es presentar nuestra experiencia con este versátil colgajo en la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Incluimos en el estudio 5 pacientes que completaron un periodo de seguimiento de un año. El nivel de amputación fue considerado de acuerdo con la clasificación de Ishikawa. Los pacientes fueron preguntados por la existencia de intolerancia al frío, hipersensibilidad y dolor. Empleamos diferentes diseños del colgajo en hacha que se aplicaron en pacientes pediátricos y adultos con amputaciones múltiples, lesiones del primer dedo del pie o de la mano, de dedos largos y en reconstrucciones con doble colgajo. La media de tamaño del defecto fue 2,2 x 1,4 cm. En todos los pacientes el colgajo aportó almohadillado protector y resultados estéticos. Se observó rigidez articular en un paciente debido a la combinación con un colgajo de dedo cruzado. El objetivo de toda reconstrucción de punta de dedo es proveer cobertura pulpar suficiente al hueso para evitar inestabilidad y pérdida de sensibilidad como consecuencia de la reconstrucción. El colgajo en hacha es una opción versátil y segura para la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Los diferentes diseños pueden ser usados conforme a nuestras necesidades.The hatchet flap described by Emmet, has been recently applied by Tuncali et al. in fingertip amputations. This single triangular flap can be used in different types of injuries, as transverse and lateral oblique amputations. The aim of our study was to present the authors´ experience with this versatile flap in fingertip reconstruction. Five patients who have completed their 1-year follow-up period were included in the study. The level of amputation was categorized according Ishikawa

  2. Aggregation Operators on Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and its Application to Multi-Criteria Decision Making Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Changyong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present some aggregation operators with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers and study their desirable properties. Firstly, the score function and the accuracy function of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number are given, the method for ranking triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are developed. Then, some geometric aggregation operators for aggregating triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are developed, such as triangular intuitionistic fuzzy weighted geometric (TIFWG operator, the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (TIFOWG operator and the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid geometric (TIFHG operator. Moreover, an application of the new approach to multi-criteria decision making method was proposed based on the geometric average operator of TIFNs, and the new ranking method for TIFNs is used to rank the alternatives. Finally, an example analysis is given to verify and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Temporal-based pericranial flaps for orbitofrontal Dural repair: A technical note and Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Dupépé

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A temporal-based pericranial flap represents an alternative vascularized pedicle flap to the classic frontal-based pericranial flap used in orbitofrontal dural repair. In certain clinical settings, the temporal-based flap may be preferable.

  4. Tilted resonators in a triangular elastic lattice: chirality, Bloch waves and negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tallarico, Domenico; Movchan, Alexander B; Colquitt, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We consider a vibrating triangular mass-truss lattice whose unit cell contains a resonator of a triangular shape. The resonators are connected to the triangular lattice by trusses. Each resonator is tilted, i.e. it is rotated with respect to the triangular lattice's unit cell through an angle $\\vartheta_0$. This geometrical parameter is responsible for the emergence of a resonant mode in the Bloch spectrum for elastic waves and strongly affects the dispersive properties of the lattice. Additionally, the tilting angle $\\vartheta_0$ triggers the opening of a band gap at a Dirac-like point. We provide a physical interpretation of these phenomena and discuss the dynamical implications on elastic Bloch waves. The dispersion properties are used to design a structured interface containing tilted resonators which exhibit negative refraction and focussing, as in a "flat elastic lens".

  5. Nonexistence of nonconstant steady-state solutions in a triangular cross-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yuan; Tao, Youshan; Winkler, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model for two competing species with triangular cross-diffusion. We determine explicit parameter ranges within which the model exclusively possesses constant steady state solutions.

  6. Tridirectional Polarization Routing of Light by a Single Triangular Plasmonic Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshito Y; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2017-05-10

    Achieving high directionality of scattered light in combination with high flexibility of the direction using plasmonic nanoparticles is desirable for future optical nanocircuits and on-chip optical links. The plasmonic characteristics of nanoparticles strongly depend on their geometry. Here, we studied directional light scattering by a single-element triangular plasmonic nanoparticle. Our experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the triangular nanoparticle spatially sorted the incoming photons into three different scattering directions according to their polarization direction, including circular polarization, despite its compact overall volume of ∼λ(3)/300. The broken mirror symmetry and rotational symmetry of the triangular nanoparticle enabled such passive tridirectional polarization routing through the constructive and destructive interference of different plasmon modes. Our findings should markedly broaden the versatility of triangular plasmonic nanodevices, extending their possible practical applications in photon couplers and sorters and chemo-/biosensors.

  7. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag3PO4 Triangular Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag3PO4 triangular prism was synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation approach by simply adjusting external ultrasonic condition. The as-synthesized Ag3PO4 triangular prism was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (UV-vis DRS absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 triangular prism was evaluated by photodegradation of organic methylene blue (MB, rhodamine B (RhB, and phenol under visible light irradiation. Results showed that Ag3PO4 triangular prism exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than N-doped TiO2 and commercial TiO2 (P25 under visible light irradiation.

  8. Stress Distribution on Sandwich Structure with Triangular Grid Cores Suffered from Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triangular grid reinforced by carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/EP was designed and manufactured. The sandwich structure was prepared by gluing the core and composite skins. The mechanical properties of the sandwich structure were investigated by the finite element analysis (FEA and three-point bending methods. The calculated bending stiffness and core shear stress were compared to the characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich structure. The results indicated that the triangular core ultimately failed under a bending load of 11000 N; the principal stress concentration was located at the loading region; and the cracks occurred on the interface top skin and triangular core. In addition, the ultimate stress bearing of the sandwich structure was 8828 N. The experimental results showed that the carbon fiber reinforced triangular grid was much stiffer and stronger than the honeycomb structure.

  9. Constructal optimization for a solid-gas reactor based on triangular element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Entropy generation minimization for heat and mass transfer process in a solid-gas reactor is carried out based on constructal theory by using triangular elemental area. The aspect ratio of the triangular elemental area is optimized under constraint conditions. A number of optimal triangular elements are assembled to a new large rectangular area, which is optimised again. The procedure is repeated until the control-volume is covered, and the complete analytical results are obtained. The effects of some parameters on minimum entropy generation are analysed by nu-merical examples. The results show that smaller entropy generation can be ob-tained when the optimization for a given volume is carried out on the basis of tri-angular elements than those obtained on the basis of rectangular elements.

  10. Resolvent for Non-Self-Adjoint Differential Operator with Block-Triangular Operator Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Kholkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A resolvent for a non-self-adjoint differential operator with a block-triangular operator potential, increasing at infinity, is constructed. Sufficient conditions under which the spectrum is real and discrete are obtained.

  11. NATURAL SUPERCONVERGENT POINTS OF EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR FINITE ELEMENTS-A NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-min Zhang; Ahmed Naga

    2006-01-01

    A numerical test case demonstrates that the Lobatto and the Gauss points are not natural superconvergent points of the cubic and the quartic finite elements under equilateral triangular mesh for the Poisson equation.

  12. Finite layer and triangular prism element method to subsidence prediction and stress analysis in underground mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-min(刘立民); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); LIAN Chuan-jie(连传杰)

    2003-01-01

    The application of the finite layer & triangular prism element method to the 3D ground subsidence and stress analysis caused by mining is presented. The layer elements and the triangular prism elements have been alternatively used in the numerical simulation system, the displacement pattern, strain matrix, elastic matrix, stiffness matrix, load matrix and the stress matrix of the layer element and triangular prism element have been presented. By means of the Fortran90 programming language, a numerical simulation system based on finite layer & triangular prism element have been built up, and this system is suitable for subsidence prediction and stress analysis of all mining condition and mining methods. Comparing with the infinite element method, this approach dramatically reduces the size of the set of equations that need to be solved, and greatly reduces the amount of data preparation required. It not only saves the internal storage, and the computation time, but also decreases the cost.

  13. Comparison of outcome of microvascular bony head and neck reconstructions using the fibular free flap and the iliac crest flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Thomas; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Kolk, Andreas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Kanatas, Anastasios; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mitchell, David A; Kesting, Marco R

    2013-09-01

    Several microvascular free flaps are available for reconstruction of the osseous components after resections for head and neck cancer. We have prospectively evaluated patients treated by bony microsurgical reconstruction to identify predictors of adverse outcomes for delayed wound healing and failure of free flaps. All patients from July 2007 to June 2011 who had reconstructions with microvascular fibular or iliac crest flaps immediately after resection of the tumour were evaluated. There were a total of 156 bony free flaps: 120 (77%) fibular and 36 (23%) iliac crest flaps. A total of 133 (85%) were successful. Delayed wound healing was more common with the iliac crest flap (p=0.01) at the intraoral site (p=0.04). Significantly more iliac crest free flaps failed (p=0.02). Anastomosis to the facial artery (p=0.05) and facial vein (p=0.04), and duration of overall operating time were associated with a significantly higher risk of failure of the flap. Patients with cancer of the head and neck who require microsurgical bony reconstruction are at increased risk of postoperative complications. Significantly more complications were found with the iliac crest flap, whereas the fibular flap was associated with a significantly longer operating time.

  14. Ground-state phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model on triangular-to-kagome lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi, Yutaka; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ground-state phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins on triangular-to-kagome lattices by using a variational calculation. We identify the parameter regions where a four-sublattice noncoplanar order is stable with a finite spin scalar chirality while changing the lattice structure from triangular to kagome continuously. Although the noncoplanar spin states appear in a wide range of parameters, the spin configurations on the kagome network beco...

  15. Upper Triangular Matrix of Lie Algebra and a New Discrete Integrable Coupling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fa-Jun; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2007-01-01

    The upper triangular matrix of Lie algebra is used to construct integrable couplings of discrete solition equations.Correspondingly,a feasible way to construct integrable couplings is presented.A nonlinear lattice soliton equation spectral problem is obtained and leads to a novel hierarchy of the nonlinear lattice equation hierarchy.It indicates that the study of integrable couplings using upper triangular matrix of Lie algebra is an important step towards constructing integrable systems.

  16. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  17. Solution of two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation via RBF-triangular method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fallahzadeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method is introduced to solve a two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation. The method is based on the approximation by Gaussian radial basis functions and triangular nodes and weights. Also, a new quadrature is introduced to approximate the two dimensional integrals which is called the triangular method. The results of the example illustrate the accuracy of the proposed method increases.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation to evaluate the performance of triangular finned tube heat exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Vinous M. Hameed, Bashar Muslem Essa

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and numerical investigation has been performed in this work to evaluate the performance for triangular finned tube heat exchanger. Experimental work included designing and manufacturing of shaped triangular fins from copper material of (10mm) length, (10mm) height, (1mm) thickness, (22 mm) distance between every two fins shaped and (15mm) pitch between each two of fins which are install on the straight copper tube of (2m) length having (20mm) inner diameter and (22mm) outer diame...

  19. Characterization of Generalized Derivations Associate with Hochschild 2-Cocycles on Triangular Banach Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kanani Arpatapeh∗

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Let A and B be unital Banach algebras and M be a left A-module and right B-module. We consider generalized derivations associate with Hochschild 2-cocycles on triangular Banach algebra T (related to A, B and M. We characterize this new version of generalized derivations on triangular Banach algebras and we obtain some results for l 1 − direct summands of Banach algebras

  20. 三角Banach代数的等距同构%ISOMETRIC ISOMORPHISMS OF TRIANGULAR BANACH ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆建文; 陆芳言

    2000-01-01

    Let (X) and (X) be Banach algebras.Let (X) be a Banach (X),(X)-module with bounded 1.Then (X) is a Banach algebra with the usual operations and the norm ‖[AOMB]‖=‖A‖+‖M‖+‖B‖.Such an algebra is called a triangular Banach algebra.In this paper the isometric isomorphisms of triangular Banach algebras are characterized.

  1. Research of the image processing in dynamic flatness detection based on improved laser triangular method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As a commonly used non-contact flatness detection method, laser triangular detection method is designed with low cost, but it cannot avoid measurement errors caused by strip steel vibration effectively. This paper puts forward a dynamic flatness image processing method based on improved laser triangular detection method. According to the practical application of strip steel straightening, it completes the image pre-processing, image feature curve extraction and calculation of flatness elongation using digit...

