WorldWideScience

Sample records for volar forearm skin

  1. Reversed Palmaris Longus Muscle Causing Volar Forearm Pain and Ulnar Nerve Paresthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhashyam, Abhiram R; Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    A case of volar forearm pain associated with ulnar nerve paresthesia caused by a reversed palmaris longus muscle is described. The patient, an otherwise healthy 46-year-old male laborer, presented after a previous unsuccessful forearm fasciotomy for complaints of exercise exacerbated pain affecting the volar forearm associated with paresthesia in the ulnar nerve distribution. A second decompressive fasciotomy was performed revealing an anomalous "reversed" palmaris longus, with the muscle belly located distally. Resection of the anomalous muscle was performed with full relief of pain and sensory symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microsurgical replantation of a small segment of thumb volar skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyürek, Mustafa; Safak, Tunç

    2004-06-01

    This report presents a case of microsurgical replantation of a volar skin segment of the thumb. In a 24-year-old patient, a heavy object falling over the dominant thumb resulted in a crush-avulsion injury of a pure skin segment measuring 4 x 2 cm. Examination revealed that the distal fingertip as well as the bone-tendon structures remained intact. Exploration demonstrated that both neurovascular bundles were included in the avulsed skin segment. Microsurgical replantation was achieved successfully, repairing the radial digital artery at both ends with vein grafts as well as anastomosing a palmar vein. Both digital nerves were coapted proximally and distally. An excellent functional and cosmetic result was accomplished with a good sensory recovery. The authors conclude that microsurgical replantation should be attempted in cases of more proximal pure skin avulsions, even if the injury spares distal fingertip tissue or bone-tendon units. In such cases, replantation is superior to any other method of reconstruction. Liberal use of vein grafts is crucial to achieve success.

  3. Age and Hydration dependence of jowl and forearm skin firmness in young and mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Wong, Jennifer; Fasen, Madeline

    2017-12-27

    Quantitative assessment of possible linkages between skin's firmness and water content is useful for cosmetic and clinical purposes and to better understand features of advancing age. Our goals were to characterize age-related differential features in skin firmness in women and determine the relationship between skin firmness and indices of skin water. Skin firmness was quantified using handheld devices that measure the force to indent skin 0.3 and 1.3 mm (F0.3 and F1.3). Skin hydration was quantified using handheld devices that measured tissue dielectric constant (TDC) at 300 MHz to skin depths of 0.5 and 2.0-2.5 mm. All parameters were measured bilaterally in the jowl area and volar forearm of 60 women grouped by age skin depths, as weakly related to firmness and was observed to change with age only when measured to a depth of 0.5 mm represented by TDC5 = 0.096 × AGE + 32.7. Experimental finding show clear differences in skin firmness between age-groups with skin hydration playing a minor role. Possible explanations and suggestions for further studies are provided. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. File list: Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 TFs and others Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200048,...SRX200052,SRX200050,SRX200046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 Histone Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200044,SRX2000...42,SRX200038,SRX200036 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 Histone Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200044,SRX2000...38,SRX200036,SRX200042 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 All antigens Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200048,SR...X200036,SRX200052,SRX200038,SRX200044,SRX200042,SRX200050,SRX200046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 All antigens Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,SR...X200052,SRX200048,SRX200042,SRX200044,SRX200036,SRX200038,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 TFs and others Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,...SRX200052,SRX200048,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 All antigens Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,SR...X200052,SRX200048,SRX200044,SRX200042,SRX200038,SRX200036,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 TFs and others Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,...SRX200052,SRX200048,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 TFs and others Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,...SRX200052,SRX200048,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 Histone Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200036,SRX2000...38,SRX200044,SRX200042 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 All antigens Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,SR...X200052,SRX200048,SRX200044,SRX200038,SRX200036,SRX200042,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 Histone Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200042,SRX2000...44,SRX200036,SRX200038 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  16. Forty-Year Follow-up of Full-Thickness Skin Graft After Thermal Burn Injury to the Volar Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Dexter; Kasdan, Morton L; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2016-01-01

    The hands are commonly affected in severe thermal burn injuries. Resulting contractures lead to significant loss of function. Burn contracture release and skin grafting are necessary to restore hand function. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction of a volar hand burn was performed with full-thickness skin grafting. The patient had a 40-year follow-up to assess the function and cosmesis of the repaired hand. We report a case in which a 15-month-old boy presented after receiving third-degree burns to the left volar hand, including the flexural aspects of the index, long, and ring fingers by placing it on a hot kitchen stove burner. The patient subsequently underwent scar contracture release and full-thickness skin grafting. Eleven years after reconstruction, further contractures developed associated with the patient's growth, which were reconstructed with repeat full-thickness skin graft from the inguinal region. No recurrence was witnessed afterward and 40 years after initial injury, the patient maintains full activities of daily living and use of his hand in his occupation. There is debate regarding the superiority of split-thickness versus full-thickness grafts during reconstruction. Our case strengthens the argument for durability of a full-thickness skin graft following thermal burn injury.

  17. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Local full-thickness skin graft of the donor arm--a novel technique for the reduction of donor site morbidity in radial forearm free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, B; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Al-Dam, A; Gröbe, A; Blessmann, M; Wikner, J

    2015-08-01

    A novel technique to reduce donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) harvest, using a local full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), is described. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing RFFF for head and neck reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective study. Donor site defect closure was performed with spindle-shaped FTSGs excised from the wavelike skin incision made for the vascular pedicle. Both the removal site of the FTSG on the volar forearm and the covered RFFF donor site healed uneventfully in 29 cases, with no impairment of function related to the skin graft. No skin graft failure and no exposure, tenting, or adherence of the flexor tendons occurred. All patients expressed satisfaction with postoperative pain, the functional outcome, and cosmetic appearance. Primary donor site defect closure could be achieved in all cases with the use of a local FTSG. This graft can be gained at the access incision for the vascular pedicle, avoids expansion of the incision for a local flap technique, and does not prolong wound healing, and thus reduces both donor site and graft site morbidity of the RFFF. This technique leads to an inconspicuous aesthetic result with no apparent relevant functional deficits and avoids the need for a second donor site. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have

  20. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van, A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfus...

  1. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, B R M; Frijns, A J H; Saris, W H M; van Steenhoven, A A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2010-07-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfusion and mean arterial pressure were measured in 16 young adults (Y: 18-28 years) and 16 elderly (E: 68-78 years). To study the effect of local vasoconstriction mechanisms local sympathetic nerve terminals were blocked by bretylium (BR). Baseline local skin temperature was clamped at 33 degrees C. Next, local temperature was reduced to 24 degrees C. After 15 min of local cooling, noradrenaline (NA) was administered to study the effect of neural vasoconstriction mechanisms. No significant age effect was observed in vasoconstriction due to local cooling at BR sites. After NA, vasoconstriction at the forearm showed a significant age effect; however, no significant age effect was found at the hand sites. [Change in CVC (% from baseline): Forearm Y: -76 +/- 3 vs. E: -60 +/- 5 (P forearm, elderly did not show a blunted response to local cooling and noradrenaline at hand skin sites. This indicates that at hand skin the noradrenergic mechanism of vasoconstriction is maintained with age.

  2. Pain, wheal and flare in human forearm skin induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the forearm skin of 0.05 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. Bradykinin (0.5 nmol), 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.5 nmol) and a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (0.25 nmol + 0.25 nmol...

  3. Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of type I collagen (COL1, the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4% or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents.

  4. Low-pressure sequential compression of lower limbs enhances forearm skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amah, Guy; Voicu, Sebastian; Bonnin, Philippe; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether forearm skin blood flow could be improved when a multilayer pulsatile inflatable suit was applied at a low pressure to the lower limbs and abdomen. We hypothesized that a non-invasive purely mechanical stimulation of the lower limbs could induce remote forearm blood flow modifications. The pulsatile suit induced a sequential compartmentalized low compression (65 mmHg), which was synchronized with each diastole of the cardiac cycle with each phase evolving centripetally (lower limbs to abdomen). Modifications of the forearm skin blood flow were continuously recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at baseline and during the pulsatile suit application. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilations of the forearm skin microcirculation were measured by LDF in response to a local transdermal iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh-test) and to hyperthermia (hyperT- test). Twenty-four healthy volunteers, 12 men and 12 women (43±14 years) were included in the study. LDF responses increased 1) under pulsatile suit (97±106%, p.

  5. Double-layered collagen graft to the radial forearm free flap donor sites without skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Jun; Kim, Hong-Joon; Ahn, Kang-Min

    2015-12-01

    Radial forearm free flap is the most reliable flap for intraoral soft tissue reconstruction after cancer ablation surgery. However, unesthetic scar of the donor site and the need for a second donor site for skin graft are major disadvantages of the forearm flap. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical results of double-layered collagen graft to the donor site of the forearm free flap without skin graft. Twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent oral cancer ablation and forearm reconstruction between April 2010 and November 2013 were included in this study. Male to female ratio was 12:10, and average age was 61.0 years old (27-84). Double-layered collagen was grafted to the donor site of the forearm free flap and healed for secondary intention. Upper silicone had been trimmed at the periphery during secondary intention, and dry dressing was used. Postoperative scar healing and esthetic results and function were evaluated. An average follow-up period was 34.9 months. The scar area was decreased to 63.9 % in average. The complete healing was obtained between 1.5 and 3 months according to the defect size. There was no functional defect or impairment 3 months after operation. All patients were satisfied with the esthetic results. Three patients died of recurred cancer. Double-layered collagen graft was successfully performed in this study. Without the thigh skin graft, patients had experienced less painful postoperative healing periods and discomfort.

  6. The effect of nerve blockade on forearm and finger skin blood flow during body heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumet, J L; Degoute, C S; Saumet, M; Abraham, P

    1992-08-01

    To determine the role of the active cutaneous vasodilatator response in forearm and finger skin, direct assessment of only skin blood flow was performed before and after musculocutaneous and median nerve blockade during whole body heating and cooling. Forearm laser Doppler flow (LDF forearm), forearm heat thermal clearance (HTC forearm), and finger laser Doppler flow (LDF finger) were monitored in the nerve blocked skin and contralateral untreated skin (control). In the pre-blockade period, no significant differences were found between experimental and control arm skin. After nerve block a significant increase occurred only in LDF finger, which rose from 4.3 +/- 0.6 to 6.0 +/- 0.5 volts (p less than 0.05). During whole body heating LDF forearm and HTC forearm increased significantly on both arms. The increase in LDF forearm was greater (p less than 0.05) in control (18.3 +/- 1.2 volts) than in nerve blocked skin (14.6 +/- 1.8 volts) and occurred earlier. The same tendency was observed in HTC forearm between nerve blocked skin (0.522 +/- 0.06 W.m-1.degrees C-1) and control 0.671 +/- 0.037 W.m-1.degrees C-1) (NS). LDF raise up to 6.6 +/- 0.5 and 6.8 +/- 0.5 volts in the blocked finger and in the control respectively. During cooling LDF finger in the control decreased to 1.3 +/- 0.1 volt and was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower than in the resting period, and lower than that in the nerve blocked finger (3.4 +/- 0.8 volts) (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the active vasodilatator system plays an important role as far as the timing and the amplitude of the cutaneous vasodilatator response to whole body heating in the forearm but not in the finger. At thermal neutrality, the vascular vasoconstrictor tone is high to the finger but not to the forearm. The vasoconstrictor response to cooling occurred only in the finger.

  7. Atypical cause of forearm skin ulceration in a leukaemic child: mucormycosis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, C; Brutus, J P; De Mey, A

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is an uncommon, deep and aggressive fungal infection occurring mainly in immunosuppressed or diabetic patients. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are necessary to prevent a fatal outcome. An eight-year-old leukaemic child presented with a dark necrotic ulcer on the volar-ulnar aspect of the left forehand. The lesion had developed over seven days, beginning as a vasculo-haemorrhagic erythematous plaque. There was no known history of trauma to the area, but skin necrosis from external compression caused by an intravenous line could not be completely ruled out. The lesion rapidly progressed to a 5 x 8 cm painful necrotic ulcer with an erythematous border. Treatment with ichthyol dressing and intra-venous antibiotherapy failed to improve the condition. Wide debridement was performed and specimens were sent for microbiology and pathology examinations. Microscopic examination demonstrated broad, irregularly walled, non-septate fungal hyphae that were consistent with Mucor. Amphotericin B was administrated intravenously (1 mg/kg/day) and hydrogel and hydrophile adhesive polyurethane foam dressings were applied. After 12 days, the soft tissue defect was covered with a split-thickness skin graft, harvested from the lateral aspect of the thigh. Diagnosis of this infection is based on complete histopathological and microbiological studies. Awareness, and a high index of suspicion are required because of the potential fulminant and fatal course.

  8. Temporal and spatiotemporal variability in comprehensive forearm skin microcirculation assessment during occlusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Tomas; Sjöberg, Folke; Bergstrand, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Forearm skin hyperemia during release after brachial occlusion has been proposed for evaluating peripheral arterial disease and endothelial dysfunction. We used a novel fiberoptic system integrating Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for a comprehensive pointwise model based microcirculation characterization. The aim was to evaluate and compare the temporal and the spatiotemporal variabilities in forearm skin microcirculation parameters (speed resolved perfusion; low speed 10mm/s, and total perfusion (Perf SR, tot ); the concentration and oxygenation of red blood cells, C RBC and S O2 ). Ten healthy subjects underwent arterial and venous forearm occlusions (AO, VO), repeated within one week. The repeatability was calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV) and the agreement as the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The temporal CVs for conventional perfusion, Perf conv , Perf SR, tot , C RBC and S O2 were 14%, 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, while the ICC were >0.75 (excellent). The perfusion measures generally had a higher spatiotemporal than temporal variability, which was not the case for S O2 and C RBC . The corresponding spatiotemporal CVs were 33%, 32%, 18% and 15%, respectively. During VO, C RBC had a CV0.40 (fair-good), and after release this was the case for C RBC (AO and VO), S O2 (VO) and Perf SR, fair-good agreement were: C RBC during and after release of VO, the Perf SR, value of these parameters in discriminating endothelial function remains to be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months...

  10. Ulno-volar bayonet hand: Its differential diagnosis from Madelung's deformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.

    1981-04-01

    The ulno-volar bayonet hand related to the mostly hereditary multiple exostoses is compared to Madelung's forearm deformity under clinical and roentgenological view in differential diagnosis. The ulno-volar bayonet hand is considerably more seldom, basing upon dysplasia of the lower part of the ulna, less inconvenient in function, and hardly tending to the development of early arthrosis.

  11. Ulno-volar bayonet hand: Its differential diagnosis from Madelung's deformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.

    1981-01-01

    The ulno-volar bayonet hand related to the mostly hereditary multiple exostoses is compared to Madelung's forearm deformity under clinical and roentgenological view in differential diagnosis. The ulno-volar bayonet hand is considerably more seldom, basing upon dysplasia of the lower part of the ulna, less inconvenient in function, and hardly tending to the development of early arthrosis. (orig.) [de

  12. Site, gender and age variation in normal skin colour on the back and the forearm: tristimulus colorimeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A; Serup, J

    1997-02-01

    To study whether anatomical location and age and gender of subjects had any influence on the objective skin colour measurements. Baseline colour in prone position was measured with the Minolta ChromaMeter® in the upper, middle and lower level of the upper back and on the forearm of 168 volunteers. These two sites are commonly used in skin testing. Higher basal a* and lower basal L* levels were found on the upper scapular region compared to the lower scapular region and the subscapular region. The basal b* level showed no variation relative to site. The basal a* and the basal b* levels were lower on the forearm compared to the upper back while the basal L* level was higher. Females above 65 years showed a less coloured skin with lower values as compared to those of younger age. Females were found to have a generally lower basal a* level than males both on the upper back and forearm skin. These relatively major differences and sources of variation have to be considered when planning irritancy studies where colour differences between erythema and normal skin is used.

  13. Methodological assessment of skin and limb blood flows in the human forearm during thermal and baroreceptor provocations

    OpenAIRE

    Brothers, R. Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Hubing, Kimberly A.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Skin blood flow responses in the human forearm, assessed by three commonly used technologies—single-point laser-Doppler flowmetry, integrated laser-Doppler flowmetry, and laser-Doppler imaging—were compared in eight subjects during normothermic baseline, acute skin-surface cooling, and whole body heat stress (Δ internal temperature = 1.0 ± 0.2°C; P < 0.001). In addition, while normothermic and heat stressed, subjects were exposed to 30-mmHg lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Skin blood flow...

  14. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...

  15. Closure of the Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Site Using the Combined Local Triangular Full-Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; González-García, Raúl; Ruiz-Laza, Luis; Manzano Solo de Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-García, Carlos; Monje, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    Traditional donor-site closure has been associated with serious esthetic and functional morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess morbidity in esthetics and function and measure the postoperative complications of the radial forearm free flap (RFFF) donor site after using combined local triangular full-thickness skin grafting. This prospective study of patients who underwent reconstruction of head and neck defects using an RFFF was conducted from July 2008 through December 2014. The donor site was repaired with a combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft. Quality of the scar, color match, tendon exposure, presence of necrosis, dehiscence of the suture, and presence of dysesthesia were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. One hundred consecutive patients (71 male and 29 female) underwent RFFF harvesting. RFFF donor-site defects ranged from 15 to 70 cm2; partial skin graft loss occurred in 7% of patients. Five patients (5%) had small dehiscences of the forearm skin graft, and 2 cases (2%) presented tendon exposure. In all cases, these sites healed secondarily by conservative management, with no final impairment of function. Esthetic results were considered excellent in 87%, good in 11%, and suboptimal in 2% of the cases. The combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft is a reliable method for closing RFFF donor-site defects because it obviates a second surgical site, it provides excellent color match and pliability, and it can be used for covering large defects of the donor site. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methodological assessment of skin and limb blood flows in the human forearm during thermal and baroreceptor provocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E; Hubing, Kimberly A; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-09-01

    Skin blood flow responses in the human forearm, assessed by three commonly used technologies-single-point laser-Doppler flowmetry, integrated laser-Doppler flowmetry, and laser-Doppler imaging-were compared in eight subjects during normothermic baseline, acute skin-surface cooling, and whole body heat stress (Δ internal temperature=1.0±0.2 degrees C; Pforearm blood flow (FBF) measures obtained using venous occlusion plethysmography and Doppler ultrasound were made during the aforementioned perturbations. Relative to normothermic baseline, skin blood flow decreased during normothermia+LBNP (Pcooling (Peffect of device: P>0.05 for all conditions). Similarly, no differences were identified across all perturbations between FBF measures using plethysmography and Doppler ultrasound (P>0.05 for all perturbations). These data indicate that when normalized to maximum, assessment of skin blood flow in response to vasoconstrictor and dilator perturbations are similar regardless of methodology. Likewise, FBF responses to these perturbations are similar between two commonly used methodologies of limb blood flow assessment.

  17. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months......Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate...

  18. Interactions of mean body and local skin temperatures in the modulation of human forearm and calf blood flows: a three-dimensional description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Matsuda-Nakamura, Mayumi; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-02-01

    The inter-relationships between mean body and local skin temperatures have previously been established for controlling hand and foot blood flows. Since glabrous skin contains many arteriovenous anastomoses, it was important to repeat those experiments on non-glabrous regions using the same sample and experimental conditions. Mild hypothermia (mean body temperature 31.4 °C), normothermia (control: 36.0 °C) and moderate hyperthermia (38.3 °C) were induced and clamped (climate chamber and water-perfusion garment) in eight males. Within each condition, five localised thermal treatments (5, 15, 25, 33, 40 °C) were applied to the left forearm and right calf. Steady-state forearm and calf blood flows were measured (venous occlusion plethysmography) for each of the resulting 15 combinations of clamped mean body and local skin temperatures. Under the normothermic clamp, cutaneous blood flows averaged 4.2 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.28: forearm) and 5.4 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.27: calf). When mildly hypothermic, these segments were unresponsive to localised thermal stimuli, but tracked those changes when normothermic and moderately hyperthermic. For deep-body (oesophageal) temperature elevations, forearm blood flow increased by 5.1 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±0.9) relative to normothermia, while the calf was much less responsive: 3.3 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±1.5). Three-dimensional surfaces revealed a qualitative divergence in the control of calf blood flow, with vasoconstrictor tone apparently being released more gradually. These descriptions reinforce the importance of deep-tissue temperatures in controlling cutaneous perfusion, with this modulation being non-linear at the forearm and appearing linear for the calf.

  19. Contribution of human skin topography to the characterization of dynamic skin tension during senescence: morpho-mechanical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouani, H.; Djaghloul, M.; Vargiolu, R.; Mezghani, S.; Mansori, M. E. L.

    2014-03-01

    The structuring of the dermis with a network of collagen and elastic fibres gives a three-dimensional structure to the skin network with directions perpendicular and parallel to the skin surface. This three-dimensional morphology prints on the surface of the stratum corneum a three dimensional network of lines which express the mechanical tension of the skin at rest. To evaluate the changes of skin morphology, we used a three-dimensional confocal microscopy and characterization of skin imaging of volar forearm microrelief. We have accurately characterize the role of skin line network during chronological aging with the identification of depth scales on the network of lines (z 60 microns). During aging has been highlighted lower rows for elastic fibres, the decrease weakened the tension and results in enlargement of the plates of the microrelief, which gives us a geometric pertinent indicator to quantify the loss of skin tension and assess the stage of aging. The study of 120 Caucasian women shows that ageing in the volar forearm zone results in changes in the morphology of the line network organisation. The decrease in secondary lines (z 60 μm) and an accentuation of the anisotropy index.

  20. Contribution of human skin topography to the characterization of dynamic skin tension during senescence: morpho-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouani, H; Djaghloul, M; Vargiolu, R; Mezghani, S; Mansori, M E L

    2014-01-01

    The structuring of the dermis with a network of collagen and elastic fibres gives a three-dimensional structure to the skin network with directions perpendicular and parallel to the skin surface. This three-dimensional morphology prints on the surface of the stratum corneum a three dimensional network of lines which express the mechanical tension of the skin at rest. To evaluate the changes of skin morphology, we used a three-dimensional confocal microscopy and characterization of skin imaging of volar forearm microrelief. We have accurately characterize the role of skin line network during chronological aging with the identification of depth scales on the network of lines (z ≤ 60μm) and the network of lines covering Langer's lines (z > 60 microns). During aging has been highlighted lower rows for elastic fibres, the decrease weakened the tension and results in enlargement of the plates of the microrelief, which gives us a geometric pertinent indicator to quantify the loss of skin tension and assess the stage of aging. The study of 120 Caucasian women shows that ageing in the volar forearm zone results in changes in the morphology of the line network organisation. The decrease in secondary lines (z ≤ 60 μm) is counterbalanced by an increase in the depth of the primary lines (z > 60 μm) and an accentuation of the anisotropy index

  1. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the hand and forearm : Acute surgical treatment and defect reconstruction with MatriDerm® and split-thickness skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermueller, B; Singer, G; Pickl, P; Jesacher, M

    2018-03-01

    This case report describes a 55-year-old male patient with type II necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the hand and forearm. The rapid progression of the tissue infection could be successfully stopped with radical surgical débridement and antibiotic therapy. For the reconstruction of the extensive loss of soft tissue a combination of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and the synthetic dermal substitute MatriDerm® was used. In cases of NF, MatriDerm® and STSG provide a rapidly available and simple alternative to other reconstruction techniques.

  2. Missed isolated volar dislocation of the scaphoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Lise; Larsen, Søren; Jørring, Stig

    2007-01-01

    A patient presented with volar dislocation of the scaphoid, the diagnosis of which had been missed for two weeks. He was treated with open reduction through a combined volar and dorsal approach with decompression of the median nerve, internal fixation, and a cast for eight weeks. One year postope...... postoperatively the functional result was good. A radiograph showed no sign of avascular necrosis....

  3. Comparison of two different neonatal skin care practices and their influence on transepidermal water loss in healthy newborns within first 10 days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, R; Roberta, R; Patrizi, A; Cocchi, G; Faldella, G; Raone, B

    2014-10-01

    Physiologic post-partum skin adaptation to the relative dry extra-uterine environment is a dynamic process which begins immediately after birth. Considering the differences from adult skin, the neonatal skin is more prone to damage by environmental factors; therefore, skin care regimens should be age adapted to ensure a good epidermal maturation. The effects of two different skin care practices were evaluated by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement in 94 newborns aged ≤ 10 days: group 1 (G1), newborns washed only with a cotton washcloth moistened with water; group 2 (G2), newborns washed with liquid baby cleansers and hydrated with moisturizers. These recordings were compared to TEWL baseline values of the same neonates and to adults' values. A prospective study was conducted in healthy full-term newborns, measuring TEWL with TEWAMETER® TM300. The areas tested were the volar forearm and the popliteal fossa. In G1 (52 subjects), TEWL mean values were 6.65 ± 2.81 SD (g/m2/h) at volar forearm and 7.49 ± 2.47 SD (g/m2/h) at popliteal fossa. In G2 (42 subjects), TEWL mean values were 8.83 ± 3.05 SD (g/m2/h) at volar forearm and 10.18 ± 3.64 SD (g/m2/h) at popliteal fossa. There were statistically significant differences of TEWL mean values between G1 and G2, newborns and adults, baseline and post-skin care procedures. Tested skin care regimens could influence the process of functional adaptation of skin, in the early postnatal period. We could hypothesize that daily washing with liquid baby cleansers and moisturizing may delay the natural maturation of skin barrier function.

  4. Advanced Development of Leishmania Topical Skin Test Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    was discarded. The lysate was then heated in a water bath for 30 minutes at 60°C. The material was cooled to 10 °C, poured into sterile centrifuge...followed to assess the effectiveness of the cleaning and sanitization procedures. The filling, capping and assembly of final containers occurred in Class...40 and 80 µg doses per 0.1 mL. For all skin tests, 0.1 mL was injected intradermally into the volar surface of the forearm . Final LtSTA Report for

  5. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickwell, E; Cole, B E; Fitzgerald, A J; Pepper, M; Wallace, V P

    2004-01-01

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation

  6. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-07

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  7. Development and preliminary testing of a standardized method for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin using evaporimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fader, M; Clark-O'Neill, S R; Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K R; Runeman, B; Farbrot, A

    2011-01-01

    Although evaporimetry (the measurement of water vapour flux density from the skin) has often been used to study the impact on skin hydration of using products such as baby diapers and incontinence pads, it is difficult to interpret results and to compare data from different studies because of the diversity of unvalidated methodologies used. The aim of this work was to develop a robust methodology for measuring the excess water in over-hydrated skin and test it on volar forearm and hip skin which had been occluded with saline soaked patches. Three repeat measurements were made on the volar forearm and the hip of five young (31–44 years) and six older (67–85 years) women and moderately good within-subject repeatability was found for both skin sites for both subject groups. Measurements taken from the hip were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those from the arm and had larger coefficients of variation (3.5–22.1%) compared to arms (3.0–14.0%). There were no significant differences between young and older skin, implying that women for future studies could be recruited without regard to age. This is the first time that a robust evaporimetric methodology for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin has been described and validated, and it will form a solid basis for future work

  8. Clinical anatomy of the donor zone of venous flaps of forearm

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Kurochkina

    2012-01-01

    The variant anatomy of saphenous veins of forearm in the zones of venous flap rising remains unstudied yet, as well as the influence of the valve apparatus of saphenous veins on the arterial perfusion of venous flaps. The paper studies the variant anatomy of saphenous veins of the upper third of the volar surface of forearm. Two versions of saphenous veins are revealed: major (axial) and retiform. It is found experimentally that the valve apparatus of saphenous veins does not influence consid...

  9. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  10. Donor-site morbidity of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekner, Dominique D; Abbink, Jan H; van Es, Robert J; Rosenberg, Antoine; Koole, Ronald; Van Cann, Ellen M

    2013-08-01

    Donor-site morbidity following harvest of the radial forearm free flap was compared with that following harvest of the ulnar forearm free flap. Twenty-eight radial forearm and 27 ulnar forearm flaps were harvested in 55 patients with head and neck defects. Pressure perception was measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Cold perception was tested with chloroethyl. Donor-site healing was evaluated. Patients were interviewed about grip and pinch strength and donor-site appearance. In the radial forearm free flap group, pressure perception and cold perception were reduced in the donor hand, whereas in the ulnar group, no differences were observed between the donor and unoperated hands. In the radial forearm group, 15 percent of patients experienced reduced strength in the donor hand, whereas in the ulnar forearm group, none of the patients reported reduced strength in the donor hand. In the radial forearm group, 14 percent had partial or complete loss of the skin graft, whereas in the ulnar forearm group, 4 percent had partial loss of the skin graft. In the radial forearm group, 18 percent of patients were dissatisfied with the appearance of the donor site, and no complaints were reported in the ulnar forearm group. The authors' study shows less donor site-morbidity following harvest of the ulnar forearm free flap than following harvest of the radial forearm free flap. These results emphasize that the ulnar forearm free flap should be considered as an alternative for the radial forearm free flap for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects. Therapeutic, III.

  11. The Pinking Shears: A Novel Tool for Improving Skin Graft Cosmesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB BCh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A significant aesthetic disadvantage to split skin grafts is the obvious transition between the graft and the normal skin. We report on a novel method to interrupt this transition point by using pinking shears, which are dressmaking scissors with saw-toothed blades that create a chevron pattern instead of a straight edge. We describe a case where the pinking shears were utilized on a split skin graft and Integra for reconstruction of the skin on a volar forearm. This technique allows for breaking-up of the transition point between the skin graft and normal skin and gives rise to an improved aesthetic outcome as the boundary is significantly less well-defined. This novel method shows promise and further study is certainly warranted.

  12. In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiushuo; Parrott, Edward P J; He, Yuezhi; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2018-02-01

    In vivo terahertz (THz) imaging of human skin needs to be done in reflection geometry due to the high attenuation of THz light by water in the skin. To aid the measurement procedure, there is typically an imaging window onto which the patient places the area of interest. The window enables better pulse alignment and helps keep the patient correctly positioned during the measurement. In this paper, we demonstrate how the occlusion caused by the skin contact with the imaging window during the measurement affects the THz response. By studying both rapid point measurements and imaging over an area of a human volar forearm, we find that even 5 seconds of occlusion affects the THz response. As the occlusion time increases, the skin surface water content increases, resulting in the reduction of the amplitude of the reflected THz pulse, especially in the first 3 minutes. Furthermore, it was found that the refractive index of the volar forearm increased by 10% to 15% after 20 minutes of occlusion. In this work, we examine and propose a model for the occlusion effects due to the quartz window with a view to compensating for its influence. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Research on infrared radiation characteristics of skin covering two acupuncture points in the hand and forearm, NeiGuan and LaoGong points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Yu, Wenlong; Cui, Han; Shi, Huafeng; Jin, Lei

    2013-06-01

    In order to research the infrared radiation characteristics of the skin covering Traditional Chinese acupuncture points, which are NeiGuan in the forearm and LaoGong in the center of the palm, we detected continuously the infrared radiation spectra of the human body surface by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that firstly, the differences of the infrared radiation spectra of the human body surface were obvious between individuals. Secondly, the infrared radiation intensity of the human body surface changed with time changing. The infrared radiation intensity in two special wavelength ranges (wavelengths from 6. 79 microm to 6. 85 microm and from 13. 6 microm to 14. 0 microm) changed much more than that in other ranges obviously. Thirdly, the proportions of the infrared radiation spectra changed, which were calculated from the spectra of two different aupuncture points, were same in these two special wavelength ranges, but their magnitude changes were different. These results suggested that the infrared radiation of acupuncture points have the same biological basis, and the mechanism of the infrared radiation in these two special wavelength ranges is different from other tissue heat radiation.

  14. Correlation between skin color evaluation by skin color scale chart and narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesirichod, Arucha; Chansakulporn, Somboon; Wattanapan, Pattra

    2014-07-01

    Various methods are available for the evaluation of skin color. A skin color scale chart is a convenient and inexpensive tool. However, the correlation between a skin color scale chart and objective measurement has not been evaluated. To assess the correlation between skin color evaluation done by a skin color scale chart (Felix von Luschan skin color chart) and a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer (Mexameter MX18). The participants were evaluated for skin color by using the Felix von Luschan skin color chart (range 1-36) and a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer (Mexameter MX18) in which the results of the measurements were expressed as Erythema (E) and Melanin (M) indices. Skin color was measured on four different anatomical skin sites from each participant on the medial aspect of the volar and the dorsal regions of both forearms. A total of 208 records from 52 participants were established. The majority of participants (19.2%) were rated with the skin color scale at the number 16 (range 14-33). The mean M plus E, M, and E indices were 498.9 ± 143.9, 230.4 ± 74.4, and 268.5 ± 73.2, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the number on the skin color scale and each index: M plus E, M, and E indices were 0.90, 0.90, and 0.86, respectively, with a statistical significance of P spectrophotometer.

  15. Clinical anatomy of the donor zone of venous flaps of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kurochkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant anatomy of saphenous veins of forearm in the zones of venous flap rising remains unstudied yet, as well as the influence of the valve apparatus of saphenous veins on the arterial perfusion of venous flaps. The paper studies the variant anatomy of saphenous veins of the upper third of the volar surface of forearm. Two versions of saphenous veins are revealed: major (axial and retiform. It is found experimentally that the valve apparatus of saphenous veins does not influence considerably the arterial perfusion of venous flaps of forearm.

  16. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods : Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30 and the control group olive oil (n = 30. Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL and water content of the epidermis (WCE on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60 of oils treatment. Results : The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023 and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001. The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01 and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  17. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes; Bensouda, Yahya

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days' period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  18. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Bennett's fracture: a direct volar surgical approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We performed 15 cadaver dissections of the forearm, wrist and hand at the Department of Human. Anatomy, Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was identified and exposed by dividing the superficial flexor muscles and brachioradialis. The median nerve was found entering the forearm from the cubital ...

  20. Multivariate Regression Model of Impedance of Normal and Chemically Irritated Skin Shows Predictive Ability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aberg, P

    2001-01-01

    ... before and after application of chemicals on volar forearms of volunteers, Tegobetaine and sodium lauryl sulphate were used to induce the irritations, The spectra were filtered using orthogonal signal correction (OSC...

  1. Adolescent Volar Barton Fracture with Open Physis treated with Volar Plating using Buttressing Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the outcome of Salter- Harris type III distal radius fracture fixed using the principle of buttressing and avoiding screw insertion through the physis. Materials and Method: Eight school going children in the age group of 11-16 years with volar Barton fractures were treated with a volar plate using the buttress principle without inserting screws in the distal fragment. Patients were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Clinical evaluation was done using the Green O’Brien criteria and radiological evaluation using the Sarmiento criteria. Results: The average union time was two months. All the patients had good to excellent functional outcome with full extension and flexion. Conclusion: Buttress plating of volar Barton fractures in the adolescent age group is an excellent technique to achieve satisfactory outcome without violation of the physis.

  2. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    applied, we tested the efficacy of four anti-irritant compounds using the two different irritants sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, healthy volunteers were exposed to 5% SLS and 50% NON (the right and the left forearm...

  3. Millimeter-wave emissivity as a metric for the non-contact diagnosis of human skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owda, Amani Yousef; Salmon, Neil; Harmer, Stuart William; Shylo, Sergiy; Bowring, Nicholas John; Rezgui, Nacer Ddine; Shah, Mamta

    2017-10-01

    A half-space electromagnetic model of human skin over the band 30-300 GHz was constructed and used to model radiometric emissivity. The model showed that the radiometric emissivity rose from 0.4 to 0.8 over this band, with emission being localized to a layer approximately one millimeter deep in the skin. Simulations of skin with differing water contents associated with psoriasis, eczema, malignancy, and thermal burn wounds indicated radiometry could be used as a non-contact technique to detect and monitor these conditions. The skin emissivity of a sample of 30 healthy volunteers, measured using a 95 GHz radiometer, was found to range from 0.2 to 0.7, and the experimental measurement uncertainty was ±0.002. Men on average were found to have an emissivity 0.046 higher than those of women, a measurement consistent with men having thicker skin than women. The regions of outer wrist and dorsal forearm, where skin is thicker, had emissivities 0.06-0.08 higher than the inner wrist and volar forearms where skin is generally thinner. Recommendations are made to develop a more sophisticated model of the skin and to collect larger data sets to obtain a deeper understanding of the signatures of human skin in the millimeter wave band. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:559-569, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics

  5. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics.

  6. Skin hydration and cooling effect produced by the Voltaren® vehicle gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Agnes M; Schmidts, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Jens; Segger, Dörte; Fotopoulos, Grigorios; Heinzerling, Johanna

    2012-05-01

    Voltaren vehicle gel is the carrier substance of the topical Voltaren products. This vehicle gel is especially formulated to be easily applied on the skin, while providing some sensory benefits. The present study aims to substantiate the widely perceived hydrating and cooling effect of Voltaren vehicle gel. Volar forearm skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured and user satisfaction was evaluated by questionnaires, after application in 31 healthy, female volunteers. The cooling effect was investigated for 40 min with thermal imaging on 12 forearm sites of six healthy subjects. Voltaren vehicle gel application increased skin hydration by 13.1% (P = 0.0002) when compared with the untreated site, 8 h after the final treatment after 2 weeks. TEWL decreased on both treated (0.37 g/m(2) /h) and untreated (0.74 g/m(2) /h) forearm sites after 2 weeks (8 h after last treatment), demonstrating a relative increase of 6.5% in water loss. Voltaren vehicle gel application resulted in a rapid reduction of skin surface temperature by 5.1°C after only 3 min with an average maximum reduction of 5.8°C after 10 min. The cooling effect was experienced by 94% subjects, while 74% felt that their skin became softer. No adverse events, including skin irritation, were reported during the study and by the 37 participants. This study showed a statistically significant increase in skin hydration as well as a rapid cooling effect lasting approximately 30 min, after application of Voltaren vehicle gel. The small relative increase in water loss may be attributed to an additional skin surface water loss secondary to the increased water content brought into the skin by the Voltaren vehicle gel. The use did not induce any skin irritation and was found acceptable to use by the majority of participants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Volar plating for distal radius fractures--do not trust the image intensifier when judging distal subchondral screw length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Derek H; Goldie, Boyd S

    2012-09-01

    The use of the volar plate to treat distal radius fractures is increasing but despite the theoretical advantages of a volar approach there have been reports of extensor tendon ruptures due to prominent screw tips protruding past the dorsal cortex. The valley in the intermediate column between Lister tubercle and the sigmoid notch of the distal radius makes it difficult to rely on fluoroscopy to judge screw length. Our aim was to quantify the dimensions of this valley and to demonstrate the danger of relying on intraoperative image intensification fluoroscopy to determine lengths of distal screws. We measured the depth of this valley in the intermediate column of the distal radius in 33 patients with computed tomographic (9 patients) or magnetic resonance image (24 patients) scans of the wrist. There was a consistent valley in all images examined [average 1.8 mm (95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.0 mm)]. Thirty-nine percent of wrists had a valley depth of at least 2 mm. Standard lateral views or rotation of the forearm to obtain oblique views does not identify prominent screw tips; and whatever the rotation of the forearm, screw tips protruding beyond dorsal cortex may look as if it is within the bone when in fact it is out. When drilling we suggest noting the depth at which the drill bit just penetrates dorsal cortex and routinely downsize the distal screw length by 2 mm. We caution against relying on flourosocopy when judging the length of the distal subchondral screws.

