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Sample records for voided urine cytology

  1. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

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    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  2. Cytological features of carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini in voided urine cytology.

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    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Haba, Reiji

    2009-09-01

    Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CCDB) is a rare histological type of renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the cytological features of CCDB in voided urine, confirmed on the basis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The CCDB cells occurred singly in loose aggregates and in small clusters, occasionally in a rosette-like structure. There were various types of cancer cells, including round to oval, spindle, and tadpole-like cells. The nuclei usually showed coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and lacy to vacuolated cytoplasm. CCDB of the kidney is a rare cytodiagnostic challenge in voided urine cytology alone. When the cytological diagnosis is considered, it is necessary to perform immunocytochemistry and correlate the clinical history and imaging studies.

  3. Cytokeratin-20 immunocytochemistry in voided urine cytology and its comparison with nuclear matrix protein-22 and urine cytology in the detection of urothelial carcinoma.

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    Srivastava, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Aggarwal, Seema; Bhatia, Arati; Singh, Navjeevan; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-09-01

    This study was done on 59 subjects (42 urinary bladder carcinoma patients and 17 non-neoplastic controls). Urine cytology and bladder chek NMP22 test was done on all cases. CK20 immunostaining was performed on archived papanicolaou stained urine cytology smears in 34 cases (27 bladder carcinoma and 7 negative controls). Results of all three tests (cytology, NMP22, and CK20 immunostaining) were compared with histopathology to evaluate the accuracy of individual test. The combination of cytology and NMP22 was compared with combination of cytology and CK20 immunostaining for detection of bladder carcinoma. NMP22 had sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 70.6%, as compared with voided urine cytology (sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 76.5%) and CK20 immunostaining (sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 71.4%). Combination of cytology and NMP22 gave better results (sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 88.2%) than combination of cytology and CK20 immunostaining or any other test in isolation.

  4. Increased risk of malignancy for non-atypical urothelial cell groups compared to negative cytology in voided urine. Morphological changes with LBC.

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    Granados, Rosario; Butrón, Mercedes; Santonja, Carlos; Rodríguez, José-María; Martín, Ana; Duarte, Joanny; Camarmo, Encarnación; Corrales, Teresa; Aramburu, José-Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has recently become the preferred method for urine cytology analysis, but differences with conventional cytology (CC) have been observed. The purpose of this study is to analyze these differences and the clinical relevance of non-atypical urothelial cell groups (UCG) in voided urine specimens. Reporting terminology is discussed. Initially, diagnostic categories from 619 LBC and 474 CC samples, reviewed by five different pathologists, were compared (phase 1). Five years after LBC was implemented and applying strict cytologic criteria for UCG diagnosis, 760 samples were analyzed (phase 2) and compared to previous LBC specimens. Diagnostic differences, interobserver variability and clinicopathological correlation with a 6-month follow-up, were analyzed. UCG increased from 6.5% with CC to 20.7% (218%, 3.2 fold, P < 0.0001) with LBC. This difference was not related to interobserver variability. Five years later, the rate of UCG had decreased to 13 2%. While 6% of cases with a negative cytology had urothelial carcinoma (UC) within 6 months of diagnosis, this percentage increased to 15.7% with UCG. The sensitivity of the UCG category for UC was low (30.4%), but the specificity and the negative predictive value (NPV) were high (87.1% and 94%, respectively). LBC increases UCG when compared to CC. This can be corrected with observeŕs experience and using set cytological criteria. Due to its association with carcinoma, the presence of UCG in voided urine should be framed in a diagnostic category other than "negative for malignancy." Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:582-590. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cytomorphological characteristics of low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma for differential diagnosis from benign papillary urothelial lesions: logistic regression analysis in SurePath(™) liquid-based voided urine cytology.

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    Chung, Y R; Won, J K; Park, I A; Moon, K C; Chung, S Y; Lee, K; Ryu, H S

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC) in urine cytology specimens is challenging because of its subtle, minimally atypical findings. Furthermore, as SurePath(™) liquid-based cytology (LBC) is becoming a widely used method in urine cytology, the inevitable cytomorphological alterations resulting from this technique call for new morphological diagnostic criteria in LGPUC. Logistic regression analysis was carried out on SurePath slides from surgically proven voided urine specimens. The study was designed to include a test set (n = 141) and a validation set (n = 61), and evaluated significant discriminative parameters between LGPUC and benign papillary urothelial neoplasm (BPUN). Of the seven cytological findings that were found to have statistical significance in univariate analysis, five were found to be independent variables: loss of polarity of papillaroid clusters, irregular contours, absence of columnar cells, hobnail features and hyperchromasia. These independent variables had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.781. The distinctive cytological criteria identified above may prove to be helpful in cases in which other conventional criteria for LGPUC are insufficient for diagnosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adequacy of urine cytology specimens: an assessment of collection techniques.

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    Hundley, Andrew F; Maygarden, Susan; Wu, Jennifer M; Visco, Anthony G; Connolly, AnnaMarie

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the method of urine collection impacts the adequacy and cell counts of cytology specimens in a low-risk population. Voided, post-cystometrogram (CMG), and bladder irrigant specimens were collected and evaluated for cytologic adequacy and average cell count by a single cytopathologist masked to the source of each sample. Data were analyzed to detect differences in specimen adequacy and cell counts based on method of collection. Both the voided and post-CMG specimens (97.3%, 93.7% respectively) were significantly more likely to be adequate compared to the bladder irrigant specimen (11.7%, p urine dipstick (p = 0.03). No cytologic abnormalities were diagnosed. Whereas both spontaneously voided and post-CMG specimens were consistently adequate for interpretation, spontaneous voided specimens were optimal with regard to maximizing cell count/hpf.

  7. Sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma of kidney diagnosed with urine and renal pelvic lavage cytology.

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    Mimura, Akihiro; Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    A case of sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of kidney is presented, in which the diagnosis was made cytologically with voided urine and renal pelvis lavage. Cytology of hemorrhagic voided urine revealed highly atypical adenocarcinoma cells with reminiscent ductal structure, which suggested CDC as the most likely diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left renal tumor, and selective lavage of left renal pelvis yielded spindle-shaped, highly atypical cells that indicated sarcomatoid carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal cancer with urine cytology is challenging because of small number of tumor cells in the urine, which are often associated with degeneration. As the urinary cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC have not been reported, the characteristic cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC are described in detail, and the differential diagnoses with diagnostic pitfalls were discussed.