  2. Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for breast reconstruction: experience with 43 flaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-qing; YANG Hong-yan; ZHAO Yu-ming; YOU Lei; XU Jun

    2007-01-01

    Background In the past decade, there has been increasing breast reconstructions after mastectomy. The ideal material for reconstruction of a breast is fat and skin. The transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap has been the gold standard for breast reconstruction until recently. Abdominal wall function is a major concern for plastic surgeons in breast reconstruction with TRAM flaps. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap spares the whole rectus abdominis muscle, includes skin and fat only, and therefore preserves adequate abdominal wall competence. The aim of this study was to summarize our experience in breast reconstruction with DIEP flap.Methods Between March 2000 and August 2005, a total of 43 breast reconstructions were performed on 40 patients by our surgeons using DIEP flap (3 patients had bilateral procedures), 14 of them were immediate surgeries and 26 were delayed. Abdominal function, satisfaction with the donor site and reconstructed breast, and the sensation recovery was assessed respectively during follow-up.Results The mean age of the patients was 38.6 years (range, 28-50). The size of the flaps was 11 cm×26 cm in average (height 10-12 cm, width 15-33 cm). The mean length of the vascular pedicles was 9.3 cm (range, 7-12). The patients were followed up for a mean of 16 months (range, 6-30 months). During the follow-up, 2 (5%) patients had total flap loss, 2 (5%) had partial necrosis, 4 (9%) had wound edge necrosis in the abdomen, and 1 had axillary seroma. None of the patients had hernia, and all of them were able to resume their daily activities after the operation. Patient satisfaction with the reconstructed breast rated high, 95% of the patients achieved spontaneous return of sensation in the reconstructed breast, but none of them had a sensation equivalent or approximate to the normal.Conclusions The DIEP flap has the same benefits as the TRAM flap without destroying the continuity of the rectus muscle. It can reduce

  3. Functional assessment: Free thin anterolateral thigh flap versus free radial forearm reconstruction for hemiglossectomy defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Mingxing; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Tang, Enyi; Wang, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    To compare free thin anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with free radial forearm (FRF) flap in the reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects, and to introduce our methods and experience in the tongue reconstruction with free thin ALT flap...

  4. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Thanasis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. In an industrial-oriented manner the baseline rotor is upscaled by 5% and the ATEFs are implemented in the outer 30% of the blades. The flap system is kept simple and robust with a single flap section and control with wind speed, rotor azimuth, root bending moments and angle of attack in flap's mid-section being the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple and applicable method that can be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling and lowering cost of energy.

  5. The "Gent" consensus on perforator flap terminology: preliminary definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Phillip N; Van Landuyt, Koen H I; Monstrey, Stan J M; Hamdi, Moustapha; Matton, Guido E; Allen, Robert J; Dupin, Charles; Feller, Axel-Mario; Koshima, Isao; Kostakoglu, Naci; Wei, Fu-Chan

    2003-10-01

    Due to its increasing popularity, more and more articles on the use of perforator flaps have been reported in the literature during the past few years. Because the area of perforator flaps is new and rapidly evolving, there are no definitions and standard rules on terminology and nomenclature, which creates confusion when surgeons try to communicate and compare surgical techniques. This article attempts to represent the opinion of a group of pioneers in the field of perforator flap surgery. This consensus was reached after a terminology consensus meeting held during the Fifth International Course on Perforator Flaps in Gent, Belgium, on September 29, 2001. It stipulates not only the definitions of perforator vessels and perforator flaps but also the correct nomenclature for different perforator flaps. The authors believe that this consensus is a foundation that will stimulate further discussion and encourage further refinements in the future.

  6. Incidence of flap procedures in the management of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineaweaver, William C; Craft-Coffman, Beretta; Oswald, Tanya M

    2015-03-01

    Increased survival of burn patients presents opportunities for reconstructive strategies to improve outcomes in management of acute and secondary burn injuries. To assess one such strategy, namely flap reconstruction, we reviewed cases performed during the first 4.5 years of the JMS Burn and Reconstruction Center. We found that flap procedures accounted for 0.8% of acute cases (23 of 2723 procedures) and 33% of secondary cases (260 of 790 procedures). This initial finding shows that in this practice flap procedures are applied to a small number of acute problems while flap procedures comprise 33% of secondary procedures. Reconstructive flap surgery plays a measurable role in burn treatment at this center. Further study of outcomes and timing could lead to better understanding of optimal strategies for flap reconstruction in burns.

  7. Pedicled perforator flaps in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M

    2010-10-01

    Perforator flaps, since their first description in 1989, have in many ways revolutionized reconstructive surgery. Whereas little more than a decade ago many surgeons were still hesitant to fully trust perforator flaps to be a reliable option, nowadays these flaps are often first choice. Investigators have to remain critical, however, of their advances and realize that not every reconstruction will require or benefit from a perforator flap, as previously well-established, nonperforator flaps still have their indication and can give excellent results. The most important skill in reconstructive surgery of the head and neck is not cutting the flap but assessing the defect, planning the reconstruction, and choosing wisely from the ever-increasing options available.

  8. Reliability and flexural behavior of triangular and T-reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Mohammed S.

    2015-12-01

    The paper studied the behavior of reinforced concrete triangular and T-beams. Three reinforced concrete beams were tested experimentally and analyzed analytically using the finite element method. Their reliability was also assessed using the reliability index approach. The results showed that the finite element vertical displacements compared well with those obtained experimentally. They also showed that the vertical displacements obtained using the finite element method were larger than those obtained experimentally. This is a strong indication that the finite element results were conservative and reliable. The results showed that the triangular beams exhibited higher ductility at failure than did the T-beam. The plastic deformations at failure of the triangular beams were higher than that of the T-beam. This is a strong indication of the higher ductility of the triangular beams compared to the T-beam. Triangular beams exhibited smaller cracks than did T-beams for equal areas of steel and concrete. The design moment strengths M c computed using the American Concrete Institute (ACI) design formulation were safe and close to those computed using experimental results. The experimental results validated the reliability analysis results, which stated that the triangular beams are more reliable than T-beams for equal areas of steel and concrete.

  9. Analysis of the heat transfer in unsymmetrically heated triangular microchannels in slip flow regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Xun; LIAO; Qiang; XIN; Mingdao

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of heat transfer characteristics is presented for the fully developed laminar flow of the incompressible gas in the triangular microchannels heated unsymmetrically with constant axial heat flux. Through solving the energy equation with temperature jump boundary conditions in slip flow regime by virtue of a computationoriented method of the orthonormal function analysis, the dimensionless temperature profiles and the average Nusselt number for various thermal boundary conditions are obtained. The effects of Knudsen number, aspect ratio, and thermal boundary conditions on the heat transfer are discussed. The calculated results show that the orthonormal function method can be used to study the heat transfer characteristics of the unsymmetrically heated triangular microchannels. The average Nusselt number in triangular microchannels is lower for slip flow than for no-slip flow, and decreases with increasing Knudsen number. The aspect ratios and thermal boundary conditions of triangular microchannels have significant influences on the change of average Nusselt numbers with the increase in the Knudsen number. For the equilateral triangular microchannels, the decrease of the Nusselt number ratio due to temperature jump is smaller at large Knudsen number and larger at small Knudsen number on the boundary condition of bottom wall heated alone as compared with the one on the boundary condition of two heated hypotenuse walls. The correlations of the average Nusselt number with the Knudsen number for equilateral triangular microchannels are obtained.

  10. Comparison between triangular and hexagonal modeling of a hexagonal-structured reactor core using box method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmir, Hessam, E-mail: malmir@energy.sharif.edu [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, Nader Maleki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnique), Hafez Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedinejad, Ehsan [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    A hexagonal-structured reactor core (e.g. VVER-type) is mostly modeled by structured triangular and hexagonal mesh zones. Although both the triangular and hexagonal models give good approximations over the neutronic calculation of the core, there are some differences between them that seem necessary to be clarified. For this purpose, the neutronic calculations of a hexagonal-structured reactor core have to be performed using the structured triangular and hexagonal meshes based on box method of discretisation and then the results of two models should be benchmarked in different cases. In this paper, the box method of discretisation is derived for triangular and hexagonal meshes. Then, two 2-D 2-group static simulators for triangular and hexagonal geometries (called TRIDIF-2 and HEXDIF-2, respectively) are developed using the box method. The results are benchmarked against the well-known CITATION computer code in case of a VVER-1000 reactor core. Furthermore, the relative powers calculated by the TRIDIF-2 and HEXDIF-2 along with the ones obtained by the CITATION code are compared with the verified results which have been presented in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the aforementioned reactor. Different benchmark cases revealed the reliability of the box method in contrast with the CITATION code. Furthermore, it is shown that the triangular modeling of the core is more acceptable compared with the hexagonal one.

  11. Surgical Excision of Multiple Penile Syringomas With Scrotal Flap Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Penile syringomas are rare lesions usually occurring in isolation. We report the excision and reconstruction of multiple synchronous penile shaft syringomas with local scrotal flaps. Methods: We report a rare case of excision of multiple penile syringomas and reconstruction with scrotal flaps in a 29-year-old man. Results: Penile syringomas were excised and reconstructed with scrotal flaps in a single-stage procedure. Conclusions: In addition to providing wound coverage, this recon...

  12. [Pedicled versus free TRAM flap for breast reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, T J; Lukas, B; Feller, A M

    1999-03-01

    In breast reconstruction, the free TRAM-flap offers many advantages over the pedicled TRAM-flap. Due to its superior perfusion, the free flap rarely develops necrosis. Shaping of the flap is easier due to the lack of the thick muscle pedicle. Because the rectus muscle is spared, there is minimal donor site morbidity. However, the necessary microvascular anastomoses reduced the acceptance of the free TRAM-flap. During a 13-months period, 51 breast reconstructions were performed in 41 patients, 31 unilateral and ten bilateral. 45 flaps served for delayed reconstruction and six flaps for immediate reconstruction. The operations were performed by two teams working simultaneously. The average operating time was 3.9 hours for unilateral and 6.9 hours for bilateral delayed reconstruction. For immediate reconstruction, 6.2 and 6.3 hours were required for uni- and bilateral procedures, respectively. In 38 flaps, the thoracodorsal vessels served as recipient vessels; 13 flaps were anastomosed to the internal mammary artery and vein. Postoperative complications were observed in 13 patients. Three vessel anastomoses had to be revised. In one flap, a partial necrosis occurred; in two flaps hematoma evacuation was necessary. Two patients suffered from fat necroses at the abdomen and one umbilicus was lost. Skin irritations and seromas at the abdomen occurred in five patients. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in one patient three weeks postoperatively. Abdominal hernias or bulging in the epigastric area were not observed up to 15 months after reconstruction. These results reveal a low complication rate for breast reconstruction with the free TRAM-flap. The advantages of this technique as compared to the pedicled technique are discussed.

  13. Design, manufacturing and testing of Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Thanasis K

    The overall goal for the INDUFLAP project was realization of a test facility for development and test of Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flaps (CRTEF) for wind turbines. This report covers experimental work at DTU Wind Energy including design, manufacture and test of different configurations...... of flaps with voids in chord- or spanwise direction. Development of rubber flaps has involved further design improvements. Non-metallic spring elements and solutions for sealing of continuous extruded rubber profiles have been investigated....

  14. [Osteomuscular serrato-costal free flap: application to mandibular reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, P; Henry, J F; Crezoit, E; Souchere, B; Freidel, M

    1992-06-01

    The serrato-costal free flap provides a large costal flap vascularized by a digitation of the serratus anterior muscle supplied by the dorsal thoracic artery. The flap is easy and rapid to raise with low morbidity. The repair obtained is functionally very satisfactory, but does not allow insertion of an implant. Six cases are reported. The indications of this technique of mandibular reconstruction are discussed.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection on a Reconstructive Free Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Parys, Simon P.; Leman, Thea; Gurfinkel, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a widespread virus that primarily causes orofacial infection. Methods: We present a case of HSV1 infection on a free radial forearm flap used to reconstruct a palate defect. Initially, the free flap appeared healthy; however, after 48 hours the free flap appeared in distress, with dark red colour and fast capillary refill. Venous congestion was suspected, and the patient underwent a second operation where no vascular compromise was found. Vesicles w...

  16. Microdialysis in clinical practice: monitoring intraoral free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyränki, Janne; Suominen, Sinikka; Vuola, Jyrki; Bäck, Leif

    2006-04-01

    Clinical examination is still the gold standard of postoperative free flap monitoring, but with intraorally situated and/or buried flaps, it can be difficult or impossible. Microdialysis is a sampling technique which offers the possibility to monitor the metabolism of a flap continuously. Ischemia can be detected by monitoring the changes in glucose, lactate, and pyruvate levels in interstitial fluid of the specific tissue. Our aim was to use microdialysis to monitor the metabolism of free flaps used for reconstructions inside the oral cavity/oropharynx and to evaluate the reliability and usefulness of this new monitoring method.Twenty-five consecutive patients who underwent oral cavity/oropharynx cancer resection and immediate reconstruction with free flap were included in the study. A microdialysis catheter was placed into the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the flap in the end of the surgical procedure. Dialysate samples were taken on an hourly basis for 72 hours postoperatively. Routine clinical monitoring was carried out by experienced nursing staff. Clinical findings were recorded and later compared with microdialysis values. Two flaps out of 25 failed in spite of reoperations. In both problem cases, microdialysis indicated ischemia 1 to 2 hours before it became clinically evident. During flap ischemia, the lactate/pyruvate ratio increased, glucose concentrations reduced, whereas lactate level increased when compared with normal values. Our results indicate that microdialysis is safe for the patient and the flap. It can reliably detect flap ischemia at an early stage. This is especially useful in buried flaps when clinical monitoring is difficult. Microdialysis may also reduce the patient discomfort caused by repeated clinical examination of the flap.