  8. Effects of Volar Tilt, Wrist Extension, and Plate Position on Contact Between Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon and Volar Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline N Wolfe; Burns, Geoffrey T; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-12-01

    Volar plates positioned at, or distal to, the watershed line have been shown to have a higher incidence of attritional rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of wrist extension and volar tilt on the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon in a cadaver model. We hypothesized that, following volar plate application, loss of native volar tilt increases the contact between the FPL and the plate at lower degrees of wrist extension. A volar locking plate was applied on 6 fresh-frozen cadavers. To determine the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon, both structures were wrapped with copper wire and circuit conductivity was monitored throughout wrist motion. A lateral wrist radiograph was obtained at each circuit closure, indicating tendon-plate contact. Baseline measurements were obtained with plate positioned at Soong grades 0, 1, and 2. An extra-articular osteotomy was made and contact was recorded at various volar tilt angles (+5°, 0°, -5°, -10°, -15°, and -20°) in 3 different plate positions. A blinded observer measured the degree of wrist extension on all lateral radiographs. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression model. Plates placed distal to the watershed line had the most contact throughout wrist range of motion. Significantly, less wrist extension was required for contact in wrists with neutral or dorsal tilt and in distally placed volar plates. Volar tilt, wrist extension, and plate position were 3 independent risk factors determining contact between plate and tendon. Loss of volar tilt, increased wrist extension, and higher Soong grade plate position result in greater contact between wire-wrapped FPL tendon and plate. The FPL/plate contact chart generated in this study may be used to assess the risk of rupture in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap: anatomical study and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Lin, Jian; Fu, Fei-Huan; Cai, Zhen-De; Huang, Hui-Mei; Zheng, He-Ping

    2013-11-01

    Defects sustained at the distal forearm are common and pedicled perforator flaps have unique advantages in resurfacing it. The purpose of this study is to reappraise the anatomy of the perforator in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm and present our clinical experience on using perforator flaps based on it for reconstruction of defects in the distal forearm. This study was divided into anatomical study and clinical application. In the anatomical study, 30 preserved upper limbs were used. Clinically, 11 patients with defects at the forearm underwent reconstruction with the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flaps. The defects, ranging from 4.5 × 2.5 cm to 10.5 × 4.5 cm, were located at the dorsal aspect of the distal forearm in 6 cases and at the volar aspect of the distal forearm in 5 cases. Three patterns of the perforator were observed in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm, which originated from the posterior interosseous artery, the proximal segment of the radial artery or the radial recurrent artery, and the middle segment of the radial artery, respectively. The perforator was located 11.8 ± 0.2 cm to 15.8 ± 0.4 cm inferior to the lateral humeral epicondyle. Clinically, flaps in 8 cases survived uneventfully, while the other 3 cases suffered mild marginal epidermal necrosis, which was cured with continuous dress changing. The location of the perforator at the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm is consistent; the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap is particularly suitable to cover defects in the distal one-third of the forearm. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiraouani Boucetta K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta,1 Zoubida Charrouf,2 Hassan Aguenaou,3 Abdelfattah Derouiche,4 Yahya Bensouda1 1Research Team on Formulation and Biopharmacy, Research Center for Drug, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 2Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 3Mixed Unit of Research in Nutrition, ITU / CNESTEN, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco; 4Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco Background: During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.Materials and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity, and the resonance running time (RRT at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.Results: The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net elasticity of the skin (R5 (P<0.001, biological elasticity (R7 (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002. The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net

  11. Differential inhibitory effect on human nociceptive skin senses induced by local stimulation of thin cutaneous fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, H J; Schouenborg, J

    1999-03-01

    It is known that stimulation of thin cutaneous nerve fibers can induce long lasting analgesia through both supraspinal and segmental mechanisms, the latter often exhibiting restricted receptive fields. On this basis, we recently developed a new method, termed cutaneous field stimulation (CFS), for localized stimulation of A delta and C fibers in the superficial part of the skin. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of CFS on non-nociceptive and nociceptive skin senses. We compared the effects of CFS with those of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), known to preferentially activate coarse myelinated fibers. A battery of sensory tests were made on the right volar forearm of 20 healthy subjects. CFS (16 electrodes, 4 Hz per electrode, 1 ms, up to 0.8 mA) and TENS (100 Hz, 0.2 ms, up to 26 mA) applied either on the right volar forearm (homotopically), or on the lower right leg (heterotopically) were used as conditioning stimulation for 25 min. The tactile threshold was not affected by either homo- or heterotopical CFS or TENS. The mean thresholds for detecting warming or cooling of the skin were increased by 0.4-0.9 degrees C after homo- but not heterotopical CFS and TENS. Regarding nociceptive skin senses, homo- but not heterotopical CFS, markedly reduced CO2-laser evoked A delta- and C fiber mediated heat pain to 75 and 48% of control, respectively, and mechanically evoked pain to 73% of control. Fabric evoked prickle, was not affected by CFS. Neither homo- nor heterotopical TENS induced any marked analgesic effects. It is concluded that different qualities of nociception can be differentially controlled by CFS.

  12. Midterm Follow-up of Treating Volar Marginal Rim Fractures with Variable Angle Lcp Volar Rim Distal Radius Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorens, Chul Ki; Geeurickx, Stijn; Wernaers, Pascal; Staelens, Barbara; Scheerlinck, Thierry; Goubau, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Specific treatment of the volar marginal rim fragment of distal radius fractures avoids occurance of volar radiocarpal dislocation. Although several fixation systems are available to capture this fragment, adequately maintaining internal fixation is difficult. We present our experience of the first 10 cases using the 2.4 mm variable angle LCP volar rim distal radius plate (Depuy Synthes®, West Chester, US), a low-profile volar rim-contouring plate designed for distal plate positioning and stable buttressing of the volar marginal fragment. Follow-up patient satisfaction, range of motion, grips strength, functional scoring with the QuickDASH and residual pain with a numeric rating scale were assessed. Radiological evaluation consisted in evaluating fracture consolidation, ulnar variance, volar angulation and maintenance of the volar rim fixation. The female to male ratio was 5:5 and the mean age was 52.2 (range, 17-80) years. The mean follow-up period was 11 (range, 5-19) months postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was high. The mean total flexion/extension range was 144° (range, 100-180°) compared to the contralateral uninjured side 160° (range, 95-180°). The mean total pronation/supination range was 153° (range, 140-180°) compared to the contralateral uninjured side 170° (range, 155-180°). Mean grip strength was 14 kg (range, 9-22), compared to the contralateral uninjured side 20 kg (range, 12-25 kg). Mean pre-injury level activity QuickDASH was 23 (range, 0-34.1), while post-recovery QuickDASH was 25 (range 0-43.2). Residual pain was 1.5 on the visual numerical pain rating scale. Radiological evaluation revealed in all cases fracture consolidation, satisfactory reconstruction of ulnar variance, volar angulation and volar rim. We encountered no flexor tendon complications, although plate removal was systematically performed after fracture consolidation. The 2.4 mm variable angle LCP volar rim distal radius plates is a valid treatment option for treating

  13. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...

  14. Isolated volar surgical approach for the treatment of perilunate and lunate dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Basar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The clinical and radiological results of the isolated volar surgical approach were satisfactory. The dorsal approach was not needed for reduction of dislocations during operations. Our results showed that an isolated volar approach was adequate.

  15. Si te sobreprotejo, no aprenderás a volar

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Delgado, Juan Carlos; Enríquez Lara, Mónica Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Educación desde la Diversidad). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, 2013 RESUMEN 1. Mónica Enríquez 2. Juan Carlos Ortega SI TE SOBREPROTEJO, NO APRENDERÁS A VOLAR El presente artículo se basa en la investigación denominada SI TE SOBREPROTEJO, NO APRENDERÁS A VOLAR, realizada acerca de la sobreprotección vista como otra forma de maltrato, la cual se ubica en el macroproyecto de Desarrollo Humano, Sujeto y diversidad, de...

  16. Signatures of human skin in the millimetre wave band (80-100) GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owda, Amani Y.; Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Salmon, Neil A.

    2017-10-01

    With the performance of millimeter wave security screening imagers improving (reduced speckle, greater sensitivity, and better spatial resolution) attention is turning to identification of anomalies which appear on the human body. Key to this identification is the understanding of how the emissive and reflective properties vary over the human body and between different categories of people, defined by age and gender for example. As the interaction of millimetre waves with the human body is only a fraction of a millimetre into the skin, precise measurement of the emission and reflection of this radiation will allow comparisons with the norm for that region of the body and person category. On an automated basis at security screening portals, this will increase detection probabilities and reduce false alarm rates, ensuring high throughputs at entrances to future airport departure lounges and transport networks. A technique to measure the human skin emissivity in vivo over the frequency band 80 GHz to 100 GHz is described. The emissivities of the skin of a sample of 60 healthy participants (36 males and 24 females) measured using a 90 GHz calibrated radiometer was found to range from 0.17+/-0.002 to 0.68+/-0.002. The radiometric measurements were made at four locations on the arm, namely: palm of hand, back of hand, dorsal surface of the forearm, and volar side of the forearm, where the water content and the skin thickness are known to be different. These measurements show significant variation in emissivity from person to person and, more importantly, significant variation at different locations on the arms of individuals. Males were found to have an emissivity 0.03 higher than those of females. The emissivity of the back of the hand, where the skin is thinner and the blood vessels are closer to the skin surface, was found to be lower by 0.0681 than the emissivity of the palm of the hand, where the skin is thicker. The measurements also show that the emissivity of the

  17. Change in reimbursement and costs in German oncological head and neck surgery over the last decade: ablative tongue cancer surgery and reconstruction with split-thickness skin graft vs. microvascular radial forearm flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefert, Sebastian; Lotter, Oliver

    2018-05-01

    Defects after ablative tongue cancer surgery can be reconstructed by split-thickness skin grafts or free microvascular flaps. The different surgical options may influence costs, reimbursement, and therefore possible profits. Our goal was to analyze the development of these parameters for different procedures in head and neck reconstruction in Germany over the last decade. After tumor resection and neck dissection of tongue cancer, three different scenarios were chosen to calculate costs, reimbursement, length of stay (LoS), and profits. Two options considered were reconstruction by split-thickness skin graft with (option Ia) and without (option Ib) tracheotomy. In addition, we analyzed microvascular reconstruction with radial forearm flap (option II). Furthermore, unsatisfactory results after options Ia and Ib may make secondary tongue plastic with split-thickness skin grafting necessary (option I+). The calculations were performed considering the German Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) system and compared to the specific DRG cost data of 250 German reference hospitals. The overall average length of stay (aLoS) declined from 16.7 to 12.8 days with a reduction in every option. Until 2011, all options showed similar accumulated DRG reimbursement. From 2012 onwards, earnings almost doubled for option II due to changes in the DRG allocation. As was expected, the highest costs were observed in option II. Profits (reimbursement minus costs) were also highest for option II (mean 2052 €, maximum 3630 Euros in 2015) followed by options Ia (765 €) and Ib/I+ (681 €). Average profits over time would be 17 to 19% higher if adjusted for inflation. We showed the development of the DRG allocation of two commonly used methods of reconstruction after ablative tongue cancer surgery and the associated LoS, reimbursement, costs, and profits. As expected, the highest values were found for microvascular reconstruction. Microvascular reconstruction may also be the primary choice of

  18. Study of the vitamins A, E and C esters penetration into the skin by confocal Raman spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevych, Borys; Isensee, Debora; Rangel, Joao L.; Dal Pizzol, Carine; Martinello, Valeska C. A.; Dieamant, Gustavo C.; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Vitamins A, E and C play important role in skin homeostasis and protection. Hence, they are extensively used in many cosmetic and cosmeceutic products. However, their molecules are unstable, and do not easily penetrate into the skin, which drastically decreases its efficiency in topical formulations. Liposoluble derivative of the vitamin A - retinyl palmitate, vitamin E - tocopheryl acetate, and vitamin C - tetraisopalmitoyl ascorbic acid, are more stable, and are frequently used as an active ingredient in cosmetic products. Moreover, increased hydrophobicity of these molecules could lead to a higher skin penetration. The aim of this work is to track and compare the absorption of the liposoluble derivatives of the vitamins and their encapsulated form, into the healthy human skin in vivo. We used Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS) that is proven to be helpful in label-free non-destructive investigation of the biochemical composition and molecular conformational analysis of the biological samples. The measurements were performed in the volar forearm of the 10 healthy volunteers. Skin was treated with both products, and Raman spectra were obtained after 15 min, 3 hours, and 6 hours after applying the formulation. 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer (River Diagnostics, The Netherlands) with 785 nm laser excitation was used to acquire information in the fingerprint region. Significant difference in permeation of the products was observed. Whereas only free form of retinyl palmitate penetrate the skin within first 15 minutes, all three vitamin derivatives were present under the skin surface in case of nanoparticulated form.

  19. In vivo confirmation of hydration-induced changes in human-skin thickness, roughness and interaction with the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Agnieszka K; Adlhart, Christian; Spano, Fabrizio; Rotaru, Gelu-Marius; Derler, Siegfried; Zhai, Lina; Spencer, Nicholas D; Rossi, René M

    2016-09-15

    The skin properties, structure, and performance can be influenced by many internal and external factors, such as age, gender, lifestyle, skin diseases, and a hydration level that can vary in relation to the environment. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the multifaceted influence of water on human skin through a combination of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and images of volar-forearm skin captured with the laser scanning confocal microscopy. By means of this pilot study, the authors have both qualitatively and quantitatively studied the influence of changing the depth-dependent hydration level of the stratum corneum (SC) on the real contact area, surface roughness, and the dimensions of the primary lines and presented a new method for characterizing the contact area for different states of the skin. The hydration level of the skin and the thickness of the SC increased significantly due to uptake of moisture derived from liquid water or, to a much lesser extent, from humidity present in the environment. Hydrated skin was smoother and exhibited higher real contact area values. The highest rates of water uptake were observed for the upper few micrometers of skin and for short exposure times.

  20. The anatomy of forearm free flap phalloplasty for transgender surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Dennis, M; Holland, J; Terrell, M; Loukas, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    Transgender surgeries are becoming more frequent and visual interpretation of anatomy is essential for both surgeons and patients. Since the forearm free flap phalloplasty was introduced in 1984, it has been known to provide reliable cosmetic and functional results for transitioning men compared with phalloplasty by different flaps. Surgical text descriptions were enhanced by the creation of new anatomic illustrations. The forearm free flap consists of the anterior forearm skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia containing the radial artery as the perforator and its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves are demonstrated in relation to the surgically derived flap. Song's forearm free flap phalloplasty requires two surgical stages with a three-month interval between the stages: prelamination of a neourethra and construction of a neophallus. The neophallus created by forearm flap phalloplasty is reported to achieve acceptable aesthetical and psychological satisfaction, appropriate size and shape, and satisfying sexual intercourse. Despite increasing experiences in gender confirming surgery with modifications made by many authors, urethral complications including fistula and/or stricture formation are the leading causes of reoperation. The poor esthetic outcome of the forearm donor site and a decrease in rigidity of the neophallus are the main limitations. Illustrations of anatomy help inform surgical choice and understanding of risks and benefits by patients. The anatomy of the free forearm flap phalloplasty supports creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Clin. Anat. 31:145-151, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekner, D D; Roeling, T A P; Van Cann, E M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were injected with epoxy resin (Araldite) and the perforating arteries were dissected. The number of clinically relevant perforators from the radial and ulnar arteries was not significantly different in the distal forearm. Most perforators were located in the proximal half of the distal one third, making this part probably the safest location for flap harvest. Close to the wrist, i.e. most distally, there were more perforators on the ulnar side than on the radial side. The ulnar artery stained 77% of the skin surface area of the forearm, showing the ulnar forearm free flap to be more suitable than the radial forearm free flap for the restoration of large defects. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DFD-01 Reduces Transepidermal Water Loss and Improves Skin Hydration and Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Mark; Grove, Gary L; Allenby, Kent; Houser, Tim

    2017-12-01

    In plaque psoriasis, the benefit of topical steroids is well established. The vehicle formulation of topical steroids may also provide benefit in addition to the effects of the steroid itself. DFD-01 (betamethasone dipropionate spray, 0.05%) is a formulation composed of a topical steroid in an emollient-like vehicle that enhances penetration to the target site of inflammation in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of DFD-01 and its vehicle on skin hydration and barrier function in compromised skin and to evaluate its effect on flexibility in healthy skin. Eighteen healthy white volunteers were enrolled in each of two studies. In Study 1, dry shaving of volar forearms created a compromised skin barrier, through which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured using an evaporimeter. Capacitance, a measure of epidermal hydration, was also measured at baseline and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or its vehicle formulation. In Study 2, intact skin flexibility was tested with a cutometer before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or vehicle. In Study 1, both DFD-01 and its vehicle were effective at reducing TEWL through the compromised stratum corneum. Capacitance measurements confirmed this finding; razor-chafed skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle exhibited levels of skin hydration similar to unshaved control skin. Study 2 found softening and greater flexibility of normal skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle compared with nontreated control skin samples. These tests suggest that the DFD-01 formulation and its vehicle are each effective at retaining moisture within a damaged skin barrier and for softening and increasing the flexibility of intact skin. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories.

  3. Microvascular filtration is increased in the forearms of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2013-01-01

    -enhanced ultrasound; venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography; lower-body negative pressure; noninvasive blood pressure measurements; and skin (99m)Tc-pertechnetate clearance technique. Measurements were performed bilaterally and simultaneously in the forearms, enabling use of the nonedematous forearm...... relative microvascular volume, forearm blood flow, skin blood flow, or central or local sympathetic vascular reflexes. Forearm microvascular filtration is increased in patients with BCRL, and more so in the edematous arm. The vascular sympathetic control mechanisms seem to be preserved. We propose...... with unilateral BCRL, the following aspects of upper extremity peripheral circulation were examined: muscle relative microvascular volume; capillary filtration coefficient; central and local sympathetic vascular reflexes; skin blood flow; and forearm blood flow. These were studied via real-time, contrast...

  4. Modified cup flap for volar oblique fingertip amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadli, A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modified volar “V-Y cup” flap for volar fingertip defects that do not exceed more than half of the distal phalanx for better aesthetic and functional outcome. In seven cases out of eight, the flap was elevated with a subdermal pedicle, whereas in one case, the flap was elevated as an island on the bilateral neurovascular bundle. The fingertips have been evaluated for sensibility using standard tests, hook nail deformity and patient satisfaction. Seven flaps have survived completely. The flap with skeletonized bilateral digital neurovascular bundle has shown signs of venous insufficiency on the 5 postoperative day with consecutive necrosis. Suturing the distal edges of the flap in a “cupping” fashion provided a normal pulp contour. The modified flap can be used for defects as mentioned above. Subdermally dissected pedicle-based flap is safe and easy to elevate. The aesthetic and functional outcomes have been reported to be satisfactory.

  5. Approach to quantify human dermal skin aging using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular skin structures in human skin are impaired during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Assessment of these dermal changes is conducted by subjective clinical evaluation and histological and molecular analysis. We aimed to develop a new parameter for the noninvasive quantitative determination of dermal skin alterations utilizing the high-resolution three-dimensional multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) technique. To quantify structural differences between chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, the respective collagen-specific second harmonic generation and the elastin-specific autofluorescence signals were recorded in young and elderly volunteers using the MPLSM technique. After image processing, the elastin-to-collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. Results show that the ELCOR parameter of volar forearm skin significantly increases with age. For elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area is significantly augmented compared to the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on the MPLSM technology, we introduce the ELCOR parameter as a new means to quantify accurately age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix.

  6. In-vivo dynamic characterization of microneedle skin penetration using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Joey; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Lawlor, Kate; Jonathan, Enock; O'Mahony, Conor; Leahy, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The use of microneedles as a method of circumventing the barrier properties of the stratum corneum is receiving much attention. Although skin disruption technologies and subsequent transdermal diffusion rates are being extensively studied, no accurate data on depth and closure kinetics of microneedle-induced skin pores are available, primarily due to the cumbersome techniques currently required for skin analysis. We report on the first use of optical coherence tomography technology to image microneedle penetration in real time and in vivo. We show that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to painlessly measure stratum corneum and epidermis thickness, as well as microneedle penetration depth after microneedle insertion. Since OCT is a real-time, in-vivo, nondestructive technique, we also analyze skin healing characteristics and present quantitative data on micropore closure rate. Two locations (the volar forearm and dorsal aspect of the fingertip) have been assessed as suitable candidates for microneedle administration. The results illustrate the applicability of OCT analysis as a tool for microneedle-related skin characterization.

  7. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer(®) CM 825, Visioscan(®) VC 98 and Cutometer(®) dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter(®) MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter(®) readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel.

  8. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  9. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  10. Skin condition and its relationship to systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Anna; Tworek, Damian; Szewczyk, Karolina; Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Kurmanowska, Zofia; Górski, Paweł; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Piotrowski, Wojciech Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The systemic (extrapulmonary) effects and comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute substantially to its burden. The supposed link between COPD and its systemic effects on distal organs could be due to the low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the systemic inflammation may influence the skin condition in COPD patients. Forty patients with confirmed diagnosis of COPD and a control group consisting of 30 healthy smokers and 20 healthy never-smokers were studied. Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin sebum content, melanin index, erythema index, and skin temperature were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at the volar forearm of all participants using a multifunctional skin physiology monitor. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were measured in serum using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were significant differences between COPD patients and healthy never-smokers in skin temperature, melanin index, sebum content, and hydration level ( P skin measured. The mean levels of hsCRP and IL-6 in serum were significantly higher in COPD patients and healthy smokers in comparison with healthy never-smokers. There were significant correlations between skin temperature and serum hsCRP ( R =0.40; P =0.02) as well as skin temperature and serum IL-6 ( R =0.49; P =0.005) in smokers. Stratum corneum hydration correlated significantly with serum TNF-α ( R =0.37; P =0.01) in COPD patients. Differences noted in several skin biophysical properties and biomarkers of systemic inflammation between COPD patients, smokers, and healthy never-smokers may suggest a possible link between smoking-driven, low-grade systemic inflammation, and the overall skin condition.

  11. Analysis of the in vivo confocal Raman spectral variability in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevych, Borys; dos Santos, Laurita; Rangel, Joao L.; Grancianinov, Karen J. S.; Sousa, Mariane P.; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Biochemical composition of the skin changes in each layer and, therefore, the skin spectral profile vary with the depth. In this work, in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy studies were performed at different skin regions and depth profile (from the surface down to 10 μm) of the stratum corneum, to verify the variability and reproducibility of the intra- and interindividual Raman data. The Raman spectra were collected from seven healthy female study participants using a confocal Raman system from Rivers Diagnostic, with 785 nm excitation line and a CCD detector. Measurements were performed in the volar forearm region, at three different points at different depth, with the step of 2 μm. For each depth point, three spectra were acquired. Data analysis included the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and residual) and Pearson's correlation coefficient calculation. Our results show that inter-individual variability is higher than intraindividual variability, and variability inside the SC is higher than on the skin surface. In all these cases we obtained r values, higher than 0.94, which correspond to high correlation between Raman spectra. It reinforces the possibility of the data reproducibility and direct comparison of in vivo results obtained with different study participants of the same age group and phototype.

  12. Median nerve neuropathy in the forearm due to recurrence of anterior wrist ganglion that originates from the scaphotrapezial joint: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Median nerve neuropathy caused by compression from a tumor in the forearm is rare. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates despite surgical treatment. Here, we report the recurrence of an anterior wrist ganglion that originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint due to incomplete resection and that caused median nerve neuropathy in the distal forearm. Case presentation A 47-year-old right-handed housewife noted the appearance of soft swelling on the volar aspect of her left distal forearm, and local resection surgery was performed twice at another hospital. One year after the last surgery, the swelling reappeared and was associated with numbness and pain in the radial volar aspect of the hand. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the multicystic lesion originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint and had expanded beyond the wrist. Exploration of the left median nerve showed that it was compressed by a large ovoid cystic lesion at the distal forearm near the proximal end of the carpal tunnel. We resected the cystic lesion to the Scaphotrapezial joint. Her symptoms disappeared 1 week after surgery, and complications or recurrent symptoms were absent 13 months after surgery. Conclusions A typical median nerve compression was caused by incomplete resection of an anterior wrist ganglion, which may have induced widening of the cyst. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates and require extra attention in their treatment.

  13. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-06-01

    Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

  14. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-12-01

    Although surfactant-induced acute irritant dermatitis has been extensively studied, our understanding about the induction and repair of the clinically more relevant chronic form is limited. Our purpose was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to structurally unrelated surfactants and to compare the maximal irritant responses from this model with corresponding reactions noted in a previously reported acute irritation model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (7.5%) were applied for 20 minutes daily (for 8 consecutive days excluding the weekend) to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were repeatedly assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). Maximum irritant responses were compared with corresponding reactions from an acute irritation model. TEWL was increased by SLS and DTAB to the same extent, but erythema was significantly higher in DTAB-treated skin. Skin dryness, as demonstrated by decreased capacitance values and increased scores for scaling and fissuring, was significantly more pronounced than in an acute irritation model for SLS and DTAB, although no difference was detected between the two surfactants. Potassium soap led to a slight increase in TEWL, whereas the remaining features were not significantly changed. This chronic irritation model appears to represent the clinical situation of irritant contact dermatitis with pronounced skin dryness more closely than the acute irritation model. The present study confirms that an extended time is needed for complete healing of irritant skin reactions. We also demonstrated that the evaluation of the irritation potential of

  15. Effects of water activity and low molecular weight humectants on skin permeability and hydration dynamics - a double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albèr, C; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Kocherbitov, V; Saleem, S; Lodén, M; Engblom, J

    2014-10-01

    The mammalian skin is a barrier that effectively separates the water-rich interior of the body from the normally dryer exterior. Changes in the external conditions, for example ambient humidity, have been shown to affect the skin barrier properties. The prime objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of water activity of a topical formulation on skin hydration and permeability. A second objective was to gain more understanding on how two commonly used humectants, urea and glycerol, affect skin barrier function in vivo. Simple aqueous formulations were applied under occlusion to the volar forearm of healthy volunteers. Following 4-h exposure, skin water loss (by transepidermal water loss measurements), skin hydration (by Corneometry) and skin permeability (by time to vasodilation due to benzyl nicotinate exposure) were monitored. The results demonstrate that a relatively small change in the water activity of a topical formulation is sufficient to induce considerable effects on stratum corneum hydration and permeability to exogenous substances. Exposing the skin to high water activity leads to increased skin hydration and also increased permeability. Furthermore, urea and glycerol promote skin hydration and permeability even at reduced water activity of the applied formulation. These results highlight the importance of considering the water activity in topically applied formulations and the potential benefit of using humectants. The results may impact formulation optimization in how to facilitate skin hydration and to modify skin permeability by temporarily open and close the skin barrier. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Direct noninvasive observation of near infrared photobleaching of autofluorescence in human volar side fingertips in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Wright, Colin; Lewis-Clark, Eric; Shaheen, G.; Geier, Roman; Chaiken, J.

    2010-02-01

    Human transdermal in vivo spectroscopic applications for tissue analysis involving near infrared (NIR) light often must contend with broadband NIR fluorescence that, depending on what kind of spectroscopy is being employed, can degrade signal to noise ratios and dynamic range. Such NIR fluorescence, i.e. "autofluorescence" is well known to originate in blood tissues and various other endogenous materials associated with the static tissues. Results of recent experiments on human volar side fingertips in vivo are beginning to provide a relative ordering of the contributions from various sources. Preliminary results involving the variation in the bleaching effect across different individuals suggest that for 830 nm excitation well over half of the total fluorescence comes from the static tissues and remainder originates with the blood tissues, i.e. the plasma and the hematocrit. Of the NIR fluorescence associated with the static tissue, over half originates with products of well-known post-enzymatic glycation reactions, i.e. Maillard chemistry, in the skin involving glucose and other carbohydrates and skin proteins like collagen and cytosol proteins.

  17. Perforator anatomy of the ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Jon A; Moaveni, Zachary; Tan, Swee T

    2012-08-01

    The ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap (UFFF) is a favourable alternative to the radial forearm flap when thin and pliable tissue is required. The precise anatomy of the cutaneous perforators of UFFF has not been previously reported. The position of cutaneous perforators>0.5 mm was recorded while raising 52 consecutive free UFFFs in 51 patients at our Centre. Three (6%) UFFFs in two patients demonstrated direct cutaneous supply through a superficial ulnar artery, a known anatomic variance. There was no cutaneous perforator>0.5 mm in one flap. Among the remaining 48 dissections, an average of 3 (range, 1-6) cutaneous perforators were identified. Ninety-four percent of these forearms demonstrated at least one perforator>0.5 mm within 3 cm, and all had at least one perforator within 6 cm of the midpoint of the forearm. Proximal perforators were more likely to be musculo-cutaneous through the edge of flexor carpi ulnaris or flexor digitorum superficialis, while mid- to distal perforators were septo-cutaneous. UFFF skin paddle designed to overlie an area within 3 cm of the midpoint between the medial epicondyle and the pisiform is most likely to include at least one cutaneous perforator from the ulnar artery, without a need for intra-operative skin island adjustment. This novel anatomic finding and other practical generalisations are discussed to facilitate successful elevation of UFFF. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra-high-resolut......High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra......-high-resolution line-pair phantome with both systems. Secondly, we investigated 21 healthy volunteers of different phototypes with HD-OCT and RCM on volar forearm and compared the generated images. HD-OCT displays also differences depending on the skin phototype and anatomical site. The 3-μm lateral resolution...... of the HD-OCT could be confirmed by the phantom analysis. The identification of cells in the epidermis can be made by both techniques. RCM offers the best lateral resolution, and HD-OCT has the best penetration depth, providing images of individual cells deeper within the dermis. Eccrine ducts and hair...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  20. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  1. Skin Impedance Measurements for Acupuncture Research: Development of a Continuous Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin impedance at acupuncture points (APs has been used as a diagnostic/therapeutic aid for more than 50 years. Currently, researchers are evaluating the electrophysiologic properties of APs as a possible means of understanding acupuncture's mechanism. To comprehensively assess the diagnostic, therapeutic and mechanistic implications of acupuncture point skin impedance, a device capable of reliably recording impedances from 100 kΩ to 50 MΩ at multiple APs over extended time periods is needed. This article describes design considerations, development and testing of a single channel skin impedance system (hardware, control software and customized electrodes. The system was tested for accuracy against known resistors and capacitors. Two electrodes (the AMI and the ORI were compared for reliability of recording over 30 min. Two APs (LU 9 and PC 6 and a nearby non-AP site were measured simultaneously in four individuals for 60 min. Our measurement system performed accurately (within 5% against known resistors (580 kΩ–10 MΩ and capacitors (10 nF–150 nF. Both the AMI electrode and the modified ORI electrode recorded skin impedance reliably on the volar surface of the forearm (r = 0.87 and r = 0.79, respectively. In four of four volunteers tested, skin impedance at LU 9 was less than at the nearby non-AP site. In three of four volunteers skin impedance was less at PC 6 than at the nearby non-AP site. We conclude that our system is a suitable device upon which we can develop a fully automated multi-channel device capable of recording skin impedance at multiple APs simultaneously over 24 h.

  2. Measurement of forearm oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1988-01-01

    The classical forearm technique widely used for studies of skeletal muscle metabolism requires arterial cannulation. To avoid arterial puncture it is becoming more common to arterialize blood from a contralateral hand vein by local heating. This modification and the classical method have produced...... blood flow and decreases skeletal muscle blood flow. This facilitates mixing of superficial blood with deep venous blood. Contralateral heating increased deep venous oxygen saturation and abolished the pronounced glucose-induced increase in oxygen consumption observed in the control experiments after...... contradictory results regarding the contribution of skeletal muscle to glucose-induced thermogenesis. The effect on forearm circulation and the metabolism of heating the contralateral hand was examined before and after an oral glucose load. The results suggest that contralateral heating increases subcutaneous...

  3. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  4. Monitoring of caffeine consumption effect on skin blood properties by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanic, Matija; Marin, Ana; Stergar, Jost; Verdel, Nina; Majaron, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It affects many tissues and organs, in particular central nervous system, heart, and blood vessels. The effect of caffeine on vascular smooth muscle cells is an initial transient contraction followed by significant vasodilatation. In this study we investigate the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for monitoring of vascular changes in human skin induced by caffeine consumption. DRS spectra were recorded on volar sides of the forearms of ten healthy volunteers at time delays of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after consumption of caffeine, while one subject served as a negative control. Analytical diffusion approximation solutions for diffuse reflectance from three-layer structures were used to assess skin composition (e.g., dermal blood volume fraction and oxygen saturation) by fitting to experimental data. The results demonstrate that cutaneous vasodynamics induced by caffeine consumption can be monitored by DRS, while changes in the control subject not consuming caffeine were insignificant.

  5. Interaction of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlereth, Tanja; Schukraft, Jonas; Krämer-Best, Heidrun H; Geber, Christian; Ackermann, Tatiana; Birklein, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) are neuropeptides that are simultaneously released from nociceptive C-fibers. CGRP is a potent vasodilator, inducing a long-lasting increase in superficial skin blood flow, whereas SP induces only a brief vasodilation but a significant plasma extravasation. CGRP and SP may play important roles in the pathophysiology of various pain states but little is known about their interaction. Different concentrations of SP (ranging from 10 -5 M to 10 -9 M) were applied to the volar forearm of 24 healthy subjects via dermal microdialysis. SP was applied either alone or in combination with CGRP10 -9 M and CGRP 10 -6 M. As expected, SP induced a transient increase in skin blood flow that decayed shortly after application. This transient blood flow peak was blunted with co-application of CGRP 10 -9 M and inhibited with co-application of CGRP10 -6 M. SP alone induced plasma protein extravasation (PPE). However, when CGRP10 -6 M was added, the PPE significantly increased. Our results demonstrate a complex interaction of the neuropeptides CGRP and SP. CGRP10 -6 M prevented SP-induced early vasodilation but augmented SP-induced PPE. These interactions might explain why vascular symptoms in chronic pain can differ strikingly between individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  7. Versatility of radial forearm free flap for intraoral reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Jelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The radial forearm free flap has an important role in reconstruction of the oncologic defects in the region of head and neck. Objective. The aim was to present and evaluate clinical experience and results in the radial forearm free transfer for intraoral reconstructions after resections due to malignancies. Methods. This article illustrates the versatility and reliability of forearm single donor site in 21 patients with a variety of intraoral oncologic defects who underwent immediate (19 patients, 90.5% or delayed (2 patients, 9.5% reconstruction using free flaps from the radial forearm. Fascio-cutaneous flaps were used in patients with floor of the mouth (6 cases, buccal mucosa (5 cases, lip (1 case and a retromolar triangle (2 cases defects, or after hemiglossectomy (7 cases. In addition, the palmaris longus tendon was included with the flap in 2 patients that required oral sphincter reconstruction. Results. An overall success rate was 90.5%. Flap failures were detected in two (9.5% patients, in one patient due to late ischemic necrosis, which appeared one week after the surgery, and in another patient due to venous congestion, which could not be salvaged after immediate re-exploration. Two patients required re-exploration due to vein thrombosis. The donor site healed uneventfully in all patients, except one, who had partial loss of skin graft. Conclusion. The radial forearm free flap is, due to multiple advantages, an acceptable method for reconstructions after resection of intraoral malignancies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41006

  8. Cream or foam in pedal skin care: towards the ideal vehicle for urea used against dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, C; Bielfeldt, S; Borelli, S; Schaller, M; Korting, H C

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different urea-containing cosmetic preparations designed for foot care regarding skin occlusion. The primary aim was therefore to screen the short-term transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as a parameter for skin barrier function and skin occlusion and to characterize the relative role of the vehicle, i.e. cream or foam in the context of cosmetics containing urea in the 2-10% range addressing the cosmetic products urea 2% cream (GEHWOL FUSSKRAFT blau), petrolatum containing cream (GEHWOL med Schrundensalbe), urea 10% cream (GEHWOL med Lipidro-Crème), urea 10% foam (Allpresan Fuss Schaum) and vaseline (positive control) compared with an untreated area on the volar forearms of volunteers. Moreover, the short time (24 h) kinetics regarding the moisturizing effect of cream and foam formulations in diabetic patients were compared. The efficacy of a cream on reduction of skin thickness of hyperkeratotic skin in the heel region before and after a period of product application was also evaluated. In some of the trials, healthy individuals and in others, diabetic patients (type I and II) were enrolled. TEWL was determined before product application, as well as at given points of time thereafter. In this study, no excessive occlusion effects comparable with a blockage of the skin's natural water evaporation could be observed for any of the test products. To the extent to be expected, this was found neither for the cream products nor for the foam product. Slightly lowered TEWL values after application of the 10% urea cream can be interpreted as a beneficial effect in terms of an improved barrier function. Regarding skin moisture, the urea-containing cream formulation appeared equal or slightly superior to the foam formulation. The thickness of the horny layer was found reduced after application of 10 % urea-containing cream. At present it looks as if cream vehicles would still be vehicles of choice in general, when it comes to the

  9. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  11. Plastic occlusion stress test as a model to investigate the effects of skin delipidization on the stratum corneum water holding capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Herbst, R; Maibach, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an in vivo model to study the effects of lipid removal on skin barrier. 16 subjects (age 41 +/- 8) were delipidized in vivo on the volar forearm using respectively ether/acetone (EA; 1:1) and chloroform/methanol (CM; 2:1). A third site served as control. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured according to the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) procedure: the water desorption curve after removal of the occlusion was recorded in terms of skin surface water loss (SSWL) using an evaporimeter for 30 min. In the central part of the evaporation curve (bound water) the CM-treated site is significantly different from control and EA-treated sites (p rate of water from SC are higher in the CM-treated site (p evaporation of free water. We conclude that polar lipids have a key role in modulating barrier function and WHC of the stratum corneum. The POST can represent a useful in vivo model to study the effects of lipid extraction on skin function.

  12. Accelerated rehabilitation compared with a standard protocol after distal radial fractures treated with volar open reduction and internal fixation: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Jess L; Husband, Jeffrey B

    2014-10-01

    There are relatively few studies in the literature that specifically evaluate accelerated rehabilitation protocols for distal radial fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this study was to compare the early postoperative outcomes (at zero to twelve weeks postoperatively) of patients enrolled in an accelerated rehabilitation protocol with those of patients enrolled in a standard rehabilitation protocol following ORIF for a distal radial fracture. We hypothesized that patients with accelerated rehabilitation after volar ORIF for a distal radial fracture would have an earlier return to function compared with patients who followed a standard protocol. From November 2007 to November 2010, eighty-one patients with an unstable distal radial fracture were prospectively randomized to follow either an accelerated or a standard rehabilitation protocol after undergoing ORIF with a volar plate for a distal radial fracture. Both groups began with gentle active range of motion at three to five days postoperatively. At two weeks, the accelerated group initiated wrist/forearm passive range of motion and strengthening exercises, whereas the standard group initiated passive range of motion and strengthening at six weeks postoperatively. Patients were assessed at three to five days, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, six weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks, and six months postoperatively. Outcomes included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores (primary outcome) and measurements of wrist flexion/extension, supination, pronation, grip strength, and palmar pinch. The patients in the accelerated group had better mobility, strength, and DASH scores at the early postoperative time points (zero to eight weeks postoperatively) compared with the patients in the standard rehabilitation group. The difference between the groups was both clinically relevant and statistically significant. Patients who follow an accelerated rehabilitation

  13. The influence of cooling forearm/hand and gender on estimation of handgrip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chan; Shih, Yuh-Chuan; Tsai, Yue-Jin; Chi, Chia-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Handgrip strength is essential in manual operations and activities of daily life, but the influence of forearm/hand skin temperature on estimation of handgrip strength is not well documented. Therefore, the present study intended to investigate the effect of local cooling of the forearm/hand on estimation of handgrip strength at various target force levels (TFLs, in percentage of MVC) for both genders. A cold pressor test was used to lower and maintain the hand skin temperature at 14°C for comparison with the uncooled condition. A total of 10 male and 10 female participants were recruited. The results indicated that females had greater absolute estimation deviations. In addition, both genders had greater absolute deviations in the middle range of TFLs. Cooling caused an underestimation of grip strength. Furthermore, a power function is recommended for establishing the relationship between actual and estimated handgrip force. Statement of relevance: Manipulation with grip strength is essential in daily life and the workplace, so it is important to understand the influence of lowering the forearm/hand skin temperature on grip-strength estimation. Females and the middle range of TFL had greater deviations. Cooling the forearm/hand tended to cause underestimation, and a power function is recommended for establishing the relationship between actual and estimated handgrip force. Practitioner Summary: It is important to understand the effect of lowering the forearm/hand skin temperature on grip-strength estimation. A cold pressor was used to cool the hand. The cooling caused underestimation, and a power function is recommended for establishing the relationship between actual and estimated handgrip force. Manipulation with grip strength is essential in daily life and the workplace, so it is important to understand the influence of lowering the forearm/hand skin temperature on grip-strength estimation. Females and the middle range of TFL had greater deviations. Cooling the

  14. Intramuscular myxoid lipoma in the proximal forearm presenting as an olecranon mass with superficial radial nerve palsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extremity lipomas may occur in any location, including the proximal forearm. We describe a case of a patient with an intramuscular lipoma presenting as an unusual posterior elbow mass. Case presentation We discuss the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a tender, posterior elbow mass initially diagnosed as chronic olecranon bursitis. A minor sensory disturbance in the distribution of the superficial radial nerve was initially thought to be unrelated, but was likely caused by mass effect from the lipoma. No pre-operative advanced imaging was obtained because the diagnosis was felt to have already been made. At the time of surgery, a fatty mass originating in the volar forearm muscles was found to have breached the dorsal forearm fascia and displaced the olecranon bursa. Tissue diagnosis was made by histopathology as a myxoid lipoma with no aggressive features. Post-operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion We present a case of an unusual elbow mass presenting with symptoms consistent with chronic olecranon bursitis, a relatively common condition. The only unexplained pre-operative finding was the non-specific finding of a transient superficial radial nerve deficit. We remind clinicians to be cautious when diagnosing soft tissue masses in the extremities when unexplained physical findings are present.

  15. Anatomy of the Volar Retinacular Elements of the Hand: A Unified Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Jenna; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2018-03-01

    Many investigators have described the anatomy of the volar retinacular structures of the hand over the last 60 years. As a result, multiple terms have been assigned to 1 anatomical structure and 1 name designated to more than 1 structure. Our purpose is to review the detailed anatomy and key components of the volar retinacular elements of the hand, their etymology, and their most recent descriptions. The objective also is to organize these structures into systems, which can be helpful for learners to assimilate into a practical anatomical guide. Lastly, the goal is to create a common nomenclature for identifying the volar retinacular structures of the hand in order to facilitate clear communication about them across languages. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  17. Osteoradionecrosis of the olecranon: treatment by radial forearm flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.W.; Stevenson, T.R.; VanderKolk, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the olecranon is an unusual pathologic entity, treated best by debridement and wound closure using vascularized tissue. Local skin is often unavailable for flap design and transposition. The radial forearm flap can be isolated on a proximal vascular pedicle and transposed to cover the wound. In the case presented, healing was brisk and complete, allowing early elbow mobilization. Although the donor site is not easily concealed, no functional impairment results from flap elevation and all full-thickness wounds are confined to the involved extremity

  18. Fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, T; Muraoka, M; Motomura, H; Ozawa, T

    2001-11-01

    Four cases of fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision are reported. Because of lack of suitable arteries for anastomosis in the amputated finger, in each case a volar radial vein was anastomosed to the proximal digital artery and external drainage was performed through a transverse tip incision. In 3 cases the replanted fingertip survived completely; partial necrosis occurred in 1 case. Because veins are more superficial and larger than arteries, they are more available for anastomosis. The results indicate that this method is a useful alternative in fingertip replantation.