  8. Measurement of post-void residual urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asimakopoulos, Anastasios D.; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Kocjancic, Ervin; Tubaro, Andrea; Rosier, Peter F.; Finazzi-Agrò, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aims To present the teaching module "Measurement of Post-void residual urine." Methods This module has been prepared by a Working Group of the ICS Urodynamics Committee. The methodology used included comprehensive literature review, consensus formation by the members of the Working Group, and review

  9. [Urine cytology - update 2013. A systematic review of recent literature].

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    Böhm, M; vom Dorp, F; Schostak, M; Hakenberg, O W

    2013-09-01

    Urine cytology is an important element of the diagnosis and follow-up of urothelial carcinomas and is recommended in most relevant guidelines. Urine-based marker systems are advocated as an adjunct to or a replacement of urine cytology. Urine cytology also has its place in the diagnosis of benign diseases. This systematic review describes and discusses the literature on urine cytology published since 2010.

  10. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

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    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature.

  11. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique...

  12. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

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    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  13. Microfilaria in a patient of achylous hematuria: A rare finding in urine cytology

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    Arvind Ahuja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a widespread public health problem seen commonly in tropical countries. Microfilariae have been reported in aspiration smears from various sites. However, it is very rare to detect these organisms in voided centrifuged urine cytology. We, report this rare finding in a 25-year-old patient who presented with achylous hematuria.

  14. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

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    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  15. The influence of urine cytology on our practice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bladder cancer is a common malignancy. It is ranked ninth among male population in Saudi Arabia. Urine cytology is used by some physicians routinely in the workup for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with urothelial cancer. Our objective is to determine whether urine cytology is still essential in the work up of suspected urothelial cancer patients and to measure its cost-effectiveness. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all urine cytology reports that were performed over a ...

  16. A review of reporting systems and terminology for urine cytology.

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    Owens, Christopher L; Vandenbussche, Christopher J; Burroughs, Frances H; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2013-01-01

    Urine cytology continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma, a common cancer of adults with significant morbidity and mortality. Because of its high sensitivity for high-grade urothelial tumors, including lesions that may be cystoscopically occult, urine cytology nicely compliments cystoscopic examination, a method that detects most low-grade tumors. Over the decades, several reporting schemes for urine cytology have been published in the literature, each of which has relative strengths and weaknesses. Unlike cervical cytology, there has not been widespread acceptance and use of any particular reporting scheme for urine cytology studies. Thus, terminology and criteria for urine cytology reporting are not uniform among pathologists, which can frustrate clinicians and hinders interlaboratory comparisons.

  17. Mechanical characterization of benign and malignant urothelial cells from voided urine

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    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Geddie, William B.; Sun, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether mechanical differences exist between benign and malignant urothelial cells in voided urine. The Young's modulus of individual cells was measured using the micropipette aspiration technique. Malignant urothelial cells showed significantly lower Young's modulus values compared to benign urothelial cells. The results indicate that Young's modulus as a biomechanical marker could possibly provide additional information to conventional urinary cytology. We hope that these preliminary results could evoke attention to mechanical characterization of urine cells and spark interest in the development of biomechanical approaches to enhance non-invasive urothelial carcinoma detection.

  18. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  19. Voided stain on paper method for analysis of mouse urination.

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    Sugino, Y; Kanematsu, A; Hayashi, Y; Haga, H; Yoshimura, N; Yoshimura, K; Ogawa, O

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a quantification method using filter paper for analyzing minute voided urine of the mouse. Voided stain on paper (VSOP) method; the correlation between area of stained spot on a filter paper and amount of applied liquid was calculated. Voiding behavior of the mice was analyzed by placing the animal above the same filter paper and recording voided time and area over 2 hr. The usefulness of the VSOP method was tested in analysis of the voiding behavior of five female 7-week-old ddY mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CPM, 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and five control ones, in comparison with the histology of CPM-induced cystitis. Further, the voided volume of male and female ddY mouse ranging from 2 to 13 weeks was assessed. There was a linear correlation between liquid volume and stained area on the filter paper (y = 16.472x - 22.411, R(2) = 0.9981). Between control mice and those with histologically proven CPM cystitis, there was a significant difference in voided volume (362.7 +/- 51.9 and 127.8 +/- 100.0 microl, VSOP method is a useful tool for evaluating voiding behavior of the mouse, including those with small bladder capacity.

  20. Comparison of the urine-based tumor marker Lewis X and voided urine cytology in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma in the bladder%血型抗原Lewis X免疫组化染色法与尿液脱细胞学对膀胱移行细胞癌的诊断比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文夏; 李如昌; 陈刚; 桂律

    2007-01-01

    目的:采用多中心临床试验方案,以病理诊断为金标准,比较尿液Lewis X 抗原免疫组化染色法与尿液脱落细胞学(voided urine cytology,VUC)对膀胱移行细胞癌(TCC)的诊断价值.方法:受试对象为258例因怀疑膀胱癌收住入院的患者以及97例膀胱癌保留膀胱手术后随访患者.尿液脱落细胞标本分别行常规细胞学检查和免疫组化Envision二步法Lewis X抗原染色,计数每100个脱落细胞所含阳性染色细胞数目.结果:根据ROC曲线得出最佳阈值为5个阳性细胞/100脱落细胞,此时灵敏度单次试验为82.1%~84.2%,特异性为80.3%~78.9%,2次测定作为平行试验灵敏度为86.8%,特异性为77.0%;灵敏度提高,特异性略有下降.以11个阳性细胞/100脱落细胞为阈值的灵敏度和特异性分别为66.0%和95.4%.VUC的灵敏度和特异性分别为47.6%和94.7%.结论:Lewis X抗原灵敏度高于VUC,对低分级、早期肿瘤差别尤其明显.与B型超声结合可以提高灵敏度.