  17. CATERPILLAR ADVANCEMENT FOR PARTIALLY NECROSED DELTOPECTORAL FLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Narayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of electric lamp by Thomas Elva Edison had significant impact on human civilization. With increasing production of electrical energy to meet ongoing demands of increased frequency of electrical injuries. Despite increased awareness of potential dangers, elect ricity is responsible for many fatalities all over the world. Electrical burn accounts for ~3% of all burn related injuries. Estimated 3, 000 annual admittions to burn units. Electrical burn have bimodal distribution ~1/3 children <6 yrs ( E lectric cords & wall outlets ~2/3 miners, construction, & electrical workers. Our case is one that of a 12 year old male child having electrical injury over face and neck with exposed angle of mandible which was covered by Deltopectoral flap with caterpillar advancement of flap.

  18. Arthroscopic foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzei, Andrea; Luchetti, Riccardo; Braidotti, Federica

    2015-02-01

    Background Foveal disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is associated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. TFCC fixation onto the fovea is the suitable treatment, which is not achieved by conventional arthroscopic techniques. We describe an all-inside arthroscopic technique that uses a suture anchor through distal DRUJ arthroscopy for foveal repair of the TFCC. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients with TFCC foveal tear and DRUJ instability were selected according to the Atzei-European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) algorithm of treatment. Retrospective evaluation included pain, DRUJ instability, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score. Description of Technique DRUJ arthroscopy was performed to débride the TFCC and the foveal area. Under arthroscopic guidance, a suture anchor was inserted via the distal foveal portal to repair the TFCC onto the fovea. Sutures were tied on the radiocarpal surface of the TFCC. Postoperative immobilization of forearm rotation was maintained for 4 weeks. Heavy tasks were allowed after 3 months. Results After a mean follow-up of 33 months, pain improved significantly but remained moderate in four patients, severe in one. DRUJ instability resolved in 44 patients. Wrist ROM increased. Grip strength, MMWS, and DASH score improved significantly. Excellent and good MMWS equaled 83.3%. Forty-one patients (85.5%) resumed previous work and sport activities. As a postoperative complication, five patients experienced neuroapraxia of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) with full spontaneous recovery. Conclusions With appropriate indications and patient selection, arthroscopic foveal repair of the TFCC may restore DRUJ stability and provide satisfactory results without significant complications.

  19. Force among magnetic nanocylinders trapped in triangular arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisternas, E., E-mail: ecisternas@ufro.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Vasquez, Y.; Vogel, E.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)

    2012-03-15

    We study the effect of the forces among magnetic nanocylinders trapped in a membrane such as those used to produce them. The interaction force between two parallel and identical magnetic nanocylinders is revisited to obtain expressions that can later be used to add them both in a discrete and a continuum approximation. At this point a particular geometry has to be assumed and we use a particular configuration reported in the literature, namely, a bundle of parallel magnetic cylinders trapped in a circular membrane. When a strong enough external magnetic field is imposed along the axis of the membrane (also along the axes of the cylinders) all magnetizations point along this direction and cylinders repel among themselves. In a first approximation we will consider a soft enough membrane so energy is mostly relaxed through a deformation of the membrane leaving the magnetization of the cylinders basically as it was in the absence of external field. Then we obtain the forces among these cylinders by two methods: one summing the contributions of a discrete number of objects and another one in which we consider a continuum distribution of them to reach larger systems. Numerical evaluation of these forces can reach 50 mdyn approximately. Such forces will act on the membrane at the positions of the magnetic cylinders; in the case of a circular silicon membrane of radius 1.0 mm the radial expansion of the membrane can be of the order of 1 nm. This effect could be larger for softer membranes. A discussion of experimental techniques to detect this phenomenon is also done followed by the proposal of a possible application. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force among magnetic nanocylinders ordered in triangular arrays within a membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macroscopic effect on a membrane containing cylinders by applying an external magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane deformation due to magnetostatic interaction among cylinders.

  20. Psyplot: Visualizing rectangular and triangular Climate Model Data with Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    The development and use of climate models often requires the visualization of geo-referenced data. Creating visualizations should be fast, attractive, flexible, easily applicable and easily reproducible. There is a wide range of software tools available for visualizing raster data, but they often are inaccessible to many users (e.g. because they are difficult to use in a script or have low flexibility). In order to facilitate easy visualization of geo-referenced data, we developed a new framework called "psyplot," which can aid earth system scientists with their daily work. It is purely written in the programming language Python and primarily built upon the python packages matplotlib, cartopy and xray. The package can visualize data stored on the hard disk (e.g. NetCDF, GeoTIFF, any other file format supported by the xray package), or directly from the memory or Climate Data Operators (CDOs). Furthermore, data can be visualized on a rectangular grid (following or not following the CF Conventions) and on a triangular grid (following the CF or UGRID Conventions). Psyplot visualizes 2D scalar and vector fields, enabling the user to easily manage and format multiple plots at the same time, and to export the plots into all common picture formats and movies covered by the matplotlib package. The package can currently be used in an interactive python session or in python scripts, and will soon be developed for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the psyplot framework enables flexible configuration, allows easy integration into other scripts that uses matplotlib, and provides a flexible foundation for further development.

  1. TINITALY/01: a new Triangular Irregular Network of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Pareschi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the natural landforms of Italy is presented. A methodology is discussed to build a DEM over wide areas where elevation data from non-homogeneous (in density and accuracy input sources are available. The input elevation data include contour lines and spot heights derived from the Italian Regional topographic maps, satellite-based global positioning system points, ground based and radar altimetry data. Owing to the great heterogeneity of the input data density, the DEM format that better preserves the original accuracy is a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN. A Delaunay-based TIN structure is improved by using the DEST algorithm that enhances input data by evaluating inferred break-lines. Accordingly to this approach, biased distributions in slopes and elevations are absent. To prevent discontinuities at the boundary between regions characterized by data with different resolution a cubic Hermite blending weight S-shaped function is adopted. The TIN of Italy consists of 1.39×109 triangles. The average triangle area ranges from 12 to about 13000 m2 accordingly to different morphologies and different sources. About 50% of the model has a local average triangle area <500 m2. The vertical accuracy of the obtained DEM is evaluated by more than 200000 sparse control points. The overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is less than 3.5 m. The obtained national-scale DEM constitutes an useful support to carry out accurate geomorphological and geological investigations over large areas. The problem of choosing the best step size in deriving a grid from a TIN is then discussed and a method to quantify the loss of vertical information is presented as a function of the grid step. Some examples of DEM application are outlined. Under request, an high resolution stereo image database of the whole Italian territory (derived from the presented DEM is available to browse via internet.

  2. A crosslinguistic lexicon of the labial flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Olson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a large sample of the occurrences of the labial flap in the world’s languages, including audio and video data from the Mono dialect of Mid-Southern Banda. This sample provides the evidence for Olson and Hajek’s (2003 crosslinguistic generalizations concerning the articulation, the geographic distribution, the genetic distribution, and the phonological status of the speech sound.

  3. Mastectomy skin flap necrosis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson SA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stuart A Robertson,1 Johann A Jeevaratnam,2 Avi Agrawal,2 Ramsey I Cutress,3,4 1Department of Surgery, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, 2Department of Breast Surgery, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Cosham, Portsmouth, 3Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Princess Anne Hospital, 4Somers Cancer Research UK Centre, Southampton General Hospital Southampton, UK Introduction: Mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN has a reported incidence of 5%–30% in the literature. It is often a significant and underappreciated problem. The aim of this article was to review the associated challenges and possible solutions. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed using the search term “mastectomy skin flap necrosis”. Titles and abstracts from peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance. Results: MSFN is a common complication and may present as partial- or full-thickness necrosis. Predictive patient risk factors include smoking, diabetes, obesity, radiotherapy, previous scars and severe medical comorbidity. MSFN leads to a number of challenges, including wound management problems, delays to adjuvant therapy, esthetic compromise, implant extrusion, patient distress and financial loss. Careful preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique may reduce the incidence of MSFN. A number of intraoperative techniques are available to try and predict skin flaps at risk of MSFN. MSFN may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. Early intervention may reduce the morbidity of MSFN in selected cases. Topical nitroglycerin ointment may be beneficial in reducing MSFN following immediate reconstruction, but the evidence base is still limited. Conclusion: MSFN can result in considerable challenges for the patient and the health care service. This review discusses the management options for this problem. Keywords: mastectomy, flap, necrosis, complication, breast surgery

  4. A novel animal model for skin flap prelamination with biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Several animal models of skin flap construction were reported using biomaterials in a way similar to prefabrication. However, there are few animal model using biomaterials similar to prelamination, another main way of clinical skin flap construction that has been proved to be reliable. Can biomaterials be added in skin flap prelamination to reduce the use of autogenous tissues? Beside individual clinical attempts, animal model is needed for randomized controlled trial to objectively evaluate the feasibility and further investigation. Combining human Acellular Dermal Matrix (hADM) and autologous skin graft, we prelaminated flaps based on inguinal fascia. One, two, three and four weeks later, hADM exhibited a sound revascularization and host cell infiltration. Prelaminated skin flaps were then raised and microsurgically transplanted back to groin region. Except for flaps after one week of prelamination, flaps from other subgroups successfully reconstructed defects. After six to sixteen weeks of transplantation, hADM was proved to being able to maintain its original structure, having a wealth of host tissue cells and achieving full revascularization.To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of prelaminating skin flap with biomaterials. Success of this animal model indicates that novel flap prelamination with biomaterials is feasible.

  5. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  6. [Expanded pedicled forearm flap for reconstruction of multiple finger amputations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Jorge, A; Martelo Villar, F

    2000-05-01

    Soft-tissue injuries of the hand frequently require flap coverage to preserve structures damaged at the time of injury or to facilitate later reconstruction. The radial forearm flap makes local tissue readily available and offers a simple method of reconstruction. Secondary augmentation of the skin flap by means of tissue expansion appears to be a useful alternative to improve the possibilities of reconstruction. This case report describes a primary reconstruction of a hand with multiple finger amputations using both techniques: Forearm flap and tissue expansion.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Testing Of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Preethi Manohari Sai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flapping flight has the potential to revolutionize micro air vehicles (MAVs due to increased aerodynamic performance, improved maneuverability and hover capabilities. The purpose of this project is to design and fabrication of flapping wing micro air vehicle. The designed MAV will have a wing span of 40cm. The drive mechanism will be a gear mechanism to drive the flapping wing MAV, along with one actuator. Initially, a preliminary design of flapping wing MAV is drawn and necessary calculation for the lift calculation has been done. Later a CAD model is drawn in CATIA V5 software. Finally we tested by Flying.

  8. Pre-expanded Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Sharon E; Webster, Nicholas D; Wong, Stacy; Saint-Cyr, Michel H

    2017-01-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap can be used to cover large defects of the proximal lower extremity, abdominal wall, perineum, vulva, and buttock. Pre-expanding DIEP flaps cause a possible delay phenomenon improving vascularity, decrease donor site morbidity, and increase the area that can be covered. Pre-expansion requires staged procedures, has risk of extrusion and infection, causes temporary contour deformity during the expansion process, and requires a longer course. Pre-expanded DIEP flaps can be a useful flap with proper patient selection and planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Staged retroauricular flap for helical reconstruction after Mohs micrographic surgery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerci, Felipe Bochnia

    2016-01-01

    Staged retroauricular flap is a great option for full-thickness defects along the helical rim and antihelix. Donor site consists of the posterior ear, postauricular sulcus and mastoid area. The advantages of this flap include hidden donor scar, donor tissue similarity and rich vascularity. We present a case of collision tumor on the left helix treated with Mohs micrographic surgery and the resulting full-thickness defect repaired with a staged retroauricular flap. This flap is an effective technique for full-thickness helical defect repair with relatively little operative morbidity. High esthetic and functional results may be obtained restoring the ear size and shape.

  10. Epiglottis reconstruction with free radial forearm flap after supraglottic laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hung-Tao; Leu, Yi-Shing; Tung, Kwang-Yi

    2010-01-01

    A bilobed free radial forearm flap was designed to reconstruct a defect in the epiglottis and tongue base in 2 patients who underwent supraglottic laryngectomy. The flap was initially sutured in the shape of the epiglottis to prevent aspiration during deglutition. Six months after surgery, after a full course of radiation therapy, the flap had flattened and underwent atrophy, but the patients still had good voice production and were able to swallow well without any aspiration. Regardless of the final shape of the reconstructed epiglottis, it will suffice to prevent aspiration if the flap is large enough to occlude the tracheal outlet.