  19. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  20. Forearm Compartment Syndrome: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Ilyas, Asif M; Thoder, Joseph J

    2018-02-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is uncommon but can have devastating consequences. Compartment syndrome is a result of osseofascial swelling leading to decreased tissue perfusion and tissue necrosis. There are numerous causes of forearm compartment syndrome and high clinical suspicion must be maintained to avoid permanent disability. The most widely recognized symptoms include pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretch of the wrist and digits. Early diagnosis and decompressive fasciotomy are essential in the treatment of forearm compartment syndrome. Closure of fasciotomy wounds can often be accomplished by primary closure but many patients require additional forms of soft tissue coverage procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contralateral lumbo-umbilical flap: A versatile technique for volar finger coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hussain Bijli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While contemplating any difficult soft tissue reconstruction, patient comfort and compliance is of paramount importance. Reconstruction of the volar aspect of fingers and hand by the ipsilateral pedicled flaps (groin flap, abdominal flaps is demanding as the flap inset is difficult for the surgeon and very uncomfortable for the patient. This often leads to flap complications. For the comfort of the patient, better compliance and ease of complete inset, we planned to manage soft tissue defects of the volar aspect of fingers and hand by a new contralateral pedicled lumbo-umbilical flap. This flap is based on the paraumbilical perforators of deep inferior epigastric artery. Materials and Methods: The contralateral pedicled lumbo-umbilical flap was used in eight patients with high-tension electrical burn injuries involving the volar aspect of fingers and hand. The patients were closely observed for first 6 weeks for any flap or donor site complications and then followed monthly to assess donor and recipient site characteristics for 6 months to 2 years. Results and Conclusion: Large flaps up to 8 cm × 16 cm were raised. All but one flaps survived completely. All patients were mobilised within 48 h and five were discharged in less than a week after initial inset. The flap is reliable, easy to harvest and easy to inset on the volar aspect of fingers. The arm is positioned in a very comfortable position. The main disadvantage, however, is a conspicuous abdominal scar.

  2. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  3. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Jaap J. A. J.; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; McGrath, John A.; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J.

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused

  4. Do intensity ratings and skin conductance responses reliably discriminate between different stimulus intensities in experimentally induced pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimhorst, Markus; Sandrock, Stephan; Fechir, Marcel; Hausenblas, Nadine; Geber, Christian; Birklein, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses the question whether pain-intensity ratings and skin conductance responses (SCRs) are able to detect different intensities of phasic painful stimuli and to determine the reliability of this discrimination. For this purpose, 42 healthy participants of both genders were assigned to either electrical, mechanical, or laser heat-pain stimulation (each n = 14). A whole range of single brief painful stimuli were delivered on the right volar forearm of the dominant hand in a randomized order. Pain-intensity ratings and SCRs were analyzed. Using generalizability theory, individual and gender differences were the main contributors to the variability of both intensity ratings and SCRs. Most importantly, we showed that pain-intensity ratings are a reliable measure for the discrimination of different pain stimulus intensities in the applied modalities. The reliability of SCR was adequate when mechanical and heat stimuli were tested but failed for the discrimination of electrical stimuli. Further studies are needed to reveal the reason for this lack of accuracy for SCRs when applying electrical pain stimuli. Our study could help researchers to better understand the relationship between pain and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Pain researchers are furthermore encouraged to consider individual and gender differences when measuring pain intensity and the concomitant SCRs in experimental settings. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ulnar nerve paralysis after forearm bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed. The importance of diagnosing this injury and differentiating its features lies in the fact that, depending on the type of lesion, different types of management will be chosen.

  6. Multiple Volar Carpometacarpal Dislocations with Associated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fletcher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare injury involving volar fracture dislocations of the second to fifth carpometacarpal dislocations. Carpometacarpal dislocations are usually dorsally displaced and most commonly only involve the fourth and fifth joints. An associated carpal tunnel syndrome adds another dimension to the complexity and rarity of the injury in this index case. A high index of clinical suspicion and subsequent emergent management is of utmost importance to treat this unusual combination of injuries in order to avoid significant morbidity.

  7. Where Is the Ulnar Styloid Process? Identification of the Absolute Location of the Ulnar Styloid Process Based on CT and Verification of Neutral Forearm Rotation on Lateral Radiographs of the Wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Han; Lee, Yong-Suk; Kang, Jin-Woo; Noh, Dong-Young; Jung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2018-03-01

    The location of the ulnar styloid process can be confusing because the radius and the hand rotate around the ulna. The purpose of this study was to identify the absolute location of the ulnar styloid process, which is independent of forearm pronation or supination, to use it as a reference for neutral forearm rotation on lateral radiographs of the wrist. Computed tomography (CT) images of 23 forearms taken with elbow flexion of 70° to 90° were analyzed. The axial CT images were reconstructed to be perpendicular to the distal ulnar shaft. The absolute location of the ulnar styloid process in this study was defined as the position of the ulnar styloid process on the axial plane of the ulnar head relative to the long axis of the humeral shaft with the elbow set in the position for standard lateral radiographs of the wrist. To identify in which direction the ulnar styloid is located on the axial plane of the ulnar head, the angle between "the line of humeral long axis projected on the axial plane of the ulna" and "the line passing the center of the ulnar head and the center of the ulnar styloid" was measured (ulnar styloid direction angle). To identify how volarly or dorsally the ulnar styloid should appear on the true lateral view of the wrist, the ratio of "the volar-dorsal diameter of the ulnar head" and "the distance between the volar-most aspect of the ulnar head and the center of the ulnar styloid" was calculated (ulnar styloid location ratio). The mean ulnar styloid direction angle was 12° dorsally. The mean ulnar styloid location ratio was 1:0.55. The ulnar styloid is located at nearly the ulnar-most (the opposite side of the humerus with the elbow flexed) and slightly dorsal aspects of the ulnar head on the axial plane. It should appear almost midway (55% dorsally) from the ulnar head on the standard lateral view of the wrist in neutral forearm rotation. These location references could help clinicians determine whether the forearm is in neutral or rotated

  8. Fratura distal do rádio em pacientes com mais de 60 anos: placas ortogonais versus placa volar Distal radial fractures in patients over 60 years old: orthogonal plates versus volar plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Novaes de França Bisneto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico entre placa volar com estabilidade angular e placas ortogonais em fraturas instáveis de rádio distal em pacientes com mais de 60 anos. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos tratados com placa volar ou placas ortogonais. Resultados clínicos e radiográficos foram analisados prospectivamente. RESULTADOS: Os grupos de estudo apresentaram resultados clínicos e radiográficos semelhantes seis meses após a operação. No entanto três meses após a cirurgia, o grupo onde foi utilizada a placa volar obteve resultados superiores. CONCLUSÃO: Ambos os grupos apresentaram bons resultados funcionais. O tratamento cirúrgico facilita a reabilitação precoce. A técnica das placas ortogonais requer uma curva de aprendizado maior e apresentou mais complicações e piores resultados iniciais.OBJECTIVE: To compare the results from surgical treatment between volar plates with angular stability and orthogonal plates of unstable distal radius fractures in patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: Selected patients were randomized in two groups treated with volar plates or orthogonal plates. Clinic al and radiographic results were analyzed prospectively. RESULTS: The study groups presented similar clinical and radiographic results six months after the operation. However three months after surgery the volar plate group obtained superior results considering most of the parameters studied. CONCLUSION: Both the volar plates and the orthogonal plates presented good functional results. Surgical treatment enabled early rehabilitation for these patients. Orthogonal plate technique required a longer learning curve, presented more complications and worst early results.

  9. Time of correlation of low-frequency fluctuations in the regional laser Doppler flow signal from human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgosi-Correa, M. S.; Nogueira, G. E. C.

    2012-06-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry allows the non-invasive assessment of the skin perfusion in real-time, being an attractive technique to study the human microcirculation in clinical settings. Low-frequency oscillations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal from the skin have been related to the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic mechanisms of microvascular flow control, in the range 0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.021 Hz, 0.021-0.052 Hz and 0.052- 0.145 Hz respectively. The mean Amplitude (A) of the periodic fluctuations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal, in each frequency range, derived from the respective wavelet-transformed coefficients, has been used to assess the function and dysfunctions of each mechanism of flow control. Known sources of flow signal variances include spatial and temporal variability, diminishing the discriminatory capability of the technique. Here a new time domain method of analysis is proposed, based on the Time of Correlation (TC) of flow fluctuations between two adjacent sites. Registers of blood flow from two adjacent regions, for skin temperature at 32 0C (basal) and thermally stimulated (42 0C) of volar forearms from 20 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed. The results obtained revealed high time of correlation between two adjacent regions when thermally stimulated, for signals in the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic frequency ranges. Experimental data also indicate lower variability for TC when compared to A, when thermally stimulated, suggesting a new promising parameter for assessment of the microvascular flow control.

  10. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities’ compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy.

  11. Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, Lynn K.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Corlett, Judy L.; Crouch, Dennis J.

    2004-01-01

    While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3% solutions containing 55% capsaicin, 35% dihydrocapsaicin, and 10% other analogues prepared in three vehicles: mineral oil (MO), propylene glycol (PG), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Capsaicinoid solutions were evaluated simultaneously in a random application pattern on the volar forearms of 12 subjects using a small, single 150-μg dose. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were recovered from human skin using commercial adhesive discs to harvest stratum corneum from treated sites. Capsaicinoids were extracted from the stratum corneum-adhesive discs and quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Both capsaicinoids were detected in stratum corneum 1 min after application with all vehicles and achieved a pseudo-steady state shortly thereafter. IPA delivered three times greater capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin into the human stratum corneum than PG or MO at all time points investigated. The C max of capsaicin in IPA, PG, and MO was 16.1, 6.2, and 6.5 μg, respectively. The dihydrocapsaicin content was 60% of capsaicin with all vehicles. The estimated T half of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the three vehicles was similar (24 h). Thus, maximal cutaneous capsaicinoid concentrations were achieved quickly in the human stratum corneum and were concentration and vehicle dependent. In contrast, capsaicinoid half-life was long and vehicle independent

  12. The recurrent branch of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

    OpenAIRE

    Horiguchi, M

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous nerves of the upper arm were observed in 31 Japanese cadavers dissected in a student course of gross anatomy dissection and in cadaver selected randomly for intensive dissection. Contrary to the descriptions in current textbooks of human anatomy, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm supplies also the skin over the distal region of the anterolateral surface of the upper arm. A branch to the upper arm (the recurrent branch) arises from the proper trunk of the lateral cutaneous n...

  13. Determination of skin blood flow by 133Xe washout and by heat flux from a heated tc-Po2 electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, P.; Sejrsen, P.

    1984-01-01

    133 Xe washout measurements were used to determine cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow beneath a specially designed double-thermostated tc-Po 2 electrode. The skin blood flow was determined using thermal methods based on reduced heat dissipation during blood flow cessation. A total of 20 measurements were performed on two healthy volunteers, using the volar side of the right forearm as the experimental area. Cutaneous as well as subcutaneous blood flow increased with increasing electrode temperature. The cutaneous blood flow increased from 12.3 +- 1.3 ml (100 g) -1 . min -1 (37degC) to 49.1 +- 5.4 ml (100g) -1 . min -1 (45degC) and the subcutaneous values from 20.9 +- 0.2 ml (100 g) -1 . min -1 to 57.3 +- 0.5 ml(100 g) -1 . min -1 . Preheating of the measuring area or injection of papaverine as blood flow accelerator did not increase the maximum blood flow values. A considerable inter-individual difference between cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow was observed, but in spite of that a good overall correlation between the 133 Xe washout measurements and the two thermal flow measurements was found (r = 0.932 and 0.945, respectively). It is concluded that in some cases, but not always, measurements of tc-Po 2 at electrode temperatures of 45degC take place on a maximally perfused skin and that it is possible to determine skin blood flow by means of determinations of the heat dissipated from the tc-Po 2 electrode to the underlying skin. (author)

  14. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Joseph C; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P; Kozin, Scott H

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18+/-0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86+/-0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93+/-0.77 mm and 3.30+/-1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r(2)=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation.

  15. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gaughan, John P. [Temple University, Department of Biostatistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospitals for Children, Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Philadelphia (United States); Temple University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18{+-}0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86{+-}0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93{+-}0.77 mm and 3.30{+-}1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r{sup 2}=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p<0.05). The ulnar slope was not significantly different from zero (r{sup 2}=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  16. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P.; Kozin, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18±0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86±0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93±0.77 mm and 3.30±1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r 2 =0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p 2 =0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  17. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekner, D.D.; Roeling, TAP; van Cann, EM

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were

  18. Osteosynthesis with long volar locking plates for meta- physeal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogna Paritosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius are a major treatment dilemma and orthopaedic surgeons have to pay due consideration to restoration of anatomy of distal radius together with ro- tation of the radial shaft and maintenance of radial bow and interosseous space. We performed this study to evaluate the clinic-radiological outcome of metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius treated with long volar locking plates. Methods: This prospective study involved 27 pa- tients (22 males and 5 females with metaphyseal-diaphy- seal fracture of the distal radius. Their mean age was (30.12± 11.48 years (range 19-52 years and the follow-up was 26.8 months (range 22-34 months. All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a long volar locking plate. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 7 type A3, 13 type C2 and 7 type C3 fractures. Subjective assessment was done based on the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH questionnaire. Functional evaluation was done by measuring grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiological determinants included radial angle, radial length, volar angle and ulnar variance. The final as- sessment was done according to Gartland and Werley scor- ing system. Results: Postoperative radiological parameters were well maintained throughout the trial, and there was signifi- cant improvement in the functional parameters from 6 weeks to final follow-up. The average DASH scores improved from 37.5 at 6 weeks to 4.2 at final follow-up. Final assessment using Gartland and Werley scoring system revealed 66.67% (n=18 excellent and 33.33% (n=9 good results. There was one case of superficial infection which responded to antibi- otics and another carpel tunnel syndrome which was ma- naged conservatively. Conclusion: Volar locking plate fixation for metaphy- seal-diaphyseal fractures of distal radius is associated with excellent to good

  19. Comparison of skin anesthetic effect of liposomal lidocaine, nonliposomal lidocaine, and EMLA using 30-minute application time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalo, B D; Mirikitani, E J; Moy, R L

    1998-05-01

    Liposomes are microscopic phospholipid vessels that have been utilized to extend the action of topical medications. Previous studies have demonstrated that liposomal vehicles can prolong the action of a variety of medications, including antifungals, anesthetics, interferon, and antineoplastic agents. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree and duration of anesthesia produced by lidocaine in a liposomal vehicle compared with lidocaine in a nonliposomal vehicle and compared with EMLA. The topical preparations in this study were allowed to contact the skin for a 30-minute period prior to evaluation of anesthetic effectiveness. Unoccluded and Tegaderm-occluded topical preparations were evaluated in two separate arms of the study. Thirteen healthy volunteers (three male, 10 female) were recruited for the nonocclusion arm of the study. Six healthy volunteers (two male, four female) were recruited for the occlusion arm of the study. Subjects with a history of allergy to lidocaine, a history of seizures, cardiac or respiratory difficulty, pregnant patients, and patients less than 18 years old were excluded. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to testing. The volar forearms of the volunteers were swabbed with isopropyl alcohol and allowed to dry. A template was then utilized to mark 2 x 2-cm squares with a skin marker on both volar forearms. In total, nine squares corresponding to nine test areas were marked. The nine test preparations were applied to the test areas in a double-blinded fashion using a clean swab stick. The test preparations were then allowed to remain on the skin for 30 minutes in either occluded or nonoccluded from depending upon the arm of the study. Following the 30-minute application period, the test preparations were wiped off with clean gauze. Testing for anesthesia was performed by following a previously published method utilizing gentle pinpricks. A new pinprick apparatus was used for each patient. Pinprick

  20. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint in association with a Bennett's fracture of the thumb: a rare injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    We describe a case of volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in association with a Bennett\\'s fracture of the thumb following a motorcycle accident. Volar dislocation of the index carpometacarpal joint is an exceedingly rare but easily missed injury, with only a few reported cases in the literature. This report highlights the importance of a true lateral radiograph and close scrutiny of the film to detect this injury. Closed reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

  1. Familial aggregation of forearm bone mineral density in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xiumei; Niu Tianhua; Chen Changzhong; Wang Binyan; Venners, Scott A.; Fang Zhian; Xu Xiping

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern and its prevalence can be predicted based on forearm bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to investigate the familial aggregation of forearm BMD in a population-based, cross-sectional study in Anhui, China. Information on sociodemographic and environmental variables was obtained from 1,636 subjects from 409 nuclear families (including mother, father, and their first two children) by a standardized questionnaire. The forearm BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA). Using generalized additive models with a sequential adjustment for covariates, it was clearly indicated that the forearm BMD of the mother, the father, and the first sibling each had a significant and independent relation to the forearm BMD of the second sibling. Furthermore, using multiple logistic regression, the second sibling had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.3 (95%CI: 2.0-14.5) of having an extremely low (bottom 10th percentile) proximal forearm BMD and an OR of 4.3 (95%CI: 1.6-12.0) of having an extremely low distal forearm BMD when the parental mean forearm BMD was low and the first sibling's forearm BMD was low. Our findings showing strong familial aggregation of both proximal and distal forearm BMD values suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in determining both traits

  2. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous and superficial radial nerves in the forearm: a cadaveric and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldner, Steven; Zlotolow, Dan A; Melone, Charles P; Agnes, Ann Marie; Jones, Morgan H

    2005-11-01

    To define the anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) and the superficial radial nerve (SRN) in relation to easily identifiable landmarks in the dorsoradial forearm to minimize the risk to both nerves during surgical approaches to the dorsal radius. In this study 37 cadaveric forearms and 20 patients having distal radius external fixation were dissected to identify these nerves in relation to various anatomic landmarks. Based on these dissections the anatomy was divided into 2 zones that can be identified by easily visible and palpable landmarks. Zone 1 extends from the elbow to the cross-over of the abductor pollicis longus with the extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus. Zone 2 is distal to the cross-over. In zone 1 the 2 nerves can be differentiated through limited incisions based on their depth and anatomic location. Within this zone the SRN is deep to the brachioradialis until 1.8 cm proximal to zone 2 (9 cm proximal to the radial styloid), where it becomes superficial and pierces the fascia of the mobile wad and then remains deep to the subcutaneous fat. In contrast the LACN pierces the fascia between the brachialis and biceps muscles at the level of the elbow. In all specimens the LACN ran parallel to the cephalic vein within the subcutaneous fat. In 31 specimens it ran volar to the vein and in 5 specimens the nerve crossed under the cephalic vein at the elbow and ran dorsal to the vein in the forearm. One specimen had 2 branches with 1 on either side of the vein. Differentiation of these nerves was found to be possible through limited incisions in zone 1 during placement of external fixation pins for distal radius fractures. The LACN always was located in the superficial fat running with the cephalic vein, whereas the SRN was deeper to this nerve either covered by the brachioradialis or closely adherent to it within the investing fascia of the mobile wad. In zone 2 the nerves arborized and ran in the same tissue plane, making

  3. The forearm complex: anatomy, biomechanics and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaStayo, Paul C; Lee, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The forearm complex is comprised of the proximal radioulnar joint, middle radioulnar joint/interosseous membrane, and the distal radioulnar joint. These three areas function in a coordinated manner to rotate the hand in space and allow performance of functional tasks. If a structure or structures in one of these three areas is disrupted, this can adversely affect the function at any of the other two remaining areas. Surgical intervention focuses on restoring anatomical alignment to preserve the function of the forearm complex. Rehabilitation is guided by the relationships between the three areas of the forearm complex and the awareness of clinical signs, symptoms, and complications. The purposes of this paper are to 1) describe the anatomy and biomechanical function of the forearm complex and 2) discuss clinical correlates pertaining to select forearm injuries (excluding peripheral nerve injuries) that may affect forearm function.

  4. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  5. Follow-up of volar plate interposition arthroplasty (Tupper) of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid hands: preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, J P; Jensen, Claus Hjorth

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a three-year follow-up study of 59 interposition volar plate arthroplasties (Tupper) on metacarpophalangeal joints in 13 patients with erosive rheumatoid arthritis. The median age at the time of operation was 60 years (range 45-77). All patients reported lasting pain...

  6. Combined Volar and Dorsal Approach for Fixation of Comminuted Intra-Articular Distal Radial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, G; Smith, M; Johnstone, A J

    2018-07-01

    Purpose  Multifragmentary intra-articular fractures displaced in multiple planes are a challenge. We use a reproducible technique of fracture and articular reduction using an initial volar approach targeting reduction in the volar lunate facet first with plate and unicortical locking screws. This creates a template for reduction in dorsal fragments through a dorsal approach. Our study investigated the radiological, clinical, and functional outcomes of patients treated with this technique. Materials and Methods  We reviewed the postoperative radiographs and notes of 18 patients that had this method of fixation between the years 2008 and 2015, the mean age being 43. These patients were reviewed functionally on average 2 years and 3 months following their definitive operation. Results  Normal alignment and length to the distal radius were restored with on average a 0.6 mm articular step. The average range of motion was 64% and preservation of grip strength was 71% compared with the uninjured wrist. Functional assessment averages were 29 for both the quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and for Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. The modified system of Green and O'Brien had results of good in 10, fair in 7, and poor in 1. With respect to the Gartland and Werley system, three patients had an excellent result, four had a good result, six had a fair result, and five had a poor result. The mean arthritic grading was 1 (grading 0-3) according to Knirk and Jupiter. Conclusion  This reproducible technique provides an option for these devastating fractures providing a functioning wrist with all of the patients returning to their original form of employment.

  7. Bone mineral content of the forearm in healthy Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barentsen, R.; Raymakers, J.A.; Landman, J.O.; Duursma, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Single energy photon absorptiometry is a reliable technique for assessing the bone mineral content (BMC) of cortical bone in the forearm. It can also be used for BMC measurement in the ultradistal part of the forearm, where there is a considerable proportion of trabecular bone. The results of a BMC

  8. Teaching Strategies for the Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebolt, Kevin; Zhang, Peng; Brett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article shares teaching strategies for the forearm pass in the game of volleyball and identifies how they will help students improve their performance and development of forearm passing skills. The article also provides an assessment rubric to facilitate student understanding of the skill.

  9. Flexor digitorum profundus tendon anatomy in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoman Dogan

    2012-04-01

    Methods: We used 11 forearms belonging to cadavers and fixed with formaldehyde. The forearms numbered 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11 were the left and right arms of the same cadavers. Those numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 belonged to different cadavers. Dissections were made by using the atraumatic surgical technique. The tendons were studied to identify the structure and number of the fibers forming them. Results: The presence of a large common tendon was found in 10 of the 11 forearms. In 4 of these, the common tendon included the tendons of all four fingers. While the common tendon included 3 fingers in four forearms, it only included tendons belonging to 2 fingers in two forearms. It was not possible in one forearm to separate the common tendon into its fibers. In another forearm, tendons belonging to each digit were separate and independent starting at the muscle-tendon junction to the attachment points. Conclusion: The majority of the cadaver forearms used in the study displayed a single large FDP tendon in the zone between the muscle-tendon joint to the carpal tunnel entry prior to being distributed into each index. This anatomical feature should be considered in choosing materials and surgical technique for Zone V FDP tendon injuries, as well as in planning the rehabilitation process. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(1.000: 25-29

  10. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE) could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid). To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left), randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity) using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher ( P =0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant ( P =0.0001) increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours) in comparison with both baseline ( P =0.0001) and non-treated control site ( P =0.001). TEWL after 24 hours was significantly lower ( P =0.049; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site (13±4 arbitrary units [AU] vs 16±6 AU). JCS fluid

  11. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability...

  12. Photometric assessment of skin colour and lightness using a tristimulus colorimeter: reliability of inter and intra-investigator observations in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, O; Vanezis, P; Cermignani, M

    1996-07-31

    The ageing of injuries is an important aspect of forensic medicine, and one which can have significant medico-legal consequences. The sequence and timing of color changes associated with the appearance and disappearance of bruises, as well as the factors which govern this process, have long been a source of controversy. Whilst visual assessment currently remains the easiest and most practical method available to date bruises, it appears unlikely that it can be relied upon to provide an accurate and consistent measure of the age of a bruise. In an ongoing pilot study designed to assess the applicability of colorimetry to the dating of bruises, the Dr. Lange MICRO COLOR tristimulus colorimeter will be used to assess how the color and colour density (lightness) of bruises change over time. The results of a preliminary study are presented, in which the variability of skin colour measurements obtained by different investigators was assessed. Measurements were taken of the same area on the volar surface of the forearm of five volunteers, after having them remain with their arm motionless for a predetermined period of time (2, 5, and 10 min). Four sets of measurements were taken by each investigator over a total period of 3 h. No significant statistical difference was found after the resting time interval of 5 min between the values obtained by the two investigators (P > 0.05). While studies on a much larger population remain to be completed, our initial findings would seem to suggest that the colorimeter is able to provide an objective, quantitative, and relatively consistent measure of skin colour when used by different individuals.

  13. A 61-year-old man with erythematous forearm papules three months after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Mesrop; Googe, Paul B; Jolly, Puneet; Levinson, Kara; Popowitch, Elena; Lachiewicz, Anne M

    2018-06-01

    A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with papules on his left forearm and hand three months after liver transplantation: images from physical exam, pathology, and microbiology are presented. Skin biopsy confirmed the presence of fungal elements within the hair shaft, which is consistent with Majocchi granuloma, also known as nodular granulomatous perifolliculitis. A combination of fungal culture, microscopic morphology, and gene sequencing was used to identify the causative organism. The patient recovered with appropriate systemic antifungal therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interosseous Ligament and Transverse Forearm Stability: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Christina J; Darvish, Kurosh; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2017-02-01

    The interosseous ligament (IOL) is known to be an important longitudinal stabilizer of the forearm. We hypothesize that it may also contribute to transverse stability, with pronosupination tensioning of the radius relative to the ulna. Therefore, when injured, we predict the interosseous space should widen in the transverse plane, enough to be appreciable on plain radiographs. A measurable difference in interosseous space, comparing an injured with an uninjured forearm, can potentially be of diagnostic and clinical value. Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms (from 5 individuals) were radiographed in 6 different positions of forearm supination, first in an uninjured state and then with the IOL sectioned, both partially (central band only) and completely. The transverse interosseous distance was measured on radiographs using edge detection software and compared using analysis of variance and contrast analysis. The maximum range of pronosupination was also compared before and after injury, using a paired t test. Average maximum supination increased from 84° to 106°, and pronation from 69° to 84°, after the IOL was sectioned completely. Sectioning of the IOL led to a statistically significant increase in the interosseous distance, a minimum of 2 mm, in all but one forearm position. The IOL of the forearm plays an important role in providing transverse stability to the radius and ulna. When the IOL is sectioned, the forearm exhibits increased pronosupination range of motion. Radiographs of bilateral forearms taken in identical rotational position can reliably differentiate between an intact and torn IOL in cadavers. The IOL's stabilizing role during forearm rotation suggests a novel strategy for diagnosing forearm IOL injury using comparative radiographic measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial medial second toe pulp free flap and dermal substitute with skin graft for salvage reconstruction of a complete skin envelope degloving of the small finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, V; Strugarek, C; Montoya-Faivre, D; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2018-04-04

    Skin envelope degloving of fingers are rare injuries that require rapid care and surgical treatment. Mostly caused by ring finger injuries, these traumas include bone, tendon and neurovascular pedicle damage. The authors present an unusual case of finger degloving limited exclusively to the skin envelope, without skeletal, tendinous or vascular lesion. This rare case of skin envelope degloving rendered microsurgical revascularization impossible. The authors report the results at 12 months following salvage reconstruction combining a partial second toe pulp free flap for the volar side and a dermal substitute with a thin skin graft for the dorsum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp; Korn, Gundobert; Steinhauer, Felix [University of Salzburg, Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Atzwanger, Joerg [University of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria); Tauber, Mark [Shoulder and Elbow Surgery ATOS Clinic Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  17. Introduction of an alternative standardized radiographic measurement method to evaluate volar angulation in subcapital fractures of the 5th metacarpal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp; Korn, Gundobert; Steinhauer, Felix; Atzwanger, Joerg; Minnich, Bernd; Tauber, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of two different measurement methods for volar angulation of the 5th metacarpal (MC) in an attempt to establish a new standard measurement method to reduce interobserver discrepancies for therapeutic decisions. Twenty patients with subcapital fractures of the 5th MC were radiologically investigated. Imaging consisted of a radiographs in antero-posterior and precise lateral view in addition to a CT scan of the 5th MC. Measurement of volar angulation was accomplished using the conventional and the shaft articular surface (SAS) method. The measurements of five investigators were exported to a spreadsheet for statistical analysis to evaluate the intra-and interobserver reliability. The conventional technique showed large differences among the investigators and poor interobserver reliability (W = 0.328 and 0.307) both at injury (p = 0.001) and at follow-up (p = 0.189). The intraobserver concordance of all investigators showed better results with the SAS than with the conventional technique. With the SAS technique, no statistically significant difference among the investigators could be detected at either the time of injury (p = 0.418) or at follow-up (p = 0.526) with excellent interobserver reliability (W = 0.051 and W = 0.041). Evaluation of volar angulation at follow-up using CT scans did not show any statistically significant difference between the techniques with better correlation among the observers with the SAS technique (p = 0.838). The interobserver correlation of volar angulation with lateral radiographs using the conventional technique was insufficient. Therefore, we recommend the use of the novel SAS technique as standardized measurement method which showed higher accuracy and interobserver reliability in order to facilitate the choice of adequate treatment option. (orig.)

  18. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  19. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning enhances ergometer cycling and swimming performance. We evaluated whether ischemic preconditioning of one forearm (four times for 5 min) also affects static breath hold and underwater swimming, whereas the effect of similar preconditioning on ergometer rowing...... preconditioning reduced the forearm oxygen saturation from 65% ± 7% to 19% ± 7% (mean ± SD; P right thigh.......05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while the effect of ischemic preconditioning (of one forearm) on ergometer rowing was minimal, probably because of reduced muscle oxygenation during the warm-up, ischemic preconditioning does enhance both static and dynamic apnea, supporting that muscle ischemia is an important...

  20. Testing Tactile Masking between the Forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-10

    Masking, in which one stimulus affects the detection of another, is a classic technique that has been used in visual, auditory, and tactile research, usually using stimuli that are close together to reveal local interactions. Masking effects have also been demonstrated in which a tactile stimulus alters the perception of a touch at a distant location. Such effects can provide insight into how components of the body's representations in the brain may be linked. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at corresponding contralateral locations. To explore the matching of corresponding points across the body, we can measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on contralateral masking. Careful controls are required to rule out direct effects of the remote stimulus, for example by mechanical transmission, and also attention effects in which thresholds may be altered by the participant's attention being drawn away from the stimulus of interest. The use of this technique is beneficial as a behavioural measure for exploring which parts of the body are functionally connected and whether the two sides of the body interact in a somatotopic representation. This manuscript describes a behavioural protocol that can be used for studying contralateral tactile masking.

  1. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  2. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  3. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  4. Rate of Improvement following Volar Plate Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Distal Radius Fractures

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    Chris Dillingham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine recovery timeline of unstable distal radius fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a locking volar plate. Methods. Data was collected prospectively on a consecutive series of twenty-seven patients during routine post-operative visits at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Range of motion measures and grip strength for both wrists were recorded. Results. Greatest gains were made within the first 3 months after surgery. Supination and pronation returned more quickly than flexion or extension, with supination and pronation both at 92% of the uninjured wrist at 3 months. Only flexion improved significantly between 3 and 6 months. All wrist motions showed some improvement until 1 year. Grip strength returned to 94% of the uninjured wrist by 12 months. Conclusions. Range of motion improvement will be greatest between 2 weeks and 3 months, with improvement continuing until 12 months. Grip strength should return to near normal by one year. Function and pain will improve, but not return to normal by the end of 12 months. Clinical Relevance. These results provide the surgeon with information that can be shared with patients on the anticipated timeline for normal recovery of function and strength.

  5. Free toe pulp flap for finger pulp and volar defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoshid R Balan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fingertip injury requiring flap cover is very common in the modern era. The ideal cover should fulfill both functional and aesthetic improvement. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to April 2016, we performed seven free toe pulp flaps for finger defect reconstruction. All patients were males. Five flaps were done in emergency post-traumatic cases, and two were done in elective set up. The cases included reconstruction of three thumbs, one index and one ring finger in an emergency set up and two ring fingers in the elective. Thumb reconstruction was done with great toe lateral pulp and the other digits reconstructed with second toe pulp flap. Follow-up evaluation included both functional and aesthetic assessment. Results: Five flaps survived completely, one suffered partial loss, and one flap failed completely. The median follow-up period was 9 months. The median duration of surgery was 255 min (range 210 to 300 min. The median two-point discrimination was 6.5 mm (range 4–8 mm. There was the return of temperature sensation in all patients; two had cold intolerance. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score varied from 3.61 to 5.07 (median filament index value 4.31/pressure value of 2 g/mm2. Three patients had delayed donor site wound healing. Conclusions: The free toe pulp flap is an efficient choice for fingertip and volar finger defects reconstruction with an excellent tissue match.

  6. Longitudinal recovery following distal radial fractures managed with volar plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, S B; Graham, P L; Moloney, N A; Maclachlan, L R; Edgar, D W; Pappas, E

    2017-12-01

    To synthesise the literature and perform a meta-analysis detailing the longitudinal recovery in the first two years following a distal radius fracture (DRF) managed with volar plate fixation. Three databases were searched to identify relevant articles. Following eligibility screening and quality assessment, data were extracted and outcomes were assimilated at the post-operative time points of interest. A state-of-the-art longitudinal mixed-effects meta-analysis model was employed to analyse the data. The search identified 5698 articles, of which 46 study reports met the selection criteria. High levels of disability and impairment were reported in the immediate post-operative period with subsequently a rapid initial improvement followed by more gradual improvement for up to one year. The results highlight that the period associated with the greatest physical recovery is in the first three months and suggest that the endpoint of treatment outcomes is best measured at one year post-surgery. Clinically meaningful improvements in outcomes can be expected for 12 months, after which progress plateaus and reaches normal values. This paper adopted a novel approach to meta-analyses in that the research question was of a longitudinal nature, which required a unique method of statistical analysis. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1665-76. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Dermoscopic findings and histological correlation of the acral volar pigmented maculae in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendagorta, Elena; Feito, Marta; Ramírez, Paloma; Gonzalez-Beato, María; Saida, Toshiaki; Pizarro, Angel

    2010-11-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is an acquired, benign, macular hyperpigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, often associated with pigmentation of the nails. Volar acral maculae on the palms and fingertips of patients affected by LHS are a typical feature of this rare entity. Dermoscopic examination of these maculae has been described in a previous report, in which authors found a parallel-furrow pattern. We describe two cases in which a parallel-ridge pattern (PRP) was found on the dermoscopic examination of the pigmented acral lesions. Histological examination showed increased melanin in basal keratinocytes, which was most prominent in those located at the crista intermedia profunda, that is, in the epidermal rete ridges underlying the surface ridges. In our study, dermoscopic features of the pigmented maculae found on LHS differed from those previously described. In addition, by means of this case report, the histological features of these lesions are described for the first time, showing an excellent correlation with dermoscopy. The reported cases prove that although the PRP is very specific of melanoma, it is also possible to find it in benign lesions. Therefore, we must be familiar with the differential diagnosis of PRP, and take into consideration the clinical context in which we find it. Further studies are needed to increase our knowledge on the histological and dermoscopic features of acral pigmented maculae of LHS. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    could not be observed. Temperature increasing arm baths and mud packs induced a provable higher increaseof local and consensual forearm blood flow than did diathermic methods. These results lead to the conclusion thatthere are differences in temperature distribution between the methods of therapy. Increasing arm baths and mud packsseem to have a stronger influence on the thermo reflexive skin perfusion.

  9. Reconstruction of malunited diaphyseal fractures of the forearm

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2014-01-01

    The forearm is a complex anatomical and functional unit with unique osseous, soft tissue and articular relationships. Disruption of these important relations can have a significant impact, leading to pain, instability of the radio-ulnar articulation and reduced range of motion. The gold standard for treating forearm fractures in adults remains anatomic reduction, stable plate fixation and preservation of the surrounding blood supply. Failure to achieve these goals may lead to malunion, requir...

  10. Forearm diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population: treatment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Matthew L; Kane, Patrick M; Christino, Melissa A; Katarincic, Julia; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures are commonly treated in a variety of clinical settings. Most often, closed reduction followed by immobilization leads to satisfactory results. However, in the adolescent population (10-16 years of age), forearm fractures are more challenging due to less remodeling potential. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy, biomechanics, and treatment options relevant to adolescent patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts related to the treatment for pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in adolescents was carried out. Forearm fractures in the pediatric population are most common following indirect blows to the forearm. When treating these fractures using closed reduction, it is important to recognize the muscular attachments of the forearm. In roughly 70-90% of cases, closed reduction leads to adequate alignment. In all cases, return to function is the primary goal; however, exact alignment parameters remain controversial. In the adolescent population, surgical treatment has risen substantially in the last few decades. Intramedullary nailing and open reduction using plate fixation are the two most common operative techniques. Unfortunately, recent results have shown that nonunion, malunion, and overall complication rates are higher in older pediatric patients. Moreover, no consensus exists regarding one technique over another. Both-bone diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population present unique challenges regarding optimal treatment, especially when considering surgical intervention. Further research is necessary to better understand indications for specific surgical treatment.

  11. Impact of double-tiered subchondral support procedure with a polyaxial locking plate on the stability of distal radius fractures using fresh cadaveric forearms: Biomechanical and radiographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Sadaaki; Kawasaki, Keikichi; Yamakoshi, Ken-Ichi; Uchiyama, Eiichi; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    The present study compared the changes in biomechanical and radiographic properties under cyclic axial loadings between the 'double-tiered subchondral support' (DSS) group (wherein two rows of screws were used) and the 'non-DSS' (NDSS) group (wherein only one row of distal screws was used) using cadaveric forearm models of radius fractures fixed with a polyaxial locking plate. Fifteen fresh cadaveric forearms were surgically operated to generate an Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) type 23-C2 fracture model with the fixation of polyaxial volar locking plates. The model specimens were randomized into two groups: DSS (n = 7) and NDSS (n = 8). Both the groups received 4 locking screws in the most distal row, as is usually applied, whereas the DSS group received 2 additional screws in the second row inserted at an inclination of about 15° to support the dorsal aspect of the dorsal subchondral bone. Cyclic axial compression test was performed (3000 cycles; 0-250 N; 60 mm/min) to measure absolute rigidity and displacement, after 1, 1000, 2000 and 3000 cycles, and values were normalized relative to cycle 1. These absolute and normalized values were compared between those two groups. Radiographic images were taken before and after the cyclic loading to measure changes in volar tilt (ΔVT) and radial inclination (ΔRI). The DSS group maintained significantly higher rigidity and lower displacement values than the NDSS group during the entire loading period. Radiographic analysis indicated that the ΔVT values of the DSS group were lower than those of the NDSS group. In contrast, the fixation design did not influence the impact of loading on the ΔRI values. Biomechanical and radiographic analyses demonstrated that two rows of distal locking screws in the DSS procedure conferred higher stability than one row of distal locking screws. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does fluoroscopy improve outcomes in paediatric forearm fracture reduction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menachem, S.; Sharfman, Z.T.; Perets, I.; Arami, A.; Eyal, G.; Drexler, M.; Chechik, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the radiographic results of paediatric forearm fracture reduced with and without fluoroscopic enhancement to investigate whether fractures reduced under fluoroscopic guidance would have smaller residual deformities and lower rates of re-reduction and surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted comparing paediatric patients with acute forearm fracture in two trauma centres. Demographics and radiographic data from paediatric forearm fractures treated in Trauma Centre A with the aid of a C-arm fluoroscopy were compared to those treated without fluoroscopy in Trauma Centre B. Re-reduction, late displacement, post-reduction deformity, and need for surgical intervention were compared between the two groups. Results: The cohort included 229 children (175 boys and 54 girls, mean age 9.41±3.2 years, range 1–16 years) with unilateral forearm fractures (83 manipulated with fluoroscopy and 146 without). Thirty-four (15%) children underwent re-reduction procedures in the emergency department. Fifty-three (23%) children had secondary displacement in the cast, of which 18 were operated on, 20 were re-manipulated, and the remaining 15 were kept in the cast with an acceptable deformity. Twenty-nine additional children underwent operation for reasons other than secondary displacement. There were no significant differences in re-reduction and surgery rates or in post-reduction deformities between the two groups. Conclusion: The use of fluoroscopy during reduction of forearm fractures in the paediatric population apparently does not have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Reductions performed without fluoroscopy were comparably accurate in correcting deformities in both coronal and sagittal planes. - Highlights: • Compared outcomes of pediatric forearm fracture reduction with and without fluoroscopy. • The use of fluoroscopy during reduction of forearm fractures in the pediatric population apparently does not have a

  13. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standard technique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience a softened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, we present our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as well as an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus.MethodsBetween March 2005 and February 2010, 58 patients underwent phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap. Most of their neophallus had been softened subjectively and among them, 12 patients who wanted correction were investigated. We performed repetitive fat injection, artificial dermis grafting, silicone rod insertion, and rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft. Physical examination, plain radiograph, computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and satisfaction scores were investigated.ResultsMost of the participants' penises have been softened after phalloplasty, and the skin elasticity had been also decreased. On plain radiograph, the distal end of the bone was self-rounded; however, the bone shape of the neophallus had no significant interval changes or resorption. Computed tomography showed equivocal density of cortical bone. On bone scintigraphy, the bone metabolism was active at 3 months postoperatively, and remained active 9 years postoperatively.ConclusionsThe use of a rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft could be an option for improvement of the softened phallus. Silicon rod insertion is also worth considering for rigidity of the softened phallus. Decreased rigidity due to soft tissue atrophy could be alleviated with repeated fat injection and artificial dermis grafting.