  1. Comparison of two liquid preservatives for SurePath™ slides prepared from voided urine.

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    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Irino, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Blood-rich gynecologic specimens can be problematic in the processing of liquid-based cytology. However, little is known about the influence of erythrocytes and protein on urine specimens. In addition, the SurePath™ system has two preservatives for non-gynecologic specimens. In this study, we compared the epithelial cell counts and cytomorphology obtained from CytoRich™ (CR) Red and CR Blue. A total of 98 voided urine samples were processed using both CR Red and CR Blue. We made an assessment of the epithelial cell counts, fixation, and staining quality, and backgrounds of both slides. Urine protein and urine erythrocyte counts were analyzed, and those data were compared with the epithelial cell counts in CR Red and CR Blue slides. Overall, epithelial cell counts were equivalent for both CR Red and CR Blue slides. However, in high-level proteinuria cases, the CR Red slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Blue slides. On the other hand, in microscopic hematuria cases, the CR Blue slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Red slides. We have found both CR Red and CR Blue to be available for urine cytology. However, it is important to note that CR Blue is inferior to CR Red in epithelial cell recovery rates in cases of high-level proteinuria.

  2. Diagnostic significance of atypical category in the voided urine samples: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center

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    Mokhtar Ghadeer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voided urine samples continue to play an important role in the surveillance of urothelial malignancy and also as a screening mode for high risk patients. In some cases, it is difficult to reliably distinguish changes induced by inflammation, stone or other reactive condition from neoplasm, and these cases are categorized as atypical. The aim of our study is to evaluate the prevalence and the significance of atypical diagnosis in the voided urine samples and also to identify the cytomorphologic features that are seen more frequently in the atypical malignant urine samples. Materials and Methods: All voided urine cytology samples with a diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells, between the period of 2000 and 2009, were obtained from the cytology database. Only those cases with histologic follow-up were included in the study. The cytology and the histology slides were retrieved and reviewed. The following parameters were evaluated: cellularity, cell clusters, nuclear membrane irregularities, hyperchromasia and India-ink type nuclei, the presence of spindle cells and the cytoplasmic characteristics. Results: Out of 72 voided urine samples included in the study, 49 cases (68% had a positive histologic diagnosis of urothelial malignancy in the follow-up histology; of these (55% were high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Increased cellularity, papillary cell clusters, nuclear membrane irregularity, hyperchromasia and India-ink type nuclei were observed more frequently in the atypical malignant urine samples, while cytoplasmic vacuolization were seen more in the negative reactive urine samples. Conclusion: The atypical category diagnosis is associated with a significant proportion of urothelial carcinoma. It should be used by the pathologist to convey concern to the clinician in difficult cases that may require close follow-up.

  3. [Exfoliative urine cytology in the treatment of bladder cancer].

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    Tschirdewahn, S; Vom Dorp, F; Rübben, H; Hakenberg, O W

    2011-03-01

    Urine cytology in addition to cystoscopy and transurethral resection is an integral part in diagnostic and follow-up of transitional carcinomas. The WHO-Classification of 2004 distinguishes between low grade and high grade tumours. Cytological diagnosis had to be adjusted to this new classification.Above all cytology has to detect high grade lesions in a reliable manner. The sensitivity for these lesions ranges between 85-95%. Well differentiated transitional cell carcinomas show marginal nuclear alterations compared to normal urothelial cells. Therefore the cytological low grade diagnosis is needless. Well differentiated papillary tumours can be detected with conventional cystoscopy in nearly 100 percent of all cases. This subtype of urothelial carcinomas is characterized by a very low rate of tumour progression despite a relevant rate of tumour recurrence. A negative cytology result combined with a cystoscopically proven papillary bladder tumour implies low grade disease with low risk of tumour progression.

  4. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

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    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  5. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

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    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth.

  6. Usefulness of liquid-based preparation in urine cytology.

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    Hwang, Eu Chang; Park, Seong Hoon; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang; Park, Chang Soo

    2007-07-01

    ThinPrep (TP), a liquid-based cytological and non-invasive technique to confirm the diagnosis of bladder cancer, is reported to be a better screening test than the conventional cytospin method. This study compared the new MonoPrep2 (MP), a liquid-based cytological technique, with TP for diagnosing bladder cancer. Between January 2003 and June 2004, urine samples from 284 patients were processed using the TP and MP methods. The cytological diagnosis and the determination of specimen quality were performed separately. The cytological diagnoses were classified into four categories: unsatisfactory, benign, borderline, and malignant. A subsequent biopsy was performed in 73 patients. The cytological diagnoses were compared with the biopsy results to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the two methods. Considering all the features examined, the overall specimen quality was comparable between the MP and TP techniques in the majority of cases. The rate of satisfactory specimens was 100% for TP and 98.6% for MP. The diagnostic capacity was similar between MP and TP. The overall sensitivities with MP and TP were 58.6 and 62.0%, respectively, and the specificities were 100 and 97.7%; the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). MP and TP produced comparable results in diagnosing bladder cancer. As MP is less expensive than TP, we recommend MP as an alternative liquid-based cytology method for use in bladder cancer screening.

  7. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

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    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  8. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  9. Efficacy of voided urinary cytology and ultrasonography compared to cystoscopy in the detection of urinary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Voided urinary cytology can be omitted as a screening test. Ultrasonography can be recommended as the initial imaging investigation for detection of bladder carcinoma in patients presenting with hematuria and for follow up of bladder carcinoma patients.

  10. Correlation of urine cytology with ABO(H) antigenicity in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Cell surface ABO(H) antigenicity of superficial bladder tumours was assessed by the indirect immunoperoxidase test in 49 patients. Good correlation was obtained between surface antigenicity of tumours and the results of urine cytology. Malignant cells were detected cytologically in 22(56%) of cases with ABO(H) antigen negative tumours which are known to behave more aggressively than ABO(H) antigen positive ones. In contrast, malignant cells were found in the urine cytology of only one (10%) o...

  11. Correlation of urine cytology with ABO(H) antigenicity in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    DAS, G.; Glashan, R W

    1988-01-01

    Cell surface ABO(H) antigenicity of superficial bladder tumours was assessed by the indirect immunoperoxidase test in 49 patients. Good correlation was obtained between surface antigenicity of tumours and the results of urine cytology. Malignant cells were detected cytologically in 22(56%) of cases with ABO(H) antigen negative tumours which are known to behave more aggressively than ABO(H) antigen positive ones. In contrast, malignant cells were found in the urine cytology of only one (10%) o...