  11. Translational damping on high-frequency flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Perry A.

    Flapping fliers such as insects and birds depend on passive translational and rotational damping to terminate quick maneuvers and to provide a source of partial stability in an otherwise unstable dynamic system. Additionally, passive translational and rotational damping reduce the amount of active kinematic changes that must be made to terminate maneuvers and maintain stability. The study of flapping-induced damping phenomena also improves the understanding of micro air vehicle (MAV) dynamics needed for the synthesis of effective flight control strategies. Aerodynamic processes which create passive translational and rotational damping as a direct result of symmetric flapping with no active changes in wing kinematics have been previously studied and were termed flapping counter-force (FCF) and flapping counter-torque (FCT), respectively. In this first study of FCF measurement in air, FCF generation is measured using a pendulum system designed to isolate and measure the relationship of translational flapping-induced damping with wingbeat frequency for a 2.86 gram mechanical flapper equipped with real cicada wings. Analysis reveals that FCF generation and wingbeat frequency are directly proportional, as expected from previous work. The quasi-steady FCF model using Blade-Element-Theory is used as an estimate for translational flapping-induced damping. In most cases, the model proves to be accurate in predicting the relationship between flapping-induced damping and wingbeat frequency. "Forward-backward" motion proves to have the strongest flapping-induced damping while "up-down" motion has the weakest.

  12. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap. PMID:19881020

  13. A novel animal model for skin flap prelamination with biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Several animal models of skin flap construction were reported using biomaterials in a way similar to prefabrication. However, there are few animal model using biomaterials similar to prelamination, another main way of clinical skin flap construction that has been proved to be reliable. Can biomaterials be added in skin flap prelamination to reduce the use of autogenous tissues? Beside individual clinical attempts, animal model is needed for randomized controlled trial to objectively evaluate the feasibility and further investigation. Combining human Acellular Dermal Matrix (hADM) and autologous skin graft, we prelaminated flaps based on inguinal fascia. One, two, three and four weeks later, hADM exhibited a sound revascularization and host cell infiltration. Prelaminated skin flaps were then raised and microsurgically transplanted back to groin region. Except for flaps after one week of prelamination, flaps from other subgroups successfully reconstructed defects. After six to sixteen weeks of transplantation, hADM was proved to being able to maintain its original structure, having a wealth of host tissue cells and achieving full revascularization.To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of prelaminating skin flap with biomaterials. Success of this animal model indicates that novel flap prelamination with biomaterials is feasible. PMID:27659066

  14. Cervicopectoral flap in head and neck cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivrioglu Nazan S

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstruction of the head and neck after adequate resection of primary tumor and neck dissection is a challenge. It should be performed at one sitting in advanced tumors. Defects caused by the resection should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Cervicopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the cheek defects. Methods This study included twelve patients presenting with cancer of the head and neck to Izmir Ataturk Training Hospital and Adnan Menderes University Hospital. Tumor resection and neck dissection was performed in one session by the same surgeon. A single incision was made and a medially based cervicopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure in neck dissection and for closure of defects after tumor resection. Results There was no major complication. Two flaps had partial superficial epidermolysis at the suture line. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Conclusion The cervicopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation. This flap achieves perfect surgical exposure, makes neck dissection easy and allows one to perform both tumor resection and neck dissection in one session.

  15. Mastectomy skin flap necrosis: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stuart A; Jeevaratnam, Johann A; Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) has a reported incidence of 5%–30% in the literature. It is often a significant and underappreciated problem. The aim of this article was to review the associated challenges and possible solutions. Methods A MEDLINE search was performed using the search term “mastectomy skin flap necrosis”. Titles and abstracts from peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance. Results MSFN is a common complication and may present as partial- or full-thickness necrosis. Predictive patient risk factors include smoking, diabetes, obesity, radiotherapy, previous scars and severe medical comorbidity. MSFN leads to a number of challenges, including wound management problems, delays to adjuvant therapy, esthetic compromise, implant extrusion, patient distress and financial loss. Careful preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique may reduce the incidence of MSFN. A number of intraoperative techniques are available to try and predict skin flaps at risk of MSFN. MSFN may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. Early intervention may reduce the morbidity of MSFN in selected cases. Topical nitroglycerin ointment may be beneficial in reducing MSFN following immediate reconstruction, but the evidence base is still limited. Conclusion MSFN can result in considerable challenges for the patient and the health care service. This review discusses the management options for this problem. PMID:28331365

  16. El grupo triangular: reflexiones metodológicas en torno a dos experiencias de investigación1/The triangular group: methodological reflections on two research experiences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Ruiz Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    ... a su desarrollo metodológico. PALABRAS CLAVE Técnicas cualitativas, investigación social, grupo de discusión, focus group. ABSTRACT Triangular group has shown its utility as a research technique in different contexts and for many topics, but has had relatively little methodological deve- lopment. This paper addresses several methodolog...

  17. [Free radial forearm flap and myocutaneous flaps in oncological reconstructive surgery of the oral cavity, Comparison of functional results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, S; Caravelli, G; Vigili, M G; Ducci, M; Marzetti, F

    1998-03-01

    In modern multi-disciplinary cancer treatment, rehabilitation and functional results represent utmost intent in reconstructive surgery of the oral cavity. Even in cases where the stage of disease is advanced) and the perspective of survival is limited, it is possible to achieve an acceptable quality of life. The authors report, in this study, the morpho-functional results and the morbidity observed in glossectomies in which the reconstruction was performed using three different methods. In a total of 264 reconstructive flaps of the head and neck regions, the authors considered three groups of 15 patients that had had reconstruction after the demolitive procedure. Respectively these groups were divided by the followed methods: free forearm flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and nasolabial flap. The morbidity showed an extremely low rate of flap loss in all the groups, but "minor" complications, such as fistulas and leakages, were significantly more frequent in the myocutaneous flaps group. Functional evaluation for speech and deglutition showed good results in most patients. Extremely severe postoperative conditions as a permanent NG tube or incomprehensible speech had been observed in less than 15% of the cases. Particularly, the pectoralis major flap, showed its best functional performances in the total or subtotal glossectomies with a sacrifice of the muscles of the oral floor. The free forearm flap is reliable and safe with its low thickness and pliability, especially for partial glossectomies. The nasolabial flap was confirmed to be the first reconstructive choice for selected limited resections of the tongue and of the antero-lateral floor. With this experience it is possible, even in more complex free flaps, to reduce the time consumption and the complication rate. Free flaps do not substitute routinely myocutaneous and conventional flaps, but they represent the "ideal" reconstructive alternatives for specific and selected indications.

  18. Evaluation of performance and personal satisfaction of the patient with spastic hand after using a volar dorsal orthosis Avaliação do desempenho e da satisfação pessoal do paciente com mão espástica após o uso da órtese dorsal volar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle dos Santos Cutrim Garros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance and the satisfaction of the patient were quantitatively compared with the use of the volar dorsal orthosis in order to position the spastic hand. Thirty patients wearing the orthosis for eight hours daily were evaluated by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the box and blocks test, for a three-month period. Five activities were selected (among daily life activities, productive activities, and leisure activities by the patients, which were impaired by spasticity. There was an improvement related to performance after use of orthosis, with an average of 1.4±0.5 to 6.3±0.8 (pComparou-se quantitativamente o desempenho e a satisfação do paciente com o uso da órtese dorsal volar para posicionamento da mão espástica. Foram analisados 30 pacientes que fizeram uso da órtese por 8 horas diárias, avaliados por meio da Medida Canadense de Desempenho Ocupacional e teste caixa e blocos, no intervalo de 3 meses. Foram selecionadas 5 atividades (entre as atividades de vida diária, produtivas e de lazer pelos pacientes que estavam comprometidas pela espasticidade. Obteve-se melhora em relação ao desempenho após o uso da órtese, com média de 1,4±0,5 para 6,3±0,8 (p<0,01. Quanto à média da satisfação foi de 1,7±0,4 para 6,3±0,6 (p<0,01 com o uso da órtese. Nesta casuística, o uso da órtese de punho e dedos para espasticidade apresentou melhora no desempenho funcional e satisfação do paciente.

  19. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Athanasios; Gertz, Drew Patrick;

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2...... the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple...

  20. Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li; Zhang; Lei; Liu; Chang-Xia; Cui; Ming; Hu; Zhao-Na; Li; Li-Jun; Cao; Xiu-Hua; Jing; Guo-Ying; Mu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser keratomileusis (LASIK). ·METHODS: In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher -order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively. · RESULTS: The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher -order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO -RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up. ·CONCLUSION: Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error.

  1. Effect of wing aspect ratio and flap span on aerodynamic characteristics of an externally blown jet-flap STOL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of flap span and wing aspect ratio on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions on the wing and trailing-edge flap of a straight-wing STOL model having an externally blown jet flap without vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. The force tests were made over an angle-of-attack range for several thrust coefficients and two flap deflections. The pressure data are presented as tabulated and plotted chordwise pressure-distribution coefficients for angles of attack of 1 and 16. Pressure-distribution measurements were made at several spanwise stations.

  2. Complex lower face reconstruction using a combined technique of Estlander flap and subscapular artery system free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Saitou, Takashi; Beppu, Takeshi; Shirakura, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Akio; Yamaki, Takashi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    When advanced mandibular carcinoma is resected, the defect may include lip and oral commissure. Free flap insertion is commonly used to reconstruct the lip defect. Although improvements in the oral reconstructive method via free flap use have been reported, functional and aesthetic results of the oral sphincter remain limited. This case report describes two individuals presenting with massive lower face defects, including a lower lip defect and a mandibular bone defect. Reconstruction was accomplished using the Estlander flap and free subscapular system of flaps. In both cases, the free subscapular artery system flap was elevated from the mandibular bone defect and other mucosal defect. The lower lip and oral commissure defect was reconstructed via Estlander flap. Free flaps survived 100% and both cases healed without complication. Patients regained good oral sphincter function with no reports of drooling. Thus, in cases involving massive lower face resection, including that of the lower lip and mandibular bone, this method of reconstruction when combined with lip-switch flap and subscapular artery system flap can prove to be useful.

  3. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğbreve;ur Dalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing conditions. Rotor blade system response is calculated using the proposed solution method and the developed program depending on any structural and aerodynamic properties of rotor blades, structural properties of trailing edge flaps and properties of trailing edge flap actuator inputs. Rotor blade loads are determined first on a nominal rotor blade without multiple active trailing edge flaps and then the effects of the active flap motions on the existing rotor blade loads are investigated. Multiple active trailing edge flaps are controlled by using open loop controllers to identify the effects of the actuator signal output properties such as frequency, amplitude and phase on the system response. Effects of using multiple trailing edge flaps on controlling rotor blade vibrations are investigated and some design criteria are determined for the design of trailing edge flap controller that will provide actuator signal outputs to minimize the rotor blade root loads. It is calculated that using the developed active trailing edge rotor blade model, helicopter rotor blade vibrations can be reduced up to 36% of the nominal rotor blade vibrations.

  4. Biomechanical comparison of dorsal versus volar plate osteosynthesis for the dorsally unstable distal radius fracture%桡骨远端骨折掌侧与背侧接骨板固定的生物力学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓芒; 付中国; 张殿英; 陈建海; 张培训; 姜保国

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the biomechanical stability of dorsal and volar plate osteosynthesis in the treatment of dorsally displaced distal radius fracture. Methods Six pairs cadaveric radius specimens were osteotomized at the distal region to make the dorsally displaced models, then the specimens were fixed by dorsal plate ostoosynthesis in one specimen (dorsal group) and by volar plate osteosynthesis in the other specimen of the same pair (volar group). Then all the specimens were placed in the Skimazu material testing machine for axial loading till failure. The load-displacement curves were recorded, peak load and energy absorbed by the specimen at the destroying point were gathered to assess the 2 methods of fixation. Statistic analysis was run to compare results of the two groups. Results Five pairs of specimens were bended toward the volar side under axial load, 1 pair of specimens were axially compacted. The mean peak load was (1 326.77±384.86) N for the dorsal group and (1 520.05±579.56) N for the volar group, respectively. The energy absorbed by the specimen at the destroying point was ( 8.21±3.74 ) J for the dorsal group and ( 10.04±3.62 ) J for the volar group respectively. Paired-samples t-test suggested no significant difference between the 2 groups ( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion Volar plate ostoosynthesis is the ideal choice for treatment of distal radius fracture.%目的 比较背侧移位桡骨远端骨折掌、背侧接骨板内固定后的生物力学性能,为桡骨远端骨折的治疗策略提供实验依据.方法 取6对12块人体桡骨远端标本,制作背侧移位桡骨远端骨折模型,配对标本一侧采用接骨板掌侧内固定,另一侧采用接骨板背侧内固定,固定完成后置于材料测试机上进行轴向压缩实验,实验模式为载荷破坏实验,记录载荷一位移曲线,获得标本破坏时的载荷和骨吸收的能量,实验结果进行统计学配对处理.结果 5对标本在轴向载荷