  14. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature ( P cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  15. Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kim, Seung K.; Sheybani, Elizabeth; Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-05-15

    PurposeVenous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.ResultsSeventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.ConclusionSclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

  16. Exposed versus buried intramedullary implants for pediatric forearm fractures: a comparison of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian A; Miller, Patricia; Shore, Benjamin J; Waters, Peter M; Bae, Donald S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of complications between buried and exposed intramedullary implants after fixation of pediatric forearm fractures. A retrospective comparative cohort study of 339 children treated with intramedullary fixation for displaced forearm fractures between 2004 and 2009 was performed. Implants were left exposed in 128 patients (37.8%) and buried beneath the skin in 208 patients (61.4%); 3 patients had buried and exposed hardware (0.9%). Data on demographics, injury, surgical technique, and complications were analyzed. The buried implant group was older (mean 10.3 vs. 8.5 y; P exposed implant group. The buried group had their implants removed later than the exposed group (median 3.5 vs. 1.2 mo; P exposed implants were successfully removed in the office. Complications were seen in 56 patients (16.5%). There were 16 patients (4.7%) with refracture and 12 patients (3.5%) with infection. The buried and exposed implant groups did not differ significantly with respect to refracture (3.1% vs. 7.0%; P = 0.20), infection (3.5% vs. 2.3%; P = 0.66), or overall complications (14.5% vs. 17.2%; P = 0.87). There was also no difference between groups with respect to loss of reduction, nondelayed or delayed union, loss of motion, hypertrophic granuloma, or tendon rupture. Buried implants were also associated with penetration through the skin (3.9%). Injury to the dominant arm and need for open reduction were significant predictors of complication (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012; P = 0.02 and OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.264-0.974; P = 0.04, respectively). There were no significant differences seen in number of infections, refractures, or overall complications based on whether implants were left exposed or buried beneath the skin after surgery. Level III, therapeutic.

  17. Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, Carlos J.; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kim, Seung K.; Sheybani, Elizabeth; Darcy, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeVenous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.ResultsSeventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.ConclusionSclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

  18. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  19. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  20. Subcutaneous Injection of Oxyfluorfen Herbicide to the Forearm: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, José; Garcia-Portal, Gonzalo; Garcia, Olga

    2017-10-01

    Background  Oxyfluorfen, a commercially available pesticide, commonly used for weed control in crop production, has been studied in terms of its toxicity, its carcinogenic properties, and its teratogenicity. We have found no reports, however, of the effects produced by an oxyfluorfen injection to the upper limb. Methods  We present the case of a 40 years old psychiatric patient, who reportedly injected her forearm accidentally while fumigating her garden. She was treated with irrigation and open forearm fasciectomy. Results  At 6 months, the patient had some tenderness at the scar; she wanted no further procedures done. Conclusion  Oxyfluorfen appeared to produce a chemical burn to the forearm tissues including the fascia, removal of the chemical product, and a limited fasciectomy, resulted in a favorable outcome.

  1. Anatomy and biomechanics of the forearm interosseous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Leela D; Werner, Frederick W; McGrattan, Michael L; Zwerling, Sierra R; Harley, Brian J

    2015-06-01

    To examine the anatomy and function of the forearm interosseous membrane by exploring the anatomical insertions of the central band (CB) on the radius and the ulna and by quantifying the length of the intact ligament and replacement grafts located at the original CB attachment sites and alternative locations. Eight fresh cadaver forearms were supinated and pronated and the wrist was extended and flexed while the motion between the distal radius and ulna were recorded. The length of the CB was computed for the intact CB as well for several alternative graft orientations and positions. The maximum length of the CB did not significantly change among different wrist motions. However, with the wrist in a static neutral position, the CB length was significantly shorter in forearm supination than in neutral. During active forearm rotation when CB replacement grafts were positioned distal or proximal to the original CB site, yet still parallel to it, each had a similar trend to be longer in neutral than in supination. If a graft was more transversely oriented, the computed CB length would be 1.6 mm shorter in supination than in neutral. These results support tensioning a CB graft with the forearm in supination if the goal is to maximize graft tension and to maintain the native 22° angle for a CB graft between the radius and ulna. The results also suggest that the CB graft can probably be located slightly distal or slightly proximal to its original attachment sites. Reconstruction of the interosseous membrane has been hampered by a lack of understanding of its length changes with forearm or wrist motion. These results provide a starting point in helping clinicians understand how to more precisely reconstruct this ligament in an anatomical manner. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology of forearm fractures in adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2015-01-01

    with less detailed information. Rates were higher than previously estimated. INTRODUCTION: Despite a significant contribution to the overall burden of osteoporotic, nonvertebral fractures, relatively little information is available about age- and gender-specific incidence rates for many countries including...... Denmark. METHODS: We used national individual patient data on inpatient and outpatient treatment to calculate rates of forearm fractures, taking readmissions into account, with subtables for distal and proximal fractures. We also calculated ratios of forearm to hip fractures that may be useful when...

  3. Long Term Effects of Volar-Dorsal Wrist/ Hand Immobilization Splint on Motor Components and Function of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Amini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effects of Volar-Dorsal Wrist/Hand Immobilization Splint on upper extremity motor components and function of stroke patients. Methods: fourteen patients were participated in this study. The patients were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and were given the splint after a primary evaluation. They were re-evaluated after one, two and three months. In order to assess spasticity, the range of motion, and upper extremity function, the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, the goniometry, and fugl-meyer assessment were used respectively. The splints were used 2 hours during the day and the whole night in three months. Results: The amount of the upper extremity function changes (P(v=0.07 was not significant: and the amount of the ranges of the motion changes (P(v=0.02 were statistically significant. The changes in range of  motion of other joints and spasticity were not significant (P(v>.05. Discussion: The results of the present study indicated that, volar-dorsal wrist/hand immobilization splints can improve the AROM of metha-carpophalengeal joints. Although spasticity, the range of motion of other joints, and the upper extremity function went through some changes due to  splinting (3month, these changes were not significant, which requires further research.

  4. Free radial forearm flap versatility for the head and neck and lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicarilli, Z.N.; Ariyan, S.; Cuono, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques have developed numerous territories suitable for free tissue transfer. However, the demand for thin cutaneous resurfacing limits the choice of flaps available to the reconstructive microsurgeon. The radial forearm flap is a thin, axial, fasciocutaneous flap, offering pliable cutaneous resurfacing, with or without sensation. We have used 15 flaps to reconstruct defects in the head and neck and lower extremity resulting from burns, blunt and avulsive trauma, radiation necrosis, and tumor ablation. Two flaps (15 percent) developed venous congestion and were salvaged by reoperation. One retrograde flap (7.5 percent) developed partial necrosis from arterial insufficiency. Neural re-innervation was successful in two out of three patients in whom it was attempted. Two patients (15%) sustained minor donor site skin graft loss that healed secondarily. In our series of predominantly older patients the donor sites have been relatively inconspicuous at one year follow-up. A functional restoration was achieved in all patients

  5. Traumatic bowing of forearm and lower leg in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, R.; Gripenberg, L.; Bergius, A.-R.

    1978-01-01

    Traumatic bowing of the forearm or lower leg is reported in 31 children. It is a relatively rare condition. Bowing occurs most frequently in combination with fracture of the other bone in the same extremity. In a minority of cases a bowing deformity is a single lesion. Age distribution, degree of deformity, mechanism of origin and therapy are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  6. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  7. Forearm interosseous membrane trauma: MRI diagnostic criteria and injury patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hopgood, Brendon C. [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Limmer, Karl [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospital for Children, Temple University and Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgeon, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Define criteria for interosseous membrane (IOM) injury diagnosis using MRI, and characterize patterns of IOM disruption following forearm trauma. Our hypothesis is that most IOM injuries occur along the ulnar insertion, and MRI should be obtained following forearm trauma to assess IOM competency. Sixteen cadaver forearms were subjected to longitudinal impact trauma. Prior to and following injury, MR images were examined by a board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist using pre-defined criteria for determining IOM integrity. Each specimen was dissected and the viability/pattern of injury examined. The MRI and dissection results were compared using a double-blinded methodology. Eight of the 16 specimens demonstrated IOM trauma. Seven specimens demonstrated complete IOM disruption from the ulnar insertion, and one revealed a mid-substance tear with intact origin and insertion. The dorsal oblique bundle was disrupted in four specimens. MRI analysis identified IOM injury in seven of the eight forearms. The injury location was correctly identified in six specimens when compared to dissection observations. MRI determination of IOM injury demonstrated a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 89%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100%. (orig.)

  8. Forearm interosseous membrane trauma: MRI diagnostic criteria and injury patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Hopgood, Brendon C.; Limmer, Karl; Kozin, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Define criteria for interosseous membrane (IOM) injury diagnosis using MRI, and characterize patterns of IOM disruption following forearm trauma. Our hypothesis is that most IOM injuries occur along the ulnar insertion, and MRI should be obtained following forearm trauma to assess IOM competency. Sixteen cadaver forearms were subjected to longitudinal impact trauma. Prior to and following injury, MR images were examined by a board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist using pre-defined criteria for determining IOM integrity. Each specimen was dissected and the viability/pattern of injury examined. The MRI and dissection results were compared using a double-blinded methodology. Eight of the 16 specimens demonstrated IOM trauma. Seven specimens demonstrated complete IOM disruption from the ulnar insertion, and one revealed a mid-substance tear with intact origin and insertion. The dorsal oblique bundle was disrupted in four specimens. MRI analysis identified IOM injury in seven of the eight forearms. The injury location was correctly identified in six specimens when compared to dissection observations. MRI determination of IOM injury demonstrated a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 89%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100%. (orig.)

  9. The oblique cord of the forearm in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; O'Neil, James T; Key, Christopher D; Zarzour, Jessica G; Fulghum, Sarah B; Kim, Eugenia J; Lyerly, Michael J; Shoja, Mohammadali M; George Salter, E; Jerry Oakes, W

    2007-05-01

    There is minimal and often conflicting data in the literature regarding the oblique cord of the forearm. The current study seeks to elucidate further the anatomy of this structure of the upper extremity. In adult cadavers, the oblique cord was observed for and, when found, measurements were made of it. Ranges of motion were carried out while observation of the oblique cord was made. An oblique cord was found on 52.6% of sides. Gantzer's muscle was found on 55% of sides and, when present, had attachment into the oblique cord on five sides. The oblique cord was present on 13 sides with a Gantzer's muscle. Of the 20 sides with an oblique cord, no Gantzer's muscle was found on 10. The mean length of the oblique cord was 3.4 cm. In the majority of specimens, this cord tapered from proximal to distal. The proximal, middle, and distal widths of this structure had means 9, 7, and 4 mm, respectively. The oblique cord was found to travel approximately 45 degrees from a line drawn through the ulna and more or less traveled perpendicular to the insertion site of the bicipital tendon. This ligament was lax in the neutral position and with pronation became lax in all specimens. The oblique cord progressively became taut with increased supination from the neutral position and was maximally taut with the forearm fully supinated. Tautness of this cord was also found with distal distraction of the radius. Following the transection of the oblique cord, no discernable difference was observed in regard to maximal supination of the forearm or distal distraction of the radius. No obvious instability of the proximal forearm was found following transection of the oblique cord. Functionally, although the oblique cord may resist supination, it is unlikely that this structure affords significant stability to the proximal forearm, as it was often absent, of a very small caliber, and based on our observations, following its transection, the amount of supination of the forearm did not increase

  10. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  12. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  13. Clinical application of advances in elbow and forearm anatomy and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neal B

    2002-02-01

    The static and dynamic stabilizers of the elbow and forearm axis are closely interrelated in elbow and forearm unit motion and load handling. An [figure: see text] understanding of elbow and forearm anatomy is crucial to the surgeon evaluating and treating complex pathologies resulting from acute or remote trauma.

  14. Fragment-Specific Fixation Versus Volar Locking Plates in Primarily Nonreducible or Secondarily Redisplaced Distal Radius Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Marcus; Abramo, Antonio; Geijer, Mats; Kopylov, Philippe; Tägil, Magnus

    2017-03-01

    To compare the patient-reported, clinical, and radiographic outcome of 2 methods of internal fixation in distal radius fractures. Fifty patients, mean age 56 years (range, 21-69 years) with primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures were randomized to open reduction internal fixation using volar locking plates (n = 25) or fragment-specific fixation (n = 25). The patients were assessed on grip strength, range of motion, patient-reported outcome (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), pain (visual analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 [SF-12]), and radiographic evaluation. Grip strength at 12 months was the primary outcome measure. At 12 months, no difference was found in grip strength, which was 90% of the uninjured side in the volar plate group and 87% in the fragment-specific fixation group. No differences were found in range of motion and the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 5 in both groups. The overall complication rate was significant, 21% in the volar locking plate group, compared with 52% in the fragment-specific group. In treatment of primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures, volar locking plates and fragment-specific fixation both achieve good and similar patient-reported outcomes, although more complications were recorded in the fragment-specific group. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tourniquet application after local forearm warming to improve venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation in young and middle-aged adults: A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Yuki; Tomita, Kohei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Inoue, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Local forearm warming before tourniquet application is often used to promote venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation; however, few studies have compared the effect of tourniquet application with and without local warming on vein size. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourniquet application after local forearm warming with that of tourniquet application alone in young and middle-aged adults. A single-blind, prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. A national university in Japan. Seventy-two volunteers aged 20-64 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: tourniquet application for 30s after forearm application of a heat pack warmed to 40°C±2°C for 15min (active warming group; n=36) or tourniquet application for 30s after applying a non-warmed heat pack for 15min (passive warming group; n=36). The primary outcomes were vein cross-sectional area on the forearm, measured after the intervention by blinded research assistants using ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were shortest diameter, and longest diameter of vein on the forearm, forearm skin temperature, body temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All outcomes were assessed at the same site before and immediately after the intervention, once per participant. Vein cross-sectional area, shortest vein diameter, and longest vein diameter were significantly increased in the active warming group compared with the passive warming group (p application after local warming was superior to tourniquet application alone in increasing vein cross-sectional, shortest diameter, and longest diameter (between-group differences of 2.2mm 2 , 0.5mm, and 0.5mm, respectively), and in raising skin temperature (between-group difference: 5.2°C). However, there were no significant differences in body temperature, pulse, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There were no adverse events associated with either intervention. Tourniquet

  16. Long-term Outcome of Peripherally Implanted Venous Access Ports in the Forearm in Female Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klösges, Laura, E-mail: l.kloesges@uni-bonn.de; Meyer, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.meyer@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Boschewitz, Jack, E-mail: jack.boschewitz@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Andersson, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.andersson@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rudlowski, Christian, E-mail: c.rudlowski@evk.de [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bergisch Gladbach, Department of Gynecology (Germany); Schild, Hans H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai, E-mail: kai.wilhelm@ek-bonn.de [Ev. Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter-Krankenhaus, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the long-term outcome of peripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm at our institution in a female patient collective.MethodsBetween June 2002 and May 2011, a total of 293 female patients with an underlying malignancy had 299 forearm ports implanted in our interventional radiology suite. The mean age of the cohort was 55 ± 12 years (range 26–81 years). The majority of women suffered from breast (59.5 %) or ovarian cancer (28.1 %). Complications were classified as infectious complications, thrombotic and nonthrombotic catheter dysfunction (dislocation of the catheter or port chamber, fracture with/without embolization or kinking of the catheter, port occlusion), and others.ResultsWe analyzed a total of 90,276 catheter days in 248 port systems (47 patients were lost to follow-up). The mean device service interval was 364 days per catheter (range 8–2,132, median 223 days, CI 311–415, SD 404). Sixty-seven early (≤30 days from implantation) or late complications (>30 days) occurred during the observation period (0.74/1,000 catheter days). Common complications were port infection (0.18/1,000 days), thrombotic dysfunction (0.12/1,000 days), and skin dehiscence (0.12/1,000 days). Nonthrombotic dysfunction occurred in a total of 21 cases (0.23/1,000 days) and seemed to cumulate on the venous catheter entry site on the distal upper arm.ConclusionPeripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm are a safe alternative to chest or upper-arm ports in female oncology patients. Special attention should be paid to signs of skin dehiscence and nonthrombotic dysfunction, especially when used for long-term treatment.

  17. Effects of endothelium-derived nitric oxide on skin and digital blood flow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, J D

    1994-12-01

    The effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on total finger and forearm, and dorsal finger and forearm skin, blood flows were studied in the basal state and during reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction in normal subjects. Total flows were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography and skin flows by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). L-NMMA in doses of 2, 4, and 8 microM/min given by constant infusion via a brachial artery catheter significantly decreased finger blood flow, forearm blood flow, and vascular conductances. At 8 microM/min, total finger blood flow decreased 38.4% and forearm blood flow decreased 24.8%. Dorsal finger and forearm skin LDF were also significantly decreased (25 and 37% at 8 microM/min). Body cooling significantly decreased finger blood flow (73.6%), vascular conductance, and finger LDF (59.7%). L-NMMA had no effect on total finger blood flow or dorsal finger LDF during body cooling. Nitric oxide or related compounds contribute to the basal dilator tone of the dorsal finger and forearm skin but not during reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction.

  18. Electrocutaneous sensitivity: effects of skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, W D; Reilly, J P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of human skin temperature on electrocutaneous sensitivity was examined using brief capacitive discharges. Stimuli were designed to ensure that sensory effects would be independent of skin resistance and would reflect underlying neural excitability as closely as possible. Skin temperature was manipulated by immersing the forearm in circulating hot or cold air. Detection thresholds on the arm and fingertip were raised by cooling, but were not altered by heating. Temperature-related sensitivity shifts were described by the same multiplicative factors for both threshold and suprathreshold levels. The temperature coefficient (Q10) for cutaneous sensitivity under these conditions was approximately 1.3.

  19. Does computer use pose an occupational hazard for forearm pain; from the NUDATA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Ann Isabel; Andersen, JH; Lassen, C. F.

    2003-01-01

    was associated with use of a mouse device for more than 30 hours per week, and with keyboard use more than 15 hours per week. High job demands and time pressure at baseline were risk factors for onset of forearm pain; women had a twofold increased risk of developing forearm pain. Self reported ergonomic......AIMS: To determine the occurrence of pain conditions and disorders in the forearm and to evaluate risk factors for forearm pain in a cohort of computer workers. METHODS: A total of 6943 participants with a wide range of computer use and work tasks were studied. At baseline and at one year follow up...... to severe forearm pain was 4.3%. Sixteen of 296 symptom cases met criteria for being a clinical forearm case, and 12 had signs of potential nerve entrapment. One year incidence of reported symptom cases was 1.3%; no subjects developed new signs of nerve entrapment. Increased risk of new forearm pain...

  20. Epidemiology of distal forearm fractures in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthus, C M; Frihagen, F; Meyer, H E; Nordsletten, L; Melhuus, K; Falch, J A

    2008-06-01

    The population of Oslo has the highest incidence of hip fracture reported. The present study shows that the overall incidence of distal forearm fractures in Oslo is higher than in other countries and has not changed significantly when comparing the incidence of 1998/99 with 1979. The population of Oslo has the highest incidence of hip fracture reported. The present study reports the incidence of distal forearm fracture in Oslo and the fracture rates of immigrants. Patients aged > or = 20 years resident in Oslo sustaining a distal forearm fracture in a one-year period in 1998/99 were identified using electronic diagnosis registers, patient protocols, and/or X-ray registers of the clinics in Oslo. Medical records were obtained and the diagnosis verified. The age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and compared with those for 1979. Data on immigrant category and country of origin of the patients were obtained. The age-adjusted fracture rates per 10,000 for the age group > or = 50 years were 109.8 and 25.4 in 1998/99 compared with 108.3 and 23.5 in 1979 for women and men, respectively (n.s.). The relative risk of fracture in Asians was 0.72 (95% CI 0.53-1.00) compared with ethnic Norwegians. The overall incidence of distal forearm fractures in Oslo is higher than in other countries and has not changed significantly when comparing the incidence of 1998/99 with 1979. Furthermore, the present data suggest that Asian immigrants in Oslo have a slightly lower fracture risk than ethnic Norwegians.

  1. Subcutaneous Injection of Oxyfluorfen Herbicide to the Forearm: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Couceiro, José; Garcia-Portal, Gonzalo; Garcia, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Background  Oxyfluorfen, a commercially available pesticide, commonly used for weed control in crop production, has been studied in terms of its toxicity, its carcinogenic properties, and its teratogenicity. We have found no reports, however, of the effects produced by an oxyfluorfen injection to the upper limb. Methods  We present the case of a 40 years old psychiatric patient, who reportedly injected her forearm accidentally while fumigating her garden. She was treated with irrigation and o...

  2. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  3. Non-contact wearable single forearm cardiac biopotential acquisition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Sérgio; Martins, Raul Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    In this work the authors propose a novel approach to obtain the electrocardiogram in the forearm using non-contact sensing. This new solution should be at same time portable, ergonomic and robust, enabling its use in different set of applications. A system of four electrodes was used in an adjustable sleeve to be wrapped in the forearm. No additional electrode references were used in other body parts. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, an harmonium like approach was used in the design of the electrodes. The prototype was then compared with a similar system with a flat conformation. The developed prototype enabled the acquisition of an ECG signal in the forearm and the inclusion of the harmonium like electrode conformation resulted in a considerable increase of the sensitivity of the system. The acquired signal did not enable the identification of all characteristic cardiac waves. However, it was possible to identify clearly a signal pattern, characteristic of the QRS complex. The properties of the acquired signal restrict their use in rigorous electrocardiographic studies, allowing, however, its application in heart rate variability monitoring and biometric identification without the disadvantages usually associated with conventional electrodes. This makes it specially useful for man-machine interfaces and automated identification

  4. Etiology and mechanisms of ulnar and median forearm nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. Most often injuries of brachial plexus and its branches disable the injured from using their arms and/or hands. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and mechanisms of median and ulnar forearm nerves injuries. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 99 patients surgically treated in the Clinic of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2010. All data are obtained from the patients' histories. Results. The majority of the injured patients were male, 81 (81.8%, while only 18 (18.2% were females, both mainly with nerve injuries of the distal forearm - 75 (75.6%. Two injury mechanisms were present, transection in 85 patients and traction and contusion in 14 of the patients. The most frequent etiological factor of nerve injuries was cutting, in 61 of the patients. Nerve injuries are often associated with other injuries. In the studied patients there were 22 vascular injuries, 33 muscle and tendon injuries and 20 bone fractures. Conclusion. The majority of those patients with peripheral nerve injuries are represented in the working age population, which is a major socioeconomic problem. In our study 66 out of 99 patients were between 17 and 40 years old, in the most productive age. The fact that the majority of patients had nerve injuries of the distal forearm and that they are operated within the first 6 months after injury, promises them good functional prognosis.

  5. Augmenting forearm crutches with wireless sensors for lower limb rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, Geoff V; Ettabib, Mohamed A; White, Neil M; Peters, Christian; Hallett, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    Forearm crutches are frequently used in the rehabilitation of an injury to the lower limb. The recovery rate is improved if the patient correctly applies a certain fraction of their body weight (specified by a clinician) through the axis of the crutch, referred to as partial weight bearing (PWB). Incorrect weight bearing has been shown to result in an extended recovery period or even cause further damage to the limb. There is currently no minimally invasive tool for long-term monitoring of a patient's PWB in a home environment. This paper describes the research and development of an instrumented forearm crutch that has been developed to wirelessly and autonomously monitor a patient's weight bearing over the full period of their recovery, including its potential use in a home environment. A pair of standard forearm crutches are augmented with low-cost off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes and electronic components to provide indicative measurements of the applied weight, crutch tilt and hand position on the grip. Data are wirelessly transmitted between crutches and to a remote computer (where they are processed and visualized in LabVIEW), and the patient receives biofeedback by means of an audible signal when they put too much or too little weight through the crutch. The initial results obtained highlight the capability of the instrumented crutch to support physiotherapists and patients in monitoring usage

  6. Augmenting forearm crutches with wireless sensors for lower limb rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Geoff V.; Ettabib, Mohamed A.; Peters, Christian; Hallett, Georgina; White, Neil M.

    2010-12-01

    Forearm crutches are frequently used in the rehabilitation of an injury to the lower limb. The recovery rate is improved if the patient correctly applies a certain fraction of their body weight (specified by a clinician) through the axis of the crutch, referred to as partial weight bearing (PWB). Incorrect weight bearing has been shown to result in an extended recovery period or even cause further damage to the limb. There is currently no minimally invasive tool for long-term monitoring of a patient's PWB in a home environment. This paper describes the research and development of an instrumented forearm crutch that has been developed to wirelessly and autonomously monitor a patient's weight bearing over the full period of their recovery, including its potential use in a home environment. A pair of standard forearm crutches are augmented with low-cost off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes and electronic components to provide indicative measurements of the applied weight, crutch tilt and hand position on the grip. Data are wirelessly transmitted between crutches and to a remote computer (where they are processed and visualized in LabVIEW), and the patient receives biofeedback by means of an audible signal when they put too much or too little weight through the crutch. The initial results obtained highlight the capability of the instrumented crutch to support physiotherapists and patients in monitoring usage.

  7. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  8. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes.

  10. Comparison of upper arm and forearm blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiano, Kathy L; Hinck, Susan M; Savinske, Debra L; Hope, Kathryn L

    2008-11-01

    The upper arm is the primary site used to obtain a blood pressure measurement (BPM); however, when it is not possible to use the upper arm, the forearm is a commonly used alternate site. This study determines if there is a significant difference between upper arm and forearm BPMs among adults and examines the relationship of participant characteristics to the BPM difference. A convenience sample was recruited from a low-income, independent-living, 104-apartment complex in the Midwest. Of the 106 participants, 64% were female and 89% were White. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years (M = 50.7). The investigators calculated the BMIs (range = 18 to 42, M = 29.3, SD = 5.4) for the 89% (n = 94) of participants who reported their weight. The forearm tended to have higher BPMs than the upper arm (M difference = 4.0 mm Hg systolic, 2.3 mm Hg diastolic). However, site differences were greatest for men, obese adults, and middle aged (36 to 65) adults.

  11. Elastic robust intramedullary nailing for forearm fracture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forearm fractures are the most common fractures in children (23% of all fractures. Basically there are two treatment options available for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children: closed reduction with cast immobilisation (conservative therapy and the elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN. Treatment decision is influenced by the doctor's estimation of fracture instability. Stable fractures can be treated conservatively whereas instable forearm shaft fractures can be treated according the following three treatment strategies: 1. conservative therapy in an outpatient setting 2. conservative therapy in the operating room in attendance to change to ESIN in case that no stabilisation can be achieved with cast immobilisation 3. immediate treatment with ESIN in the operating room. Objectives: Aim of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA report is to assess and report the published evidence concerning effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESIN as a treatment option for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children and to identify future research need. Important parameters for the assessment of effectiveness are objective parameters (axis deviation, losses of motion, and numbers of reductions in case of redislocations and subjective parameters (pain or impairment in quality of life. Furthermore, a health economic evaluation shall be done which refers to the costs of the different therapy strategies. Methods: An extensive, systematic literature search in medical, economic, and HTA literature databases was performed. Relevant data were extracted and synthesised. Results: Three cohort studies and seven case series have been identified. Controlled clinical studies, systematic reviews and/or HTA reports that gave evidence to answer the own study question have not been found. The identified studies partly differed in respect of defined indication for ESIN, study population and treatment strategies. For that reason comparability of results was

  12. The irritant potential of n-propanol (nonanoic acid vehicle) in cumulative skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2008-01-01

    have diverse mechanisms of action on the skin. We used sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON) in three different concentrations plus their vehicles, water and n-propanol, respectively, to validate our test models and to optimize test concentrations. METHODS: Healthy volunteer forearm skin...

  13. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopyguided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of > or = 2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  14. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopy-guided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of ≥2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  15. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  16. Augmenting forearm crutches with wireless sensors for lower limb rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Merrett, Geoff V.; Ettabib, Mohamed A.; Peters, Christian; Hallett, Georgina; White, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    Forearm crutches are frequently used in the rehabilitation of an injury to the lower limb. The recovery rate is improved if the patient correctly applies a certain fraction of their body weight (specified by a clinician) through the axis of the crutch, referred to as partial weight bearing (PWB). Incorrect weight bearing has been shown to result in an extended recovery period or even cause further damage to the limb. There is currently no minimally invasive tool for long-term monitoring of a ...

  17. Perimenopausal risk of falling and incidence of distal forearm fracture.

    OpenAIRE

    Winner, S. J.; Morgan, C. A.; Evans, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    A postal survey of 2000 women and 2000 men sampled from the electoral roll in Oxford was undertaken to ascertain whether changes with age in the risk of falling might explain the stepwise increases in age specific incidence rates of distal forearm fracture which occur in women at around the age of 50. Corrected response rates were 83% for women and 72% for men. In women, but not in men, there was a rise in the risk of falling from 45 years, peaking in the 55-59 year age group, and sinking to ...

  18. Tracking blood vessels in human forearms using visual servoing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Hansen, Morten

    compensation. By using images taken with near-infrared light to locate the blood vessels in a human forearm and using the same images to detects movements of the arm, this paper shows that it is possible make a robot arm, potentially equipped with a needle for drawing the blood, compensate for the movements......Drawing an average of more than 2 blood sample per Danish citizen per year increases the demand for an automatic blood sampling method. This paper presents a proof of concept to one of the main challenges in making a fully automated blood sampling procedure, namely: the patient movement...

  19. Squared ligament of the elbow: anatomy and contribution to forearm stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otayek, Salma; Tayeb, Abd-el-Kader Ait; Assabah, Bouchra; Viard, Brice; Dayan, Romain; Lazure, Thierry; Soubeyrand, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the macroscopic and microscopic features of the squared ligament of the elbow (SLE). In addition, the SLE biomechanical behavior and contribution to the forearm stability were also examined. Ten forearms from freshly frozen cadavers were used for this work. Each forearm was mounted in an experimental frame for quantification of longitudinal and transverse stability. Macroscopic features and biomechanical behavior were analyzed on dynamic videos obtained during forearm rotation. Then, the SLE was harvested from the 10 forearms for microscopic analysis on histological slices stained with hematoxylin-eosin-saffron. Two main SLE configurations were identified. One in which the SLE had three distinct bundles (anterior, middle, posterior) and another in which it was homogeneous. The anterior part of the SLE had a mean length of 11.2 mm (±2.4 mm) and a mean width of 1.2 mm (±0.2 mm) while the posterior part had a mean length of 9.9 mm (±2.2 mm) and a mean width of 1 mm (±0.2 mm). Microscopic examination showed that the SLE is composed of a thin layer of arranged collagen fibers. During forearm rotation, the SLE progressively tightens upon pronation and supination by wrapping around the radial neck. Tightening of the SLE during forearm rotation provides transverse and longitudinal stability to the forearm, mainly in maximal pronation and supination. The SLE is a true ligament and provides forearm stability when it is stretched in pronation and supination.

  20. Hand and finger dexterity as a function of skin temperature, EMG, and ambient condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Lin; Shih, Yuh-Chuan; Chi, Chia-Fen

    2010-06-01

    This article examines the changes in skin temperature (finger, hand, forearm), manual performance (hand dexterity and strength), and forearm surface electromyograph (EMG) through 40-min, 11 degrees C water cooling followed by 15-min, 34 degrees C water rewarming; additionally, it explores the relationship between dexterity and the factors of skin temperature, EMG, and ambient condition. Hand exposure in cold conditions is unavoidable and significantly affects manual performance. Two tasks requiring gross and fine dexterity were designed, namely, nut loosening and pin insertion, respectively. The nested-factorial design includes factors of gender, participant (nested within gender), immersion duration, muscle type (for EMG), and location (for skin temperature). The responses are changes in dexterity, skin temperature, normalized amplitude of EMG, and grip strength. Finally, factor analysis and stepwise regression are used to explore factors affecting hand and finger dexterity. Dexterity, EMG, and skin temperature fell with prolonged cooling, but the EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis remained almost unchanged during the nut loosening task. All responses but the forearm skin temperature recovered to the baseline level at the end of rewarming. The three factors extracted by factor analysis are termed skin temperature, ambient condition, and EMG. They explain approximately two thirds of the variation of the linear models for both dexterities, and the factor of skin temperature is the most influential. Sustained cooling and warming significantly decreases and increases finger, hand, and forearm skin temperature. Dexterity, strength, and EMG are positively correlated to skin temperature. Therefore, keeping the finger, hand, and forearm warm is important to maintaining hand performance. The findings could be helpful to building safety guidelines for working in cold environments.

  1. Simultaneous assessment of blood flow in UVB-inflamed human skin by laser Doppler flowmetry and the 133-xenon cashout technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare skin bloood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the 133-Xenon washout technique in UVB-inflamed human skin. Six healthy subjects participated in the study. Forearm skin blood flow was measured prior to irradiation and then 8, 24, 48 and 72 h...

  2. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  3. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  4. Estilo de afrontamiento y resultados del tratamiento de exposición en sujetos con fobia a volar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Miró

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo cuasi-experimental es doble. Por una parte, se trata de estudiar si el estilo de afrontamiento de los pacientes (buscadores y evitadores de información; monitoring y blunting está relacionado con los efectos de la terapia de exposición; por otra, examinar si este estilo está relacionado con sesgos de atención. Aplicamos el CAFFT (Computer Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment, esto es, un programa de exposición asistido por ordenador, a una muestra de 17 personas con miedo a volar en avión. Para la evaluación del estilo de afrontamiento empleamos la versión española de la Miller Behavioural Style Scale, mientras que los sesgos de atención fueron valorados mediante el test Stroop . Los resultados muestran que el tratamiento fue efectivo, y si bien no detectan relación con el estilo de afrontamiento, se observa que el estilo de búsqueda de información (por ejemplo, monitoring está asociado con mayores trastornos antes del tratamiento, aunque éstos desaparecen tras el mismo. Nuestros datos también muestran una relación estadísticamente significativa entre sesgo de atención y estilo de afrontamiento.

  5. ¿Caos en el electrocardiograma de estudiantes con miedo a volar? Un análisis de no linealidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llabrés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Teoría del Caos proporciona una nueva forma de analizar las respuestas psicofisiológicas asociadas a los trastornos de ansiedad. Pero para poder aplicar los métodos de análisis no lineal de esta relativamente reciente teoría, primero es necesario comprobar la existencia de algún tipo de no linealidad que justifique su uso. En este estudio experimental se analiza, mediante el procedimiento de los datos vicarios, la no linealidad de las señales generadas por el sistema cardiovascular (ECG de estudiantes con y sin miedo a volar, en diferentes condiciones de estimulación. Los errores de predicción de las series vicarias fueron siempre mayores que los de las correspondientes series empíricas (p < 0,05, demostrándose así que las señales ECG, en todos los sujetos y en todas las condiciones, presentan propiedades no lineales y que por tanto resulta adecuado analizarlas desde planteamientos no lineales para obtener conocimiento acerca de su complejidad, entropía, regularidad, etc.

  6. [Walking with canes and forearm-crutches (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, G; Kölbel, R; Rauschenbach, N; Rohlmann, A

    1978-02-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently prescribed but cannot be controlled adequately. In a previous paper the change of forces at the hip joint as effected by a one sided cane was determined by instrumentation of the cane and a mechanical analysis of gait on a walkway. In the present study we looked at the conditions for control of partial weightbearing when two forearm crutches are used. Instrumented crutches and a forceplate were used. In walking with two forearm crutches the total of the ground reaction forces and the force pattern differ from those in free walking. The total of two crutch forces plus the force at the leg with partial weightbearing exceeds that caused by body weight alone. This is due to mass accelerations in a changed gait pattern. When the maximal leg force is reduced from 100% body weight to zero, the additional dynamic forces exceed those caused by body weight alone by 4%-19%. Only 2% of the additional dynamic forces act on the controlateral crutch while the rest is transmitted through the ipsilateral crutch. The crutch force pattern on the ipsilateral side depends more on individual gait characteristics than does that on the controlateral side. Load reduction is more pronounced in the late stages of the stand phase than in the early ones.

  7. Forearm arterial anatomy and flow characteristics: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancholy, Samir B; Heck, Laura A; Patel, Tejas

    2015-04-01

    Morphometric data on Caucasian radial and ulnar arteries are limited, with no data on flow interdependence in the forearm arterial circuit. A total of 250 upper extremities in 125 patients were evaluated. Ultrasonography was performed and radial and ulnar artery lumen diameters were measured. Ulnar artery (UA) was compressed at the level of the wrist, and flow parameters in radial artery (RA) were recorded using duplex Doppler ultrasound. Radial and ulnar artery diameters were comparable at the level of the distal forearm (RA = 2.03 ± 0.28 mm, UA = 2.07 ± 0.27 mm; P=.14). There was no significant difference in radial or ulnar artery diameter between the dominant upper extremity and the non-dominant upper extremity. Upon compression of the ulnar artery, radial artery velocity-time integral (VTI) increased from 8.4 ± 3.8 cm to 12.8 ± 5.5 cm, which was statistically significant (Pforearm is comparable to UA. RA-VTI and likely flow significantly increase by compression of the UA. The smaller the radial artery, the larger the increase in radial artery flow with ulnar compression.

  8. Microwave Imaging of Human Forearms: Pilot Study and Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Gilmore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI. T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer’s forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial “blind” imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm’s peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure.

  9. 78 FR 36308 - Proposed Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the... INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-4. OMB...

  10. Clinical comparison of automatic, noninvasive measurements of blood pressure in the forearm and upper arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Kathleen; Bradley, Elisabeth; Bucher, Linda; Seckel, Maureen; Lyons, Denise; Wakai, Sandra; Bartell, Deborah; Carson, Elizabeth; Chichester, Melanie; Foraker, Teresa; Simpson, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    When the upper arm (area from shoulder to elbow) is inaccessible and/or a standard-sized blood pressure cuff does not fit, some healthcare workers use the forearm to measure blood pressure. To compare automatic noninvasive measurements of blood pressure in the upper arm and forearm. A descriptive, correlational comparison study was conducted in the emergency department of a 1071-bed teaching hospital. Subjects were 204 English-speaking patients 6 to 91 years old in medically stable condition who had entered the department on foot or by wheelchair and who had no exclusions to using their left upper extremity. A Welch Allyn Vital Signs 420 series monitor was used to measure blood pressure in the left upper arm and forearm with the subject seated and the upper arm or forearm at heart level. Pearson r correlation coefficients between measurements in the upper arm and forearm were 0.88 for systolic blood pressure and 0.76 for diastolic blood pressure (P upper arm and forearm differed significantly (t = 2.07, P = .04). A Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the distances between the mean values and the limits of agreement for the 2 sites ranged from 15 mm Hg (mean arterial pressure) to 18.4 mm Hg (systolic pressure). Despite strict attention to correct cuff size and placement of the upper arm or forearm at heart level, measurements of blood pressure obtained noninvasively in the arm and forearm of seated patients in stable condition are not interchangeable.

  11. Peroneal perforator-based peroneus longus tendon and sural neurofasciocutaneous composite flap transfer for a large soft-tissue defect of the forearm: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Saijo, Hiroto; Fujioka, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    We describe the use of a composite flap composed of a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and a vascularized peroneus longus tendon for the reconstruction of severe composite forearm tissue defects in a patient. A 43-year-old man had his left arm caught in a conveyor belt resulting in a large soft-tissue defect of 18 × 11 cm over the dorsum forearm. The extensor carpi radialis, superficial radial nerve, and radial artery were severely damaged. A free neurofasciocutaneous composite flap measuring 16 × 11 cm was outlined on the patient's left lower leg to allow simultaneous skin, tendon, nerve, and artery reconstruction. The flap, which included the peroneus longus tendon, was elevated on the subfascial plane. After the flap was transferred to the recipient site, the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the radial artery in a flow-through manner. The vascularized tendon graft with 15 cm in length was used to reconstruct the extensor carpi radialis longus tendon defect using an interlacing suture technique. As the skin paddle of the sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and the vascularized peroneus longus tendon graft were linked by the perforator and minimal fascial tissue, the skin paddle was able to rotate and slide with comparative ease. The flap survived completely without any complications. The length of follow-up was 12 months and was uneventful. Range of motion of his left wrist joint was slightly limited to 75 degrees. This novel composite flap may be useful for reconstructing long tendon defects associated with extensive forearm soft tissue defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  13. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Gary J.; Kellogg, Dean L.; Johnson, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography....

  14. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To examine the hypothesis that forearm pain with palpation tenderness in computer users is associated with increased extensor muscle fatigue. METHODS: Eighteen persons with pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness in the extensor muscle group of the right forearm...... response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... and twenty gender and age matched referents without such complaints were enrolled from the Danish NUDATA study of neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants and machine technicians. Fatigue of the right forearm extensor muscles was assessed by muscle twitch forces in response to low...