  12. Comparisons of voided urine cytology, nuclear matrix protein-22 and bladder tumor associated antigen tests for bladder cancer of geriatric male patients in Taiwan, China%中国台湾老年男性膀胱癌检测中尿脱落细胞学、核基质蛋白22和膀胱癌相关抗原检测的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H.Tsui; S.M.Chen; T. M. Wang; H. H. Juang; C. L.Chen; G.H.Sun; P. L.Chang

    2007-01-01

    目的:比较膀胱癌相关抗原(BTA TRAK),核基质蛋白22(NMP 22)和尿脱落细胞学(VUC)检测膀胱癌的结果.方法:共有135名老年人和50名健康志愿者参与了本研究并分为三组:(I)93名膀胱癌患者;(ii)42名尿良性症状患者;(iii)50名健康志愿者.用BTA TRAK和NMP 22试剂盒检测膀胱癌,用尿脱落细胞学比较筛查的灵敏性和特异性.结果:尿脱落细胞学、BTA TRAK和NMP 22的灵敏性和特异性分别为24%和97%、51%和73%、78%和73%.NMP 22的水平随肿瘤的级别升高而上升.在筛查检测中,BTA TRAK灵敏性最低,NMP22灵敏性最高,能辅助尿脱落细胞学检测膀胱癌.结论:NMP22比BTA TRAK更符合膀胱癌的分级.由于在医院或门诊无法获得细胞单位,NMP22很有希望成为一种筛查膀胱癌的工具.%Aim: To compare the results of bladder tumor associated antigen (BTA TRAK), nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP 22) and voided urine cytology (VUC) in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: A total of 135 elderly male and 50 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study were classified into three groups: (i) 93 patients with bladder cancer; (ii) 42 patients with urinary benign conditions; and (iii) 50 healthy volunteers. BTA TRAK and NMP 22 kits were used to detect bladder cancer. Voided urine cytology was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the screening tests.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytology, BTA TRAK and NMP 22 were 24% and 97%, 51% and 73%,78% and 73%, respectively. The level of NMP 22 increased with tumor grading. The BTA TRAK kit has the lowest sensitivity among the screening tests. The NMP 22 with the best sensitivity can be an adjunct to cytology for evaluating bladder cancer. Conclusion: The NMP 22 test has a better correlation with the grading of the bladder cancer than BTA TRAK. As cytology units are typically not available in hospitals or in outpatient clinics, NMP 22 might be a promising tool for screening bladder cancer

  13. The significance of cytologic examination of urine in the diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction

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    Tatomirović Željka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper presents our experience with cytologic examination of urine in diagnosing renal allograft dysfunction. Methods. The study group included 23 patients with renal allograft dysfunction, selected from 56 patients who underwent renal transplantation. Etiologic diagnosis was made according to the clinical picture, histological findings during allograft biopsy, and cytologic examination of urine. Urine sediment was obtained in cytocentrifuge and was air dried and stained with May Grunwald Giemsa. Results. Out of 23 patients with allograft dysfunction in 18 (78.3% patient it was caused by acute rejection, and in 5 (8.9% patients by allograft infarction, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity, acute tubular necrosis and chronic nephropathy. In eighteen patients (78.3% cytologic examination of urine was pathologic, while in 16 (70% clinical and histology findings coincided with urine cytology findings. Out of 18 patients with acute allograft rejection in 15 patients cytologic examination of urine coincided with acute rejection. Out of 7 patients with expressed cyclosporine nephrotoxicity, in 5 cytologic examination of urine confirmed the cause of allograft dysfunction, as well as in one of 2 patients with acute tubular necrosis. Cytologic examination of urine indicated parenchymal damage in 2 patients with reccurent disease (membranoproliferative and focal sclerosing glomerulonephritis. In 4 of 5 patients suffering from chronic rejection in a year’s monitoring period, urine sediment periodically consisted of lymphocytes, neutrophilic leucocytes, monocyte/macrophages, tubular cells and cilindres, without the predominance of any cell type. In 3 patients allograft dysfunction was caused by infective agents (bacteria, fungus cytomegalovirus. Conclusion. Cytologic examination of urine might be an alternative to histological in diagnosing acute allograft rejection and acute tubular necrosis or nephtotoxicity. Also it might indicate parenchymal

  14. A 3-plex methylation assay combined with the FGFR3 mutation assay sensitively detects recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandimalla, Raju; Masius, Roy; Beukers, Willemien;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: DNA methylation is associated with bladder cancer and these modifications could serve as useful biomarkers. FGFR3 mutations are present in 60% to 70% of non–muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Low-grade bladder cancer recurs in more than 50% of patients. The aim of this study......, and nonmalignant urines (n = 130). Results: The 3-plex assay identified recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine with a sensitivity of 74% in the validation set. In combination with the FGFR3 mutation assay, a sensitivity of 79% was reached (specificity of 77%). Sensitivity of FGFR3 and cytology was 52% and 57......%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of methylation and FGFR3 assays efficiently detects recurrent bladder cancer without the need for stratification of patients regarding methylation/mutation status of the primary tumor. We conclude that the sensitivity of this combination is in the same range...

  15. Urine cytology in the evaluation of urological malignancy revisited: is it still necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falebita, Opeyemi Adegboyega

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. METHODS: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution\\'s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and\\/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. CONCLUSIONS: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

  16. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  17. Urine sensor device for fluoroscopy time reduction in pediatric voiding cystourethrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, O.R., E-mail: obrook@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa (Israel); Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Brook, A. [Department of Mathematics, Technion, Haifa (Israel); Soudack, M. [Pediatric Radiology Unit, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer Medical Center (Israel)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the feasibility of a using urine sensor for voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and its implications for fluoroscopy time reduction. Materials and methods: Institutional Review Board approved the study protocol. Study population included children less than 5 years old referred to our institution for VCUG. Patients with known vesicoureteral reflux or any pacing device were excluded from the study. The urine sensor consists of an electrode that senses the fluid, an electrical circuit and an indicator to provide visual signal. The urine sensor electrode was placed on the medial thigh in the proximity of the catheter close to the urethral opening, but without direct contact to it. A standard VCUG examination was performed with retrograde filling of the urinary bladder. Once the bladder was full, fluoroscopy of the voiding stage was initiated when the indicator blinked. Peak kV and fluoroscopy time were recorded. Results: Seven patients underwent VCUG with urine sensor and 22 patients without urine sensor. The urine sensor provided a reliable indication of voiding onset. The fluoroscopy time was significantly shorter with urine sensor use (1.99 min) than without urine sensor use (4.33 min) (p = 0.001). In patients with normal VCUG, fluoroscopy time was also significantly shorter with urine sensor use (2.13 min) than without urine sensor use (4.39 min) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: VCUG studies with the help of the urine sensor are feasible and its use may result in significant reduction in fluoroscopy time.