  5. Quadrilobed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for sacrococcygeal defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Heng-lin; SHEN Chuan-an; CHAI Jia-ke; LI Hua-tao; YU Yong-ming; LI Da-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Perforator flaps are used extensively in repairing soft tissue defects.Superior gluteal artery perforatorflaps are used for repairing sacral defects,but the tension required for direct closure of the donor area after harvesting ofrelatively large flaps carries a risk of postoperative dehiscence.This research was to investigate a modified superiorgluteal artery perforator flap for repairing sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects.Methods From June 2003 to April 2010,we used our newly designed superior gluteal artery perforator flap for repair of sacrococcygeal soft tissue defects in 10 patients (study group).The wound and donor areas were measured,and the flaps were designed accordingly.Wound healing was assessed over a follow-up period of 6-38 months.From January 1998 to February 2003,twelve patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated with traditional methods,VY advancement flaps or oblong flaps,as control group.Results After debridement,the soft tissue defects ranged from 12 cm × 10 cm to 26 cm × 22 cm (mean 16.3 cm x 13.5cm).Four patients were treated using right-sided flaps ranging from 15 cm × 11 cm to 25 cm × 20 cm (mean 18.2 cm × 14cm).Four patients were treated using left-sided flaps,and two were treated using both right-and left-sided flaps.Suction drains were removed on postoperative Days 3-21 (mean 5.9) and sutures were removed on postoperative Days 12-14.Each flap included 1-2 perforators for each of the donor and recipient sites.Donor sites were closed directly.All flaps survived.In eight patients,the wounds healed after single-stage surgery.After further debridement,the wounds of the remaining two patients were considered healed on postoperative Days 26 and 33,respectively.The rate of first intention in the study group (80%,8/10) significantly increased than that of control group ((25%,3/12),X2=4.583,P=-0.032).Follow-up examinations found that the flaps had a soft texture without ulceration.In the two patients without

  6. Intraoperative Flap Complications in LASIK Surgery Performed by Ophthalmology Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Diaz-de-Leon, Lorena; Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Navas, Alejandro; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O.; Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the rate of flap-related complications in LASIK surgery performed by in-training ophthalmology residents and to analyze the risk factors for these complications. Methods: We analyzed 273 flap dissections in 145 patients from March 2013 to February 2014. We included all LASIK surgeries performed by 32 ophthalmology residents using a Moria M2 microkeratome. All the flap-related complications were noted. Comparison between both groups with and without complications was performed with an independent Student's t-test and relative risks were calculated. Results: There were 19 flap-related complications out of the 273 flap dissections (6.95%). The most common complication was incomplete flap dissection (n = 10; 3.66%), followed by free-cap (n = 5; 1.83%), and flap-buttonhole (n = 2; 0.73%). There was no significant difference between the complicated and uncomplicated cases in terms of the right versus the left eye, pachymetry results, white-to-white diameter, and spherical equivalent. But this difference was significant for mean keratometry (P = 0.008), K-min (P = 0.01), and K-max (P = 0.03) between these groups. Final visual acuity after rescheduling laser treatment was similar in both groups. Relative risks for flap-related complications were 2.03 for the first LASIK surgery (CI 95% 0.64 to 6.48; P = 0.22) and 1.26 (CI 95% 0.43 to 3.69; P = 0.66) for the surgeon's flap-related complications. Female gender presented an odds ratio of 2.48 (CI 95% 0.68 to 9.00; P = 0.16) for complications. Conclusion: Flap-related complications are common intraoperative event during LASIK surgery performed by in-training ophthalmologists. Keratometries and surgeon's first procedure represent a higher probability for flap related complications than some other biometric parameters of patient's eye. PMID:27621782

  7. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David

    2015-03-25

    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  8. The application of island myocutaneous flap for challenging wounds on cervico-thoracic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Xin; XUE Chun-yu; LI Li; HUAN Jing-ning; GUO En-tan

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To introduce the experiences in the application of island myocutaneous flap for challenging wound on cervico-thoracic region. Methods: Different myocutaneous flaps were selected according to the location, peculiarity and etiological factor of wound. There were 28 cases of island pectoralis major island myocutanuous flaps, 34 cases of latissimus dorsi island myocutaneous flaps, 19 cases of trapizius island myocutaneous flaps and 17 cases of rectus abdominis island myocutaneous flaps in this report. Results: All 98 patients with challenging wound on cervico-thoracic region were successfully treated with this method without complications, and obtained functional and cosmetic effectiveness. Conclusion:Challenging wounds in cervico-nuchal region can be repaired with pertoralis major island myocutaneous flap, latissimus dorsi island myocutaneous flap and trapizius island myocutaneous flap, while challenging wounds in thoracic region can be repaired with latissimus dorsi island myocutaneous flap and rectus abdominis island myocutaneous flap. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic results can be obtained.

  9. Enhancement of photovoltaic cell performance using periodic triangular gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Dey, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    The solar energy industry strives to produce more efficient and yet cost effective solar panels each consisting of an array of photovoltaic (PV) cells. The goal of this study was to enhance the performance of PV cells through increasing the cells' optical efficiency defined as a percentage of surface incident light that reaches the PV material. This was achieved through the reduction of waveguide decoupling loss and Fresnel reflection losses by integrating specific nonimaging micro-optical structures on the top surface of existing PV cells. Due to this integration, optical efficiency and performance were increased through the enhancement of light trapping, light guiding, and in-coupling functionalities. Periodic triangular gratings (PTGs) were designed, nonsequentially modeled, optimized, and fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane as proposed micro-optical structures. Then the performance of PV cells with and without integrated PTGs was evaluated and compared. Initial optical simulation results show that an original PV cell (without PTG) exhibits an average optical efficiency of 32.7% over a range of incident light angles between 15 and 90 deg. Integration of the PTG allows the capture of incoming sunlight by total internal reflection (TIR), whence it is reflected back onto the PV cell for multiple consecutive chances for absorption and PV conversion. Geometry of the PTG was optimized with respect to an angle of light incidence of {15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90} deg. Optical efficiency of the geometrically optimized PTGs was then analyzed under the same set of incident light angles and a maximum optical efficiency of 54.1% was observed for a PV cell with integrated PTG optimized at 90 deg. This is a 53.3% relative improvement in optical performance when compared to an original PV cell. Functional PTG prototypes were then fabricated with optical surface quality (below 10 nm Ra) and integrated with PV cells demonstrating an increase in maximum power by 1.08 mW/cm (7

  10. Complex Technique of Large Sural Flap: An Alternative Option for Free Flap in Large Defect of the Traumatized Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Mohammadkhah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The distally based sural fasciocutaneous flap has become a main part of the reconstruction of the lower leg, heel and foot. However, perfusion problems and venous congestion have been reported. Over the past decade, several flap modifications have been reported to improve flap viability and to solve a myriad of reconstructive needs. The purpose of this paper is to describe our experience in harvesting the reversed large sural flap from the proximal and middle third of the leg for large defects on the foot. We applied the extended reversed sural flap from the proximal third of the leg in traumatized patients which had large defects on their foot. The technique was done in 3 parts: 1- the flaps were designed in the proximal third of the leg five centimeter lipofascial tissue was protected around the pedicle in distal part; 3- The pivot point was located in seven to eight cm proximal the lateral malleolus before the first fasciocutaneous perforators arising from the peroneal artery. Sural flaps from the proximal and middle third of the leg were designed in13 patients who had large defects on their foot. No flap necrosis or split thickness skin graft loss occurred. The flaps healed by the 3rd week excluding two patients. This study supports the application of our technique as a safe, easy and useable method in large defects of the foot. The results showed low rates of ischemia, venous congestion, dehiscence, infection and flap necrosis. Proximal extended and large distally based sural flap is an alternative to free tissue transfer for large defect reconstruction of the foot.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of an autonomous flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.; Navalkar, S.T.; Sodja, J.; De Breuker, R.; Karpel, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental and numerical study of an autonomous load alleviation concept using trailing edge flaps. The flaps are autonomous units, which for instance can be used for gust load alleviation. The unit is self-powered and self-actuated through trailing edge tabs which are moun

  12. Active Flap Control of the SMART Rotor for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven R.; Anand, R. Vaidyanathan; Straub, Friedrich K.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Active control methodologies were applied to a full-scale active flap rotor obtained during a joint Boeing/ DARPA/NASA/Army test in the Air Force National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40- by 80-foot anechoic wind tunnel. The active flap rotor is a full-scale MD 900 helicopter main rotor with each of its five blades modified to include an on-blade piezoelectric actuator-driven flap with a span of 18% of radius, 25% of chord, and located at 83% radius. Vibration control demonstrated the potential of active flaps for effective control of vibratory loads, especially normal force loads. Active control of normal force vibratory loads using active flaps and a continuous-time higher harmonic control algorithm was very effective, reducing harmonic (1-5P) normal force vibratory loads by 95% in both cruise and approach conditions. Control of vibratory roll and pitch moments was also demonstrated, although moment control was less effective than normal force control. Finally, active control was used to precisely control blade flap position for correlation with pretest predictions of rotor aeroacoustics. Flap displacements were commanded to follow specific harmonic profiles of 2 deg or more in amplitude, and the flap deflection errors obtained were less than 0.2 deg r.m.s.

  13. Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap for hand and foot reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang; LEI Hong-yu; GUO Shuang; HUANG Jian-hua; YU Hao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To report the results of repair of skin defects in the extremities with arterialized venous flap harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot.Methods:Six cases of skin and soft tissue defects over the foot and hands were resurfaced by free arterialized venous flaps,including five patients with skin defects of the hands,and one with defects at the dorsum of the foot.The flaps were harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot with the sizes ranging from 2 cm×5.5 cm to 6 cm×11 cm.Two veins at the proximal margin of the flap were retained,one of which was anastomosed to a recipient bed artery to provide arterial inflow and the other was anastomosed to a recipient bed vein for venous outflow.Results:All flaps demonstrated mild edema and survived completely.Blisters appeared on four flaps.Using this technique,we achieved good functional and cosmetic results in this series.Conclusions:Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap with rich vascular communications could enhance peripheral perfusion and decrease congestion of venous flaps,thereby improves reliability and utility for extremity reconstruction.

  14. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal Nawfal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap.

  15. 14 CFR 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap and slat interconnection. 25.701....701 Flap and slat interconnection. (a) Unless the airplane has safe flight characteristics with the... sides of the plane of symmetry must be synchronized by a mechanical interconnection or...

  16. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.C.; Davis, R.K.; Koltai, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary to a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis.

  17. Bifurcation to forward flapping flight at intermediate Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2003-11-01

    The locomotion of most fish and birds is realized by flapping wings or fins transverse to the direction of travel. According to early theoretical studies, a flapping wing translating at finite speed in an inviscid fluid experiences a propulsive force. In steady forward flight this thrust is balanced by drag. Such "lift-based mechanisms" of thrust production are characteristic of the Eulerian realm, where discrete vortical structures are shed. But, when the Reynolds number is small, viscous forces dominate and reciprocal flapping motions are ineffective. A flapping wing experiences a net drag and cannot be used to propel an organism. We have devised an experiment to bridge the two regimes, and to examine the transition to forward flight at intermediate Reynolds numbers. We study the dynamics of an horizontal wing that is flapped up and down and is free to move either forwards or backwards. This very simple kinematics emphasizes the demarcation between low and high Reynolds number because it is effective in the Eulerian realm but has no effect in the Stokesian realm. We show that flapping flight occurs abruptly as a symmetry breaking bifurcation at a critical flapping frequency. Beyond the bifurcation the forward speed increases linearly with the flapping frequency. The experiment establishes a clear demarcation between the different strategies of locomotion at large and small Reynolds number.

  18. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korambayil Pradeoth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18% suffered complications.

  19. The use of free flaps in skull base reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macía, G; Picón, M; Nuñez, J; Almeida, F; Alvarez, I; Acero, J

    2016-02-01

    Skull base tumours are rare, comprising less than 1% of all tumours of the head and neck. Surgical treatment of these tumours involves the approach, the resection, and the reconstruction of the defect, which present a challenge due to the technical difficulty and anatomical complexity. A retrospective study of 17 patients with tumours involving the skull base, treated by resection and immediate reconstruction using microsurgical free flaps, is presented; 11 were men and six were women. The following types of flap were used: osteocutaneous fibula flaps, fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flaps, and myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flaps. The most common histology of the tumours was squamous cell carcinoma. The most frequent point of origin was the paranasal sinuses (58.8%). All of the free flaps used for reconstruction were viable. A cerebrospinal fluid fistula occurred in two patients, and in one of these cases, meningoencephalitis led to death. In conclusion, the reconstruction of large defects of the skull base after ablation requires a viable tissue that in many cases can be obtained only through the use of microvascular free flaps. The type of flap to be selected depends on the anatomical structures and size of the defect to be restored.