  15. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  16. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  17. Elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries among sport rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, L M; Noakes, T D

    1996-07-01

    Sport rock climbing with its repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of a rock face or wall, often in steep overhanging positions, is associated with a unique distribution and form of upper limb injuries. In this article, we review the biomechanical aspects of sport rock climbing and the types of injuries commonly encountered in the forearm, wrist, and hand regions of elite sport rock climbers. Because elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries predominate, representing 62% of the total injuries encountered, these anatomical areas have been selected for review. The predominant source of data are the published work of Bollen et al. The remaining sources were obtained through electronic search of the Medline and Current Contents Databases (last searched May 1995). German and French articles were included in the search criteria. Only studies dealing with acute soft tissue and overuse injuries amongst sport rock climbers were selected. Data were extracted directly from the sourced articles. The following injuries have been described in detail with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention amongst sport rock climbers: medial epicondylitis, brachialis tendonitis, biceps brachii tendonitis, ulnar collateral ligament sprain of the elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, digital flexor tendon pulley sheath tears, interphalangeal joint effusions, fixed flexion deformities of the interphalangeal joints, and collateral ligament tears of the interphalangeal joints. Many of the injuries are specific to the handhold types used by the rock climber. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these unique injuries will be facilitated by a wider understanding of the biomechanical aspects of rock climbing and an awareness of the patterns and incidence of injuries in this sport.

  18. Optical Myography: Detecting Finger Movements by Looking at the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eNissler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial problems found in the scientific community of assistive / rehabilitation robotics nowadays is that of automatically detecting what a disabled subject (for instance, a hand amputee wants to do, exactly when she wants to do it and strictly for the time she wants to do it. This problem, commonly called intent detection, has traditionally been tackled using surface electromyography, a technique which suffers from a number of drawbacks, including the changes in the signal induced by sweat and muscle fatigue. With the advent of realistic, physically plausible augmented- and virtual-reality environments for rehabilitation, this approach does not suffice anymore. In this paper we explore a novel method to solve the problem, that we call Optical Myography (OMG. The idea is to visually inspect the human forearm (or stump to reconstruct what fingers are moving and to what extent. In a psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects, we used visual fiducial markers (AprilTags and a standard web-camera to visualize the deformations of the surface of the forearm, which then were mapped to the intended finger motions. As ground truth, a visual stimulus was used, avoiding the need for finger sensors (force/position sensors, datagloves, etc.. Two machine-learning approaches, a linear and a non-linear one, were comparatively tested in settings of increasing realism. The results indicate an average error in the range of 0.05 to 0.22 (root mean square error normalized over the signal range, in line with similar results obtained with more mature techniques such as electromyography. If further successfully tested in the large, this approach could lead to vision-based intent detection of amputees, with the main application of letting such disabled persons dexterously and reliably interact in an augmented- / virtual-reality setup.

  19. Forearm Range of Motion in Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt A White

    Full Text Available The hypertrophied manual claws and modified manus of megaraptoran theropods represent an unusual morphological adaptation among carnivorous dinosaurs. The skeleton of Australovenator wintonensis from the Cenomanian of Australia is among the most complete of any megaraptorid. It presents the opportunity to examine the range of motion of its forearm and the function of its highly modified manus. This provides the basis for behavioural inferences, and comparison with other Gondwanan theropod groups. Digital models created from computed tomography scans of the holotype reveal a humerus range of motion that is much greater than Allosaurus, Acrocanthosaurus, Tyrannosaurus but similar to that of the dromaeosaurid Bambiraptor. During flexion, the radius was forced distally by the radial condyle of the humerus. This movement is here suggested as a mechanism that forced a medial movement of the wrist. The antebrachium possessed a range of motion that was close to dromaeosaurids; however, the unguals were capable of hyper-extension, in particular manual phalanx I-2, which is a primitive range of motion characteristic seen in allosaurids and Dilophosaurus. During flexion, digits I and II slightly converge and diverge when extended which is accentuated by hyperextension of the digits in particular the unguals. We envision that prey was dispatched by its hands and feet with manual phalanx I-2 playing a dominant role. The range of motion analysis neither confirms nor refutes current phylogenetic hypotheses with regards to the placement of Megaraptoridae; however, we note Australovenator possessed, not only a similar forearm range of motion to some maniraptorans and basal coelurosaurs, but also similarities with Tetanurans (Allosauroids and Dilophosaurus.

  20. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  1. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-06-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin\\'s mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  2. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  3. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  4. Blood pressure measurement in obese patients: comparison between upper arm and forearm measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierin, Angela M G; Alavarce, Débora C; Gusmão, Josiane L; Halpern, Alfredo; Mion, Décio

    2004-06-01

    It is well known that blood pressure measurement with a standard 12-13 cm wide cuff is erroneous for large arms. To compare arm blood pressure measurements with an appropriate cuff and forearm blood pressure measurements (BPM) with a standard cuff, and both measurements by the Photopletismography (Finapres) method. One hundred and twenty-nine obese patients were studied (body mass index=40+/-7 kg/m2). The patients had three arm BPM taken by an automatic oscillometric device using an appropriate cuff and three forearm BPM with a standard cuff in the sitting position after a five-minute rest. Data were analysed by the analysis of variance. The correction values were obtained by the linear regression test. Systolic and diastolic arm BPM with an appropriate cuff were significantly lower (pforearm BPM with a standard cuff. The measurements obtained by Finapres were significantly lower (pforearm systolic and diastolic blood pressures and upper arm diastolic blood pressure. The equation to correct BPM in forearm in obese patients with arm circumference between 32-44 cm was: systolic BPM=33.2+/-0.68 x systolic forearm BPM, and diastolic BPM=25.2+0.59 x forearm diastolic BPM. This study showed that forearm blood pressure measurement overestimates the values of arm blood pressure measurement. In addition, it is possible to correct forearm BPM with an equation.

  5. Evaluation of skin moisturizer effects using terahertz time domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Meza, L. H.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Castro-Camus, E.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.

    2018-02-01

    We use terahertz time domain imaging for the evaluation of the effects of skin-moisturizers in vivo. We evaluate three principal substances used in commercial moisturizers: glycerin, hyaluronic acid and lanolin. We image the interaction of the forearm with each of the substances taking terahertz spectra at sequential times. With this, we are able to measure the effect of the substances on the hydration level of the skin in time, determining the feasibility of using THz imaging for the evaluation of the products and their effects on the hydration levels of the skin.

  6. The Community Orthopaedic Surgeon Taking Trauma Call: Pediatric Forearm Shaft Fracture Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Martin J; Simon, Matthew; Mehlman, Charles T

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric forearm shaft fractures are the third most common fracture in children, and the forearm is the third most mobile joint in the body (with a nearly 180 degree arc of motion). The goals of treatment are aimed squarely at achieving satisfactory anatomic alignment (within defined parameters) as the consequences of malunion can be permanent forearm stiffness and deformity. Nonoperative treatment approaches still dominate care of the youngest age groups while surgical intervention has become increasingly common in older children. This article will offer evidence and experience-based tips intended to benefit the community orthopedic surgeon caring for children during the course of their on-call duties.

  7. Free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap for inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Trivedi, Nirav P.; Sharma, Mohit; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Iyer, Subramania

    2009-01-01

    A free radial forearm fascial flap has been described for intraoral reconstruction. Adiposo-fascial flap harvesting involves few technical modifications from the conventional radial forearm fascio-cutaneous free flap harvesting. We report a case of inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction in a 42-year-old male with a free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap with good aesthetic and functional outcome with minimal primary and donor site morbidity. The technique of raising the flap and closing the donor site needs to be meticulous in order to achieve good cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:19881028

  8. Free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap for inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankappan Krishnakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A free radial forearm fascial flap has been described for intraoral reconstruction. Adiposo-fascial flap harvesting involves few technical modifications from the conventional radial forearm fascio-cutaneous free flap harvesting. We report a case of inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction in a 42-year-old male with a free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap with good aesthetic and functional outcome with minimal primary and donor site morbidity. The technique of raising the flap and closing the donor site needs to be meticulous in order to achieve good cosmetic and functional outcome.

  9. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  10. The role of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the forearm interosseous membrane. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Martin, Juan; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The interosseous membrane of the forearm is an important structure to consider in cases of elbow and forearm trauma; it can be injured after elbow or forearm fractures, leading to longitudinal forearm instability. Diagnosis of interosseous membrane injuries is challenging, and failure in diagnosis may result in poor clinical outcomes and complications. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have shown to be valuable methods for the evaluation of this important structure. Both techniques have advantages and limitations, and its use should be adapted to each specific clinical scenario. This article presents an up-to-date literature review regarding the use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the forearm interosseous membrane evaluation. (orig.)

  11. The role of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the forearm interosseous membrane. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Martin, Juan [Infanta Leonor University Hospital, Trauma and Orthopaedics, Shoulder and Elbow Unit, Madrid (Spain); Pretell-Mazzini, Juan [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellow, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The interosseous membrane of the forearm is an important structure to consider in cases of elbow and forearm trauma; it can be injured after elbow or forearm fractures, leading to longitudinal forearm instability. Diagnosis of interosseous membrane injuries is challenging, and failure in diagnosis may result in poor clinical outcomes and complications. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have shown to be valuable methods for the evaluation of this important structure. Both techniques have advantages and limitations, and its use should be adapted to each specific clinical scenario. This article presents an up-to-date literature review regarding the use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the forearm interosseous membrane evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Sonographic identification of peripheral nerves in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saundra A Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED, ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure. Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to describe the number of supervised peripheral nerve examinations that are necessary for an emergency medicine physician to gain proficiency in accurately locating and identifying the median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the forearm via ultrasound. Methods: The proficiency outcome was defined as the number of attempts before a resident is able to correctly locate and identify the nerves on ten consecutive examinations. Didactic education was provided via a 1 h lecture on forearm anatomy, sonographic technique, and identification of the nerves. Participants also received two supervised hands-on examinations for each nerve. Count data are summarized using percentages or medians and range. Random effects negative binomial regression was used for modeling panel count data. Results: Complete data for the number of attempts, gender, and postgraduate year (PGY training year were available for 38 residents. Nineteen males and 19 females performed examinations. The median PGY year in practice was 3 (range 1-3, with 10 (27% in year 1, 8 (22% in year 2, and 19 (51% in year 3 or beyond. The median number (range of required supervised attempts for radial, median, and ulnar nerves was 1 (0-12, 0 (0-10, and 0 (0-17, respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that the maximum number of supervised attempts to achieve accurate nerve identification was 17 (ulnar, 12 (radial, and 10 (median in our study. The only

  13. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural and non-neural control of skin blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in the heat stressed human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibasaki, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    as an absence of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during a whole-body heat stress. Upon this confirmation, adenosine was perfused through one of the microdialysis probes to increase skin blood flow similar to that of the unblocked site. After internal temperature increased approximately 0.7 degrees C......During heat stress, isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise causes cutaneous vasoconstriction, but it remains controversial whether neural mechanisms are responsible for this observation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cutaneous vasoconstriction during IHG exercise in heat...... stressed individuals occurs via a neural mechanism. An axillary nerve blockade was performed to block efferent nerve traffic to the left forearm in seven healthy subjects. Two intradermal microdialysis probes were placed within forearm skin of the blocked area. Forearm skin blood flow was measured by laser...

  15. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Quality control and standardization of forearm X-ray osteodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2000-01-01

    Quality control (QC) has an essential practical bearing on the proper function of the equipment used for bone density measurement. Special attention is likewise focused on the issue of standardization of the results afforded by different osteodensitometry instruments. It is the purpose of the study to assay QC of a single-energy x-ray forearm osteodensitometry unit DTX-100 covering a 3 year period, and compare the data on bone mineral density (BMD) produced by three different devices. Long-term BMD reproducibility in vitro, expressed as coefficient of variation, amounts to 0.55 per cent. Except for a two week period, no deviation from the normal function of the instrument is documented. Failing to comply with the manufacturer's instructions may discredit QC efficacy. On comparative assessment of the results produced by different osteodensitometers, differences in vivo may reach up to 1.2 standard deviation. Definite regions of special interest, feasible for comparison, are recommended. In conclusion special emphasis is laid on the necessity of performing through QC, measurement results standardization and accreditation of a reference osteodensitometry center

  17. Microvascular Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Free Flap for Palatomaxillary Reconstruction Following Malignant Tumor Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSHERBINY, M.; MEBED, A.; MEBED, H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the patient's quality of life and outcomes after reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects by microvascular radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap (RFFF) and dental obturator. Material and Methods: During the period between 2005-2007, 10 patients who had palato maxillary defects were immediately reconstructed using RFFF to restore physiologic oronasal separation. All patients were treated for malignant tumors of hard palate or maxilla and all had preservation of orbital floor. Vascular anastomoses were done with the facial vessels in the neck. All the patients underwent a lateral thigh split-thickness skin graft for closure of the donor site. Outcome measurements included post-operative assessment of flap survival and healing, speech, swallowing and diet evaluation and quality of life. Dental rehabilitation was done 3 months postoperatively for all patients. Results: Flap survival was successful in all cases. In the first 2 weeks post operatively, 80% of patients had very good swallowing, speech and diet ability in the form of soft chewable foods and by the end of 6 months, all patients had very good swallowing and speech function and were able to eat all types of foods. Dental rehabilitation with obturator was easily applied and the presence of the flap did not interfere with its application. The technique improved chewing ability and cosmosis. Complications included, small oronasal fistula in 2 patients (20%) who required secondary sutures and delayed wound healing of donor site in one patient. Conclusion: RFFF for soft tissue reconstruction after maxillectomy is a reliable technique that provides a definitive physiologic separation between oral and nasal cavity. This allows very early improvement of speech and swallowing without being totally dependent on obturator. Dental rehabilitation to improve chewing and cosmoses can be done easily with minimal home care. Subsequently, the quality of life is markedly improved

  18. [Kinematics of the triangular fibrocartilage complex during forearm rotation in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Tang, Jin-bo; Jia, Zhong-zheng; Xie, Ren-guo

    2009-11-01

    To investigate three-dimensional kinematics of the superficial and deep portion of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in different parts of the forearm rotation. Six wrists of 6 volunteers were used to obtain CT scans at different positions of the wrist. The wrists were scanned from 90 degrees of pronation to 90 degrees of supination at an interval of 30 degrees. The 3-dimensional radius and ulna were reconstructed with customized software and changes in length of the superficial and deep portion of TFCC during forearm rotation. In forearm pronation, the superficial dorsal portion and the deep palmar portion of the TFCC were tight. While the superficial palmar portion and the deep dorsal potion of the TFCC were lax. In supination, the changes in length of all these fibers were reverse. In forearm rotation one portion fibers of dorsal TFCC and one portion fibers of palmar TFCC are tight, and this mechanism controls stability during DRUJ rotation.

  19. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-15

    Sep 15, 2011 ... Cost and Burden of Osteoporosis in 2011), released ... Women who had a forearm BMD below this threshold were ~10 times more likely to have osteoporosis of the spine. ..... assessing bone density, cost and effectiveness.

  20. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac; Taberner, Andrew; Nielsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin's mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  1. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in

  2. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald

    2004-01-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in those cases

  3. Control and postural thixotropy of the forearm muscles: changes caused by cold.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakie, M; Walsh, E G; Wright, G W

    1986-01-01

    The forearm was cooled in water at 5-10 degrees C while wrist biodynamics were investigated. Pronounced loosening following a perturbation (thixotropy) was no longer seen. The wrist became stiffer for large or moderate but not small movements; EMG activity did not increase. Cooling the wrist alone, or opposite forearm, was without effect. The ability to make rapid reciprocating movements was reduced and muscle relaxation time was increased. Single movements were not affected.

  4. Surgical trainees neuropraxia? An unusual case of compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seoighe, D M

    2010-09-01

    Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is an uncommon diagnosis but has been associated with strenuous upper limb activity. We report the unique case of a 32-year-old male orthopaedic trainee who suffered this nerve palsy as a result of prolonged elbow extension and forearm pronation while the single assistant during a hip resurfacing procedure. Conservative measures were sufficient for sensory recovery to be clinically detectable after 12 weeks.

  5. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  6. Inconsistency between simultaneous blood pressure measurements in the arm, forearm, and leg in anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidan, Ilan; Sidi, Avner; Ben-Menachem, Erez; Tene, Yael; Berkenstadt, Haim

    2014-02-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of simultaneous noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement in the arm, forearm, and ankle in anesthetized children. Prospective, randomized study. University medical center. 101 ASA physical status 1 and 2 children (aged 1-8 yrs) scheduled for elective surgery with general anesthesia. Simultaneous NIBP measurements were recorded at the arm, forearm, and ankle at 5-minute intervals. The systolic blood pressure difference between the arm-forearm or the arm-ankle was within the ± 10% range in 63% and 29% of measurements, and within the ± 20% range in 85% and 67% of measurements, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure difference between the arm-forearm or the arm-ankle was within the ± 10% range in 42% and 44% and within the ± 20% range in 67% and 74% of measurements, respectively. In patients in whom the initial three NIBP measurements were within the ± 20% range between the forearm and arm, 86% of the subsequent measurements were also within that limit. Forearm and ankle NIBP measurements are unreliable and inconsistent with NIBP measured in the arm of anesthetized children. These alternative BP measurement sites are not reliable in accuracy (comparison with reference "gold" standard) and precision (reproducibility). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in subcutaneous blood flow during locally applied negative pressure to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    The effect of locally applied subatmospheric pressure on subcutaneous blood flow was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Blood flow was measured on the forearm by the local 133Xe wash-out technique. Air suction between 10 mmHg and 250 mmHg was applied to the skin. Subatmospheric pressure of 20 mm...

  8. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  9. A Simple Device For Measuring Skin Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A.B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple device for measuring skin friction in vivo is described. The frictional coefficient of normal Indian skin and the effect of hydration and application of talc and glycerol on the frictional coefficient and also the friction of ichthyotic skin have been determined with its help. The average value of friction of friction of normal India skin at forearm is found to be 0.41 +- 0.08, the hydration raises the value to 0.71 +- 0.11 and the effect of glycerol is also to school it up to 0.70+- 0.05, almost equal to that of water. The effect of talc however is opposite and its application lowers the friction to 0.21+-0.07. The mean coeff of friction for ichthyotic skin is found to be 0.21+- 0.0.5, which closely agrees with talc-treated normal skin. A good positive correlation (p<0.01 between friction and sebum level at skin site, with r = 0.64, has been observed.

  10. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  11. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  12. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  14. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  15. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  16. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  17. Skin surface hydration decreases rapidly during long distance flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéhenneux, Sabine; Gardinier, Sophie; Morizot, Frederique; Le Fur, Isabelle; Tschachler, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Dehydration of the stratum corneum leads to sensations and symptoms of 'dry skin' such as skin tightness and itchiness. As these complaints are frequently experienced by airline travellers, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in skin surface hydration during long distance flights. The study was performed on four healthy Caucasian, and on four Japanese women aged 29-39 years, travelling on long distance flights. They had stopped using skin care products at least 12 h before, and did not apply them during the flights. The air temperature and relative humidity inside the cabin, as well as skin capacitance of the face and forearm of participants, were registered at several time points before and during the flights. Relative humidity of the aircraft cabin dropped to levels below 10% within 2 h after take-off and stayed at this value throughout the flight. Skin capacitance decreased rapidly on both the face and forearms with most pronounced changes on the cheeks where it decreased by up to 37%. Our results demonstrate that during long distance flights, the aircraft cabin environment leads to a rapid decrease in stratum corneum hydration, an alteration, which probably accounts for the discomfort experienced by long distance aircraft travellers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  19. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. Variation in skin biology to climate in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Gao, Yanrui; Zhang, Yiyi; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-09-01

    To explore the relationship between climate and skin condition, and to investigate the variation of skin biology to climatic change. In total, 2005 healthy Chinese volunteers living in Shanghai (aged 13-69 years) were recruited. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SCH were tested on six sites (forehead, cheek, nasolabial, inner forearm, dorsal hand, and palm) by noninvasive devices between January 2005 and December 2012. The corresponding climate data were recorded by local Weather Bureau. TEWL was increased with atmospheric pressure and decreased with temperature, steam pressure, and relative humidity (p climate parameters together, we introduced these correlated factors into the multivariate linear regression model which demonstrated that temperature and steam pressure were main factors related to skin biological parameters. At different sites, the effect of climatic factors on skin biology was diverse. Skin biological parameters are associated with climatic factors. Different sites have different sensitivity to climate factors.

  1. Evaluation of Perfusion and Thermal Parameters of Skin Tissue Using Cold Provocation and Thermographic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strąkowska Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the perfusion coefficient and thermal parameters of skin tissue using dynamic thermography is presented in this paper. A novel approach based on cold provocation and thermal modelling of skin tissue is presented. The measurement was performed on a person’s forearm using a special cooling device equipped with the Peltier module. The proposed method first cools the skin, and then measures the changes of its temperature matching the measurement results with a heat transfer model to estimate the skin perfusion and other thermal parameters. In order to assess correctness of the proposed approach, the uncertainty analysis was performed.

  2. Short-term sensory and cutaneous vascular responses to therapeutic ultrasound in the forearms of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shaguftha Sultana; MacDermid, Joy C; Birmingham, Trevor; Grewal, Ruby; Farooq, Baseer

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is used for a variety of clinical pathologies and is thought to accelerate tissue repair and help with pain reduction via its thermal and nonthermal effects. The evidence on physiological effects of US on both sensory and vascular functions in humans is incomplete. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term impact of two doses of US (3 MHz, 1:4, 0.25 W/cm(2), 5 min; 1 MHz, continuous, 0.8 W/cm(2), 3 min), on sensory and vascular responses in the healthy forearms. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited (mean age, 29.6 ± 8.8 years) for the study. Superficial blood flow (SBF) in the distal forearms was determined using the tissue viability imaging system. Sensory perception thresholds (SPT) were determined from ring finger (C7, C8) to assess A-beta (at 2,000 Hz) and C fiber function (at 5 Hz), using a Neurometer CPT/C device. Subject's two hands were randomly allocated to group order (AB/BA). Scores were obtained before and immediately after the application of US and control. Differences in these were analyzed using repeated measures. Both 3 MHz pulsed US and 1 MHz continuous US showed small to moderate (effect size = 0.12 to 0.68), statistically significant reductions in SBF (3 MHz, mean change = 2.8 AU and 1 MHz, mean change = 3.9 AU, p 0.05). Age and gender also had no effect on all outcome measures (p > 0.05). This study demonstrated minor reductions in skin blood flow, skin temperatures, and C fiber perception thresholds immediately after 3 MHz, and 1 MHz US. The responses observed may have been due to a thermo-cooling effect of the gel or due to the direct effect of US on C fibers of median and ulnar nerves. US had a negligible effect on A-beta fibres. This would suggest that future studies looking at physiological effects of US should move towards investigating larger dosages and study the effects in patient populations.

  3. Full title: Biomechanical comparison between stainless steel, titanium and carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone volar locking plates for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Raffaele; Tarallo, Luigi; Capra, Francesco; Catani, Fabio

    2018-05-25

    As the popularity of volar locked plate fixation for distal radius fractures has increased, so have the number and variety of implants, including variations in plate design, the size and angle of the screws, the locking screw mechanism, and the material of the plates. carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plate features similar biomechanical properties to metallic plates, representing, therefore, an optimal alternative for the treatment of distal radius fractures. three different materials-composed plates were evaluated: stainless steel volar lateral column (Zimmer); titanium DVR (Hand Innovations); CFR-PEEK DiPHOS-RM (Lima Corporate). Six plates for each type were implanted in sawbones and an extra-articular rectangular osteotomy was created. Three plates for each material were tested for load to failure and bending stiffness in axial compression. Moreover, 3 constructs for each plate were evaluated after dynamically loading for 6000 cycles of fatigue. the mean bending stiffness pre-fatigue was significantly higher for the stainless steel plate. The titanium plate yielded the higher load to failure both pre and post fatigue. After cyclic loading, the bending stiffness increased by a mean of 24% for the stainless steel plate; 33% for the titanium; and 17% for the CFR-PEEK plate. The mean load to failure post-fatigue increased by a mean of 10% for the stainless steel and 14% for CFR-PEEK plates, whereas it decreased (-16%) for the titanium plate. Statistical analysis between groups reported significant values (p plastic deformation, and lower load to failure. N/A. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Valid screening questions useful to diagnose hand and forearm eczema are available in the Spanish language, a new tool for global research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Margarit, Anna; Manresa, Josep M; Herdman, Mike; Pujol, Ramon; Serra, Consol; Flyvholm, Mary-Ann; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    Hand eczema is an impacting cutaneous disease. Globally valid tools that help to diagnose hand and forearm eczema are required. To validate the questions to detect hand and/or forearm eczema included in the "Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire" (NOSQ-2002) in the Spanish language. A prospective pilot study was conducted with 80 employees of a cleaning company and a retrospective one involving 2,546 individuals. The responses were analysed for sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. The final diagnosis according to the patients' hospital records, the specialty care records and the physical examination was taken as gold standard. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was also evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity, in a worst case scenario (WC) combining both questions, were 96.5% and 66.7%, respectively, and in a per protocol (PP) analysis, were 96.5% and 75.2%. The questions validated detected eczema effectively, making this tool suitable for use e.g. in multicentre epidemiological studies or clinical trials.

  6. Shooting performance is related to forearm temperature and hand tremor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, M; Villagra, F; Bowman, I; Wilby, R

    1995-08-01

    The changes in postural tremor of the hand and the subsequent effect on shooting performance produced by moderate cooling and heating of the forearm were studied in six subjects. Cooling produced a large decrease in tremor size of the ipsilateral hand, whereas warming the limb produced an increase in tremor size. Cooling or warming the forearm did not change the peak frequency of tremor significantly, which was quite stable for each subject. The improvement in shooting performance after cooling the forearm, as measured by grouping pattern of the shots, reached statistical significance and warming caused a significant worsening. This measure of performance was shown to correlate (r = 0.776) inversely with tremor size. The causes and implications of these changes are discussed. It is suggested that local cooling may be useful for people who wish temporarily to reduce tremor in order to improve dexterity for shooting and for other purposes.

  7. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoni, Atoni Dogood; Oyinbo, Charles Aidemise

    2017-03-01

    Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  8. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoni Atoni Dogood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  9. Free myocutaneous flap transfer to treat congenital Volkmann's contracture of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G; Palti, R; Gurevitz, S; Yaffe, B

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to report our experience with free functional muscle transfer procedures for the late sequelae of the rare condition of congenital Volkmann's ischaemic contracture of the forearm. Four children, with an average age of 9.5 years (range 1.5-17), were treated and were followed for a mean of 6 years (range 1-14). Two patients had dorsal forearm contractures, and two had both flexor and extensor forearm contractures. We carried out free functional muscle transfers to replace the flexor or extensor muscles. The functional result was assessed according to the classification system of Hovius and Ultee. All patients had wrist contractures and skeletal involvement with limb length discrepancy that influenced the outcome. All five transferred muscles survived and improved the function of the hand in three of the four patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Complications after percutaneous placement of totally implantable venous access ports in the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltz, J.P.; Petritsch, B.; Thurner, A.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on radiological imaging of complications after interventional percutaneous insertion of totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) which were placed in the forearm. Thus far most reviews have dealt with pectorally-placed TIVAPs. Compared with the pectoral approach, implantation in the forearm has been associated with certain complications owing to a longer route of the port catheter within a smaller vein, and owing to the route across the elbow joint, resulting in higher rates of catheter-associated thrombosis and possible mechanical complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the complications after implantation of TIVAPs in the forearm, and to make radiologists familiar with the key findings of the complications during radiological imaging, including colour-coded and compression Duplex ultrasound, computed tomography, and digital subtraction venography.

  11. Level of Agreement Between Forearm and Upper Arm Blood Pressure Measurements in Patients With Large Arm Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Anastas, Zoe

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if forearm blood pressures (BPs) measured in three different locations agree with the recommended upper arm location for noninvasive BP measurement. A method-comparison design was used. In a convenience sample of postanesthesia care unit patients with large upper arm circumference, BP's were obtained in three different forearm locations (lower forearm, middle forearm, and upper forearm) and compared to upper arm BP using an automated BP measuring device. The level of agreement (bias ± precision) between each forearm location and the upper arm BP was calculated using standard formulas. Acceptable levels of agreement based on expert opinion were set a priori at bias and precision values of less than ±5 mm Hg (bias) and ±8 mm Hg (precision). Forty-eight postanesthesia patients participated in the study. Bias and precision values were found to exceed the acceptable level of agreement for all but one of the systolic and diastolic BP comparisons in the three forearm BP locations. Fifty-six percent of all patients studied had one or more BP difference of at least 10 mm Hg in each of the three forearm locations, with 10% having one or more differences of at least 20 mm Hg. The differences in forearm BP measurements observed in this study indicate that the clinical practice of using a forearm BP with a regular-sized BP cuff in place of a larger sized BP cuff placed on the upper arm in postanesthesia care unit patients with large arm circumferences is inappropriate. The BPs obtained at the forearm location are not equivalent to the BPs obtained at the upper arm location. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Screw elastic intramedullary nail for the management of adult forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasudeo Gadegone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The failure of the conventional nailing of both forearm bones or isolated fractures of radius and ulna pose a potential problem of nail migration and rotational instability, despite the best reduction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of screw elastic intramedullary nail for the treatment of adult diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones, which effectively addresses the problems associated with the conventional nailing systems for the forearm fractures. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six adults with forearm fractures (radius and ulna or isolated fracture of the single bone were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty males and 26 females with the mean age of 38 years (range, 18-70 years underwent closed reduction and screw intramedullary nail fixation. Ten patients required limited open reduction. The fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA system. The average followup was 12 months (range, 6 to 18 months. Results: The mean surgical time was 45 minutes (35 to 65 minutes. The meantime to union was 14 weeks (10-21 weeks. The results were graded as excellent in 50, good in 18 patients, and acceptable in eight patients, using the criteria of Grace and Eversman. We had superficial infection in three cases, one case of delayed infection, painful bursa in two cases, delayed union in two cases, malunion with dislocation of the DRUJ in two cases, injury to the extensor tendon of the thumb in one case, and one case of incomplete radioulnar synostosis. Conclusion: Closed reduction and internal fixation of forearm fractures by screw intramedullary nails reestablishes the near normal relationship of the fractured fragments. Screw intramedullary nail effectively controls both rotatory forces and the migration of the nail. It produces excellent clinical results in isolated fractures of either bones, as well as both bones of the forearm in adults.

  13. Novel 3D “active” representations of skin biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin exhibits unique biomechanical properties that enable unrestricted body movements without tearing. Several devices have been used to quantify skin mechanical properties, but techniques, in general, do not concern this multidirectional capacity, only allowing measurements in a few angles. CutiScan® is a new device that quantifies skin elasticity over 360°. It uses a suction method to induce skin deformation and a video camera to quantify its displacement. This work aims to assess these properties through the analysis of 3D time-angle-height of displacement representations. 20 female subjects (37.0 ± 18.7 years old were enrolled in this study after informed consent, grouped by age in group 1 (22.0 ± 1.3 years old, and group 2 (52.0 ± 13.7 years old. The in vivo mechanical profile of each volunteer was assessed in the forehead, forearm and in the leg. Significantly higher surface area and volume under the curve values were found in the forehead of the subjects of group 2. Significant differences were also found between the forehead and forearm and between the forehead and leg among each group. These results suggest that these 3D representations are useful in distinguishing the viscoelastic profile of differently aged subjects and of different skin sites.

  14. Osteosíntesis percutánea con placas volares bloqueadas en fracturas metafisarias distales de radio Descripción de la técnica y resultados preliminares. [Percutaneous volar locked plate fixation in metaphyseal fractures of distal radius: technical description and preliminary results].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia del Milagro Gutierrez Olivera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar resultados objetivos y subjetivos obtenidos luego de realizar osteosíntesis con placas en T bloqueadas volares, colocadas con técnica mínimamente invasiva, en fracturas del radio distal con extensión metafisaria. Material y Métodos Evaluación retrospectiva de seis pacientes adultos que presentaron fracturas inestables de radio distal, extra-articulares o articulares parciales, con extensión  metafisaria, tratadas quirúrgicamente con placas en T largas de compresión bloqueadas volares, mediante  técnica mínimamente invasiva, entre 2007 y  2012. Edad promedio 40,6 años. Todas las fracturas fueron cerradas, clasificadas como tipo 23A3 (n: 5 y 23B1 (n: 1 según el Sistema AO/ASIF. Se realizó reducción indirecta de la fractura, bajo visión radioscópica, a través de dos pequeñas incisiones se deslizó en forma percutánea una placa bloqueada volar en T. Se analizaron  parámetros radiológicos (angulación volar, inclinación radial y altura radial, el rango de movimiento y la fuerza. Los resultados subjetivos fueron evaluados usando la Escala de DASH y la Escala Visual Análoga. Resultados Tiempo de consolidaron promedio de 2,3 meses. Los resultados radiográficos no mostraron diferencias significativas entre el primer y el último control radiográfico al año de seguimiento. Flexión y extensión promedio 70° y 60°, pronación y supinación 79° y 80° respectivamente. Fuerza de prensión promedio 78,4%. El score de DASH 19,84 puntos y el EVA 1,5 puntos. Conclusión Las técnicas mínimamente invasivas reducen el daño quirúrgico y complicaciones. Son una opción en pacientes con daño severo de partes blandas, conminución metafisaria y trauma de alta energía. Pequeñas incisiones alejadas del sitio de fractura respetan los tejidos blandos y la biología ósea, contribuyendo a lograr la consolidación. La colocación de placas volares bloqueadas percutáneas es un procedimiento técnicamente demandante

  15. Extensive forearm deep venous thrombosis following a severe infliximab infusion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara M; Romberg, Marielle; Wolters, Frank; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W

    2004-09-01

    Here we describe a patient with Crohn's disease who developed a severe infliximab infusion reaction (IIR), complicated 1 day later by severe swelling of the forearm and hand ipsilateral to the site of infliximab infusion. This proved to be extensive forearm deep venous thrombosis. The site of thrombosis and the chronological relationship with the IIR implicates a hypersensitivity to infliximab in the causation of the venous thrombosis in this case. With an increasing trend towards re-treating patients with known IIRs, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious and previously unreported complication.

  16. Water filtration of the forearm in short- and long-term diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H L; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    of the forearm. Increased water filtration in connective tissue in long-term diabetics is in accordance with earlier findings of a lowered subcutaneous interstitial fluid albumin concentration in long-term diabetics, this being explained by an increase in net water outflux from the microcirculation.......Blood flow and capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography on the upper and lower third of the forearm in 9 normal subjects and 29 well regulated patients with diabetes mellitus of varying duration (less than 10 years, 10 to 20 years, and more than 20 years...

  17. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  18. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  19. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  20. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forearm vascular response to nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide: comparison between migraine patients and control subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoon, J.N. de; Smits, P.; Troost, J.; Struijker-Boudier, H.A.; Bortel, L.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The forearm vascular response to nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was investigated in 10 migraine patients and 10 matched control subjects. Changes in forearm blood flow (FBF) during intrabrachial infusion of: (i) serotonin (releasing endogenous NO), (ii) sodium

  2. Absence of the musculocutaneous nerve with innervation of coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis and the lateral border of the forearm by branches from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKATANI, TOSHIO; TANAKA, SHIGENORI; MIZUKAMI, SHIGEKI

    1997-01-01

    Anomalies of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are not uncommon. Variations in the course and branches of the musculocutaneous nerve have been noted (Clemente, 1985; Bergman et al. 1988) and its absence was reported by Le Minor (1990). Several anomalies were present in the left plexus of a 59-y-old Japanese man (Fig.). There were no anterior and posterior divisions of the middle trunk, although there were communications between the posterior, medial and lateral cords. The musculocutaneous nerve was absent (Le Minor, 1990) and the medial and lateral roots of the median nerve did not unite in the axillary fossa but in the upper arm about 5 cm distal to the lower border of latissimus dorsi (Adachi, 1928; Buch-Hansen, 1955). The hitherto unreported findings were branches arising directly from the lateral cord to supply coracobrachialis, both heads of biceps brachii and brachialis. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm was derived from the lateral cord with a small contribution from the medial root of the median nerve. Since there were communications between the posterior cord (a continuation of the middle trunk) and the medial and lateral cords, it is theoretically possibly, but not proven, that the root values of branches innervating the flexor muscles of the arm and forearm and the skin of lateral border of the forearm were normal. PMID:9419004

  3. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  4. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks. Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5 and 14 days (94.8. Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1. Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days. Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.

  5. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  6. Orientation of axes in the elbow and forearm for biomechanical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, H. E J; Yu, B.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the three-dimensional positions and orientations of axes of rotation for elbow flexion and forearm prosupination, the flexion-extension and prosupination movements were measured for five arms. Four right and one arm were taken from four fresh cadavers. Movement was measured with a

  7. Changes in forearm muscle temperature alter renal vascular responses to isometric handgrip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of heating and cooling the forearm muscles on renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip (IHG). It was hypothesized that heating and cooling the forearm would augment and attenuate, respectively, renal vascular responses to IHG. Renal vascular responses to IHG were studied during forearm heating at 39 degrees C (n = 15, 26 +/- 1 yr) and cooling at 26 degrees C (n = 12, 26 +/- 1 yr). For a control trial, subjects performed the experimental protocol while the forearm was normothermic (approximately 34 degrees C). Muscle temperature (measured by intramuscular probe) was controlled by changing the temperature of water cycling through a water-perfused sleeve. The experimental protocol was as follows: 3 min at baseline, 1 min of ischemia, ischemic IHG to fatigue, and 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. At rest, renal artery blood velocity (RBV; Doppler ultrasound) and renal vascular conductance (RVC = RBV/mean arterial blood pressure) were not different between normothermia and the two thermal conditions. During ischemic IHG, there were greater decreases in RBV and RVC in the heating trial. However, RBV and RVC were similar during postexercise muscle ischemia during heating and normothermia. RVC decreased less during cooling than in normothermia while the subjects performed the ischemic IHG protocol. During postexercise muscle ischemia, RVC was greater during cooling than in normothermia. These results indicate that heating augments mechanoreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction whereas cooling blunts metaboreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction.

  8. Treatment Results Of Diaphyseal Forearm Fractures With Dynamique Compression Plate A Retrospective study of 156 Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BOUSSAKRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study addresses a series of 156 cases of forearm fractures. These 156 cases were managed in the trauma-orthopedic department (B4 of Fez University Hospital, Morocco, from May 2008 till January 2013. The purpose of this study is to analyze epidemiological and clinical factors of diaphyseal forearm fractures and the results of their treatment with dynamic compression plate (DCP, as well as the complications and therapeutic errors of this surgical technique. The frequency of hospitalization in the trauma-orthopedic department was 3,96%. Ages ranged between 16 and 83, the average age was 32. 132 patients were male (85%. 90% were managed at the day of trauma. Traffic accidents were the most frequent cause in 52% patients. The fracture was in the left forearm in 65% of patients. 53% of fracture lines were in the middle third of the forearm. 38 fractures were open, and 30 were admitted for polytrauma. Osteosynthesis was performed with dynamic compression plate for all patients. In comparison with the literature, our series shows the predominance of young male patients, with traffic accidents being the cause. Osteosynthesis with dynamic compression plate remains the treatment of choice that provides satisfactory results if the accuracy in this technique was respected.

  9. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  10. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  11. Impairment and employment issues after nerve repair in the hand and forearm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiners, PM; Coert, JH; Robinson, PH; Meek, MF

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate retrospectively subjective impairments, experienced disabilities, job and leisure restrictions and job changes in patients at least 2 years after repair of a peripheral nerve injury in the forearm, wrist or hand. Methods. Between January 1997 and January 2000, 125 patients were

  12. Radial forearm flap : eight years experience with oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions - donor and acceptor site morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Vermey, A; Robinson, PH; Lichtendahl, DHE; Roodenburg, JLN

    The success rate of 56 free radial forearm flaps used between 1987 and 1995 in the University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands for oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions in cancer patients, was evaluated. There were 36 men and 20 women. The most prevalent neoplasm was squamous cell carcinoma

  13. Acute changes in forearm venous volume and tone using radionuclide plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, D.E.; Malkinson, T.J.; Robinson, V.; Smith, E.R.; Cooper, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation blood pool scintigraphy was validated as a method to study acute changes in human forearm veins. Changes in regional forearm vascular volume (capacity) and the occluding pressure-volume (P-V) relationship induced by sublingual nifedipine (NIF) and nitroglycerin (GTN) were recorded in 16 patients with simultaneous data collection by the radionuclide and the mercury-in-rubber strain-gauge techniques. The standard error of estimate (Syx) between successive control measurements using the radionuclide method was 3.1% compared with 3.2% for the strain-gauge method. The venous P-V curves were highly reproducible using both techniques. Strain gauge and radionuclide measurements of acute changes in forearm venous volume correlated well (r = 0.86; Syx = 7%, n = 156). After 20 mg of NIF or 0.6 mg of GTN, mean heart rate increased from 71 +/- 10 to 77 +/- 9 and from 68 +/- 10 to 75 +/- 11 beats/min, respectively, and group systolic blood pressure decreased from 128 +/- 22 to 120 +/- 19 and from 136 +/- 18 to 126 +/- 23 mmHg, respectively (P less than 0.05). At venous occluding pressures of 0 and 30 mmHg, the forearm vascular volume did not change after NIF (2 +/- 4 and -1 +/- 4%; P greater than 0.05), whereas it increased after GTN (8 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 7%; P less than 0.001). The forearm venous P-V relationship did not change after NIF, whereas a significant rightward shift (venodilation, with an increase in unstressed volume) occurred after GTN

  14. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    and forearms of 17 healthy volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks an SLS patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified with a visual score recording and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour were performed on days 1, 5, 11, 38 and 40. RESULTS...... was found on the disinfectant-treated area compared with the control area and detergent area, and a similar trend was found for TEWL, although it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Alcohol-based disinfectant caused less visible skin irritation and less skin barrier disruption than the use...