  18. Diagnostic value of symptoms and clean-voided urine specimen in childhood urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, J; Vilska, J; Koskimies, O

    1979-05-01

    In diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) the symptoms of 477 infants and children and the findings in their clean-voided urine specimens were evaluated. 322 patients were considered infected, when a bacterial culture of suprapubic aspirate was used as a diagnostic reference. No diagnosis was attempted on the basis of symptoms only. Numerous bacteria or greater than or equal to 200 leuc./mm3 in an uncentrifuged clean-voided urine specimen or greater than or equal to 10(5) bact./ml in quantitative bacterial culture were found in 59%, 42% and 81% of the infected symptomatic patients. The diagnostic accuracies of these indices were 88%, 94% and 95%, respectively. In asymptomatic patients the accuracies were considerably lower. Among these infected patients normal or equivocal isolated findings in the clean-voided urine specimens were frequently seen, and could not markedly be reduced by the various related factors, such as technique of urine collection, urine specific gravity or pH of urine. None of the above mentioned indices of the clean-voided urine specimens seems to be alone accurate and sensitive enough for diagnosing UTI, and therefore these should be used in combination. The advantage of immediately obtaining results supports the use of urine microscopy as a primary diagnostic method in symptomatic UTI of childhood in particular.

  19. Demand management in urine cytology: a single cytospin slide is sufficient

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Aims—Current practice in most laboratories stipulates the preparation of duplicate slides for the analysis of urine cytology specimens. This study evaluates whether the duplicate slide is necessary.

  20. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples.

  1. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human polyoma virus causes renal dysfunction and graft loss as a result of tubulo-interstial nephritis in renal transplant recipients after reactivation of latent virus in renal epithelium. The infected cells in the urinary sediments are characterized by large homogenous inclusions, which may cause diagnostic error in urine cytology. The epithelial cells with polyoma viral inclusions in urine cytology specimens are termed Decoy cells to caution pathologists not to misdiagnose these cells as cancer cells. We present a case of polyoma viral changes detected the first time in our laboratory in the urine of a 46year old male who underwent renal transplantation six months back and followed by immunotherapy. Urine cytological examination showed decoy cells and subsequently revealed on histopathology. Immunoperoxidase staining for SV-40 LT antigen (LT ag, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, p53 and Rb genes were also studied in the tissue sections for further observation. The expression of SV40 LT ag was negative, while PCNA showed strong positivity; p53 and Rb were expressed moderately in the nuclei of cells in the tubules. The report of a case of decoy cells in the urine of a patient with renal transplantation focuses the importance of cytologic analysis of urine as a diagnostic tool for screening renal transplant recipients at risk of polyoma viral infection.

  2. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, K Raveendran; Jayasree, K; Pisharody, Ramdas; Abraham, Elizabeth K

    2010-01-01

    Human polyoma virus causes renal dysfunction and graft loss as a result of tubulo-interstial nephritis in renal transplant recipients after reactivation of latent virus in renal epithelium. The infected cells in the urinary sediments are characterized by large homogenous inclusions, which may cause diagnostic error in urine cytology. The epithelial cells with polyoma viral inclusions in urine cytology specimens are termed Decoy cells to caution pathologists not to misdiagnose these cells as cancer cells. We present a case of polyoma viral changes detected the first time in our laboratory in the urine of a 46year old male who underwent renal transplantation six months back and followed by immunotherapy. Urine cytological examination showed decoy cells and subsequently revealed on histopathology. Immunoperoxidase staining for SV-40 LT antigen (LT ag), expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and Rb genes were also studied in the tissue sections for further observation. The expression of SV40 LT ag was negative, while PCNA showed strong positivity; p53 and Rb were expressed moderately in the nuclei of cells in the tubules. The report of a case of decoy cells in the urine of a patient with renal transplantation focuses the importance of cytologic analysis of urine as a diagnostic tool for screening renal transplant recipients at risk of polyoma viral infection.

  3. The value of urine cytologic examination findings in the diagnosis of the acute renal allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomirović Željka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute rejection of allograft is one of the most serious complications of renal transplantation that requires fast and precise diagnostic approach. In this paper our experience in cytologic urinalysis as a diagnostic method of the acute renal allograft rejection was reviewed. Methods. The study group included 20 of 56 patients with transplanted kidneys who were assumed for the acute allograft rejection according to allograft dysfunction and/or urine cytology findings. Histological findings confirmed allograft rejection in 4 patients. Urine sediment obtained in cytocentrifuge was air-dried and stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Acute allograft rejection was suspected if in 10 fields under high magnification 15 or more lymphocytes with renal tubular cells were found. Results. Acute transplant rejection occured in 32.1% patients. In 15 patients clinical findings of the acute renal allograft rejection corresponded with cytological and histological findings (in the cases in which it was performed. Three patients with clinical signs of the acute allograft rejection were without cytological confirmation, and in 2 patients cytological findings pointed to the acute rejection, but allograft dysfunction was of different etiology (acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. In patients with clinical, cytological and histological findings of the acute allograft rejection urine finding consisted of 58% lymphocytes, 34% neutrophilic leucocytes and 8% monocytes/macrophages on the average. The accuracy of cytologic urinalysis related to clinical and histological finding was 75%. Conclusion. Urine cytology as the reliable noninvasive, fast and simple method is appropriate as the a first diagnostic line of renal allograft dysfunction, as well as for monitoring of the graft function.