  20. Coverage of soft tissue defect in palm with prefabricated flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gong-lin; CAI Guo-rong; ZHANG Ming; ZHENG Liang-jun; ZHANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The coverage of large soft tissue defects in palm remains a challenge in the plastic recon-structive surgery. There are many local tissue transfers described for small-sized defects of hand, whereas large defect require regional flaps such as the radial forearm flap or free tissue transfer.1-5

  1. The versatility of the pectoralis major flap in reconstructive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, E.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The pectoralis major flap is frequently being applied as a pedicled flap for head and neck reconstruction. To reduce donor-site morbidity, muscle-preserving methods using only a segment of this muscle for transplantation, were described. The nerve supply to the clavicular part of the pect

  2. Monitoring microvascular free flaps with tissue oxygen measurement and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aleksi R; Kinnunen, Ilpo A J; Grénman, Reidar A; Minn, Heikki R I; Aitasalo, Kalle M J

    2008-07-01

    Tissue oxygen measurement and positron emission tomography (PET) were evaluated as methods for predicting ischemia in microvascular free flaps of the head and neck. Ten patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer underwent resection of the tumour followed by microvascular reconstruction with a free flap. Tissue oxygenation of the flap (P(ti)O(2)) was continuously monitored for three postoperative (POP) days and the blood flow of the flap was assessed using oxygen-15 labelled water and PET. In three free flaps a perfusion problem was suspected due to a remarkable drop in P(ti)O(2)-values, due to two anastomosis problems and due to POP turgor. No flap losses occurred. During the blood flow measurements with PET [mean 8.5 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1 )(SD 2.5)], the mean P(ti)O(2) of the flaps [46.8 mmHg (SD 17.0)] appeared to correlate with each other in each patient (pmonitoring system of free flaps. The perfusion-study with PET correlates with P(ti)O(2)-measurement.

  3. Self-Assembly of High Density of Triangular Silver Nanoplate Films Promoted by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Abu Bakar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the structure of synthesized triangular silver nanoplates in solution and the growth of the nanoplates on a silicon surface using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS as a coupling agent. The triangular-shaped colloidal silver nanoplates were simply synthesized by a direct chemical reduction approach. We studied the three characteristic peaks of the unique optical absorbance of triangular silver nanoplates and subsequently measured an average edge length of 26 ± 1 nm. The nanoplate thickness was determined to be 7 ± 2 nm from transmission electron microscopy images. Depositing the nanoplates on a silicon surface was carried out to determine the coverage of triangular nanoplates obtained when adhesion was promoted by a coupling agent. The APTMS film assisted the attachment of the nanoplates to the silicon surface and the coverage of the nanoplates increased with increasing deposition time. The triangular silver nanoplate thin film was a monolayer and a high coverage (near complete was obtained after eight hours of exposure to the nanoplate solution. The silver film formed was shown to be a good surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrate as it gave an enormous Raman enhancement for bisphenol A (BPA.

  4. Comparison of two-transsacral-screw fixation versus triangular osteosynthesis for transforaminal sacral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyong S; Zamorano, David P; Wahba, George M; Garcia, Ivan; Bhatia, Nitin; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-09-01

    Transforaminal pelvic fractures are high-energy injuries that are translationally and rotationally unstable. This study compared the biomechanical stability of triangular osteosynthesis vs 2-transsacral-screw fixation in the repair of a transforaminal pelvic fracture model. A transforaminal fracture model was created in 10 cadaveric lumbopelvic specimens. Five of the specimens were stabilized with triangular osteosynthesis, which consisted of unilateral L5-to-ilium lumbopelvic fixation and ipsilateral iliosacral screw fixation. The remaining 5 were stabilized with a 2-transsacral-screw fixation technique that consisted of 2 transsacral screws inserted across S1. All specimens were loaded cyclically and then loaded to failure. Translation and rotation were measured using the MicroScribe 3D digitizing system (Revware Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina). The 2-transsacral-screw group showed significantly greater stiffness than the triangular osteosynthesis group (2-transsacral-screw group, 248.7 N/mm [standard deviation, 73.9]; triangular osteosynthesis group, 125.0 N/mm [standard deviation, 66.9]; P=.02); however, ultimate load and rotational stiffness were not statistically significant. Compared with triangular osteosynthesis fixation, the use of 2 transsacral screws provides a comparable biomechanical stability profile in both translation and rotation. This newly revised 2-transsacral-screw construct offers the traumatologist an alternative method of repair for vertical shear fractures that provides biplanar stability. It also offers the advantage of percutaneous placement in either the prone or supine position.

  5. The Interval-Valued Triangular Fuzzy Soft Set and Its Method of Dynamic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set is presented, and some operations of “AND,” “OR,” intersection, union and complement, and so forth are defined. Then some relative properties are discussed and several conclusions are drawn. A dynamic decision making model is built based on the definition of interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set, in which period weight is determined by the exponential decay method. The arithmetic weighted average operator of interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set is given by the aggregating thought, thereby aggregating interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft sets of different time-series into a collective interval-valued triangular fuzzy soft set. The formulas of selection and decision values of different objects are given; therefore the optimal decision making is achieved according to the decision values. Finally, the steps of this method are concluded, and one example is given to explain the application of the method.

  6. A framework for dense triangular matrix kernels on various manycore architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-06-06

    We present a new high-performance framework for dense triangular Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) kernels, ie, triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and triangular solve (TRSM), on various manycore architectures. This is an extension of a previous work on a single GPU by the same authors, presented at the EuroPar\\'16 conference, in which we demonstrated the effectiveness of recursive formulations in enhancing the performance of these kernels. In this paper, the performance of triangular BLAS kernels on a single GPU is further enhanced by implementing customized in-place CUDA kernels for TRMM and TRSM, which are called at the bottom of the recursion. In addition, a multi-GPU implementation of TRMM and TRSM is proposed and we show an almost linear performance scaling, as the number of GPUs increases. Finally, the algorithmic recursive formulation of these triangular BLAS kernels is in fact oblivious to the targeted hardware architecture. We, therefore, port these recursive kernels to homogeneous x86 hardware architectures by relying on the vendor optimized BLAS implementations. Results reported on various hardware architectures highlight a significant performance improvement against state-of-the-art implementations. These new kernels are freely available in the KAUST BLAS (KBLAS) open-source library at https://github.com/ecrc/kblas.

  7. Hesitant Triangular Fuzzy Information Aggregation Operators Based on Bonferroni Means and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) problems with hesitant triangular fuzzy information. Firstly, definition and some operational laws of hesitant triangular fuzzy elements are introduced. Then, we develop some hesitant triangular fuzzy aggregation operators based on Bonferroni means and discuss their basic properties. Some existing operators can be viewed as their special cases. Next, we apply the proposed operators to deal with multiple attribute decision-making problems under hesitant triangular fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the developed method and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness. PMID:25140338

  8. Effect of Stacking Faults in Triangular Defects on 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kazuya; Nakata, Shuhei; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakao, Yukiyasu; Nagae, Akemi; Tanaka, Takanori; Nakamura, Yu; Toyoda, Yoshihiko; Sumitani, Hiroaki; Oomori, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between stacking faults and the position of the leakage current inside a triangular defect was analyzed. Triangular defects are categorized into two types on the basis of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. It was found that stacking faults (SFs) of the 3C structure inside a triangular defect increase leakage current at a reverse bias voltage as well as forward current at a low bias voltage, while SFs of the SF(4,2) structure inside a triangular defect do not lead to deterioration of device performance in this case.

  9. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-Han Tsai,1 Kai-Ling Peng,1 Chien-Jen Lin2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK.Case presentation: A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of −0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later.Literature review: We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014.Conclusion: Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could

  10. Breast Reconstruction Using Tram Flap: Prospective Outcome and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Zehtab

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous TRAM flap remains the gold standard for postmastectomy reconstruction either immediate or delayed.However,transfer of TRAM flap can be associated with donor site morbidities and complications in flap.A successful reconstruction consists of careful patient selection, surgical technique and meticulous preoperative planning.This study was designed to evaluate outcome and complications of breast reconstruction with TRAM flap in association with patient conditions and risk factors, prospectively. Methods: Breast reconstruction was performed in 44 women consecutively,using the TRAM flap during a 3-year period, 1999–2002. Modified radical mastectomy accompanying immediate reconstructions with TRAM flap was performed for 12 patients and delayed reconstruction was used for other patients with previous mastectomy. Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.41±4.43 years. Thirty (68.18% patients had comorbidities, consisting of radiation therapy, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and abdominal scar. Contralateral and ipsilateral TRAM flaps were used in 26(59.09% and 14(31.81% reconstructions, respectively. The abdominal defect was repaired in layers with the use of synthetic mesh in 30(68.18% patients. The overall complication rate was 31.82%, such as fat necrosis (15.91%, partial flap loss (13.64%, etc. Satisfaction rates were excellent in 10 (22.72%, good in 25 (56.82%, moderate in five (11.36%, and poor in four (9.09% patients. The mean of postoperative inpatient hospital days were 15.18±4.89 and 14.28±6.52 in patients with contralateral and ipsilateral flaps,respectively (p>0.05.A significant association was observed between overall complications and comorbidities. Partial flap loss and fat necrosis was associated with smoking, and abdominal hernia was associated with obesity marginally.Conclusions:The outcome of breast reconstruction using TRAM flap is similar by

  11. Reconstruction of weightbearing forefoot defects with digital artery flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; Cao, Xuecheng; Cai, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of a defect of the weightbearing forefoot region remains a challenging problem owing to the limited alternatives available. The digital artery flap can be used for coverage of defects in the weightbearing forefoot. The present study reports our results using a digital artery flap for reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the weightbearing forefoot in 8 patients. The mean patient age was 35 ± 11.3 years. The etiology of the soft tissue defects included 4 (50%) traumatic events, 2 (25%) dysfunctional scars, and 2 (25%) neuropathic ulcerations. The mean postoperative follow-up duration was 22 ± 11.1 months (range 12 months to 4 years). All 8 flaps survived successfully. The complications included 1 case of delayed healing of a neuropathic ulceration. The digital artery flap is a good alternative for soft tissue defects of the weightbearing forefoot. The surgical techniques for harvesting the flaps are easy to manage.

  12. Distally Based Abductor Hallucis Adipomuscular Flap for Forefoot Plantar Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanglim; Kim, Min Bom; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Jeong Kook; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue and bone defects of the lower leg, ankle, and heel region often require coverage by local or distant flaps. The authors successfully used the distally based adipomuscular abductor hallucis flap for the treatment of 7 patients with soft tissue defect on the plantar forefoot after diabetic ulcer (n = 2), excision of melanoma at the medial forefoot (n = 3), and posttraumatic defects of the plantar forefoot (n = 2). The size of the defects ranged from 6 to 36 cm. All defects were covered successfully without major complications. The distally based adipomuscular flap from the abductor hallucis muscle provides a reliable coverage for small and moderate defects of the plantar and medial forefoot. This flap is often preferable to the use of free flaps because the surgery is rapidly performed and does not require microsurgical expertise.

  13. [Correction of severe alar retraction with alar rotation flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chun; Zheng, Dongxue; Lu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of alar rotation flap for severe alar retraction. Patients with severely retracted alar underwent ala reconstruction using alar rotation flaps and autogenous cartilage batten grafts. First, costal cartilage was used to reshape the nasal tip and nasal dorsum. Then cartilage patch was used to extend and thicken the retracted alar. Then the alar rotation flap was transferred to correct retracted alar. Fourteen patients with severe alar retraction underwent alar reconstruction with alar rotation flap and alar batten grafts. The alar retraction was corrected in all cases, with improvements functionally and aesthetically. No recurrence of alar retraction was noted. The incision healed with acceptable cosmetic results, with obvious scar in only one patient (one side). The alar rotation flap is an effective and reliable surgical option to correct severe alar retraction. Scar can be kept inconspicuous by precise placement of the incision within the junction of the ala and the nasal dorsum, following principles of the aesthetic nasal subunits.

  14. Coarse-grained models for interacting, flapping swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael; Courant Institute Applied Math Lab Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by ongoing experiments in the NYU Applied Math Lab, in which freely-translating, heaving airfoils interact hydrodynamically to choose their relative positions and velocities. We develop a discrete dynamical system in which flapping swimmers shed point vortices during each flapping cycle, which in turn exert forces on the swimmers. We present a framework for finding exact solutions to the evolution equations and for assessing their stability, giving physical insight into the preference for certain observed "schooling states". The model may be extended to arrays of flapping swimmers, and configurations in which the swimmers' flapping frequencies are incommensurate. Generally, our results indicate how hydrodynamics may mediate schooling and flocking behavior in biological contexts. A. Oza acknowledges the support of the NSF Mathematical Sciences Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  15. Function of the sensate free forearm flap after partial glossectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglioli, Federico; Liviero, Fabio; Frigerio, Alice; Rezzonico, Angela; Brusati, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    To compare functional recovery of sensitive free forearm flaps with non-sensitive free forearm flaps, following reconstruction for partial glossectomy. Sixteen patients underwent partial glossectomy for oncological reasons, of whom: nine patients underwent repair with non-sensitive free forearm flaps (group A) and seven with sensitive free flaps (group B). All patients underwent the following tests: (1) tactile sensitivity evaluation, localization of stimulus, sharp/blunt definition, discrimination between two points (static and dynamic), thermal sensitivity to heat/cold; (2) speech evaluation by means of the modified Fanzago test; (3) subjective evaluation concerning the degree of satisfaction of the following functions: swallowing, feeding and talking. The sensitivity and logopaedic evaluation tests and the subjective evaluation charts highlight an overall better functional recovery of the sensitive repair than the non-sensitive ones. In patients who have undergone partial glossectomy repair with free forearm neurofasciocutaneous flaps allow good recovery of oral functions and, therefore, a good quality of life.