  15. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  16. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  18. Effect of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) on skin hydration and occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Ch; Basri, M; Ismail, R; Lau, Hln; Tejo, Ba; Kanthimathi, Ms; Hassan, Ha; Choo, Ym

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss. The various NLC formulations (A1-A5) were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control). The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C) and humidity (50% ± 2%) of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment) and day seven (after treatment). Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area. NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5) showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed. NLCs with high lipid content, solid lipid content, phospholipid, and lecithin are a highly effective cosmetic delivery system for cosmetic topical applications that are designed to boost skin hydration.

  19. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  20. Relationships between metacarpal morphometry, fore-arm and vertebral bone density and fractures in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bochner, M.; Need, A.G.; Nordin, B.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The relationships between metacarpal morphometric, vertebral and forearm density measurement and the prevalence of vertebral and peripheral fractures were examined in 239 postmenopausal women (median age 63, range 32-84 years). Metacarpal cortical area/total area ratio (CA/TA) was measured with needle calipers forearm mineral density (FMD) by single photon absorptiometry and vertebral mineral density (VMD) by single energy quantitative computed tomography. The authors suggest that metacarpal morphometry, which is widely available at relatively low cost, yields cross-sectional information about bone density and fracture risk, comparable with that obtained by forearm and vertebral densitometry. (Author)

  1. A further study of the high incidence of the median artery of the forearm in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two forearms from 36 cadavers of South Africans of European extraction were dissected. The frequency of the median artery per forearm was 27.4%. There was neither bilateral difference nor sexual dimorphism in the incidence of the artery. These findings compare well with a previous study of black South Africans (Henneberg & George, 1992) where frequency per forearm was 27.1%. Our findings are much higher than those of earlier studies. This discrepancy may be explained either by differences in the thoroughness of the observations or regional variation, or by the occurrence of a secular trend in the development of vasculature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1294564

  2. Comparative Anatomical Analyses of the Forearm Muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000): Manipulatory Behavior and Tool Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Maior, Rafael Souto; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use) between Cebus genus and apes. PMID:21789230

  3. Continuous Infraclavicular Block for Forearm Amputation After Being Bitten by a Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus Porosus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsi Chiu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important issues after a complete right forearm amputation are replantation and ongoing pain management. There are no reports of successful forearm replantation as a consequence of a crocodile bite. Here, we discuss our pain management in a case of complete forearm amputation after a bite from a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus, which necessitated six further operations to achieve successful replantation. Continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block was effective for acute pain control in this case. We strongly recommend performing the block with an indwelling catheter under ultrasound guidance for higher accuracy and safety.

  4. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature—recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Madden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing.Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back.Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure.Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it.

  5. Anatomical and biomechanical study on the interosseous membrane of the cadaveric forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Xian-hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the anatomical and biomechanical features of the interosseous membrane (IOM of the cadaveric forearm. Methods: Ten radius-IOM-ulna structures were har- vested from fresh-frozen cadavers to measure the length, width and thickness of the tendinous portion of IOM. Then, the tendinous portion was isolated along with the ulnar and radial ends to which the tendon attached after measurement. The proximal portion of the radius and the distal portion of the ulna were embedded and fixed in the dental base acrylic resin powder. The embedded specimen was clamped and fixed by the MTS 858 test machine using a 10 000 N load cell for the entire tensile test. IOM was stretched at a speed of 50 mm/min until it was ruptured. The load-displacement curve was depicted with a computer and the maximum load and stiffness were recorded at the same time. Results: The IOM of the forearm was composed of three portions: central tendinous tissue, membranous tis- sue and dorsal affiliated oblique cord. IOM was stretched at a neutral position, and flexed at pronation and supination positions. The tendinous portion of IOM was lacerated in 6 specimens when the point of the maximum load reached to 1 021.50 N± 250.13 N, the stiffness to 138.24 N/m±24.29 N/m, and the length of stretch to 9.77 mm±1.77 mm. Fracture occurred at the fixed end of the ulna before laceration of the tendinous portion in 4 specimens when the maximum load was 744.40 N±109.85 N, the stiffness was 151.17 N/m±30.68 N/m, and the length of the stretch was 6.51 mm±0.51 mm. Conclusions: The IOM of the forearm is a structure having ligamentous characteristics between the radius and the ulna. It is very important for maintenance of the longitu- dinal stability of the forearm. The anatomical and biome- chanical data can be used as an objective criterion for evalu- ating the reconstructive method of IOM of the forearm. Key words: Forearm; Anatomy; Biomechanics

  6. Surface Electromyography of the Forearm Musculature During the Windmill Softball Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, D. Trey; Fincham, Bryce; McCullough, Bryan; Davis, Kirk; Nofsinger, Charles; Armstrong, Charles; Stausmire, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. Purpose: Elbow and upper extremity overuse injuries are on the rise in fast-pitch softball pitchers. This study attempts to describe forearm muscle activity in softball pitchers during the windmill softball pitch. Overuse injuries can be prevented if a better understanding of mechanics is defined. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Surface EMG and high-speed videography was used to study forearm muscle activation patterns during the windmill softball pitch on 10 female collegiate-level pitchers. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle was used as a normalizing value. Each subject was tested during a single laboratory session per pitcher. Data included peak muscle activation, average muscle activation, and time to peak activation for 6 pitch types: fastball, changeup, riseball, curveball, screwball, and dropball. Results: During the first 4 phases, muscle activity (seen as signal strength on the EMG recordings) was limited and static in nature. The greatest activation occurred in phases 5 and 6, with increased signal strength, evidence of stretch-shortening cycle, and different muscle characteristics with each pitch style. These 2 phases of the windmill pitch are where the arm is placed in the 6 o’clock position and then at release of the ball. The flexor carpi ulnaris signal strength was significantly greater than the other forearm flexors. Timing of phases 1 through 5 was successively shorter for each pitch. There was a secondary pattern of activation in the flexor carpi ulnaris in phase 4 for all pitches except the fastball and riseball. Conclusion: During the 6

  7. Surface Electromyography of the Forearm Musculature During the Windmill Softball Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, D Trey; Fincham, Bryce; McCullough, Bryan; Davis, Kirk; Nofsinger, Charles; Armstrong, Charles; Stausmire, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. Elbow and upper extremity overuse injuries are on the rise in fast-pitch softball pitchers. This study attempts to describe forearm muscle activity in softball pitchers during the windmill softball pitch. Overuse injuries can be prevented if a better understanding of mechanics is defined. Descriptive laboratory study. Surface EMG and high-speed videography was used to study forearm muscle activation patterns during the windmill softball pitch on 10 female collegiate-level pitchers. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle was used as a normalizing value. Each subject was tested during a single laboratory session per pitcher. Data included peak muscle activation, average muscle activation, and time to peak activation for 6 pitch types: fastball, changeup, riseball, curveball, screwball, and dropball. During the first 4 phases, muscle activity (seen as signal strength on the EMG recordings) was limited and static in nature. The greatest activation occurred in phases 5 and 6, with increased signal strength, evidence of stretch-shortening cycle, and different muscle characteristics with each pitch style. These 2 phases of the windmill pitch are where the arm is placed in the 6 o'clock position and then at release of the ball. The flexor carpi ulnaris signal strength was significantly greater than the other forearm flexors. Timing of phases 1 through 5 was successively shorter for each pitch. There was a secondary pattern of activation in the flexor carpi ulnaris in phase 4 for all pitches except the fastball and riseball. During the 6 pitches, the greatest muscular activity was in phases 5 and 6

  8. Noxious heat and scratching decrease histamine-induced itch and skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipovitch, Gil; Fast, Katharine; Bernhard, Jeffrey D

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thermal stimuli or distal scratching on skin blood flow and histamine-induced itch in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in the study. Baseline measurements of skin blood flow were obtained on the flexor aspect of the forearm. These measurements were compared with skin blood flow after various stimuli: heating the skin, cooling the skin, noxious cold 2 degrees C, noxious heat 49 degrees C, and scratching via a brush with controlled pressure. Afterwards histamine iontophoresis was performed and skin blood flow and itch intensity were measured immediately after the above-mentioned stimuli. Scratching reduced mean histamine-induced skin blood flow and itch intensity. Noxious heat pain increased basal skin blood flow but reduced histamine-induced maximal skin blood flow and itch intensity. Cold pain and cooling reduced itch intensity, but neither affected histamine-induced skin blood flow. Sub-noxious warming the skin did not affect the skin blood flow or itch intensity. These findings suggest that heat pain and scratching may inhibit itch through a neurogenic mechanism that also affects skin blood flow.

  9. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic...... surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...... length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect the APOE genotypes. Quantitative ultrasound was measured at the calcaneus. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lower forearm was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The distributions of genotype frequencies in this study were: E2/E2: 0.3%; E2/E3...

  10. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...... are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic....... In conclusion, this study showed no association between bone mass parameters (BMD, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)), hip or lower forearm fracture and APOE genotypes in a population of postmenopausal women and age-matched controls....

  11. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  12. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  13. The influence of incontinence on the characteristic properties of the skin in bedridden elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Makino, Mayumi; Takagi, Miyuki; Maki, Kumiko; Murakami, Emiko; Tasaka, Yoshiko; Sato, Noriko; Akiba, Shunichi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Ando, Kikue

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of skin breakdown induced by incontinence have been proposed from a variety of experimental studies. However, studies on the influence of skin properties caused by incontinence of bedridden subjects are very limited. This work was conducted to reveal how incontinence influences skin properties by comparing bedridden incontinent elderly subjects with age-matched healthy continent elderly and middle-aged subjects. Bedridden incontinent elderly subjects (n = 35, 83.5 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± SD), healthy continent elderly (n = 41, 75.9 ± 5.6 years), and middle-aged (n = 20, 41.3 ± 2.8 years) were recruited for this study. Skin surface pH, capacitance/hydration, transepidermal water loss, and bacteria on forearm and buttock skin were measured. Hydration and transepidermal water loss values between healthy elderly subjects and incontinent elderly subjects were significantly different on buttock skin. Significant differences between those two groups were also observed regarding pH and total bacteria levels on buttock skin. The forearm skin showed no significant difference in these parameters. No significant influence was observed between with and without urination at the measurement time except for the pH of buttock skin. No significant correlation was observed except between pH and bacteria levels on buttock skin of incontinent elderly subjects. In this study, we clarified the characteristic features of skin induced by incontinence. Our results indicate that these parameters are adequate not only to evaluate the characteristic skin features of bedridden incontinent subjects but also to develop new diapers to avoid the diaper dermatitis caused by incontinence. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, forearm, and mandible of nephrotic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olgaard, K; Storm, Tina; van Wowern, N

    1992-01-01

    /day and tapered down to 20 mg/day for 1 year and DFZ was given in an equipotent dosage. Twenty-three patients completed 6 months of treatment, and 18 patients completed 12 months of treatment. Beside laboratory parameters to ensure the effect of treatment on the nephrotic syndrome, all had measurements......The long-term effects of high dose steroid treatment with either prednisone (PDN) or deflazacort (DFZ) were examined on various parts of the skeleton in 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All had normal skeleton at the start of the steroid treatment. At the beginning, PDN was given as 80 mg...... of the bone mineral content (BMC) at 0, 6, and 12 months of treatment. BMC was measured by single photon absorptiometry of both forearms and by dual photon absorptiometry of the mandible, forearms, and lumbar spine. The effect of DFZ was compared to that of PDN due to a potential "calcium sparing" effect...

  15. Risk factors for persistent elbow, forearm and hand pain among computer workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, C. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Kryger, Ann Isabel

    2005-01-01

    to elbow, forearm, or wrist-hand pain during the 12 months preceding the baseline questionnaire. Pain status (recovery versus persistence) at follow-up was examined in relation to computer work aspects and ergonomic, psychosocial, and personal factors by questionnaire. In addition, data on objectively......, and type-A behavior, the prognosis seemed independent of psychosocial workplace factors and personal factors. A few cases with severe pain were affected at a level which could be compared to clinical pain conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the hypothesis that computer work activity......OBJECTIVES: This study examined the influence of work-related and personal factors on the prognosis of "severe" elbow, forearm, and wrist-hand pain among computer users. METHODS: In a 1-year follow-up study of 6943 computer users, 673 (10%) participants reported "quite a lot" or more trouble due...

  16. Mechanical design of EFW Exo II: A hybrid exoskeleton for elbow-forearm-wrist rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Hui; Chen, Ziye; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Tieshi

    2017-07-01

    The use of rehabilitation exoskeleton has become an important means for the treatment of stroke patients. A hybrid exoskeleton named EFW Exo II is developed for the motor function rehabilitation of elbow, forearm and wrist. The EFW Exo II is based on a parallel 2-URR/RRS mechanism and a serial R mechanism. It could fit both left and right arms for the symmetrical and open structure, and the distance between the elbow and wrist could automatically adjust for different forearm length. Details of the mechanical design are introduced. Brushless DC servo motors with planetary gear reducer are used as the actuators of the exoskeleton. Gear drive and belt drive are used for power transmission. A three dimensional force sensor is mounted in the handle to regulate the interaction between the exoskeleton and patient. The EFW Exo II can realize rehabilitation exercise for each joint and the ranges of motion meet the rehabilitation demands of daily living.

  17. Results of Closed Intramedullary Nailing using Talwarkar Square Nail in Adult Forearm Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A Lil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate results of closed intramedullary nailing using Talwarkar square nails in adult forearm fractures. We prospectively evaluated 34 patients with both bone forearm fractures. The average time to union was 12.8 (SD +3.2 weeks with cast support for a mean of 8.2 weeks. Union was achieved in 31 out of 34 patients. Using the Grace and Eversmann rating system, 17 patients were excellent, 10 were good, and 4 had an acceptable result. Three patients had non-unions, 2 for the radius and one for the ulna. There were two cases of superficial infection, one subject had olecranon bursitis, and one case of radio-ulnar synostosis. Complication rates associated with the use of square nails were lower compared to plate osteosynthesis and locked intramedullary nails. To control rotation post- operatively, there is a need for application of an above-elbow cast after nailing.

  18. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  19. Commercial golf glove effects on golf performance and forearm muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Darroch, Paul; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether or not commercial golf gloves influence performance variables and forearm muscle activity during golf play. Fifteen golfers participated in the laboratory based study, each performing 8 golf swings with a Driver and 7-iron whilst wearing a glove and 8 without wearing the glove. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables were calculated. Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis on both forearm muscles. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance was significantly higher when using the Driver with the glove in comparison to the Driver without the glove (p < 0.05). No significant differences were evident when using the 7-iron and no significant differences were displayed in muscle activity in either of the conditions. Findings from this study suggest that driving performance is improved when wearing a glove.

  20. Forearm Compartment Syndrome of a Newborn Associated with Extravasation of Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Altan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extravasation of contrast agents is a possible complication of imaging studies. Although extravasations typically cause minimal swelling or erythema, they can lead to compartment syndrome when the volume of extravasation is high. In this article, we will present an exceptional case where an insignificant amount of contrast agent extravasation led to a forearm compartment syndrome in a newborn, who was treated with an extended fasciotomy. We would like to emphasize the preventive techniques and treatment options of this iatrogenic complication in newborns. Close followup of the patient by the nurses, awareness of the parents and the personnel in the radiology department are the most important preventive measures in this extremity-threatening complication. Forearm compartment syndrome due to contrast agent extravasation may progress more rapidly in newborns even with smaller amounts of extravasation and prompt recognition of the pathology and immediate intervention are unevitable.

  1. Thermogenic response to adrenaline during restricted blood flow in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Christensen, N J

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the underlying mechanism behind the thermogenic effect of adrenaline in human skeletal muscle, nine healthy subjects were studied during intravenous infusion of adrenaline. Restriction of blood flow to one forearm was obtained by external compression of the brachial artery, to separate...... a direct metabolic effect of adrenaline from an effect dependent on increased blood flow. The other arm served as the control arm. In the control arm, the forearm blood flow increased 4.7-fold (from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 9.3 +/- 1.5 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1), P adrenaline infusion. Adrenaline...... not increase (baseline period: 5.6 +/- 2.3 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1), adrenaline period: 6.1 +/- 2.1 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1), P = 0.54). The experimental design and the difficulties in interpretation of the result are discussed. The results give evidence for the hypothesis that the vascular system plays...

  2. Forearm Flexor Muscles in Children with Cerebral Palsy Are Weak, Thin and Stiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pontén

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP often develop reduced passive range of motion with age. The determining factor underlying this process is believed to be progressive development of contracture in skeletal muscle that likely changes the biomechanics of the joints. Consequently, to identify the underlying mechanisms, we modeled the mechanical characteristics of the forearm flexors acting across the wrist joint. We investigated skeletal muscle strength (Grippit® and passive stiffness and viscosity of the forearm flexors in 15 typically developing (TD children (10 boys/5 girls, mean age 12 years, range 8–18 yrs and nine children with CP Nine children (6 boys/3 girls, mean age 11 ± 3 years (yrs, range 7–15 yrs using the NeuroFlexor® apparatus. The muscle stiffness we estimate and report is the instantaneous mechanical response of the tissue that is independent of reflex activity. Furthermore, we assessed cross-sectional area of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR muscle using ultrasound. Age and body weight did not differ significantly between the two groups. Children with CP had a significantly weaker (−65%, p < 0.01 grip and had smaller cross-sectional area (−43%, p < 0.01 of the FCR muscle. Passive stiffness of the forearm muscles in children with CP was increased 2-fold (p < 0.05 whereas viscosity did not differ significantly between CP and TD children. FCR cross-sectional area correlated to age (R2 = 0.58, p < 0.01, body weight (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.0001 and grip strength (R2 = 0.82, p < 0.0001 in TD children but only to grip strength (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.05 in children with CP. We conclude that children with CP have weaker, thinner, and stiffer forearm flexors as compared to typically developing children.

  3. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: A report on 5 limbs in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Suzue, Naoto; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Radioulnar length discrepancy causes pain and decreases function of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Limb lengthening, which has been used in the treatment of various deformities of the forearm, is necessary to restore balance between the ulna and radius. We treated 5 limbs in 3 patients (2 boys, 1 girl; mean age 9.3 years old) with radioulnar length discrepancy by distraction osteogenesis of either the ulna or radius using external fixators. We dissected the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius in 3 limbs in 2 cases and did not do so in 2 limbs of 1 case. These cases include 2 cases with hereditary multiple exostoses, and 1 case with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The results were investigated and evaluated in this study, using appropriate clinical and radiographic parameters, noting the state of the interosseous membrane, which has an important role in forearm stability. The mean fixation period was 113 days. The mean distraction distance was 22.8 mm. The mean follow-up period was 637.7 days. The mean ulnar shortening and radial articular angle respectively improved from 7.4 mm and 30.2° preoperatively to -0.1 mm and 34.8° postoperatively. Balance between the ulna and radius was restored, and the results showed significant improvements in range of motion of the joints. However, 2 unintended radial head subluxations occurred in 2 limbs without dissection of the interosseous membrane. In addition, a keloid remained in 1 limb due to pin site infection. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was useful in our cases. It is important to recognize the function of the interosseous membrane when lengthening is performed by osteotomy of the proximal ulna by gradual distraction with an external fixator.

  4. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Sevillano, Jos? Luis; Ridao-Fern?ndez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to...

  6. Ulnar variance: its relationship to ulnar foveal morphology and forearm kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Moritomo, Hisao; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2012-04-01

    It is unclear how individual differences in the anatomy of the distal ulna affect kinematics and pathology of the distal radioulnar joint. This study evaluated how ulnar variance relates to ulnar foveal morphology and the pronosupination axis of the forearm. We performed 3-dimensional computed tomography studies in vivo on 28 forearms in maximum supination and pronation to determine the anatomical center of the ulnar distal pole and the forearm pronosupination axis. We calculated the forearm pronosupination axis using a markerless bone registration technique, which determined the pronosupination center as the point where the axis emerges on the distal ulnar surface. We measured the depth of the anatomical center and classified it into 2 types: concave, with a depth of 0.8 mm or more, and flat, with a depth less than 0.8 mm. We examined whether ulnar variance correlated with foveal type and the distance between anatomical and pronosupination centers. A total of 18 cases had a concave-type fovea surrounded by the C-shaped articular facet of the distal pole, and 10 had a flat-type fovea with a flat surface without evident central depression. Ulnar variance of the flat type was 3.5 ± 1.2 mm, which was significantly greater than the 1.2 ± 1.1 mm of the concave type. Ulnar variance positively correlated with distance between the anatomical and pronosupination centers. Flat-type ulnar heads have a significantly greater ulnar variance than concave types. The pronosupination axis passes through the ulnar head more medially and farther from the anatomical center with increasing ulnar variance. This study suggests that ulnar variance is related in part to foveal morphology and pronosupination axis. This information provides a starting point for future studies investigating how foveal morphology relates to distal ulnar problems. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MODELING OF THERMOELECTRIC SYSTEM FOR LOCAL THERMAL EFFECTS ON HUMAN FOREARM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a model of the thermoelectric system for the thermal effect on the human forearm. The model is implemented on the basis of numerical solution of differentialequations of heat conduction for bodies of complex configuration. Two-dimensional and onedimensional graphs of the temperature change in different zones of the object of exposure aregiven.

  8. Retrieval of optical properties of skin from measurement and modeling the diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Lucien F. A.; Lucassen, Gerald W.

    2000-06-01

    We present results on the retrieval of skin optical properties obtained by fitting of measurements of the diffuse reflectance of human skin. Reflectance spectra are simulated using an analytical model based on the diffusion approximation. This model is implemented in a simplex fit routine. The skin optical model used consists of five layers representing epidermis, capillary blood plexus, dermis, deep blood plexus and hypodermis. The optical properties of each layer are assumed homogeneously distributed. The main optical absorbers included are melanin in epidermis and blood. The experimental setup consists of a HP photospectrometer equipped with a remote fiber head. Total reflectance spectra were measured in the 400 - 820 nm wavelength range on the volar underarm of 19 volunteers under various conditions influencing the blood content and oxygenation degree. Changes in the reflectance spectra were observed. Using the fit routine changes in blood content in the capillary blood plexus and in the deep blood plexus could be quantified. These showed different influences on the total reflectance. The method can be helpful to quantitatively assess changes in skin color appearance such as occurs in the treatment of port wine stains, blanching, skin irritation and tanning.

  9. Epithelioid Sarcoma of the Forearm Arising from Perineural Sheath of Median Nerve Mimicking Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Fujii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of epithelioid sarcoma in the forearm of a 33-year-old male presenting with symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome originating from the direct involvement of the median nerve. Due to the slow growing of the tumor, the patient noticed the presence of tumor mass in his forearm after several months from the initial onset of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8×4 cm mass involving the median nerve in the middle part of the forearm, and histological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma. Radical surgical resection was performed in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy. The function of the flexors were restored by the multiple tendon transfers (EIP→FDS; ECRL→FDP; BrR→FPL; EDM→opponens with superficial cutaneous branch of radial nerve transfer to the resected median nerve. The function of the affected hand showed excellent with the DASH disability/symptom score of 22.5, and both the grasp power and sensory of the median nerve area has recovered up to 50% of the normal side. The patient returned to his original vocation and alive with continuous disease free at 3.5-year follow-up since initial treatment.

  10. Suppression of the reactive hyperemic response in the forearm due to local hand cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, R D; Carranza, A; Findlay, R

    1997-01-01

    Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by electrical impedance plethysmography in order to identify the influence of local cooling of the contralateral hand after 3 min of arterial occlusion. Ten volunteers (six females, four males) were randomly assigned to the following three experimental conditions on separate days: a) 6 min of local hand cooling (5-7 degrees C); b) 3 min of arterial occlusion of the forearm; and c) combined arterial occlusion and local cooling. All subjects experienced the typical pressor response during 6 min of hand cooling as evidenced by the significant increase (p forearm vascular resistance (FVR = MAP/FBF) made an initial drop during the first 30 s of cooling and then gradually rose to reach peak levels between 5-6 min of cooling. With respect to the hyperemic response, FBF significantly increased (p cooling, FBF increased above baseline values and reached peak levels during the initial 30 s of the post-occlusion period. However, the magnitude of the hyperemic response was significantly lower in the cold condition compared to the hyperemia alone (3.20 +/- 0.42 vs 6.75 +/- 0.64 ml x 100 ml-1.min-1; p cooling had an overriding effect on the factors that promote peripheral vasodilation following brief periods (3 min) of arterial occlusion.

  11. Long-term outcome of forearm flee-flap phalloplasty in the treatment of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leriche, Albert; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Morel-Journel, Nicolas; Bouillot, André; Dembele, Diala; Ruffion, Alain

    2008-05-01

    To assess the long-term outcome of forearm free-flap phalloplasty in transsexuals, as obtaining a satisfying neophallus in female-to-male transsexuals is a surgical challenge. We analysed retrospectively 56 transsexuals who had a phalloplasty using a radial forearm free-flap in our department from 1986 to 2002. The complication rate was assessed by regular examination. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by a questionnaire about cosmetic aspects, sexual life and overall satisfaction. The mean follow up was 110 months; 53 of the 56 patients (95%) currently have a neophallus, after a mean of six surgical procedures. Satisfaction was assessed in 53 patients using a specific questionnaire: 51 (93%) of the patients reported that the phalloplasty allowed them to accord their physical appearance with their feeling of masculinity. There were flap complications in 14 patients (25%); three (5%) flaps were lost, with one each due to early haematoma, cellulitis and late arterial thrombosis. The other 11 flap complications were all transitory, e.g. infection, haematomas and vascular thrombosis. There were prosthesis complications in 11 of 38 patients (29%). Moreover, seven of 19 patients (37%) who had a urethroplasty presented with complex strictures and fistulae that led to perineal urethrostomy. Our study shows that phalloplasty with a forearm free-flap leads to good results in term of flap survival and patient satisfaction. However, there was a high rate of complications. Patients must be clearly informed that the procedure can seldom be achieved in one stage.

  12. Supinator Extender (SUE): a pneumatically actuated robot for forearm/wrist rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, James; Spencer, Steven J; Klein, Julius; Buell, Meghan; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Bobrow, James

    2011-01-01

    The robot described in this paper, SUE (Supinator Extender), adds forearm/wrist rehabilitation functionality to the UCI BONES exoskeleton robot and to the ArmeoSpring rehabilitation device. SUE is a 2-DOF serial chain that can measure and assist forearm supination-pronation and wrist flexion-extension. The large power to weight ratio of pneumatic actuators allows SUE to achieve the forces needed for rehabilitation therapy while remaining lightweight enough to be carried by BONES and ArmeoSpring. Each degree of freedom has a range of 90 degrees, and a nominal torque of 2 ft-lbs. The cylinders are mounted away from the patient's body on the lateral aspect of the arm. This is to prevent the danger of a collision and maximize the workspace of the arm robot. The rotation axis used for supination-pronation is a small bearing just below the subject's wrist. The flexion-extension motion is actuated by a cantilevered pneumatic cylinder, which allows the palm of the hand to remain open. Data are presented that demonstrate the ability of SUE to measure and cancel forearm/wrist passive tone, thereby extending the active range of motion for people with stroke.

  13. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (phandle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Supinated forearm is correlated with the onset of medial epicondylitis in professional slalom water-skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Donato; Di Donato, Sigismondo Luca; Balato, Giovanni; D'Addona, Alessio; Schonauer, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    prolonged and laborious activities involving wrists and forearms has been long associated with the onset of epicondylitis. Slalom water-skiing can be included in this category. The purpose of the study is to analyse the correlation between the pronated or supinated position of forearms during water-skiing practice and the presence respectively of lateral and medial epicondylitis. sixty-six pro and semi-pro slalom water-skiers were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was submitted to each athlete. Diagnosis of lateral or medial epicondylitis was made through anamnesis and clinical exam by an expert orthopaedic surgeon. Chi-squared were performed for categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous ones. from 116 upper limbs examined, we observed 15 (12.9%) cases of lateral epicondylitis, 30 (25.9%) cases of medial epicondylitis, 10 (8.6%) were affected by both lateral and medial epicondylitis. Lateral and medial epicondylitis were associated (95% C.I.=2,489-26,355; P=epicondylitis (95% C.I.=1,529-9,542; P=0.003). slalom water-skiing can be considered a high-risk sport for epicondylitis. In slalom water-skiers there is a correlation between development of lateral and medial epicondylitis in the same upper limb. Supinated position of forearms is strongly associated with the diagnosis of medial epicondylitis.

  15. 3D Measurement of Forearm and Upper Arm during Throwing Motion using Body Mounted Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Hideharu; Sagawa, Koichi; Kuroshima, Kouta; Tsukamoto, Toshiaki; Urita, Kazutaka; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    The aim of this study is to propose the measurement method of three-dimensional (3D) movement of forearm and upper arm during pitching motion of baseball using inertial sensors without serious consideration of sensor installation. Although high accuracy measurement of sports motion is achieved by using optical motion capture system at present, it has some disadvantages such as the calibration of cameras and limitation of measurement place. Whereas the proposed method for 3D measurement of pitching motion using body mounted sensors provides trajectory and orientation of upper arm by the integration of acceleration and angular velocity measured on upper limb. The trajectory of forearm is derived so that the elbow joint axis of forearm corresponds to that of upper arm. Spatial relation between upper limb and sensor system is obtained by performing predetermined movements of upper limb and utilizing angular velocity and gravitational acceleration. The integration error is modified so that the estimated final position, velocity and posture of upper limb agree with the actual ones. The experimental results of the measurement of pitching motion show that trajectories of shoulder, elbow and wrist estimated by the proposed method are highly correlated to those from the motion capture system within the estimation error of about 10 [%].

  16. Self-induced carving and scarification of the forearms as a manifestation of sexual abuse in a 14-YEAR-old adolescent girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh

    2000-05-01

    Background: Numerous cutaneous abnormalities have been described in adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. These include bruising, bite marks, cuts, scratches, abrasions, edema, hematomas or other evidence of struggle. Victims frequently shower or bathe excessively in an effort to cleanse their skin following such an unwanted encounter. However, there is a paucity of information in the literature regarding the association of sexual abuse and removal of the superficial layers of the skin as a more desperate attempt by teenagers to rid themselves of the perpetrator. The purpose of this paper is to heighten awareness among practitioners that self-induced cutting and carving of the forearms with scarification may occur as a manifestation of sexual abuse in young women.Methods: A 14-year-old girl was seen in an adolescent medicine consultation setting during the spring of 1999 for evaluation of an anxiety disorder. During the interview the girl related that she had been under considerable stress and that she was having difficulty sleeping. She also had worsening of facial tics that had been previously noted in association with obsessive compulsive behaviors. She had been receiving psychotherapy and was being treated with fluoxetine, but the symptoms were becoming more severe. On examination she appeared very anxious and demonstrated numerous involuntary, repetitive facial grimaces. Similar twitching movements of the neck were also noted. In addition, she had several well healed scars over both forearms. The lesions were linear with a range of one half to one inch in width and three to four inches in length. The remainder of the general physical examination was entirely unremarkable.Results: The etiology of the scars was initially unknown. Upon further questioning the patient was asked directly about what had caused these marks. At that point she broke down and cried as she related that had been sexually assaulted several months earlier. She stated that she

  17. Spatial summation and spatial discrimination of cold pain: effect of spatial configuration and skin type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, Ruth; Sheraizin, Anat; Malichi, Liron; Shachen, Orit

    2011-12-01

    Spatial summation (SS) and spatial discrimination (SD) are essential for pain perception. In the cold-pain sensation, these processes have hardly been studied. Our aim was to study the SS and SD of cold pain, as well as the SS of cold-pain threshold (CPT) in hairy and glabrous skin. Two discrete stimuli (9 cm(2) each) were applied to the forearm with separation distances of 0-40 cm and in addition, a single stimulus on each forearm. For each configuration, the CPT, suprathreshold cold-pain ratings, and the reported number of activated stimuli (SD) were obtained. In another experiment, SS of CPT was tested in the hairy and glabrous skin of the hand using small (2.25 cm(2)) and large (9 cm(2)) probe sizes. The SS of CPT and of cold pain existed over separation distances of up to 30-40 cm, at which point SD became better than chance. When the 2 forearms were stimulated, SS was abolished and cold pain was inhibited. CPT was significantly higher in hairy than glabrous skin, but the amount of SS of CPT was similar in the 2 skin types. Noxious cold-evoked thermal qualities were more common in the glabrous than the hairy skin. (1) SS and SD of cold pain are reciprocal; (2) whereas cold pain can summate over large distances, the SD of cold pain is poor; (3) SS of cold pain does not exist between contralateral body sides, however, inhibition occurs; (4) SS is independent of skin type and sensitivity to cold pain; (5) differences in pain quality between hairy and glabrous skin may reflect innervation differences. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  19. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  20. Radial forearm free flap morbidity: A rare case of a normal preoperative arteriogram and acute intraoperative hand ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Terrence W; Hanasono, Matthew M; Skoracki, Roman J

    2011-01-01

    The radial forearm free flap is ideal for reconstructive microsurgery due to its thin, pliable fasciocutaneous tissue, reliable anatomy and ease and simplicity of flap elevation. However, one of the major complications is hand ischemia due to sacrifice of the radial artery, although it is a rare occurrence. A case involving a 73-year-old man who developed intraoperative hand ischemia after elevation of a radial forearm free flap is presented.

  1. Skin Dose Assessment Methodology for Military Personnel at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (1962-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Particle size factor (unitless) = Moisture factor (unitless) = Enrichment factor (unitless) Values used for parameters in Equation A-1...forearm (fa) IRF (IRF/IRFfa) See Table A-5 Particle Size Factor (PS) 1.0 Moisture Factor (EM) High humidity, e.g. Pacific Ocean 3.0 Low humidity to... Interception and retention fractions, and effective retention factors ......................... 22 Table B-1. Standard height external skin doses (mSv

  2. The Effects of Forearm Support on Upper Body for People in Front of Monitor: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jingtong; Wu, Xiaojing; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With the ever-growing number of people who work at visual display terminals, the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper body are believed to be an important problem all over the world. The forearm support, which can keep the forearm and wrist in biomechanical posture, is a possible protective factor of the development of upper body syndrome. This meta-analysis examines the efficacy of forearm support in reducing upper body syndrome. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Ovid, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, CNKI database, and Wanfang database were searched from inception until May 29, 2013. Relevant studies were included after the screening of title, abstract, and the full text. Impact of bias was assessed independently by 2 authors. Four studies that met all the inclusion criteria were included finally. The combined results based on all studies suggested that statistically the forearm support had a nonsignificant effect on upper body syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49, 1.02). The result of subgroup analysis suggested that forearm support has a significant effect on neck or shoulder syndrome (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.14) and the effect on upper extremity syndrome (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.19) is not significant. This meta-analysis suggested that the forearm support had statistically nonsignificant effect on preventing upper body syndrome on the whole.

  3. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  4. Correlations between skin blood perfusion values and nailfold capillaroscopy scores in systemic sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaro, B; Sulli, A; Pizzorni, C; Paolino, S; Smith, V; Cutolo, M

    2016-05-01

    To correlate blood perfusion (BP) values assessed by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) in selected skin areas of hands and face with nailfold capillary damage scores in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Seventy SSc patients (mean SSc duration 6 ± 5 years) and 70 volunteer healthy subjects were enrolled after informed consent. LASCA was performed at different areas of the face (forehead, tip of nose, zygomas and perioral region) and at dorsal and volar regions of hands. Microvascular damage was assessed and scored by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) and the microangiopathy evolution score (MES) was calculated. SSc patients showed a significantly lower BP than healthy subjects at fingertips, periungual areas and palm of hands (pnailfold capillaroscopy scores of microangiopathy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  6. Skin health and safety at work in Croatian hairdressing apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžić, Tea; Varnai, Veda Marija; Bakotić, Marija; Babić, Željka; Brans, Richard; Cvijetić Avdagić, Selma; Štampar Šmaguc, Darinka; Kovačević, Iva; Macan, Jelena

    2016-07-01

    The risk of developing occupational skin disease (OSD) is high in hairdressers, but may differ between countries. To evaluate safety at work measures, and the prevalence and severity of skin symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL), among Croatian hairdressing apprentices. Data on self-reported skin symptoms, safety measures and QoL were collected for 101 final-year apprentices. The presence and severity of skin lesions were assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured on the forearm and hand. Ninety-one percent of apprentices reported wearing gloves while dyeing hair, 45% while rinsing hair dyes, and 4% while washing hair. A history of skin symptoms was found in 35% of apprentices, and a history of dry hands in 37%. Skin changes were clinically observed in 40% of apprentices, most frequently erythema, infiltration, and desquamation. The OHSI score ranged from 0 to 6. Only washing hands >20 times per day was positively associated with TEWL. A history of skin symptoms negatively correlated with self-esteem, and social and mental functioning, and positively with anxiety and depression. The results indicate the need for the continuation of efforts to establish effective primary preventive programmes for OSDs at national and EU levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Skin surface and sub-surface strain and deformation imaging using optical coherence tomography and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Maiti, R.; Liu, X.; Gerhardt, L. C.; Lee, Z. S.; Byers, R.; Franklin, S. E.; Lewis, R.; Matcher, S. J.; Carré, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Bio-mechanical properties of the human skin deformed by external forces at difference skin/material interfaces attract much attention in medical research. For instance, such properties are important design factors when one designs a healthcare device, i.e., the device might be applied directly at skin/device interfaces. In this paper, we investigated the bio-mechanical properties, i.e., surface strain, morphological changes of the skin layers, etc., of the human finger-pad and forearm skin as a function of applied pressure by utilizing two non-invasive techniques, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC). Skin deformation results of the human finger-pad and forearm skin were obtained while pressed against a transparent optical glass plate under the action of 0.5-24 N force and stretching naturally from 90° flexion to 180° full extension respectively. The obtained OCT images showed the deformation results beneath the skin surface, however, DIC images gave overall information of strain at the surface.

  8. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  9. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  10. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  11. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  12. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David W; Dvoracek, Barb; Vongsa, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    The ideal gentle cleansing product is one that effectively removes soils while minimizing damage to the skin. Thus, measuring physical abrasion caused by cleansing tissues is critical to the continued development of gentle cleansing products. Current analysis of cleansing materials for skin gentleness is time consuming and requires expensive human subject testing. This report describes the development of a rapid and inexpensive bench assay for the assessment of skin abrasion caused by wiping. Coefficient of friction (COF) evaluations using bench methods were compared with results from clinical studies of repeated wiping and with confocal visualizations of excised skin. A Monitor/Slip and Friction instrument (model 32-06; TMI, Amityville, NY, USA) was used to measure tissue friction on simulated skin (Vitro-Skin, N19-5X; IMS, Milford, CT, USA). Clinical data from a 4-day repetitive forearm wiping study measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in 30 subjects was compared with results from the bench top assay. In addition, excised skin samples were also treated using the COF bench assay and examined using confocal microscopy to visualize stratum corneum damage caused by wiping. Using the bench COF assay, we were able to distinguish between bath tissue codes by comparing average static friction value (ASFV) for the test codes, where lower ASFV indicated less abrasive tissue. The ASFV followed the same gentleness trend observed in the clinical study. Confocal microscopy of excised skin wiped with the same materials indicated stratum corneum damage consistent with the bench COF and clinical TEWL observations. We observed significant correlation between bench and clinical methods for measuring skin damage caused by wiping of skin with tissue. The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  14. Differences in blood pressure measurements in the forearm and upper arm of obese otherwise healthy first year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi V, Navin Rajaratnam, Suzanne Maria D’cruz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Indian youth and obesity is associated with complications like systemic hypertension. Often, due to the non-availability of appropriate sized cuffs, standard cuff bladders are used to measure blood pressure in the forearms of obese young adults. Aim: To compare the upper arm arterial blood pressure measured using an appropriate cuff with the forearm arterial blood pressure measured using a standard cuff and conventional sphygmomanometry in obese otherwise healthy first year medical students. Materials and Methods: Blood pressure was measured in 27 obese otherwise healthy first year medical students after five minutes of rest using a mercury sphygmomanometer with the subjects seated and the arm and forearm at heart level, using an appropriate sized cuff for the upper arm according to American Heart Association standards and a standard cuff for the fore arm. Results: A statistically significant difference in both systolic [t-test (paired = -6.921; df = 26; sig = .000 (2- tailed] and diastolic blood pressure [t-test (paired = -8.508; df = 26; sig = .000 (2- tailed] was found, with the blood pressure readings being higher in the forearm. The correlations between upper arm and forearm systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.785 (p = .000 and 0.870 (p = .000. Conclusion: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were significantly higher in the forearm. Further studies with larger sample size should be conducted to confirm that forearm blood pressure measurements using standard cuff bladders cannot be considered equal to upper arm measurements made using an appropriate sized cuff in all young obese individuals

  15. Cooling hyperthermic firefighters by immersing forearms and hands in 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Jamieson, Christopher; Cahill, Farrell

    2007-06-01

    Firefighters experience significant heat stress while working with heavy gear in a hot, humid environment. This study compared the cooling effectiveness of immersing the forearms and hands in 10 and 20 degrees C water. Six men (33 +/- 10 yr; 180 +/- 4 cm; 78 +/- 9 kg; 19 +/- 5% body fat) wore firefighter 'turn-out gear' (heavy clothing and breathing apparatus weighing 27 kg) in a protocol including three 20-min exercise bouts (step test, 78 W, 40 degrees C air, 40% RH) each followed by a 20-min rest/cooling (21 degrees C air); i.e., 60 min of exercise, 60 min of cooling. Turn-out gear was removed during rest/cooling periods and subjects either rested (Control), immersed their hands in 10 or 20 degrees C water (H-10, H-20), or immersed their hands and forearms in 10 or 20 degrees C water (HF-10, HF-20). In 20 degrees C water, hand immersion did not reduce core temperature compared with Control; however, including forearm immersion decreased core temperature below Control values after both the second and final exercise periods (p hand immersion produced a lower core temperature (0.8 degrees C above baseline) than all other conditions (1.1 to 1.4 degrees C above baseline) after the final exercise period (p Hand and forearm immersion in cool water is simple, reduces heat strain, and may increase work performance in a hot, humid environment. With 20 degrees C water, forearms should be immersed with the hands to be effective. At lower water temperatures, forearm and/or hand immersion will be effective, although forearm immersion will decrease core temperature further.