  4. Repeatability of post-void residual urine ≥ 100 ml in urogynaecologic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Marie-Louise; Lose, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Post-void residual urine (PVR) is a key variable in the assessment of the emptying function of the lower urinary tract and is often used as an outcome measure after treatment. Increased PVR can lead to further investigation and treatment, or cancellation of planned incontinence surgery. In a pros...

  5. Specific detection of prostate cancer cells in urine by multiplex immunofluorescence cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazutoshi; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J; Konishi, Yuko; Isaacs, William B; Ali, Syed; De Marzo, Angelo; Meeker, Alan K

    2009-07-01

    Prostate cancer biomarkers are enriched in urine after prostatic manipulation, suggesting that whole cells might also be detectable for diagnosis. We tested multiplex staining of urinary sediments as a minimally invasive method to detect prostate cancer. Urine samples were collected from 35 men who had prostatic massage (attentive digital rectal examination) in a urology clinic and from 15 control men without urologic disease and without massage, for a total of 50 specimens (27 cancer-positive cases and 23 cancer-negative cases). LNCaP prostate cancer cells spiked into urine were used for initial marker optimization. Urine sediments were cytospun onto glass slides and stained. Multiplex urine cytology was compared with conventional urine cytology for cancer detection; anti-alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase antibody was used as a marker of prostate cancer cells, anti-Nkx3.1 as a marker of prostate epithelial cells, anti-nucleolin as a marker of nucleoli, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to highlight nuclei. Prostate cancer cells were successfully visualized by combined staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, and nucleolin. Of the 25 informative cases with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, 9 were diagnosed as suspicious or positive by multiplex immunofluorescence urine cytology, but only 4 were similarly judged by conventional cytology. All cases without cancer were read as negative by both methods. The multiplex cytology sensitivity for cancer detection in informative cases was 36% (9/25), and specificity was 100% (8/8). In conclusion, we have successfully achieved multiple staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, nucleolin, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to detect prostate cancer cells in urine. Further refinements in marker selection and technique may increase sensitivity and applicability for prostate cancer diagnosis.

  6. Chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis): implications for olfactory communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Harelimana, Innocent H; Goodwin, Thomas E; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Urine serves a communicative function in many mammalian species. In some species, the signaling function of urine can be enhanced by the addition of chemical compounds from glands along the distal portion of the urogenital tract. Although urine marking is the main mode of chemical communication in many primate species, there has been no study of the contribution of urogenital secretions to the chemical complexity of primate urine. Here, we compared the chemical composition of bladder urine versus voided urine in the aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis, a strepsirrhine primate that relies on urine in intraspecific communication. Both types of urine, collected from each of 11 aye-ayes representing both sexes of varying adult ages, underwent headspace analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Although the average number of compounds was similar in bladder and voided urine, 17% of the compounds detected occurred exclusively in voided urine (but only in a subset of individuals). An overall measure of chemical complexity (using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis) showed that both types of urine were chemically different at the individual level. There was no apparent sex or age differences in the chemical components found in aye-aye urine. Nonetheless, the individual dissimilarities between bladder urine and voided urine indicate chemical contributions from structures along the urogenital tract and offer further support for the relevance of urinary communication in the aye-aye.

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay detects upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W T; Li, L Y; Pang, J; Ruan, X X; Sun, Q P; Yang, W J; Gao, X

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a multiprobe FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay for noninvasive detection of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) in patients with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology. Voided urine samples from 285 patients with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology were prospectively analyzed by FISH technique. FISH assays were performed to detect chromosomal changes frequently associated with TCC, including aneuploidy of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17, and loss of the 9p21 locus. Eleven (3.9%) had a positive FISH result. Of the 11 patients, nine (81.8%) were found to have a TCC of the upper urinary tract, while no patients with negative FISH findings were found to have UUT-TCC. In this selected cohort, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH for the detection of UUT-TCC was 100% and 99.3%, respectively. Our preliminary data suggest that the clinical utility of FISH assay of chromosomes 3, 7, 9, and 17 as a noninvasive ancillary test for the diagnosis of UUT-TCC in a selected patient population with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology and by significant high sensitivity and specificity may be a reliable diagnostic approach for early detection of UUT-TCC patients. Further larger prospective and multicenter trials are needed to confirm our results.

  8. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%.

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of hTERT in urothelial lesions: a potential adjunct to urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalbuss Walid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urine cytology has a critical role in evaluation for bladder carcinoma. Due to the low sensitivity of this technique, ancillary modalities such as the detection of markers of malignancy by immunochemistry are desirable. Promising factors in this context are components of the human telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase repairs and extend telomeres, which when eroded beyond a critical limit trigger a senescence checkpoint. Accordingly, while absent in normal somatic cells, telomerase activity has been detected in the great majority of malignant tumor specimens tested, and so has potential value for the recognition of malignant cells in clinical specimens. Methods In this study, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical detection of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT can aid cytology in the diagnosis of bladder lesions. Findings from the retrospective evaluation of over 100 cell blocks, including urine sediments from confirmed malignant and benign conditions, were compared with routine urine cytology data. Results The presence of hTERT protein was indicative of the transformation of urothelia to a malignant phenotype. Nucleolar hTERT was expressed in 27 (93% of 29 samples obtained from patients with confirmed primary bladder cancer. Conversely, hTERT was detectable in only 3 (0.8% of 39 samples from benign conditions. The hTERT assay showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.8% than published urine cytology data (~65% for confirmed bladder carcinoma, however, the hTERT assay was less specific than cytology (65.2% vs. ~95% respectively. Conclusion As a highly sensitive marker, immunohistochemical hTERT detection in urine sediments represents a reliable adjunct to cytology in the accurate diagnosis of urothelial neoplasms.

  10. The use of molecular analyses in voided urine for the assessment of patients with hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukers, Willemien; Kandimalla, Raju; van Houwelingen, Diandra;

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with bladder cancer. In the remaining 115 patients, the cause of hematuria was non-malignant. Urine samples were collected prior to cystoscopy. Urine DNA was analyzed for methylation of OSR1, SIM2, OTX1, MEIS1 and ONECUT2. Methylation percentages were calculated and were combined with clinical...... of 0.307 allowed stratification of patients in a low-risk and high-risk group, resulting in a sensitivity of 82% (44/54) and a specificity of 82% (94/115). Most aggressive tumors were found in patients in the high-risk group. The addition of cytology to the prediction model, improved the AUC from 0...