  16. Vaginal reconstruction using perineal-thigh flaps with subcutaneous pedicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Chen, C; Chen, M; Zhang, J; Wu, N; Wang, J

    1991-03-01

    A technique of vaginal reconstruction using bilateral, perineal-thigh flaps with subcutaneous pedicle is described. In this procedure, the flaps were raised bilaterally and introduced into an artificial space between the urinary bladder and rectum. The blood supply for the flaps flows from the perineal artery through anastomotic branches to the external pudendal artery. The authors used the technique on four patients, and all the flaps survived entirely. There was no complication. According to a more than two-year follow-up survey, the reconstructed vaginas are expansible and contract little. No stent is needed. There is good sensitivity in the wall of the artificial vagina because sensory nerves run through the flaps.

  17. Free Flap Procedures for Reconstruction After Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Erin

    2015-12-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are seeking improved surgical procedures to avoid severe defects that result from head and neck cancer resection. Free flap reconstruction provides vascularized tissue that has been transferred from a distant donor site on a patient's body to a recipient site, markedly improving wound closure and protecting structures of the head and neck. This article discusses free flap procedures for reconstruction after head and neck cancer resection, including the following procedure phases: airway protection and neck dissections, tumor resection, flap harvest, microvascular anastomosis of the flap, and reconstruction and closure. The article also explains specific risk factors for patients undergoing free flap procedures that have been identified in the literature and include procedure length, hypothermia, and pressure injuries. Each of these factors is discussed regarding its specific effect on this patient population, and the nursing interventions to reduce these risks are identified.

  18. Thenar flap for severe finger tip injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitoussi, F; Ghorbani, A; Jehanno, P; Frajman, J M; Penneçot, G F

    2004-04-01

    Twelve children aged between 18 months and 11 years old who had sustained a severe fingertip amputation with total or subtotal pulp loss were treated with a distal-based thenar flap. The injuries were palmar oblique amputations or avulsion injuries involving the pulp and the nail bed. The pedicles of the thenar flaps were divided after 18 to 25 days and none suffered any necrosis. At the final follow-up, no interphalangeal joint contractures were found, the average two point discrimination was 5mm, the thenar scar was asymptomatic and the subcutaneous tissue of the thenar flap was providing sufficient bulk to produce a rounded contour, like a normal fingertip. The thenar flap is a useful technique for use with severe fingertip injuries when local flaps cannot provide enough soft tissue and replantation is not possible.

  19. Alar flap combined with free auricular composite flap for the reconstruction of nasal alar defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wentao; Qing, Yong; Liu, Jia; Cen, Ying

    2015-03-01

    The nasal ala plays an important role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Repairing the nasal alar defect, especially full-thickness alar defect, is one of the difficulties of plastic surgeons. In this article, a new surgical method is introduced about repairing full-thickness alar defect with free auricular composite flaps and local nasal alar rotation and advancement tissue flaps. We retrospectively reviewed 6 patients with a diagnosis of full-thickness alar defect between 2010 and 2013. All of them accepted this new surgical method. The patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. The method used local nasal alar rotation and advancement tissue flap to form new nasal rim and made the defect of nasal rim shift to alar groove region. After that, we harvested free auricular composite flap to repair the new defect. All patients attained relatively symmetrical nostrils with a natural, smooth, integrated alar rim and inconspicuous scars. All the reconstructed nasal alae were aesthetically satisfactory. Slight atrophy of grafts was observed in all patients. The shape of the donor ear changed a little. Two patients experienced hyperpigmentation change and one patient presented slight hypertrophic scar in the suture site. No other complications were observed. This simple method not only reconstructed almost normal nasal alar rims and alar grooves but also improved the survival rate of the composite grafts without any free edges. This method also changed the traditional free auricular tissue flap location from the nasal alar rim to the upper alar groove region, which would help achieve more aesthetic appearance. This new method is a creative and useful technique for the repair of full-thickness alar defect.

  20. Application of skin flaps transplantation in burn surgery in China%皮瓣移植在我国烧伤外科中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓元

    2008-01-01

    The history and application of surgical flap transplantation in burn wound were briefly reviewed. We outlined skin flap, muscuiocutaneous flap, fascia flap and neurocutaneous vascular flap in this paper and recommended repair deep wounds with flap. All in all, in this review, we hope to provide a meaningful option for clinical application of surgical flap in the future.

  1. Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Remmert, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF). The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects. The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues. Minor defects (extent (1/4) or less) required no reconstructive procedure at any area. Major defect closure (extent (1/2)-3/4) was accomplished with a combination of IMF covered by a radial forearm flap (RFF). A complete reconstruction of the OT was achieved with a combination of a bilateral IMF covered by a RFF. Whenever the complete BT has to be removed, interposition of a vein graft to establish a sufficient arterial blood supply to the remaining OT is mandatory. Moreover, a larynx lift to prevent aspiration is recommendable. Resection of adjacent soft tissues requires a larger RFF (OT; BT) or flaps from the shoulder-back region (BT and OT). Whenever the integrity of the mandible has to be sacrificed, a free fibula graft serves as an excellent tool for reconstruction. IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue. Reliability and versatility of IMF may contribute to a reduced time required for surgery since harvesting is performed in the neck area immediately after neck dissection. Moreover, harvesting of the IMF does not result in an increased postoperative morbidity. Hence, functional restoration can be achieved with a more cost-effective procedure.

  2. A New Surgical Procedure for Penile Reconstruction by Combined Free Radial Forearm Flap and Dorsalis Pedis Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sunxiang; Cheng, Kaixiang; Liu, Yang; Chen, Fuguo

    2016-11-01

    To introduce a new surgical procedure for penile reconstruction, emphasizing both the aesthetic appearance and the function by combined free radial forearm flap and dorsalis pedis flap. In this procedure, the penis was subdivided into 2 anatomic subunits: the penile shaft and the glans penis. A sequential innervated radial forearm free flap was combined with a dorsalis pedis free flap to reconstruct the penile shaft and the glans, separately. Cartilage prosthesis was implanted at the same time. Since May 2011, 14 biologically male patients with total penile losses by various reasons were treated with this procedure. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by questionnaire, and sensory testing was performed. The ages of the patients ranged between 21 and 53 years (mean, 35.2 years). The average follow-up period was 38.1 months (range, 25.5-56 months). Twenty-five flaps in 11 patients were 100% viable. One dorsalis pedis flap in a patient underwent partial necrosis. There were no cases of urethral fistula or urethral stenosis, but 1 case of prosthesis infection and 1 case of abdominal hernia were recorded. The sensation of the neophallus recovered 3-6 months after surgery, and the patient satisfaction rate was quite high. The new surgical procedure of combined free radial forearm flap and dorsalis pedis flap for penile reconstruction achieves both satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. We recommend this procedure as an alternative ideal method for total penile reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstructive Surgery for Severe Penile Inadequacy: Phalloplasty with a Free Radial Forearm Flap or a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lumen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Severe penile inadequacy in adolescents is rare. Phallic reconstruction to treat this devastating condition is a major challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Phallic reconstruction using the free radial forearm flap (RFF or the pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF has been routinely used in female-to-male transsexuals. Recently we started to use these techniques in the treatment of severe penile inadequacy. Methods. Eleven males (age 15 to 42 years were treated with a phallic reconstruction. The RFF is our method of choice; the ALTF is an alternative when a free flap is contraindicated or less desired by the patient. The RFF was used in 7 patients, the ALTF in 4 patients. Mean followup was 25 months (range: 4–49 months. Aesthetic and functional results were evaluated. Results. There were no complications related to the flap. Aesthetic results were judged as “good” in 9 patients and “moderate” in 2 patients. Sensitivity in the RFF was superior compared to the ALTF. Four patients developed urinary complications (stricture and/or fistula. Six patients underwent erectile implant surgery. In 2 patients the erectile implant had to be removed due to infection or erosion. Conclusion. In case of severe penile inadequacy due to whatever condition, a phalloplasty is the preferred treatment nowadays. The free radial forearm flap is still the method of choice. The anterolateral thigh flap can be a good alternative, especially when free flaps are contraindicated, but sensitivity is markedly inferior in these flaps.

  4. Speech and swallowing function after reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap or a pectoralis major flap for tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wan-Fu; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Sheng, Hwa

    2002-07-01

    The tongue plays a more significant role in English than in Mandarin, both in apical-palatal consonant production and tense-lax distinction. Theoretically, the same surgical intervention may produce a less significant impact on postoperative Mandarin production. The impact of tongue reconstruction on Mandarin articulation has not been reported. This study compared the tongue function outcome obtained using two methods of tongue reconstruction, radial forearm free flap transfer and pectoralis major flap transfer. Twenty-five patients with carcinoma of the tongue underwent tumor resection. The surgical defects were reconstructed using a pectoralis major flap in six patients and a radial forearm flap in 19 patients. Swallowing and speech function were evaluated 6 months to 5 years after the reconstruction. Speech intelligibility and a Mandarin articulation test were used to evaluate the articulation proficiency before and after surgery. Clinical evaluation of deglutition included a questionnaire on dietary habits and a swallowing rating of 1 to 7. Clinical evaluation showed that patients with free flap reconstruction had more intelligible speech (p = 0.014) even after total glossectomy. Assessment of data obtained by clinical questionnaire showed no significant difference between the two groups in swallowing function. Motility due to flap pliability increased speech intelligibility but had little effect on swallowing function. Our results suggest that radial forearm flap transfer is better than pectoralis major flap transfer in preserving speech function and that there is no significant difference between the two methods of reconstruction in their impact on swallowing function.

  5. Endoscopic, assisted, modified turbinoplasty with mucosal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, M M; Segal, N; Joshua, B-Z

    2012-05-01

    A variety of surgical methods have been developed to reduce the volume of the inferior turbinates, in order to create a more patent nasal airway. We describe a technique used in our department since February 2002 for all patients undergoing inferior turbinectomy. We resect with endoscopic assistance the lateral mucosa and bony inferior turbinate. This technique can reduce a large volume of the turbinate while preserving the mucosal continuity and the submucosa by covering the raw surface with a mucosal flap. We believe our method minimises post-operative side effects and complications such as dryness, infection, bleeding and pain.

  6. Algorithm of Detecting and Filling Small Holes in Triangular Mesh Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dong-sheng; JIANG Chao; DONG Jing; LIU Rui

    2014-01-01

    In some scattered point cloud triangular mesh restoration algorithm, small triangular mesh holes problem will often affect the quality of the model. For small holes at the details, this paper propose a method for identifying and extracting hollow edge,and use a triangle growth way based on boundary edge angle to fill the empty void. First, according the relationship of the point, side and face of the triangle mesh model to identify the hole, then extracting the holes boundary edge and classifying it. Finally, using a triangle growth method based on holes boundary edge angle to fill each small holes separated from the boundary. Compared with other algorithm of filling holes, this method is high efficiency for small holes of smooth surface,and itimprovesthe quality of the triangular mesh model.

  7. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite reinforced with aligned triangular bars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bryan Pajarito; Masatoshi Kubouchi; Saiko Aoki

    2014-02-01

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were determined by least-square curve fitting to the experimental data. Diffusion parameters of epoxy and vinyl ester resin were used as input during development of finite element (FE) model of polymer composite. Through transient FE diffusion analysis, anisotropic water transport in thickness direction of the polymer composite was numerically predicted and validated against experimental results. The case of using impermeable triangular bars was also numerically simulated. The diffusivity of reinforced aligned triangular bars was confirmed to affect anisotropic water transport in the composite. The results of this work suggest possible use of polymer composite for barrier and fluid removal applications.

  8. Study on the Optical Properties of Triangular Cavity Absorber for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analytical method for optical properties of cavity absorber was proposed in this paper and the optical design software TracePro was used to analyze the optical properties of triangular cavity absorber. It was found that the optimal optical properties could be achieved with appropriate aperture width, depth-to-width ratio, and offset distance from focus of triangular cavity absorber. Based on the results of orthogonal experiment, the optimized triangular cavity absorber was designed. Results showed that the standard deviation of irradiance and optical efficiency of optimized designed cavity absorber were 30528 W/m2 and 89.23%, respectively. Therefore, this study could offer some valuable references for designing the parabolic trough solar concentrator in the future.

  9. Analytical solution to problems of hydraulic jump in horizontal triangular channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.H. Rashwan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A hydraulic jump is formed in a channel whenever supercritical flow changes to subcritical flow in a short distance. It can be used in triangular ditch irrigation to raise the downstream water surface. The basic elements and characteristics of the hydraulic jump are provided to aid designers in selecting more practical basins. In the present study, the slope side, discharge and the energy loss in hydraulic jump in horizontal triangular section are known whereas one has to obtain the sequent depths. The specific force and specific energy equations in a horizontal triangular open channel are made dimensionless, writing it for the sequent depths as a function of discharge and head loss. The proposed modes for hydraulic jump elements are of high accuracy and applicable to a wide range of discharge intensity values and initial conditions without any limitations for the assumptions under consideration.