  16. Biophysical effects of water and synthetic urine on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Sims, N

    2001-01-01

    Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to pressure-induced flow reductions was tested in this study. Pads saturated with water and with a water solution mixed with the main chemical constituents of urine (synthetic urine; s-urine) were applied to forearm skin of 10 healthy subjects for 5.5 hours. Skin hardness, blood flow change caused by 60 mm Hg of pressure, erythema, and temperature were compared among dry, water, and s-urine test sites. 10 healthy women. Research Center, Nova Southeastern University, Health Professions Division, Fort Lauderdale, FL. S-urine and water caused significant reductions in initial hardness and caused greater initial perfusion decreases during pressure load when compared with dry sites. Skin temperature and erythema were lower at wet sites when compared with dry sites. The findings of this study are consistent with the concept that sustained skin wetness increases vulnerability to pressure-induced blood flow reduction. The effect appears to be mainly dependent on wetness, but urine constituents may exacerbate the effect. In addition, wetness-related skin cooling may play a role. In the healthy subjects studied, the blood flow decrease was not sustained due to perfusion recovery under pressure. Skin wetness would likely have more sustained effects in patients with compromised recovery mechanisms. Measures to diminish skin exposure to wetness in these patients, whatever the wetness source, are an important consideration in a multifaceted strategy to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

  17. No impaired hemoglobin oxygenation in forearm muscles of patients with chronic CRPS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnekreef, Jaap J J; Oosterhof, Jan; Wolff, André P; Crul, Ben J P; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H G; Oostendorp, Rob A B

    2009-01-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important treatment option in patients with upper limb complex regional pain syndrome type-1 (CRPS-1). In case of chronic CRPS-1, exercise therapy of the affected limb forms an important part of the physiotherapeutic program. We investigated whether muscle loading in chronic CRPS-1 patients is associated with impairments in muscle circulation of the forearm of the affected limb. Thirty patients with chronic CRPS-1 unilaterally affecting their upper limbs, and 30 age-matched and sex-matched control participants were included in this study. Local muscle blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation were measured by near infrared spectroscopy within the muscles of the forearm at rest, after 1-minute isometric handgrip exercises, and after arterial occlusion. Main outcome parameters were: local muscle blood flow, O2 consumption (mVO2), and postischemic reoxygenation (ReOx). We found no differences in baseline muscle blood flow, mVO2, and ReOx between the affected CRPS-1, unaffected CRPS-1, and control arms. After exercise, mVO2 of the affected CRPS-1 arms was not different from the clinically unaffected CRPS-1 arms. Furthermore, in comparison with the control arms, unaffected CRPS-1 arms showed no difference in mVO2 or ReOx. Muscle loading does not seems to be related to impairments in muscle oxygen uptake in forearm muscles of upper limbs affected by chronic CRPS-1. Our results suggest that exercise therapy can be safely used in physiotherapeutic training programs for chronic CRPS-1 of the upper limb.

  18. Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Anderson, Hannah M; Burchfield, Jenna M; Tucker, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Melina A; Robinson, Forrest B; Ganio, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Reliability of Free Radial Forearm Flap for Tongue Reconstruction Following Oncosurgical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Ranjan Chaudhuri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary closure following oncosurgical resection of carcinoma tongue has been found to compromise tongue function in regards to speech and swallowing very badly. In contrast, reconstruction of tongue with free radial forearm flap following oncosurgical resection has shown promising functional outcome. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients (ten male and three female with squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior 2/3rd of tongue had undergone either hemiglossectomy or subtotal glossectomy. Reconstruction was done with free radial forearm flap following oncosurgical resection and neck dissection. All of them received postoperative radiotherapy. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 2 years. The age of the patients ranged between 32 and 65 years. Flap dimension ranged from 7x6 cm to 10x8 cm. Vascular anastomosis performed in an end-to-end manner with 8-0 Ethilon® under loupe magnifiacation. Results Venous congestion occurred in one patient after 48 hours postoperatively and the flap underwent complete necrosis on postoperative day 5. Postoperative hematoma was found in one patient within first 24 hours of reconstruction. Re-exploration was done immediately, blood clots were removed. No fresh bleeding point was seen and the flap survived. In this series, 12 out of 13 flaps survived completely (92%. Conclusion The free radial forearm flap has become a workhorse flap in head and reconstruction due to its lack of extra bulk, relative ease of dissection, long vascular pedicle, good calibre vessels, malleability and minimal donor site morbidity. Furthermore its low flap loss and complication rate offer the best choice for tongue reconstruction.

  20. The emerging trend of non-operative treatment in paediatric type I open forearm fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Fanelli, M; Adams, C; Graham, J; Seeley, M

    2017-08-01

    Open fractures are considered an orthopaedic emergency and are generally an indication for operative debridement. Recent studies have questioned this approach for the management of Gustilo-Anderson Type I open fractures in the paediatric population. This meta-analysis studies the non-operative management of Type I open paediatric forearm fractures. An Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed database literature search was performed for studies that involved a quantified number of Gustilo-Anderson Type I open forearm fractures in the paediatric population, which were treated without operative intervention. A fixed-effect meta-analysis, weighting each study based on the number of patients, and a pooled estimate of infection risk (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) was performed. The search results yielded five studies that were eligible for inclusion. No included patients had operative debridement and all were treated with antibiotics. The number of patients in each study ranged from 3 to 45, with a total of 127 paediatric patients in the meta-analysis. The infection rate was 0% for all patients included. The meta-analysis estimated a pooled infection risk of 0% (95% CI 0 to 2.9). The five included studies had a total of 127 patients with no cases of infection after non-operative management of Type I open paediatric forearm fractures. The infection rate of Type I fractures among operatively managed patients is 1.9%. The trend in literature towards non-operative treatment of paediatric Type I open fractures holds true in this meta-analysis.

  1. Monosynaptic Ia projections from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm motoneurones in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nicolas, G; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    2000-05-15

    Heteronymous Ia excitatory projections from intrinsic hand muscles to human forearm motoneurones (MNs) were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied after electrical stimuli were applied to the median and ulnar nerve at wrist level and to the corresponding homonymous nerve at elbow level. Homonymous facilitation, occurring at the same latency as the H reflex, and therefore attributed to monosynaptic Ia EPSPs, was found in all the sampled units. In many MUs an early facilitation was also evoked by heteronymous low-threshold afferents from intrinsic hand muscles. The low threshold (between 0.5 and 0.6 times motor threshold (MT)) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce this effect indicate that it is due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents. Evidence for a similar central delay (monosynaptic) in heteronymous as in homonymous pathways was accepted when the difference in latencies of the homonymous and heteronymous peaks did not differ from the estimated supplementary afferent conduction time from wrist to elbow level by more than 0.5 ms (conduction velocity in the fastest Ia afferents between wrist and elbow levels being equal to 69 m s-1). A statistically significant heteronymous monosynaptic Ia excitation from intrinsic hand muscles supplied by both median and ulnar nerves was found in MUs belonging to all forearm motor nuclei tested (although not in ECU MUs after ulnar stimulation). It was, however, more often found in flexors than in extensors, in wrist than in finger muscles and in muscles operating in the radial than in the ulnar side. It is argued that the connections of Ia afferents from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm MNs, which are stronger and more widely distributed than in the cat

  2. [Reconstruction of oral mucosa with a micro-vascularized fascia-cutaneous flap from the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño García, Miguel; Cebrián Carretero, José Luis; Muñoz Caro, Jesús Manuel; Arias Gallo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinoma of jugal mucosa is an aggressive tumor. Its treatment is based on broad excision and reconstruction in order to avoid fibrosis and restriction of mouth opening. Neck dissection and radiotherapy are indicated in selected cases. We display our experience with microvascularized flaps with the aim of preventing the flaws. We reconsider 8 patients (representing 10 flaps) handle in our Department. Besides we discuss other therapeutic alternatives after the growth's removal. The conclusion reached is that the mucovascularized forearm flaps give a great quantity of thin tissue and therefore so results to be the best option for the reconstruction of the jugal mucosa.

  3. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...... was infused at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 nmol.kg-1 x min-1. Whole body resting energy expenditure was 4.36 +/- 0.56 (SD) kJ/min. Energy expenditure increased to 5.14 +/- 0.74 and 5.46 +/- 0.79 kJ/min, respectively (P

  4. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  5. Feasibility of a reduction protocol in the emergency department for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, S; Litzelmann, E; Kahil, M; Mallet, C; Jehanno, P; Mercier, J-C; Ilharreborde, B; Mazda, K

    2015-09-01

    Diaphyseal forearm fractures are very common pediatric traumas. At present, distal radius metaphyseal fractures are often successfully treated with closed reduction by emergency physicians. However, the management of diaphyseal fractures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of diaphyseal forearm fractures in the emergency department (ED) in children. In a prospective 2-year-study, all closed diaphyseal forearm fractures in patients under 15, with an angle of >15° and treated by closed reduction in the ED were included. Fractures with overlapping fragments were excluded. Reduction was performed by an emergency physician, with a standardized analgesic protocol (painkillers and nitrous oxide). Clinical tolerance was checked within the first 24hours, and the radiographic stability of reduction was assessed at days 8 and 15. Initial and final follow-up radiographs were analyzed. Elbow and wrist range of motion was assessed at the final follow-up. Sixty patients (41 boys and 19 girls) were included. Mean age was 5.2 years old (±3). At initial evaluation, the maximum angle was 30° (±11.3). After reduction, the maximum angle was significantly reduced (30° vs. 5°, P<0.001). Mean immobilization in a cast was 11.7 weeks (±2). There were no cast related complications in any of these children. There was no surgery for secondary displacement. Full range of motion was obtained in all patients at the final follow-up. The outcome of conservative treatment of closed diaphyseal forearm fractures, without overlapping fragments was excellent. However, reduction is usually performed in the operating room by orthopedic surgeons under general anesthesia and requires hospitalization, which is very expensive. The results of this study show that high quality care may be obtained in the ED by a trained and experienced team. These results are similar to those for distal metaphyseal fractures, which could extend the indications for reduction in the

  6. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm2), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm2). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18–0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the ‘design’ of their

  7. A case of primary extracranial meningioma of the forearm with bone invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Hideki [Self-Defense Force Fuji Hospital, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oyama-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Takahashi, Mitsuru; Takagi, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Hirohisa [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Orthopaedic Oncology, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Ito, Ichiro [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Pathology, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Ishida, Tsuyoshi [Kohnodai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ichikawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report here a rare case of primary extracranial meningioma in a 73-year-old woman with an asymptomatic mass located in the left distal-dorsal forearm. MRI revealed the lesion to be poorly circumscribed and unclear, with iso-signal intensity to muscle on T1 and with a relatively high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. The histopathology of the specimen from incision biopsy was typical of meningioma, showing bland spindle cell proliferation with a whorling pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin, and negative for S-100 expression. (orig.)

  8. EVALUATION OF RESULTS IN FRACTURES OF BOTH BONES FOREARM TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The anatomical alignment of the bones, the length, the radial bow, and axis should be restored for a good functional outcome. Conservative treatment has resulted in malunion, non-union, synostosis and ultimately poor functional outcome. Internal fixation helps in perfect reduction of fracture fragments in anatomical position by rigid fixation and early mobilisation, the normal functions of the hand can be re-achieved at the earliest. This study has been taken up to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of the fractures of BBFA with DCP in adults and its advantages and complications. In this study, the rate and time taken for union, the complication, the functional results in terms of forearm rotation and wrist and elbow movements are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study includes treatment of 20 cases of fracture of both bones of forearm by open reduction and internal fixation with 3.5 mm DCP from August 2013 to August 2015 at Department of Orthopaedics at Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram. Follow-up was done up to September 2015. This is a prospective time bound study. Sample size - 20 patients. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Simple fractures. 2. Open fractures-Gustilo and Anderson type I and type II. 3. Age criteria = 15 to 70 years, both males and females. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Age criteria 0 to 14 years & > 70 years. 2. Radiologically proven segmental fractures and isolated forearm bone fractures. 3. Pathological fracture. 4. Gustilo and Anderson type III. 5. Patient not willing for surgery. 6. Patient unfit for surgery. RESULTS The present study consists of 20 cases of fracture both bones of the forearm. All the cases were openly reduced and internally fixed with 3.5 mm DCP. The study period was from August 2013 to September 2015. The age of these patients ranged from 15-70 years with fracture being most common in 3 rd decade and an average age of 31 years. CONCLUSION Use of separate

  9. Extradigital glomic tumor of the forearm. About a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, U; Duteille, F; Perrot, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the clinical case of a 72-year-old man followed for 10years by a specialized pain center, for neuropathic pain poorly systematized, triggered by the contact of the anteromedial face of the right forearm. After surgical excision, histological analysis indicated a well-circumscribed nodule in the subcutaneous region, confirming that the mass was a glomus tumor. In this clinical case, surgical excision allowed an immediate disappearance of the pains without recurrence to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius: randomized clinical study comparing the locked volar plate and external fixator methods: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduan Neto, Jorge; de Moraes, Vinicius Ynoe; Gomes Dos Santos, João B; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2014-03-05

    Various treatments are available for reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius, such as closed reduction combined with fixation by external fixator (EF), and rigid internal fixation using a locked volar plate (VP). Although there are studies comparing these methods, there is no conclusive evidence indicating which treatment is best. The hypothesis of this study is that surgical treatment with a VP is more effective than EF from the standpoint of functional outcome (patient-reported). The study is randomized clinical trial with parallel groups and a blinded evaluator and involves the surgical interventions EF and VP. Patients will be randomly assigned (assignment ratio 1:1) using sealed opaque envelopes. This trial will include consecutive adult patients with an acute (up to 15 days) displaced, unstable fracture of the distal end of the radius of type A2, A3, C1, C2 or C3 by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen-Association for the Study of Internal Fixation classification and type II or type III by the IDEAL32 classification, without previous surgical treatments of the wrist. The surgical intervention assigned will be performed by three surgical specialists familiar with the techniques described. Evaluations will be performed at 2, and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months, with the primary outcomes being measured by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and measurement of pain (Visual Analog Pain Scale and digital algometer). Secondary outcomes will include radiographic parameters, objective functional evaluation (goniometry and dynamometry), and the rate of complications and method failure according to the intention-to-treat principle. Final postoperative evaluations (6 and 12 months) will be performed by independent blinded evaluators. For the Student's t-test, a difference of 10 points in the DASH score, with a 95% confidence interval, a statistical power of 80%, and 20% sampling error results in 36 patients per group

  11. An electromyographic study of the effect of hand grip sizes on forearm muscle activity and golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Hunter, Henry H; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike Chris

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the differences in surface electromyography (EMG) activity of two forearm muscles in the lead and trail arm at specific phases of the golf swing using a 7-iron with three different grip sizes among amateur and professional golfers. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed five golf swings using golf clubs with three different grip sizes. Surface EMG was used to measure muscle activity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) on both forearms. There were no significant differences in forearm muscle activity when using the three golf grips within the group of 15 golfers (p > 0.05). When using the undersize grip, club head speed significantly increased (p = 0.044). During the backswing and downswing phases, amateurs produced significantly greater forearm muscle activity with all three grip sizes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, forearm muscle activity is not affected by grip sizes. However, club head speed increases when using undersize grips.

  12. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2012-08-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Whole body and forearm substrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism: evidence of increased basal muscle protein breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anne Lene Dalkjaer; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Gjedde, Signe; Nørrelund, Helene; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Nair, K S; Ivarsen, Per; Weeke, Jørgen; Møller, Niels

    2005-06-01

    Thyroid hormones have significant metabolic effects, and muscle wasting and weakness are prominent clinical features of chronic hyperthyroidism. To assess the underlying mechanisms, we examined seven hyperthyroid women with Graves' disease before (Ht) and after (Eut) medical treatment and seven control subjects (Ctr). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. After regional catheterization, protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by amino acid tracer dilution technique using [15N]phenylalanine and [2H4]tyrosine. Before treatment, triiodothyronine was elevated (6.6 nmol/l) and whole body protein breakdown was increased 40%. The net forearm release of phenylalanine was increased in hyperthyroidism (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): -7.0 +/- 1.2 Ht vs. -3.8 +/- 0.8 Eut (P = 0.04), -4.2 +/- 0.3 Ctr (P = 0.048). Muscle protein breakdown, assessed by phenylalanine rate of appearance, was increased (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): 15.5 +/- 2.0 Ht vs. 9.6 +/- 1.4 Eut (P = 0.03), 9.9 +/- 0.6 Ctr (P = 0.02). Muscle protein synthesis rate did not differ significantly. Muscle mass and muscle function were decreased 10-20% before treatment. All abnormalities were normalized after therapy. In conclusion, our results show that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased muscle amino acid release resulting from increased muscle protein breakdown. These abnormalities can explain the clinical manifestations of sarcopenia and myopathy.

  14. [Posttraumatic torsional deformities of the forearm : Methods of measurement and decision guidelines for correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, R D; Krettek, C; Liodakis, E

    2018-03-01

    Forearm fractures are common in all age groups. Even if the adjacent joints are not directly involved, these fractures have an intra-articular character. One of the most common complications of these injuries is a painful limitation of the range of motion and especially of pronation and supination. This is often due to an underdiagnosed torsional deformity; however, in recent years new methods have been developed to make these torsional differences visible and quantifiable through the use of sectional imaging. The principle of measurement corresponds to that of the torsion measurement of the lower limbs. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are created at defined heights. By searching for certain landmarks, torsional angles are measured in relation to a defined reference line. A new alternative is the use of 3D reformation models. The presence of a torsional deformity, especial of the radius, leads to an impairment of the pronation and supination of the forearm. In the presence of torsional deformities, radiological measurements can help to decide if an operation is needed or not. Unlike the lower limbs, there are still no uniform cut-off values as to when a correction is indicated. Decisions must be made together with the patient by taking the clinical and radiological results into account.

  15. An Unusual Metastasis of a Transglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dafir Albeyatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each year around 2,200 people in the UK are diagnosed with laryngeal SCC (Office of National Statistics 2009. Compared to pharyngeal carcinoma, it is a highly curable disease with a survival rate of around 60% for all stages and all forms of treatment. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a previously treated T4 N2c transglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, who developed an isolated swelling in the extensor compartment of his right forearm at 6 months after radical laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Fine needle aspiration of the forearm lesion revealed SCC consistent with a metastasis from the laryngeal primary. MRI revealed that the lesion was confined to the muscle. Initial staging CT showed no distant metastases or signs of advanced disease, including no evidence of axillary nodal involvement. Conclusion. This case is therefore unusual, as one of only 2 cases reported in the scientific literature of isolated distant muscular metastasis from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We conclude that any muscular swelling, in the setting of previous head and neck malignancy, should be treated with a high degree of suspicion for metastasis and investigated promptly.

  16. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Sevillano, José Luis; Ridao-Fernández, Carmen

    2016-06-21

    Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to unburden the lower limbs. In this paper, we describe such a system based on a force sensor, which we have named the GCH System 2.0. Furthermore, we determine the validity and reliability of measurements obtained using this tool via a comparison with the validated AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA) OR6-7-2000 Platform. An intra-class correlation coefficient demonstrated excellent agreement between the AMTI Platform and the GCH System. A regression line to determine the predictive ability of the GCH system towards the AMTI Platform was found, which obtained a precision of 99.3%. A detailed statistical analysis is presented for all the measurements and also segregated for several requested loads on the crutches (10%, 25% and 50% of body weight). Our results show that our system, designed for assessing loads exerted by patients on forearm crutches during assisted gait, provides valid and reliable measurements of loads.

  17. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to unburden the lower limbs. In this paper, we describe such a system based on a force sensor, which we have named the GCH System 2.0. Furthermore, we determine the validity and reliability of measurements obtained using this tool via a comparison with the validated AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA OR6-7-2000 Platform. An intra-class correlation coefficient demonstrated excellent agreement between the AMTI Platform and the GCH System. A regression line to determine the predictive ability of the GCH system towards the AMTI Platform was found, which obtained a precision of 99.3%. A detailed statistical analysis is presented for all the measurements and also segregated for several requested loads on the crutches (10%, 25% and 50% of body weight. Our results show that our system, designed for assessing loads exerted by patients on forearm crutches during assisted gait, provides valid and reliable measurements of loads.

  18. Andreas Vesalius' 500th anniversary: the initiation of hand and forearm myology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, R J; Hage, J J

    2015-11-01

    Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) was the first to market an illustrated text on the freshly dissected muscular anatomy of the human hand and forearm when he published his De Fabrica Corporis Humani Libri Septem, in 1543. To commemorate his 500th birthday, we searched the second of seven books composing De Fabrica, the annotated woodcut illustrations of De Fabrica, the Tabulae Sex, and Epitome, and an eyewitness report of a public dissection by Vesalius for references to the morphology and functions of these muscles. We found Vesalius to have recognized all currently distinguished muscles except the palmaris brevis and he noted occasional absence of some muscles. Generally, he limited the origin and insertion to bones, largely disregarding attachments to membranes and fascia. Functionally, he recorded the muscles as having a single vector and operating on only one joint. We conclude that Vesalius was nearly completely correct about the anatomy of the muscles of the forearm, but much less accurate about their function. 5. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point.

  20. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  1. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p35 In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  2. Objective assessment of plaster cast quality in pediatric distal forearm fractures: Is there an optimal index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Ferreira, Leonardo Termis; Dos Santos Filho, Fernando Claudino; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Gomes, Davi Coutinho Fonseca Fernandes; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Penteado; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott

    2017-02-01

    Several so-called casting indices are available for objective evaluation of plaster cast quality. The present study sought to investigate four of these indices (gap index, padding index, Canterbury index, and three-point index) as compared to a reference standard (cast index) for evaluation of plaster cast quality after closed reduction of pediatric displaced distal forearm fractures. Forty-three radiographs from patients with displaced distal forearm fractures requiring manipulation were reviewed. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false-positive probability, false-negative probability, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for each of the tested indices. Comparison among indices revealed diagnostic agreement in only 4.7% of cases. The strongest correlation with the cast index was found for the gap index, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.94. The gap index also displayed the best agreement with the cast index, with both indices yielding the same result in 79.1% of assessments. When seeking to assess plaster cast quality, the cast index and gap index should be calculated; if both indices agree, a decision on quality can be made. If the cast and gap indices disagree, the padding index can be calculated as a tiebreaker, and the decision based on the most frequent of the three results. Calculation of the three-point index and Canterbury index appears unnecessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of a new designed forearm orthosis in treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forogh, Bijan; Khalighi, Mohsen; Javanshir, Mohammad Ali; Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Kamali, Mohammad; Raissi, Gholamreza

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing of a new designed forearm orthosis and explores its efficacious in comparison to the standard counterforce orthosis in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this assessor-blinded clinical trial and randomly assigned to two parallel treatment groups. The measures of pain and function, the pain threshold and grip strength were compared using patient rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) form, algometer and dynamometer respectively at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Paired and independent t-test statistical methods recruited for within and between groups comparisons respectively. The both orthoses, counterforce and new-designed, significantly relieved pain, and improved function, pain threshold and grip strength of all patients after 4 weeks application. The new-designed orthosis seemed to be more effective than the counterforce orthosis in pain relief, but there was not any significant difference in efficacious of two types of orthoses regarding function. The new-designed orthosis can significantly relieve pain, improve function, increase pain threshold and grip strength after application. This orthosis seemed to be more effective than counterforce orthosis in relieving pain and increasing the pain threshold probably due to the limitation of forearm supination.

  4. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of a median neuropathy in the forearm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joon-Shik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodiagnostic studies are traditionally used in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies, however they lack anatomical information regarding the nerve and its surrounding structures. The purpose of this case is to show that high-resolution ultrasound used as an adjunct to electrodiagnostic studies may complement this lack of information and give insight to the cause. Case presentation A 60-year-old male patient sustained a forearm traction injury resulting in progressive weakness and functional loss in the first three digits of the right hand. High-resolution ultrasound showed the presence of an enlarged nerve and a homogenous soft-tissue structure appearing to engulf the nerve. The contralateral side was normal. Surgery revealed fibrotic bands emanating from the flexor digitorum profundus muscle compressing the median nerve thus confirming the ultrasound findings. Conclusion A diagnostically challenging case of median neuropathy in the forearm is presented in which high-resolution ultrasound was valuable in establishing an anatomic etiology and directing appropriate management.

  5. Evidence of Premeditation in Skin Messages in Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-03-01

    A 34-year-old man with manic-depressive disorder was found dead sitting in a vehicle with a hose running from the exhaust pipe to the cabin. Numerous suicide notes were found inside his house. At autopsy, the decedent was wearing jeans and a long-sleeved windcheater. Upon removal of his clothes, a series of messages were also found written on the legs and forearm. Death was due to carbon monoxide toxicity with a blood level of carboxyhemoglobin of 84%. Skin messages represent a rare form of suicide note that may suggest that a suicide has not been planned, as the decedent may have used the nearest surface to write on. This case demonstrates, however, that skin messages may be more organized, being written prior to dressing and setting up the fatal episode. They also may compliment other notes and messages. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Rolf; Brunner, Florian; Schneeberger, Alberto G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective randomised study was to analyse the effect of the forearm support band and of strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow. Twenty-nine patients with 30 tennis elbows were randomised into 3 groups of treatment: (I) forearm support band, (II) strengthening exercises and (III) both methods. The patients had a standardised examination at their first visit, and then after 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. At the latest follow-up, there was a significant improvement of the symptoms compared to before treatment (p<0.0001), considering all patients independently of the methods of treatment. However, no differences in the scores were found between the 3 groups of treatment (p=0.27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used.

  7. Implementation of a forearm support to reduce the amount of irradiated lung and heart in radiation therapy of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen W.; Borger, Jacques H.; Giersbergen, Aline van; Cho, John; Mijnheer, Ben J.

    2001-01-01

    We compared simulator images of medial tangential fields taken in two positions: (1) with the ipsilateral arm abducted, holding a 'L-bar' armrest and (2) with both arms extended above the head in a forearm support. The average maximum heart distance as well as the central lung distance decreased significantly by 3.4 (SE 0.9) and 4.7 (SE 1.1) mm, respectively, when the new forearm support was used. The estimated normal tissue complication probability for excess cardiac mortality decreased by on average 3.1% (SE 1.3%). For some patients, a greater amount of the axilla was included in the field. We recommend the use of the forearm support during breast cancer treatment with tangential fields to decrease the amount of heart and lung inside the fields

  8. Congenital Deficiency of Distal Ulna and Dislocation of the Radial Head Treated by Single Bone Forearm Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paragjyoti Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital deficiency of part of distal ulna affecting the distal radio-ulnar joint is a rare disorder. It is even rarer to find the association of proximal radio-ulnar joint dislocation along with distal ulnar deficiency. This type of congenital forearm anomaly is difficult to treat. Conversion to a single bone forearm in the expense of pronation-supination movement is a viable option. By doing so the elbow and wrist can be stabilized; however movement is possible in only one plane. We are describing here a girl of 8 years having proximal radio-ulnar joint dislocation along with deficiency of distal ulna treated by converting into a single bone forearm.

  9. Determination of energy absorbed during X-ray exposure of the forearm by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    LiF dose meters were used to determine radiation doses in conventional X-ray diagnostic pictures of the forearm. The paper describes a method for determining integral doses by using these dose meters. It describes in detail how a phantom forearm apt for the purpose is to be made. In the Federal Republic of Germany, malignant growth incidence due to X-ray pictures of the forearm is enhanced by about .01 cases each year. The malignant growth incidence rate caused by X-ray diagnostic measures is low. It is therefore generally justified to neglect limbs in exemplary studies of radiation exposure. All calculations and considerations took into account that all possible radiation protection measures have been duly applied. (orig./DG) [de

  10. The effects of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate on hydration and elasticity of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Eimpunth, Sasima; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS) completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P = 0.47). Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P = 0.01). Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P skin elasticity between MPS and vehicle-control group

  11. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  12. Lower corticosteroid skin blanching response is associated with severe COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J M Hoonhorst

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation caused by ongoing inflammatory and remodeling processes of the airways and lung tissue. Inflammation can be targeted by corticosteroids. However, airway inflammation is generally less responsive to steroids in COPD than in asthma. The underlying mechanisms are yet unclear. This study aimed to assess whether skin corticosteroid insensitivity is associated with COPD and COPD severity using the corticosteroid skin blanching test.COPD patients GOLD stage I-IV (n = 27, 24, 22, and 16 respectively and healthy never-smokers and smokers (n = 28 and 56 respectively were included. Corticosteroid sensitivity was assessed by the corticosteroid skin blanching test. Budesonide was applied in 8 logarithmically increasing concentrations (0-100 μg/ml on subject's forearm. Assessment of blanching was performed after 7 hours using a 7-point scale (normal skin to intense blanching. All subjects performed spirometry and body plethysmography.Both GOLD III and GOLD IV COPD patients showed significantly lower skin blanching responses than healthy never-smokers and smokers, GOLD I, and GOLD II patients. Their area under the dose-response curve values of the skin blanching response were 586 and 243 vs. 1560, 1154, 1380, and 1309 respectively, p<0.05. Lower FEV1 levels and higher RV/TLC ratios were significantly associated with lower skin blanching responses (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 respectively. GOLD stage I, II, III and IV patients had similar age and packyears.In this study, severe and very severe COPD patients had lower skin corticosteroid sensitivity than mild and moderate COPD patients and non-COPD controls with comparable age and packyears. Our findings together suggest that the reduced skin blanching response fits with a subgroup of COPD patients that has an early-onset COPD phenotype.

  13. A Novel Method for Estimation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Using Forearm Images from Peripheral Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanmoon Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of osteoporosis treatment is prevention of osteoporosis-induced bone fracture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and quantitative computed tomographic imaging (QCT are widely used for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD. However, they have limitations in patients with special conditions. This study evaluated a method for diagnosis of osteoporosis using peripheral cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to estimate BMD. We investigated the correlation between the ratio of cortical and total bone areas of the forearm and femoral neck BMD. Based on the correlation, we established a linear transformation between the ratio and femoral neck BMD. We obtained forearm images using CBCT and femoral neck BMDs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for 23 subjects. We first calculated the ratio of the cortical to the total bone area in the forearm from the CBCT images, and investigated the relationship with the femoral neck BMDs obtained from DXA. Based on this relationship, we further investigated the optimal forearm region to provide the highest correlation coefficient. We used the optimized forearm region to establish a linear transformation of the form to estimate femoral neck BMD from the calculated ratio. We observed the correlation factor of r = 0.857 (root mean square error = 0.056435 g/cm2; mean absolute percentage error = 4.5105% between femoral neck BMD and the ratio of the cortical and total bone areas. The strongest correlation was observed for the average ratios of the mid-shaft regions of the ulna and radius. Our results suggest that femoral neck BMD can be estimated from forearm CBCT images and may be useful for screening osteoporosis, with patients in a convenient sitting position. We believe that peripheral CBCT image-based BMD estimation may have significant preventative value for early osteoporosis treatment and management.

  14. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Jaap J A J; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G L; Jonkman, Marcel F; McGrath, John A; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A M; McLean, W H Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused by mutations in the TGM5 gene encoding transglutaminase-5, which is important for structural integrity of the outermost epidermal layers. The majority of patients originate from Europe and carry a p.(Gly113Cys) mutation in TGM5. In this study, we report both European and non-European families carrying other mutations in the TGM5 gene. In 5 patients, we found 3 novel mutations: c.1001+2_1001+3del, c.1171G>A and c.1498C>T. To confirm their pathogenicity, we performed functional analyses with a transglutaminase activity assay, determined alternative splicing by reverse-transcribed PCR analysis and used databases and in silico prediction tools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An audit of complications of fiberglass cast and hybrid cast for fractures of the foot, ankle and forearm in a Swedish emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, Anna; Carlberg, Eva; Palmberg, Gunilla; Sloberg, Rut

    2018-06-01

    Patients of all ages present to the Emergency Department (ED) with fractures that require immobilization using a cast. Various casting materials are used, all with advantages and disadvantages and there are considerable risks associated with fracture management using cast immobilization. The frequency and severity of complications from fiberglass or hybrid casts applied in the emergency setting has not previously been studied. The aim of this audit was to describe all the complications that occurred within 30 days in patients who had a fiberglass cast applied for immobilization of uncomplicated, non-angulated fractures of the foot, ankle or forearm. A retrospective care record audit was conducted that included 430 patients. The most common complications found were skin complications and cast related problems. No severe complications (e.g. compartment syndrome, venous thromboembolism or infection) were found. Fiberglass casts did not cause severe complications in this group of patients with uncomplicated fractures of the extremities. However, 25% of the patients experienced some form of complication. Interventions are needed that minimize the frequency of complications. As with all healthcare interventions, it is crucial that staff applying casts and providing follow-up care are competent. If casts are applied correctly and the patient is well informed and concordant, complications can be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  17. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  18. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  19. Skin Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  20. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  1. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexon Ngim

    1999-01-01

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  2. The seasonal variation in skin hydration, sebum, scaliness, brightness and elasticity in Korean females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, G W; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Hwang, J-K

    2015-02-01

    Age, gender, regional, and ethnic differences influence skin conditions. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of environments, especially the air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, duration of sunshine, and precipitation on skin, and the seasonal variation in skin hydration, sebum, scales, brightness, and elasticity in Korean females. The study included 89 Korean subjects, aged 29.7 ± 6.2 years. The five skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, sebum, scales, brightness, and elasticity) were measured at six sites: forehead, under the eye, frontal cheek, crow's foot, lateral cheek, and inner forearm. Skin hydration was measured using the Corneometer® CM 825. Skin sebum was measured with Sebumeter® SM 815. Skin scaliness was measured with Visioscan® VC 98. Skin brightness (L* value) was measured by using Spectrophotometer. A suction chamber device, Cutometer® MPA 580, was used to measure the skin elasticity. The measurements were performed every month for 13 months, from April 2007 to April 2008. There were significantly seasonal variations in environmental factors. The air temperature was the lowest in January (-1.7°C), and the highest in August (26.5°C). The relative humidity was the lowest in February (46%), and the highest in July and August (75%). There was a negative correlation between skin scaliness and three environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and highest precipitation. There was a positive correlation between skin scaliness and two environmental factors such as air pressure and duration of sunshine. Elasticity was correlated with air temperature positively and with air pressure negatively. The correlations shown between the skin biophysical parameters and environmental factors demonstrate that the skin biophysical parameters are affected by environmental factors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A restrained-torque-based motion instructor: forearm flexion/extension-driving exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    When learning complicated movements by ourselves, we encounter such problems as a self-rightness. The self-rightness results in a lack of detail and objectivity, and it may cause to miss essences and even twist the essences. Thus, we sometimes fall into the habits of doing inappropriate motions. To solve these problems or to alleviate the problems as could as possible, we have been developed mechanical man-machine human interfaces to support us learning such motions as cultural gestures and sports form. One of the promising interfaces is a wearable exoskeleton mechanical system. As of the first try, we have made a prototype of a 2-link 1-DOF rotational elbow joint interface that is applied for teaching extension-flexion operations with forearms and have found its potential abilities for teaching the initiating and continuing flection motion of the elbow.

  4. Implementation of mathematical phantom of hand and forearm in GEANT4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Paula Rocha; Queiroz Filho, Pedro Pacheco de; Santos, Denison de Souza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the implementation of a hand and forearm Geant4 phantom code, for further evaluation of occupational exposure of ends of the radionuclides decay manipulated during procedures involving the use of injection syringe. The simulation model offered by Geant4 includes a full set of features, with the reconstruction of trajectories, geometries and physical models. For this work, the values calculated in the simulation are compared with the measurements rates by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in physical phantom REMAB®. From the analysis of the data obtained through simulation and experimentation, of the 14 points studied, there was a discrepancy of only 8.2% of kerma values found, and these figures are considered compatible. The geometric phantom implemented in Geant4 Monte Carlo code was validated and can be used later for the evaluation of doses at ends

  5. Does a distal forearm fracture lead to evaluation for osteoporosis? A retrospective cohort study in 147 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Bo; Greibe, Rasmus; Hyldstrup, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, a low-trauma distal forearm fracture is a risk factor for osteoporosis and future fracture, which indicates osteoporosis follow-up according to prevailing guidelines. We decided to determine how often women over 45 yr presenting with a low-trauma distal forearm fracture t......, and it emphasizes the need to decide on a local level how to provide osteoporosis follow-up for women with fragility fractures. Udgivelsesdato: 2005 Spring......In postmenopausal women, a low-trauma distal forearm fracture is a risk factor for osteoporosis and future fracture, which indicates osteoporosis follow-up according to prevailing guidelines. We decided to determine how often women over 45 yr presenting with a low-trauma distal forearm fracture...... to a Danish emergency department during a 1-yr period were followed up for osteoporosis. We performed a retrospective review of hospital records and we sent the women and their general practitioners (GPs) questionnaires regarding the follow-up undertaken in primary care. Finally, we invited the women...

  6. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    concern when using peripheral densitometry is the poor correlation with the central measurements. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the possibility of expressing ultrasound measurements at the heel and bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the distal forearm as fracture odds ratios...... rather than an absolute measure of bone mass. METHODS: A total of 76 women with lower forearm fracture, 47 women with hip fracture and 231 age-matched women (controls) were included. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel using the DTU-one ultrasound.......8; 5.2) for heel-BUA (T-score cutoff: -2.3), 4.1 (2.3; 7.4) for heel-SOS (-2.1) and 2.2 (1.3; 3.7) for lower forearm BMD (-2.7). The odds ratio for hip fracture was 3.4 (1.5-7.7) for heel-BUA (-2.7), 3.6 (1.6; 8.1) for heel-SOS (-2.6) and 3.2 (1.4; 7.4) for lower forearm BMD (-2.9). CONCLUSION...

  7. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  8. Treatment of Wound Healing Disorders of Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Sites Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Stefan; Doll, Christian; Voss, Jan Oliver; Hertel, Moritz; Preissner, Saskia; Raguse, Jan Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of wound healing disturbances of the radial forearm free flap donor site after reconstructive surgery is typically long and burdensome and often requires additional surgery. Cold atmospheric plasma is a promising approach to overcome these impairments. The aim of this proof of concept study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of plasma irradiation in patients with wound healing disorders with exposed brachial tendons of the radial forearm. Four patients (mean age 64.2 years, range 44 to 80) who had undergone radial forearm free flap procedures and developed wound healing disturbance leading to exposed flexor tendons were included in the present prospective case series. In addition to routine wound care, all sites were irradiated with cold atmospheric plasma. The primary outcome variable was complete wound closure. In all patients, complete wound repair in terms of the absence of tendon exposure was observed within a mean treatment time of 10.1 weeks (range 4.9 to 16). No undesirable side effects were observed, and no inflammation or infection occurred. Cold atmospheric plasma could offer a reliable conservative treatment option for complicated wound healing disturbances. This was exemplarily shown in the case of radial forearm free flap donor site morbidity with exposed flexor tendons in the present study. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  10. The effect of a forearm/hand splint compared with an elbow band as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, M.D.; van der Schans, C.P.; de Greef, M.H.G.; Postema, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a new prefabricated Thamert forearm/hand splint with the effect of a simple elbow band as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis. Forty-three (43) patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to the elbow band group and the

  11. Real-time contrast imaging: a new method to monitor capillary recruitment in human forearm skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.H.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Smits, P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Muscle capillary perfusion can be measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. We examined whether a less time-consuming ultrasound technique, called "real-time imaging," could be used to measure capillary recruitment in human forearm skeletal muscle. METHODS: We measured microvascular blood

  12. Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekvelt, M.C.P. van; Shoemaker, J.K.; Tschakovsky, M.E.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Hughson, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that forearm blood flow (FBF) during moderate intensity dynamic exercise would meet the demands of the exercise and that postexercise FBF would quickly recover. In contrast, during heavy exercise, FBF would be inadequate causing a marked postexercise hyperemia and sustained increase

  13. The interactive effect of cooling and hypoxia on forearm fatigue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alex; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-09-01

    To examine the effect of separate and combined exposure to hypoxia [normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21) vs. moderate altitude (FIO2 = 0.13)] and temperature [thermoneutral (22 °C) vs. cold (5 °C)] on muscle fatigue development in the forearm, after repeated low-resistance contractions. Eight males were exposed for 70 min to four separate conditions in a balanced order. Conditions were normoxic-thermoneutral (N), hypoxic-thermoneutral, normoxic-cold and hypoxic-cold. After 15-min seated rest, participants carried out intermittent dynamic forearm exercise at 15 % maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) for eight consecutive, 5-min work bouts. Each bout was separated by 110 s rest during which MVC force was collected. When exposed to hypoxia and cold independently, the exercise protocol decreased MVC force of the finger flexors by 8.1 and 13.9 %, respectively, compared to thermoneutral normoxia. When hypoxia and cold were combined, the decrease in MVC force was 21.4 % more than thermoneutral normoxia, reflecting an additive effect and no interaction. EMG relative to force produced during MVC, increased by 2 and 1.2 μV per kg (36 and 23 % of N) for cold and hypoxia, respectively. When the stressors were combined the effect was additive, increasing to 3.1 μV per kg (56 % of N). When compared to exercise in thermoneutral normoxic conditions, both cold and hypoxia significantly reduce brief MVC force output. This effect appears to be of mechanical origin, not a failure in muscle fibre recruitment per se. Additionally, the reduction in force is greater when the stressors are combined, showing an additive effect.