  11. Telomerase activity in solid transitional cell carcinoma, bladder washings, and voided urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, R S; Aldous, W K; Blaser, J; Thrasher, J B

    1998-03-04

    Telomerase activity has been detected in a wide variety of human malignancies. It appears to be one of the fundamental ingredients necessary for cellular immortality. We sought to determine the incidence of telomerase activity in solid transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) specimens, benign urothelium, bladder washings, and voided urine from patients with TCC identified cystoscopically compared with controls. Telomerase activity was measured in 26 solid bladder cancers and 13 benign urothelial specimens using the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay. Telomerase activity was further measured in the centrifuged cellular material obtained from the bladder washings of 26 patients with TCC and 40 with benign urologic disease found to have a normal cystoscopy. All patients with hematuria were additionally evaluated with an upper tract radiographic examination and found to be free of malignancy. Voided urine was likewise evaluated in 11 patients with TCC, 12 with benign urologic diseases, and 56 asymptomatic control subjects. Telomerase activity was detected in 25 of 26 (96%) solid specimens, 21 of 26 (81%) bladder washings, and 6 of 11 (54%) voided urine specimens from patients with histologically confirmed TCC. In the control group, 2 of 13 (15%) benign urothelial specimens and 2 of 56 (4%) voided urine specimens from the asymptomatic volunteer group demonstrated telomerase activity. Of those with benign urologic disease, 16 of 40 (40%) bladder barbotage specimens and 6 of 12 (50%) voided urine specimens demonstrated telomerase activity. Sensitivity and specificity of telomerase as a marker for TCC were 81% and 60%, respectively, in the bladder washings group and 54% and 50%, respectively, in voided urine. These data indicate that activation of telomerase is frequent in solid TCC and appears to be a sensitive marker in bladder washings of patients with TCC. We noted an unexpectedly high false positive detection rate in

  12. Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Andersen, M-B; Bernstein, I

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if Urine Cytology (UC) is an appropriate screening procedure for detecting urinary tract neoplasia at an early stage in persons at risk in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer families. METHOD: In the National Danish HNPCC-register persons at risk...

  13. Diagnostic utility of p16 immunocytochemistry for Trichomonas in urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case in which p16 immunocytochemistry helped establish the diagnosis of Trichomonas in urine from a male patient. Based on this finding, we recommend p16 immunocytochemistry as a diagnostic tool for unexpected patients or specimen types in which potential trichomonads are identified following routine cytologic evaluation.

  14. Clean-voided urine culture in surveying populations for urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzer, S.

    1959-07-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiologic survey of A Bomb survivors being conducted by the ABCC in Hiroshima, the feasibility of male and female subjects collecting their own clean-voided specimens was tested. Clean-voided, midstream urine specimens were obtained from 441 ambulant, non-hospital subjects and examined by means of the Gram-stain and quantitative culture technique. Collection was performed by the subjects themselves after appropriate instruction, and this yielded specimens satisfactory for quantitative study. The gram-stain of the urinary sediment proved efficient in presaging true bacilluria. The presence of abundant Gram-negative organisms in a fresh urine sediment may be considered presumptive evidence of a urinary tract infection. Utilizing pre-poured, selective media, it was found that counts exceeding 50,000 to 100,000 col./ml. indicate true bacteriuria and will be confirmed by repeated studies. 9 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Artificial neural network in diagnosis of urothelial cell carcinoma in urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidaran, Chandrasekaran; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje; Kakkar, Nandita

    2015-06-01

    To build up an artificial neural network (ANN) model in the diagnosis of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in urine cytology smears. We randomly selected a total of 115 urine cytology samples, out of which 59 were histopathology proven UCC cases and remaining 56 were benign cases from routine cytology samples. All the carcinoma cases were proven on histopathology. Image morphometric analysis was performed on Papanicolaou's stained smears to study nuclear area, diameter, perimeter, standard deviation of nuclear area, and integrated gray density. Detailed cytological features were also studied in each case by two independent observers and were semi-quantitatively graded. The back propagation ANN model was designed as 17-11-3 with the help of heuristic search. The cases were randomly partitioned as training, validation, and testing sets by the program. There were 79 cases for training set, 18 cases for validation set and 18 cases for test set. In the training set, ANN was able to diagnose all the malignant and benign cases. In the test set, all the benign and malignant cases were diagnosed correctly. However, one of the low grade cases was diagnosed as high grade UCC by ANN model. We successfully built an ANN model in urine from the visual and morphometric data to identify the benign and malignant cases. In addition, the system can also identify the low grade and high grade UCC cases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur) vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy) or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology). Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to exp...

  17. Urine cytology to evaluate urinary urothelial damage of shock-wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mahmoud; Pancaroglu, Kuddusi

    2011-06-01

    Our aim is to study the prospective trial where urine cytology was used to detect the acute urothelial mucosal damage in patients who undergo extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (SWL). The study included 48 consecutive patients (28 male, 20 female) with mean age of 49.02 years (range 18-66) who were treated with SWL due to renal stones (30 patients) or upper ureter stones (18 patients). The mean calculi diameter was 12.44 mm (range 5-20). Urinary cytologic examinations were done for all patients immediately before and after SWL therapy and 10 days latter. The average numbers of transitional cells, red blood cells and myocytes were counted under 40 × magnification. In overall patients the average numbers of transitional cells at the cytologic examinations done immediately before and after SWL therapy were 1.6 and 7.53 cell/field, respectively (p = 0.001). The increment in transitional cells at cytologic examination after SWL was significantly influenced only by number of shock waves applied (p = 0.003). No muscle cell was detected in all cytologic examinations. The cytologic examinations which were done after 10 days of SWL therapy showed recovery from all cytologic abnormalities. The acute increment in number of transitional cells after the SWL is not clinically important and it is a temporary change. Urothelial lesion is limited to mucosal layer and there is no evidence of damage to basal membrane or deeper muscle layer. SWL safety on urothelial and muscular layer was demonstrated. However, evaluation of larger series with use of other lithotripters is necessary before reaching any definitive conclusions.