  10. Extended particle swarm optimisation method for folding protein on triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuzhen; Wu, Zikai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the authors studied the protein structure prediction problem by the two-dimensional hydrophobic-polar model on triangular lattice. Particularly the non-compact conformation was modelled to fold the amino acid sequence into a relatively larger triangular lattice, which is more biologically realistic and significant than the compact conformation. Then protein structure prediction problem was abstracted to match amino acids to lattice points. Mathematically, the problem was formulated as an integer programming and they transformed the biological problem into an optimisation problem. To solve this problem, classical particle swarm optimisation algorithm was extended by the single point adjustment strategy. Compared with square lattice, conformations on triangular lattice are more flexible in several benchmark examples. They further compared the authors' algorithm with hybrid of hill climbing and genetic algorithm. The results showed that their method was more effective in finding solution with lower energy and less running time.

  11. Transformation of design formulae for feed line of triangular microstrip antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Monika; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Swami, Swati; Vats, Abhijat

    2016-03-01

    In wireless communication system microstrip antenna is the key component. Popular shapes of patch for microstrip are rectangular, triangular and circular. A new transformation design formulae for feed line of rectangular microstrip antenna by using equivalent design concept were presented by the authors. That says one designed antenna for a given frequency on any substrate can be transformed into another substrate material for the same design frequency by simply multiply a factor ψ to the all dimensions of patch, length of feed line and some power of ψ for feed line width (where ψ is the square root of the ratio of dielectric constants of those two designs). This paper presents that the same formulae of that rectangular transformation feed line can also be applicable for triangular shape microstrip antenna transformation. The process was repeated for the triangular shape patch microstrip antenna as applied for rectangular shape and the simulation results were surprisingly the same for it by applying the same transformation formulae.

  12. Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Mulvey, BS

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

  13. A new flap design for release of parallel contracture bands: dual opposing five-flap z-plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Burak

    2014-12-01

    Skin contractures secondary to burn and other types of trauma can be encountered on almost every part of human body, best addressed by a custom treatment protocol tailored for each patient. Skin graft, local flap as well as distant flap options are available, each with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages. In the presence of weblike contracture the utilization of local tissue, when available, is a prefered approach for a relatively better appearance through a reasonably simpler surgical intervention, compared to skin graft applications and distant flap options. Among many other techniques and modalities utilized for this purpose, the dual opposing five-flap z-plasty method which is a novel method designed as a modification of the paired five-flap z-plasty technique promises to be a useful treatment option for the release of parallel contracture bands with satisfactory results in selected patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Flap prefabrication and stem cell-assisted tissue expansion: how we acquire a monoblock flap for full face resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Li, Haizhou; Zhou, Shuangbai; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Xie, Feng; Xie, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Total face skin and soft-tissue defects remain one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Reconstruction of the entire face with uniform coverage and delicate features is difficult to achieve. To avoid the patchwork result seen in multiple flaps and skin grafts, 1 monoblock flap that has similar color, texture, and thickness might be an ideal option to minimize the incisional scars and several surgical procedures but is unavailable with current approaches because of the lack of sufficient matched tissue and the unreliable blood supply for such a large flap. To acquire a monoblock flap for full face reconstruction, we combine the prefabricated flaps, skin overexpansion, and bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation for total facial resurfacing. In this article, we present our experience from our case series that provides universally matched skin and near-normal facial contour. It is a reliable and an excellent reconstructive option for massive facial skin defect.

  15. Tangential View and Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Fluoroscopy for the Detection of Screw-Misplacements in Volar Plating of Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rausch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Volar locking plate fixation has become the gold standard in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. Juxta-articular screws should be placed as close as possible to the subchondral zone, in an optimized length to buttress the articular surface and address the contralateral cortical bone. On the other hand, intra-articular screw misplacements will promote osteoarthritis, while the penetration of the contralateral bone surface may result in tendon irritations and ruptures. The intraoperative control of fracture reduction and implant positioning is limited in the common postero-anterior and true lateral two-dimensional (2D-fluoroscopic views. Therefore, additional 2D-fluoroscopic views in different projections and intraoperative three-dimensional (3D fluoroscopy were recently reported. Nevertheless, their utility has issued controversies. Objectives The following questions should be answered in this study; 1 Are the additional tangential view and the intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy useful in the clinical routine to detect persistent fracture dislocations and screw misplacements, to prevent revision surgery? 2 Which is the most dangerous plate hole for screw misplacement? Patients and Methods A total of 48 patients (36 females and 13 males with 49 unstable distal radius fractures (22 x 23 A; 2 x 23 B, and 25 x 23 C were treated with a 2.4 mm variable angle LCP Two-Column volar distal radius plate (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland during a 10-month period. After final fixation, according to the manufactures' technique guide and control of implant placement in the two common perpendicular 2D-fluoroscopic images (postero-anterior and true lateral, an additional tangential view and intraoperative 3D fluoroscopic scan were performed to control the anatomic fracture reduction and screw placements. Intraoperative revision rates due to screw misplacements (intra-articular or overlength were evaluated. Additionally, the number of

  16. Pedestal properties of H-modes with negative triangularity using the EPED-CH model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, A.; Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu

    2017-10-01

    The EPED model has been designed to predict the pedestal height and width from a minimal set of parameters and using the stability of the pedestal region for global MHD peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes as well as local kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs). This approach has been validated for type-I ELMy H-modes and quiescent H-modes (QH) but can also be used for other types of H-modes where it usually sets an upper limit on the achievable pedestal height. Using the recently developed EPED-like model called EPED-CH and based on the equilibrium codes CHEASE and CAXE and the MHD stability code KINX, we investigate in this work the effect of negative triangularity on the pedestal structure. Our simulation results confirm the experimental results from TCV where a reduction of the pedestal height was observed when going from positive to negative top triangularity. This was interpreted as a degradation of the peeling-ballooning stability due to the closed access to the second stability region for ballooning modes in the case of negative triangularity. This effect is further enhanced by the coupling to the KBM stability criterion in EPED simulations. The novel concept of the negative triangularity tokamak (a DEMO-sized machine) is also investigated. Again a strong reduction of the pedestal height and width is observed going from positive to negative triangularity for up-down symmetric equilibria. The pedestal height is also reduced going to more up-down asymmetric cases. The beneficial effect of the global β value on the pedestal height, which is linked to the second stability access, is strongly reduced for negative triangularity.

  17. Free Medial Plantar Flap Connection with a Posterior Tibial Artery Flap in Reconstruction of Fore–Mid Foot Skin Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sheng, Jia-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there are many surgical treatments for covering the skin defect of the fore–mid foot, how to reconstruct the weight-bearing region remains a challenge. The weight-bearing region of the sole needs to withstand the pressure and shearing stresses of walking, so the plantar skin is anatomically different from other skins in the areas of texture, thickness, subcutaneous tissue, etc. Medial plantar flaps that are harvested from the instep region are regarded as the first choice for weight-bearing region reconstruction because of their excellent functional and aesthetic long-term result. However, when facing an extensive skin defect on a weight-bearing area such as a fore–mid foot avulsion, the application of this flap is limited because if we put the flap in a weight-bearing area of the forefoot, the set of vessels will be exposed to outside. Methods: We suggest 2 connected free flaps (posterior tibial artery flap and medial plantar flap) pedicled with 1 set of vessels. The medial plantar flap was used to cover the skin defect of the weight-bearing area in the forefoot. The dorsal skin defect of the injured foot was covered with a posterior tibial artery flap and supplied the medial plantar flap with the posterior tibial vessel. The midfoot skin defect was repaired by a full-skin grafting. Results: Long-term follow-up results showed that the shape and function of the injured limbs recovered almost entirely. Conclusion: This method of connected flaps is suitable for repairing large skin defects of the fore–mid foot. PMID:27975013

  18. [Early effectiveness of combining radial forearm free flap and adjacent tissue flap in reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfeng; Zhang, Kai; Li, Jiancheng; Xu, Jingcheng; Liao, Shengkai; Xu, Tao

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the method of combining radial forearm free flap and adjacent tissue flap in reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects and its effectiveness. Between March 2005 and May 2010, 17 patients with palatomaxillary defects were treated. There were 11 males and 6 females with an age range of 45-74 years (mean, 62.5 years), including 1 case of benign tumor and 16 cases of malignant tumors (7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of palate, 1 case of recurring squamous cell carcinoma of palate, 1 case of malignant melanoma of palate, 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of palate, 1 case of malignant melanoma of maxilla, 1 case of ductal carcinoma of maxilla, and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla). The maxillectomy defect ranged from 7.0 cm x 5.5 cm to 10.0 cm x 7.5 cm. According to Brown's classification for the maxillectomy defect, there were type II in 15 cases, type III in 2 cases. Palatomaxillary defects were repaired with radial forearm free flap and buccal fat pad in 11 cases, and with radial forearm free flap, buccal fat pad, and mandibular osteomuscular flap pedicled with temporal muscle in 6 cases. The effectiveness was evaluated after operation by observing the vitality of the flap, the functions of speech, swallowing, breath, and the facial appearance. All cases were followed up 6-12 months without tumor recurrence. All flaps and skin grafts at donor sites survived. The functions of speech, swallowing, and breath were normal without obvious opening limitation. The facial appearance was satisfactory without obvious maxillofacial deformity. No enophthalmos occurred in patients with orbital floor and infraorbital rim defects. The patients had no oronasal fistula with satisfactory oral and nasal functions. According to the type of palatomaxillary defects, it can have good early effectiveness to select combining radial forearm free flap and buccal fat pad or combining radial forearm free flap, buccal fat pad, and mandibular osteomuscular flap for

  19. The free vascularized flap and the flap plate options: comparative results of reconstruction of lateral mandibular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitzer, T; Gullane, P J; Neligan, P C; Irish, J C; Freeman, J E; Van den Brekel, M; Gur, E

    2000-12-01

    Reconstruction of the mandible and oral cavity after segmental resection is a challenging surgical problem. Although osteocutaneous free flaps are generally accepted to be optimal for reconstruction of anterior defects, the need for bony reconstruction for a pure lateral mandibular defect remains controversial. A retrospective study. A retrospective comparative study of short- and long-term outcomes of three different reconstruction techniques for lateral defects was performed. In total, 57 patients were included, of whom 27 had a plate and pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF group), 16 had a plate and free radial forearm flap (FRFF group), and 14 had an osteocutaneous free flap. Functionality, flap failure, and complications were scored. Plates had to be removed in 7 of the 27 patients in the PMMF group and 2 of the 16 in the FRFF group; none of the 14 osteocutaneous free flaps failed. The difference was of borderline statistical significance (P = .055). Longterm functional outcome revealed no statistically significant difference in oral deglutition (P = .76) or in facial contour (P = .36). Oral continence was significantly better in patients in the FRFF group (88%) as compared with the PMMF group (52%) or the osteocutaneous free flap group (43%) (P = .02). On the other hand, the results for speech favored the osteocutaneous free flap group; 13 of 14 patients (92.9%) had a normal score compared with 12 of 16 patients (75%) in the FRFF group and 17 of 27 (63%) in the PMMF group. However, this represented a borderline statistically significant result (P = .06). For lateral mandibular defects, the osteocutaneous free flap is reliable and durable in the long term. However, in a selected group of patients either of the two flap-plate options is a viable reconstructive option.

  20. A teoria triangular do amor de Sternberg e o modelo dos cinco grandes fatores Sternberg's triangular theory of love and the big five factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gomes Mônego

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a influência dos traços de personalidade de acordo com o modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores (CGF e do amor segundo a Teoria Triangular do Amor de Sternberg na satisfação conjugal. A amostra foi composta por 192 universitários que vivenciavam um relacionamento amoroso classificado como ficante, namoro/noivado ou casamento. Os participantes responderam coletivamente à Escala Fatorial de Satisfação em Relacionamento de Casal, à Escala Triangular do Amor de Sternberg e à Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os resultados indicaram padrões diferentes de correlação para cada tipo de relacionamento e o modelo de Regressão Linear Múltipla foi significativo (F=23,19, gl=10, pThis present study investigated the influence of personality traits according to the Big Five Factors (CGF model and to love according to Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in marital satisfaction. Sample was composed by 192 undergraduate students who experienced a loving relationship classified as an informal relationship, dating/engagement or wedding. Participants answered the "Escala Fatorial de Satisfação em Relacionamento de Casal", the Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed different patterns of correlation for each type of relationship and multiple linear regression model was significant (F=23.19, df=10, p<0.001 and explained 58% of the variance. The intimacy, passion and conscientiousness constructs contributed positively to the satisfaction, while neuroticism had a negative influence. The commitment component and the other personality traits did not reach statistical significance.