  14. The effects of local forearm muscle cooling on motor unit properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Matthew M; Green, Lara A; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2018-02-01

    Muscle cooling impairs maximal force. Using needle electromyography (EMG) to assess motor unit properties during muscle cooling, is limited and equivocal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of local muscle cooling on motor unit firing properties using surface EMG decomposition. Twenty participants (12 M, 8 F) completed maximal, evoked, and trapezoidal contractions during thermoneutral and cold muscle conditions. Forearm muscle temperature was manipulated using 10-min neutral (~ 32 °C) or 20-min cold (~ 3 °C) water baths. Twitches and maximal voluntary contractions were performed prior to, and after, forearm immersion in neutral or cold water. Motor unit properties were assessed during trapezoidal contractions to 50% baseline force using surface EMG decomposition. Impaired contractile properties from muscle cooling were evident in the twitch amplitude, duration, and rate of force development indicating that the muscle was successfully cooled from the cold water bath (all d ≥ 0.5, P motor units (d = 0.7, P = 0.01) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) duration (d = 0.6, P motor unit firing rates (d = 0.1, P = 0.843) nor recruitment threshold (d = 0.1, P = 0.746) changed; however, the relationship between the recruitment threshold and motor unit firing rate was steeper (d = 1.0, P motor units, and small but coupled changes in motor unit firing rates and recruitment threshold to produce the same force.

  15. Scaling of Primate Forearm Muscle Architecture as It Relates to Locomotion and Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischner, Carissa L; Crouch, Michael; Allen, Kari L; Marchi, Damiano; Pastor, Francisco; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2018-03-01

    It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm muscle architecture in a sample of 44 primate species (N = 55 specimens): 9 strepsirrhines, 15 platyrrhines, and 20 catarrhines. The sample includes all major locomotor and substrate use groups. We isolated each antebrachial muscle and categorized them into functional groups: wrist and digital extensors and flexors, antebrachial mm. that do not cross the wrist, and functional combinations thereof. Muscle mass, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA), and fiber length (FL) are examined in the context of higher taxonomic group, as well as locomotor/postural and substrate preferences. Results show that muscle masses, PCSA, and RPCSA scale with positive allometry while FL scales with isometry indicating that larger primates have relatively stronger, but neither faster nor more flexible, forearms across the sample. When accounting for variation in body size, we found no statistically significant difference in architecture among higher taxonomic groups or locomotor/postural groups. However, we found that arboreal primates have significantly greater FL than terrestrial ones, suggesting that these species are adapted for greater speed and/or flexibility in the trees. These data may affect our interpretation of the mechanisms for variation in humeral morphology and provide information for refining biomechanical models of joint stress and movement in extant and fossil primates. Anat Rec, 301:484-495, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Association of Obesity with Forearm Fractures, Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk (FRAX® During Postmenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Mesci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among obesity with bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fracture risk among postmenopausal women with a previous forearm fracture. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled obese (n=40 and normal-weight (n=40 postmenopausal women who had a previous forearm fracture. BMD measurements were obtained using a GE-LUNAR DPX dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for all subjects. FRAX® fracture risk scores were calculated taking into account former fractures and current risk factors of the subjects. Both groups were compared with respect to their BMD values, T scores, FRAX® risk scores and frequency of previous fractures. Results: No difference was observed between groups with regard to mean age, mean age of menopause onset and mean serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels (p>0.05 for all. Statistically, obese patients showed highly significantly greater mean BMD values at lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck in comparison to subjects with normal body weight (p=0.000 for all. Obese patients had a lower 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture on average as determined by FRAX® fracture risk score compared to that in normal-weight subjects (p<0.05. Also, obese group had a lower 10-year probability of a hip fracture versus normal-weight subjects (p<0.01. Both groups were found to have a similar frequency of previous fractures. Conclusion: Although obese patients in this study had greater BMD values and lower FRAX® risk scores, the probability of subsequent fractures predicted for the obese group was not lower when compared to that predicted for normal-weight group. It should be kept in mind that obesity may not necessarily be protective against fractures and treatment algorithms based solely on BMD might be inadequate to predict future fracture risk.

  17. Comparison of sympathetic nerve responses to neck and forearm isometric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S. L. Jr; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the autonomic and cardiovascular responses to arm and leg exercise have been studied, the sympathetic adjustments to exercise of the neck have not. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric contractions of the neck extensors and 2) to compare sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise of the neck and forearm. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate were measured in nine healthy subjects while performing isometric neck extension (INE) and isometric handgrip (IHG) in the prone position. After a 3-min baseline period, subjects performed three intensities of INE for 2.5 min each: 1) unloaded (supporting head alone), 2) 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 3) 30% MVC, then subjects performed two intensities (10% and 30% MVC) of IHG for 2.5 min. RESULTS: Supporting the head by itself did not significantly change any of the variables. During [NE, MAP significantly increased by 10 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 4 mm Hg and MSNA increased by 67 +/- 46 and 168 +/- 36 units/30 s for 10% and 30% MVC, respectively. IHG and INE evoked similar responses at 10% MVC, but IHG elicited higher peak MAP and MSNA at 30% MVC (37 +/- 7 mm Hg (P INE can elicit marked increases in MSNA and cardiovascular responses but that it evokes lower peak responses as compared to IHG. We speculate that possible differences in muscle fiber type composition, muscle mass, and/or muscle architecture of the neck and forearm are responsible for these differences in peak responses.

  18. Indirect hand and forearm vasomotion: Regional variations in cutaneous thermosensitivity during normothermia and mild hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Catriona A; Tagami, Kyoko; Park, Joonhee; Caldwell, Joanne N; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    In this experiment, hand and forearm vasomotor activity was investigated during localised, but stable heating and cooling of the face, hand and thigh, under open-loop (clamped) conditions. It was hypothesised that facial stimulation would provoke the most potent vascular changes. Nine individuals participated in two normothermic trials (mean body temperature clamp: 36.6°C; water-perfused suit and climate chamber) and two mildly hyperthermic trials (37.9°C). Localised heating (+5°C) and cooling (-5°C) stimuli were applied to equal surface areas of the face, hand and thigh (perfusion patches: 15min), while contralateral forearm or hand blood flows (venous-occlusion plethysmography) were measured (separate trials). Thermal sensation and discomfort votes were recorded before and during each thermal stimulation. When hyperthermic, local heating induced more sensitive vascular responses, with the combined thermosensitivity of both limb segments averaging 0.011mL·100mL -1 ·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·°C -1 , and 0.005mL·100mL -1 ·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·°C -1 during localised cooling (P0.05). Therefore, regional differences in vasomotor and sensory sensitivity appeared not to exist. When combined with previous observations of sudomotor sensitivity, it seems that, during mild heating and cooling, regional representations within the somatosensory cortex may not translate into meaningful differences in thermal sensation or the central integration of thermoafferent signals. It was concluded that inter-site variations in the cutaneous thermosensitivity of these thermolytic effectors have minimal physiological significance over the ranges investigated thus far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on seasonal variation of skin parameters in Korean males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, E J; Lee, J A; Park, J J; Kim, H J; Kim, N S; Byun, K S; Choi, G S; Moon, T K

    2015-02-01

    The physiological characteristics of the skin are varied greatly, depending on gender, age, region and race, and many dermatologic researches have been performed through various research methods. This study aimed to examine how Korean men's skin conditions were influenced by temperature or humidity changes caused by seasonal rotations. A total of 100 healthy Korean men, age range 20-59 years, participated in the study for both summer and winter. We compared on the characteristics of skin between summer and winter. The skin hydration, skin pH and TEWL were evaluated on the forehead, cheek and forearm. The skin sebum content of the glabella, nasal ala and cheek was measured using Sebumeter(®) (SM810, Courage+Khazaka, Germany). Cutometer(®) (MPA 580 Courage+Khazaka, Germany) the elasticity was measured by on the cheeks, and PRIMOS lite(®) (Phase shift Rapid in vivo Measurement of Skin, GFMesstechnik GmbH, Germany) was used to evaluate wrinkles on crow's feet. Lastly, in addition, the skin pore of the face was measured using the Janus(®) (PSI, Korea) which is a facial analysis system. The results were as follows: the comparison of hydration in summer and winter shows significant differences in their forehead, cheeks and forearm. The pH values of the skin surface were generally higher in winter, and significantly different on each site, and the sebum content was higher in summer than in winter. As a result of the pore measurement, the summer showed more pores compared to the winter, and there was a statistically significant difference in skin pores between summer and winter. The sensitivity measured by stinging test increases significantly more in winter than in summer. However, there were no seasonal differences in wrinkles and skin brightness. The skin surface pH, TEWL, sebum content, hydration, elasticity, wrinkles, skin pore and skin sensitivity vary with seasons and body regions in Korean men. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  20. Effect of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC on skin hydration and occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo CH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CH Loo,1,2 M Basri,2 R Ismail,1 HLN Lau,1 BA Tejo,2 MS Kanthimathi,3 HA Hassan,1 YM Choo11Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 2Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 3Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaPurpose: To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC, skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss.Methods: The various NLC formulations (A1–A5 were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control. The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C and humidity (50% ± 2% of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment and day seven (after treatment. Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area.Results: NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5 showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed

  1. Stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knor, Tanja; Meholjić-Fetahović, Ajša; Mehmedagić, Aida

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing skin disease with genetic predisposition, which occurs most frequently in preschool children. It is considered that dryness and pruritus, which are always present in AD, are in correlation with degradation of the skin barrier function. Measurement of hydration and pH value of the stratum corneum is one of the noninvasive methods for evaluation of skin barrier function. The aim of the study was to assess skin barrier function by measuring stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH of the skin with lesions, perilesional skin and uninvolved skin in AD patients, and skin in a healthy control group. Forty-two patients were included in the study: 21 young and adult AD patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Capacitance, which is correlated with hydration of stratum corneum and skin surface pH were measured on the forearm in the above areas by SM810/CM820/pH900 combined units (Courage AND Khazaka, Germany). The mean value of water capacitance measured in AD patients was 44.1 ± 11.6 AU (arbitrary units) on the lesions, 60.2 ± 12.4 AU on perilesional skin and 67.2 ± 8.8 AU on uninvolved skin. In healthy controls, the mean value was 74.1 ± 9.2 AU. The mean pH value measured in AD patients was 6.13 ± 0.52 on the lesions, 5.80 ± 0.41 on perilesional skin, and 5.54 ± 0.49 on uninvolved skin. In control group, the mean pH of the skin surface was 5.24 ± 0.40. The values of both parameters measured on lesional skin were significantly different (capacitance decreased and pH increased) from the values recorded on perilesional skin and uninvolved skin. The same held for the relation between perilesional and uninvolved skin. According to study results, the uninvolved skin of AD patients had significantly worse values of the measured parameters as compared with control group. The results of this study suggested the skin barrier function to be degraded in AD patients, which is specifically expressed in lesional skin.

  2. Comparison study of upper arm and forearm non-invasive blood pressures in adult Emergency Department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanski, Karen; Jull, Andrew; Mitchell, Nancy; McLay, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Forearm blood pressures have been suggested as an alternative site to measure blood pressures when the upper arm is unavailable. However there is little evidence utilising clinical populations to support this substitution. To determine agreement between blood pressures measured in the left upper arm and forearm using a singular oscillometric non-invasive device in adult Emergency Department patients. The secondary objective was to explore the relationship of blood pressure differences with age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history and obesity. Single centre comparison study. Adult Emergency Department, Tertiary Trauma Centre. Forty-four participants who met inclusion/exclusion criteria selected sequentially from the Emergency Department arrival board. A random assignment of order of measurement for left upper arm and forearm blood pressures was utilised. Participants were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had been assigned an Australasian Triage Scale code of 2, 3, 4, or 5, were able to consent, and able to have blood pressures measured on their left arm whilst lying at a 45° angle. The Bland-Altman method of statistical analysis was used, with the level of agreement for clinical acceptability for the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure defined as ±10 mmHg. The forearm measure overestimated systolic (mean difference 2.2 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±19 mmHg), diastolic (mean difference 3.4 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±14.4 mmHg), and mean arterial pressures (mean difference 4.1 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±13.7 mmHg). The systolic measure was not significantly different from zero. Evidence of better agreement was found with upper arm/forearm systolic measures below 140 mmHg compared to systolic measures above 140 mmHg using the Levene's test (p=0.002, F-statistic=11.09). Blood pressure disparity was not associated with participant characteristics. Forearm measures cannot routinely replace upper arm measures for blood pressure measurement

  3. Skin thickness as a potential marker of gestational age at birth despite different fetal growth profiles: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Luiza Nogueira Vitral

    Full Text Available New methodologies to estimate gestational age (GA at birth are demanded to face the limited access to obstetric ultrasonography and imprecision of postnatal scores. The study analyzed the correlation between neonatal skin thickness and pregnancy duration. Secondarily, it investigated the influence of fetal growth profiles on tissue layer dimensions.In a feasibility study, 222 infants selected at a term-to-preterm ratio of 1:1 were assessed. Reliable information on GA was based on the early ultrasonography-based reference. The thicknesses of the epidermal and dermal skin layers were examined using high-frequency ultrasonography. We scanned the skin over the forearm and foot plantar surface of the newborns. A multivariate regression model was adjusted to determine the correlation of GA with skin layer dimensions. The best model to correlate skin thickness with GA was fitted using the epidermal layer on the forearm site, adjusted to cofactors, as follows: Gestational age (weeks = -28.0 + 12.8 Ln (Thickness - 4.4 Incubator staying; R2 = 0.604 (P<0.001. In this model, the constant value for the standard of fetal growth was statistically null. The dermal layer thickness on the forearm and plantar surfaces had a negative moderate linear correlation with GA (R = -0.370, P<0.001 and R = -0.421, P<0.001, respectively. The univariate statistical analyses revealed the influence of underweight and overweight profiles on neonatal skin thickness at birth. Of the 222 infants, 53 (23.9% had inappropriate fetal growths expected for their GA. Epidermal thickness was not fetal growth standard dependent as follows: 172.2 (19.8 μm for adequate for GA, 171.4 (20.6 μm for SGA, and 177.7 (15.2 μm for LGA (P = 0.525, mean [SD] on the forearm.The analysis highlights a new opportunity to relate GA at birth to neonatal skin layer thickness. As this parameter was not influenced by the standard of fetal growth, skin maturity can contribute to clinical applications.

  4. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  5. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  6. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  7. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  8. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat Ali Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae, is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L. crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13 with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS was taken at time 0 (baseline values or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005 ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles. Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging.

  9. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.

  10. Fractionated laser resurfacing corrects the inappropriate UVB response in geriatric skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-06-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylactic therapy. Geriatric volunteers were treated with fractionated laser resurfacing therapy on either sun-protected (upper buttocks) or chronically sun-exposed (dorsal forearm) skin. Fractionated laser resurfacing therapy was shown to decrease the occurrence of senescent fibroblasts in geriatric dermis, increase the dermal expression of IGF-1, and correct the inappropriate UVB response observed in untreated geriatric skin. These responses to fractionated laser resurfacing were equal to the effects seen previously using the more aggressive wounding following dermabrasion. Furthermore, fractionated laser resurfacing was equally effective in both sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The ability of fractionated laser resurfacing treatment to protect against the occurrence of UVB-damaged proliferating keratinocytes indicates the potential of fractionated laser resurfacing to reduce or prevent aging-associated non-melanoma skin cancer.

  11. Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ann R; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Kift, Richard C; Farrar, Mark D; Wilkinson, Jack; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2018-04-07

    Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status), and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown) adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June-August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population.

  12. Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R. Webb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status, and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June–August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population.

  13. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Boom, B.; Suurmond, D.; Hermans, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  14. Molecular subsets in the gene expression signatures of scleroderma skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Milano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production.We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc, 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc, 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of 'intrinsic' genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001 and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc.Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs in the skin of patients with scleroderma.

  15. Direct immunofluorescence of normal skin in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, O M; Barnes, L; Woods, R; McHugh, L; Barry, C; O'Loughlin, S

    1985-11-01

    The clinical significance of previously described immunoglobulin and complement deposition in the superficial dermal vessel walls of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. In the present study, skin biopsies were obtained from the normal forearm and buttock of 48 unselected patients with rheumatoid arthritis and were examined by direct immunofluorescence (IF) for the presence of immunoglobulin (IgG,A,M) and complement (C3) in the vessel walls. Deposits of C3, IgM or IgG were detected in 10 patients. Five patients had deposits at the forearm sample alone, four patients had deposits at both biopsy sites, while one patient was positive at the buttock alone. Clinical features were similar in patients with and without vessel IF. However, patients with IF were significantly more seropositive with lower levels of complement and raised levels of serum IgA and IgM. There was also an increased level of circulating IgG immune complexes in these patients. Further analysis following exclusion of seronegative patients revealed similar results. This study suggests that the presence of vessel IF identifies a subgroup of patients who have evidence of more severe immunological disturbance.

  16. Cutaneous mucormycosis in a leukemic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, S.A.; Rabah, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a fulminant and uncommon fungal infection of skin which mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis followed by aggressive debridement and administration of antifungal agents is the key to management. We report primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a 23 years old patient of acute leucocytic leukemia who developed this lesion over volar surface of right forearm at the site of intravenous cannulation during induction phase of chemotherapy. The condition was treated successfully by wide surgical debridement, amphotericin-B, wound care and definitive reconstruction with skin graft. (author)

  17. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  18. Noninvasive spectral imaging of skin chromophores based on multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Wiswadarma, Aditya; Hase, Yota; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Maeda, Takaaki; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize melanin and blood concentrations and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue, a simple imaging technique based on multispectral diffuse reflectance images acquired at six wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 580 and 600nm) was developed. The technique utilizes multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance spectra. Using the absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are deduced numerically in advance, while oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments with human skin of the human hand during upper limb occlusion and of the inner forearm exposed to UV irradiation demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin tissue.

  19. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Exogenous melatonin administration modifies cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to whole body skin cooling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ken; Zhao, Kun; Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko; Alvarez, Guy E; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2008-03-01

    Humans and other diurnal species experience a fall in internal temperature (T(int)) at night, accompanied by increased melatonin and altered thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow (SkBF). Also, exogenous melatonin induces a fall in T(int), an increase in distal skin temperatures and altered control of the cutaneous active vasodilator system, suggesting an effect of melatonin on the control of SkBF. To test whether exogenous melatonin also affects the more tonically active vasoconstrictor system in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during cooling, healthy males (n = 9) underwent afternoon sessions of whole body skin temperature (T(sk)) cooling (water-perfused suits) after oral melatonin (Mel; 3 mg) or placebo (Cont). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from SkBF (laser Doppler flowmetry) and non-invasive blood pressure. Baseline T(int) was lower in Mel than in Cont (P forearm CVC was first significantly reduced at T(sk) of 34.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P forearm CVC in Mel was significantly less than in Cont at T(sk) of 32.66 +/- 0.01 degrees C and lower (P < 0.05). In Mel, palmar CVC was significantly higher than in Cont above T(sk) of 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C, but not below. Thus exogenous melatonin blunts reflex vasoconstriction in nonglabrous skin and shifts vasoconstrictor system control to lower T(int). It provokes vasodilation in glabrous skin but does not suppress the sensitivity to falling T(sk). These findings suggest that by affecting the vasoconstrictor system, melatonin has a causal role in the nocturnal changes in body temperature and its control.

  1. Constitution-specific features of perspiration and skin visco-elasticity in SCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Ku, Boncho; Jung, Chang Jin; Kim, Jaeuk U; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-01-15

    Human skin properties have been used as an important diagnostic component in traditional medicine as they change with health conditions. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) puts emphasis on the recognition of the constitution-specific skin features prior to the diagnostic decision of health. In this work, in search of skin-characteristics effectively reflecting SCM features, we compared several skin properties such as perspiration, visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis, in several candidate body parts. We conducted a clinical study in which a total of 111 healthy females aged 50 - 70 years participated with their Sasang constitution (SC) types determined objectively by the Sasang constitutional analytic tool. Perspiration on the skin surface was estimated by using a capacitance sensor to measure the amount of moisture on the palm, forehead, and philtrum before and after a heating stimulus. We acquired the visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis at the forearm by Dermalab's elasticity sensing device. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to evaluate the effect of SC on the nine skin features acquired. The visco-elasticity of the forearm of the Soeum-in (SE) group was significantly lower than that of the Taeeum-in (TE) group (F = 68.867, p elasticity hysteresis of the SE group was higher than that of the TE group (F = 10.364, p elasticity, elasticity hysteresis, perspiration on the forehead and philtrum. Our findings are based on a novel interpretation of the SCM literature and will contribute to developing the constitutional health status evaluation system in SCM.

  2. Acute effects of coffee on skin blood flow and microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesselaar, Erik; Nezirevic Dernroth, Dzeneta; Farnebo, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Vasodilatation during iontophoresis of ACh was significantly stronger after intake of caffeinated coffee compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (1.26±0.20PU/mmHg vs. 1.13±0.38PU/mmHg, Pcoffee. After intake of caffeinated coffee, a more pronounced decrease in CVC in the fingertip was observed compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (-1.36PU/mmHg vs. -0.52PU/mmHg, P=0.002). Caffeine, as ingested by drinking caffeinated coffee acutely improves endothelium-dependent microvascular responses in the forearm skin, while endothelium-independent responses to PORH and SNP iontophoresis are not affected. Blood flow in the fingertip decreases markedly during the first hour after drinking caffeinated coffee compared to decaffeinated coffee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormonal replacement therapy reduces forearm fracture incidence in recent postmenopausal women - results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sørensen, O.H.

    2000-01-01

    -to-treat analysis (n=2016), overall fracture risk was borderline statistically significantly reduced (RR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.05), and forearm fracture risk was significantly reduced (RR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.90) with HRT. Restricting the analysis to women who had adhered to their initial allocation of either HRT (n......OBJECTIVES: To study the fracture reducing potential of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in recent postmenopausal women in a primary preventive scenario. METHODS: Prospective controlled comprehensive cohort trial: 2016 healthy women aged 45-58 years, from three to 24 months past last menstrual...... by own choice). First line HRT was oral sequential oestradiol/norethisterone in women with intact uterus and oral continuous oestradiol in hysterectomised women. RESULTS: After five years, a total of 156 fractures were sustained by 140 women. There were 51 forearm fractures in 51 women. By intention...

  4. Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied...... with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p ... extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p

  5. Therapeutic effect of forearm low level light treatment on blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Sun, Jiajing; Meng, Lingkang; Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low level light/laser therapy (LLLT) is considered as a novel, non-invasive, and potential therapy in a variety of psychological and physical conditions, due to its effective intricate photobiomodulation. The mechanism of LLLT is that when cells are stimulated by photons, mitochondria produce a large quantity of ATP, which accelerates biochemical responses in the cell. It is of great significance to gain a clear insight into the change or interplay of various physiological parameters. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and venous-occlusion plethysmography to measure the LLLT-induced changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption in human forearms in vivo. Six healthy human participants (4 males and 2 females) were administered with 810-nm light emitted by LED array in ten minutes and blood flow, oxygenation and oxygen consumption were detected in the entire experiment. We found that LLLT induced an increase of blood flow and oxygen consumption on the treated site. Meanwhile, LLLT took a good role in promoting oxygenation of regional tissue, which was indicated by a significant increase of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]), a nearly invariable deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) and a increase of differential hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbD] = Δ[HbO2] - Δ[Hb]). These results not only demonstrate enormous potential of LLLT, but help to figure out mechanisms of photobiomodulation.

  6. Development and Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton for Shoulder, Elbow and Forearm Movement Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available World health organization reports, annually more than 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke and cardiovascular disease, among which 85% of stroke patients incur acute arm impairment, and 40% of victims are chronically impaired or permanently disabled. This results a burden on the families, communities and to the country as well. Rehabilitation programs are the main way to promote functional recovery in these individuals. Since the number of such cases is constantly growing and that the duration of treatment is long, an intelligent robot could significantly contribute to the success of these programs. We therefore developed a new 5DoFs robotic exoskeleton named MARSE-5 (motion assistive robotic-exoskeleton for superior extremity that supposed to be worn on the lateral side of upper arm to rehabilitate and ease the shoulder, elbow and forearm movements. This paper focused on the design, modeling, development and control of the proposed MARSE-5. To control the exoskeleton, a nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC technique was employed. In experiments, trajectory tracking that corresponds to typical passive rehabilitation exercises was carried out. Experimental results reveal that the controller is able to maneuver the MARSE-5 efficiently to track the desired trajectories.

  7. Computed tomography in soft-tissue lesions of the hand and forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Lucas, D.; Feyerabend, T.; Schindler, G.; Lanz, U.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography was carried out in 32 patients with clinically equivocal soft-tissue lesions of the hand (24 times) and forearm (8 times). The CT scans were performed with the patients in standard positions; thin slices and zoom technique were used. All soft-tissue tumors were correctly diagnosed with regard to localization, size and infiltration of the surrounding tissue. The histological diagnosis was correct in tendon-sheath proliferations, deposits caused by metabolic disorders, epithelial and ganglion cysts, hemangiomas, lipomas and in one schwannoma. A malignancy was suspected and was proven to be correct in two cases. False-positive diagnoses of a malignant soft-tissue tumor were made in one case of an aggressive fibromatosis, in a rapidly progressive, ossifying myositis, and three times in the presence of postoperative scar tissue following the resection of a sarcoma. Finally, a case of proliferative myositis regarded as semimalignant was underrated by CT. The hand surgeon considered CT diagnostics to be very helpful in planning operations in an anatomically complex organ such as the hand. (orig.) [de

  8. Forearm bone mineralization in recently diagnosed female adolescents with a premenarchal onset of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggen, Inge; Vanbesien, Jesse; Gies, Inge; Van den Eede, Ursula; Lampo, Annik; Louis, Olivia; De Schepper, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Data available on bone mineralization by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adolescents with an early onset anorexia nervosa (AN) is limited. We investigated whether a disturbed bone mineralization can be observed at the distal radius in recently diagnosed female adolescents with AN and a premenarchal onset of this disease. Twenty-four premenarchal patients with AN and 22 healthy females which were age and height matched, were selected from our reference database; both groups underwent a pQCT bone assessment at the distal radius of the nondominant arm. The patients age ranged between 13.3 and 18.4 years. Their percent weight loss ranged between 5 and 36% (median 23%) and occurred within the preceding 3 to 44 months. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of the patient group was significantly lower than the comparison group (185.6 ± 30.2 vs.209.3 ± 34.0 mm(2) ; p = 0.02). Bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content, total volumetric bone mineral density and periosteal circumference were also lower, albeit not significantly. The bone parameters were unrelated to the under nutrition severity and duration. In premenarchal patients with AN the trabecular bone mineralization of the forearm is significantly reduced, this might be an early indicator of altered bone mineral accrual. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:809-812). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of two plethysmography systems in assessment of forearm blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stephen J; Attinà, Teresa; Hultsch, Ellen; Bolscher, Luc; Grossman, Matthias; Denvir, Martin A; Webb, David J

    2004-05-01

    Venous occlusion plethysmography is widely used to assess forearm blood flow (FBF). We compared the established Hokanson system (HEC4) with a newly developed Filtrass 2001 system (F2001). The HEC4 uses mercury-in-Silastic strain gauges, whereas F2001 detects volume changes with a nonmercury linear displacement device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the new F2001 against the HEC4 in terms of repeatability and systematic bias. Ten subjects were studied on 4 separate days in random order using either the HEC4 on both arms, the F2001 on both arms, the HEC4 on the right arm with the F2001 on the left, or the F2001 on the right arm and the HEC4 on the left. Stroop's colored word conflict test and postocclusive hyperemia were used to increase FBF, and lower body negative pressure was used to lower FBF. Stroop's colored word conflict test and lower body negative pressure increased (24.6 +/- 1.5%, n = 240, P 0.05), and there was no systematic bias. The F2001 is a newly developed plethysmography system that does not utilize mercury and is suitable for assessing changes of FBF in physiological studies.

  10. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  11. Intermuscular aponeuroses between the flexor muscles of the forearm and their relationships with the ulnar nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Liu, Hong-Fu; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological characteristics of the intermuscular aponeurosis between the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS; IMAS), and that between the FCU and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP; IMAP), and their topographic relationships with the ulnar nerve. Fifty limbs of 38 adult cadavers were studied. The IMAS extended along the deep surface of the FCU adjoining the FDS, having the appearance of a ladder, giving off "steps" that decreased in width from superficial to deep around the middle of the forearm. Its proximal part divided into two bands connected by a thin membrane, and was attached to the medial epicondyle and the tubercle (the most medial prominent part of the coronoid process of the ulna), respectively. The IMAP extended deep between the FCU and FDP from the antebrachial fascia, and its distal end was located on the posterior border of the FCU. The IMAP became broader toward its proximal part, and its proximal end was attached anterior and posterior to the tubercle and the olecranon, respectively. The ulnar nerve passed posterior to the medial epicondyle and then medial to the tubercle, and was crossed by the deep border of the IMAS at 58.3 ± 14.1 mm below the medial epicondyle. The deep border of the IMAS and aberrant tendinous structure passing across the ulnar nerve, or the parts of the IMAS and IMAP passing posterior to the ulnar nerve are potential causes of ulnar nerve compression.

  12. Anatomical Basis and Clinical Application of Synovial Flaps in the Wrist and Distal Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, David L; Yeh, Jiun-Ting; Colen, Lawrence B

    2017-05-01

    Neuropathic symptoms after median nerve repair at the wrist or secondary to refractory carpal tunnel syndrome may become debilitating. These symptoms develop because of perineural adhesions, intraneural fibrosis, and fixation of the nerve to the transverse carpal ligament after surgery, and often require neurolysis. Interposition of vascularized soft tissue over the median nerve at the time of neurolysis prevents recurrence of such adhesions. The synovial flap, fashioned from the synovial lining of the flexor tendon sheath, is an ideal tissue for this purpose. Previous authors have described the surgical technique of the synovial flap, but the anatomical basis and design of the flap have not been previously discussed. Twenty fresh cadaver upper extremities were injected with Microfil to analyze the arterial anatomy, flap dimensions, and arc of rotation of the flexor tendon synovium mobilized as a flap suitable for coverage of the median nerve at the wrist. The authors determined that both radial and ulnar-based flaps are clinically useful for providing coverage in the wrist and distal forearm. This flap was used in 18 patients with complicated median nerve lesions in this region. All patients had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Of 13 patients treated for posttraumatic median nerve neuromas, all but two had significant resolution of symptoms. When used as a vascularized flap, the flexor tendon synovium provides adequate protection of the median nerve. Flap dimensions and vascularity of this tissue make it an ideal local flap option when performing reoperative surgery on the median nerve.

  13. Wearable Sensors for eLearning of Manual Tasks: Using Forearm EMG in Hand Hygiene Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutafina, Ekaterina; Laukamp, David; Bettermann, Ralf; Schroeder, Ulrik; Jonas, Stephan M

    2016-08-03

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to eLearning that makes use of smart wearable sensors. Traditional eLearning supports the remote and mobile learning of mostly theoretical knowledge. Here we discuss the possibilities of eLearning to support the training of manual skills. We employ forearm armbands with inertial measurement units and surface electromyography sensors to detect and analyse the user's hand motions and evaluate their performance. Hand hygiene is chosen as the example activity, as it is a highly standardized manual task that is often not properly executed. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene are taken as a model of the optimal hygiene procedure, due to their algorithmic structure. Gesture recognition procedures based on artificial neural networks and hidden Markov modeling were developed, achieving recognition rates of 98 . 30 % ( ± 1 . 26 % ) for individual gestures. Our approach is shown to be promising for further research and application in the mobile eLearning of manual skills.

  14. [Tumor-like bone lesions of the forearm after karate training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, H; Oldenburg, M; Klinger, H M; Schultz, W

    2005-03-01

    Differentiation between malignant bone tumors and tumor-like lesions after repetitive microtrauma following sport activities can be difficult just using radiographic methods. We present the case of a fifteen year old karate fighter, who was examined by imaging diagnostics because of a progressive swelling and pain in the distal right forearm. A tumor-like appearance with bone mass formation in the x-ray, an enhancement in the surrounding tissue shown in the MRI and an increased activity in the bone scintigraphy made the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma very likely. Blood tests were not helpful. Only the evaluation of a bone biopsy could demonstrate hypertrophic reparative bone formation after multiple osseous microtrauma. Cast immobilisation reduced the osseous alteration. With the start of the training the swelling reappeared again but then finally vanished after modifying the training technique. The case demonstrates that even modern imaging techniques cannot always distinguish between tumor and tumor-like lesions caused by sports. It also stresses the importance of a correct technique in sports like karate.

  15. Muscular forearm activation in hand-grip tasks with superimposition of mechanical vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, L; Tirabasso, A; Lunghi, A; Di Giovanni, R; Sacco, F; Marchetti, E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the muscular activation of the forearm, with or without vibration stimuli at different frequencies while performing a grip tasks of 45s at various level of exerted force. In 16 individuals, 9 females and 7 males, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of extensor carpi radialis longus and the flexor carpi ulnari muscles were assessed. At a short latency from onset EMG, RMS and the level of MU synchronization were assessed to evaluate the muscular adaptations. Whilst a trend of decay of EMG Median frequency (MDFd) was employed as an index of muscular fatigue. Muscular tasks consists of the grip of an instrumented handle at a force level of 20%, 30%, 40%, 60% of the maximum voluntary force. Vibration was supplied by a shaker to the hand in mono-frequential waves at 20, 30, 33 and 40Hz. In relation to EMG, RMS and MU synchronization, the muscular activation does not seem to change with the superimposition of the mechanical vibrations, on the contrary a lower MDFd was observed at 33Hz than in absence of vibration. This suggests an early muscular fatigue induced by vibration due to the fact that 33Hz is a resonance frequency for the hand-arm system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphisms of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene and forearm bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka T Ivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA gene polymorphism have provided conflicting data regarding the bone mass and quality. Aim and Design: The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the forearm bone mineral density (BMD and the IL1RA gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated in this study. BMD was measured at the forearm by X-ray absorptiometry on a DTX-100 device (Osteometer Meditech, USA. A PCR product was isolated. The alleles were scored according to their length: A1 - 410 bp - 4 repeats; A2 - 240 bp - 2 repeats; A3 - 500 bp - 5 repeats; A4 - 325 bp - 3 repeats; A5 - 595 bp - 6 repeats. All analyses were evaluated for statistical significance (χ2 -test and T-test. Results: Four alleles were observed - A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1A1 genotype was more common in cases with low BMD than in controls with normal BMD (95% vs. 90%, χ2 P < 0.01. The A2A2 genotype was equally distributed among cases and controls (both 5%. The other two genotypes (A3A3 and A4A4 as well as A1A3 were present only in controls with normal BMD. The A2A2 genotype was associated with higher BMD and the A1A1 - with lower BMD at both forearm sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the A1A1 genotype was 2.11. The etiological factor reflecting the association between the polymorphism and the disease was 0.50. In our study sample the IL1RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with the forearm BMD. Conclusion: This genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic marker for the study of osteoporosis.

  17. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  18. Roentgenography of the skin and subcutaneous fat in postmastectomy edema of the upper limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Moroz, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiography of the forearm and shoulder soft tissues in 47 patients with postmastectomy syndrome before and after conservative treatment and in 6 controls made it possible to determine differences in x-ray imaging of a skin and subcutaneous fat layer in limb edema. These differences were determined by lymph flow disorders and the formation of a connective tissue of a connective tissue component in subsutaneous fat and could be used for objective assessment of a degree of edema, determination of tactics of rehabilitation activities and assessment of their effectiveness

  19. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen

    2001-05-01

    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  20. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  1. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  2. Systemic vascular function, measured with forearm flow mediated dilatation, in acute and stable cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacker David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with alteration in systemic markers of vascular function. We measured forearm vascular function (using forearm flow mediated dilatation to clarify whether recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA is associated with impaired systemic vascular function. Methods Prospective case control study enrolling 17 patients with recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA and 17 sex matched controls with stroke more than two years previously. Forearm vascular function was measured using flow medicated dilatation (FMD. Results Flow mediated dilatation was 6.0 ± 1.1% in acute stroke/TIA patients and 4.7 ± 1.0% among control subjects (p = 0.18. The mean paired difference in FMD between subjects with recent acute stroke and controls was 1.25% (95% CI -0.65, 3.14; p = 0.18. Endothelium independent dilatation was measured in six pairs of participants and was similar in acute stroke/TIA patients (22.6 ± 4.3% and control subjects (19.1 ± 2.6%; p = 0.43. Conclusions Despite the small size of this study, these data indicate that recent acute stroke is not necessarily associated with a clinically important reduction in FMD.

  3. Combined Endovascular Treatment with Distal Radial Artery Coil Embolization and Angioplasty in Steal Syndrome Associated with Forearm Dialysis Fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercan, Fahri, E-mail: ftercan@yahoo.com; Koçyiğit, Ali, E-mail: alkoc@yahoo.com [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Güney, Bünyamin [Muğla Sıtkı Kocman University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    PurposeThe present study was performed to define the results of the endovascular treatment with angioplasty and distal radial artery embolization in ischemic steal syndrome associated with forearm arteriovenous accesses.MethodThe cases referred to our interventional radiology unit with symptoms and physical examination findings suggestive of ischemic steal syndrome were retrospectively evaluated first by Doppler ultrasonography, and then by angiography. Cases with proximal artery stenosis were applied angioplasty, and those with steal syndrome underwent coil embolization to distal radial artery.ResultsOf 589 patients who underwent endovascular intervention for dialysis arteriovenous fistulae (AVF)-associated problems, 6 (1.01 %) (5 female, 1 males; mean age 62 (range 41–78) with forearm fistula underwent combined endovascular treatment for steal syndrome. In addition to steal phenomenon, there were stenosis and/or occlusion in proximal radial and/or ulnar artery in 6 patients concurrently. Embolization of distal radial artery and angioplasty to proximal arterial stenoses were performed in all patients. Ischemic symptoms were eliminated in all patients and the AVF were in use at the time of study. In one patient, ischemic symptoms recurring 6 months later were alleviated by repeat angioplasty of ulnar artery.ConclusionIn palmar arch steal syndrome affecting forearm fistulae, combined distal radial embolization and angioplasty is also an effective treatment method in the presence of proximal radial and ulnar arterial stenoses and occlusions.

  4. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Necmettin; Ardic, Füsun

    2008-04-21

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  5. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardic Füsun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  7. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  8. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  9. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  10. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  11. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  12. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  13. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  14. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. ′Sure closure′-skin stretching system, our clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramania K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In clinical practice of reconstructive surgery one of the problems one routinely comes across is skin and soft tissue defects, which require coverage. Coverage of such wounds requires primary/secondary closure, skin grafting or flaps. The objective of our clinical series was to assess the efficacy of sure closure skin stretching system for closure of defects which otherwise would have required major flap cover or skin grafting. Methods: Our series included five patients with different causes and types of wound defects namely: 1. Post-traumatic soft tissue defect on dorsum of hand. 2. Post fasciotomy wound on leg (anterolateral aspect. 3. Abdominal wound dehiscence following surgery for enterocutaneous fistula. 4. Leg soft tissue defect following dehiscence of fasciocutaneous flap. 5. Secondary defect following harvesting a lateral arm/forearm free flap. The device was applied to skin edges after preparing the wound under local anesthesia and the skin edges were brought together by turning the skin-stretching knob. After adequate approximation of the edges of the wound it was sutured by conventional suturing techniques. Results: All the wounds could be successfully closed using the skin stretching system in our series. The time taken for the closure ranged from 2 to 48 h. Conclusions: Sure closure skin stretching system is an effective device for closing some of the skin defects which otherwise would have required skin flaps or grafts. In all the patients wound closure could be achieved by this method and was carried out under local anesthesia. Use of this technique is simple and helps to reduce the morbidity and cost of treatment by allowing the reconstructive surgeon to avoid using major flaps or grafts.

  16. Variation of skin surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, M Q; Xin, S J; Song, S P; Cho, S Y; Zhang, X J; Tu, C X; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests the importance of skin biophysical properties in predicting diseases and in developing appropriate skin care. The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and sebum content in both genders and at various ages have been inconclusive, which was in part due to small sample size. Additionally, little is known about the skin physical properties of Asian, especially Chinese, subjects. In the present study, we assess the difference in skin surface pH, sebum content and SC hydration at various ages and in both genders in a large Chinese population without skin diseases. 713 subjects (328 males and 385 females) aged 0.5-94 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided by age into 5 groups, i.e., 0-12, 13-35, 36-50, 51-70 and over 70 years old. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration, skin surface pH and sebum content on both the forehead and the forearms. In males, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 36-50 (93.47 +/- 10.01 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (9.16 +/- 1.95 microg/cm(2)), while in females, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 13-35 (61.91 +/- 6.12 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (7.54 +/- 2.55 microg/cm(2)). The forehead sebum content was higher in males aged 13-70 years than in age-matched females; the sebum content on the forehead in both males and females was higher than that on the forearm. Skin surface pH on the forehead of both males and females over the age of 70 years was higher than that in younger groups. SC hydration on the forehead in both males and females was lower above the age of 70, and the one in males aged 13-35 was higher than that in females (43.99 +/- 1.88 vs. 36.38 +/- 1.67 AU, p pH, sebum content and SC hydration vary with age, gender and body site. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Checking your skin regularly can help you notice any unusual changes. Follow your health care provider's recommendations on how often to ...

  18. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  19. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  20. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until