  18. Bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by analysis of first-void-urine specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datcu, Raluca; Gesink, Dionne; Mulvad, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is traditionally diagnosed using vaginal samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BV can be diagnosed from first-void urine (FVU). Self-collected vaginal smears, vaginal swabs, and FVU were obtained from 176 women. BV was diagnosed by Nugent's criteria....... The FVU and vaginal swabs were analyzed by quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) for selected vaginal bacteria (Atopobium vaginae, Prevotella spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 2, Eggerthella-like bacterium, "Leptotrichia amnionii," Megasphaera type 1), and all had an area under...

  19. The Value of Combined Use of Survivin mRNA and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 and 9 for Bladder Cancer Detection in Voided Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Eissa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a trial to improve the diagnostic efficacy of conventional urine cytology we determine survivin RNA and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in urine of bladder cancer cases.

  20. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: Cytologic features in a retrospective series of urine specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas John Heymann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (uPC is a rare variant of urothelial carcinoma that carries a poor prognosis. Definitive surgery may represent optimal management of low stage tumors. Urine cytology is indispensable in the screening and follow-up of urinary tract cancer. However, cytopathological criteria for diagnosis of uPC and its differentiation from conventional urothelial carcinoma (CUC are not well-defined. Materials and Methods : Twenty-five cases of histologically confirmed micropapillary uPC from 21 patients were compared to 25 cases of histologically confirmed high-grade CUC. Results : In uPC cases, cell clusters were identified in 13 of 25 specimens from 10 patients. Six of the 13 specimens containing cell clusters corresponded to surgical pathology specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. In contrast, only 1 of the 12 urine specimens devoid of cell clusters corresponded to surgical specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. Cytomorphologic features of urinary specimens from patients with histologically confirmed micropapillary carcinoma were generally similar to those from patients with high-grade CUC, making it difficult to distinguish these entities in exfoliative urine specimens. Conclusions and Summary : Further investigation of the core cytopathological characteristics of uPC is warranted to refine its diagnostic criteria by exfoliative urine cytology.

  1. The Effects of Instrumentation on Urine Cytology and CK-20 Analysis for the Detection of Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegelin, Olivier; Bartels, Diny W M; Tromp, Ellen; Kuypers, Karel C.; Van Melick, Harm H E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of cystoscopy on urine cytology and additional cytokeratin-20 (CK-20) staining in patients presenting with gross hematuria. Patients and Methods For 83 patients presenting with gross hematuria, spontaneous and instrumented paired urine samples were analyzed. Three p

  2. Early diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, M; Gudat, F; Dalquen, P; Huser, B; Thiel, G; Fujimoto, N; Ichikawa, Y; Fukunishi, T; Nagano, S; Mihatsch, M J

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2000 urine samples from 53 kidney transplant recipients were studied to develop a routine method for the early diagnosis of rejection and cyclosporin (CSA) nephrotoxicity in urine. New-Sternheimer staining and an immunocytochemical technique were used together with classical Papanicolaou staining to differentiate cells in the urine. After cell count and differentiation of second morning urine samples with New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou stains, immunocytochemistry was performed using antibodies against the following antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD71 (transferrin receptor), HLA-DR and cytokeratin (Lu-5). Cell counts were obtained for the positively-reacting cells per millilitre of urine. By New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining, CSA nephrotoxicity was characterized by the predominance of proximal tubular cells. During rejection episodes, increased numbers of mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells were found. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a significant increase in CD2-, CD4-, CD8-, CD25-, CD71-, and HLA-DR-positive epithelial cells and in the ratio HLA-DR/cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells in rejection. CD25-positive cells had the highest sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of rejection. Our urine cytology technique proved to be a useful and non-invasive method for the early diagnosis of rejection and CSA nephrotoxicity.

  3. Comparison of urine cell characteristics by flow cytometry and cytology in patients suspected of having bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlandas-Rendón, Eric; Müller, Mathias M; García-Latorre, Ethel; Heinschink, Angelika

    2002-08-01

    The diagnosis of bladder cancer is confirmed by histological analysis of tissue biopsies. Cytology of urine samples is a noninvasive alternative. The aim of this work was to find out whether flow cytometry of urine samples is more sensitive than cytology. For this purpose we studied 115 patients suspected of having bladder cancer. Cells isolated from urine samples were analyzed by cytometry for the expression of cytokeratin and CD 45 and for DNA measurements such as: DNA index, synthesis phase fraction and proliferative index (SPF + G2/M phase). At the same time we carried out cytological analysis. All positive cases were confirmed by histology (21/115), 18 were diagnosed by flow cytometry and 16 by cytology, with a sensitivity of 85.7% and 76.1%, respectively. Two cases were found to be positive by flow cytometry, which were not confirmed by histology, while no false positives were detected by cytology. We found that both techniques gave almost identical results for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, although there were differences in non-malignant samples. In conclusion, flow cytometry is slightly more sensitive than cytology but the combination of the two techniques improves the diagnosis.

  4. Tissue polypeptide antigen in the follow-up of patients with urinary bladder cancer compared with conventional urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantis, Athanasios; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Sountoulides, Petros; Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Athanassiadou, Paulina; Agelonidou, Eleni; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has demonstrated a rapid increase during the last decades. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical value of serum tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) as a tumour marker for urinary bladder cancer in comparison with conventional urine cytology. Urine and blood samples were obtained from a total of 108 patients (group A) with a known history of bladder cancer, who presented for their routine 3 month follow-up. These 108 patients included 45 patients with high grade and 63 patients with low grade bladder cancer, and 30 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and no history of bladder cancer (group B). Urine and blood samples from fifty healthy adults (group C) were also tested; this group served as the control group for estimating the normal range of serum TPA values. In all group A patients cystoscopy and/or bladder biopsies were performed. All blood and urine samples were tested for TPA and conventional urine cytology respectively. Results showed that the upper normal range for TPA was 1.0 ng/mL(0.9 ± 0.04) in the control group. For the subgroups of patients with high and low grade bladder cancer elevated serum TPA levels were found in 52% and 40% of the patients respectively. The overall serum TPA sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 85% respectively for patients with known bladder cancer (group A). We found the sensitivity of cytology for high grade bladder (GIII) carcinomas to be 72%; however when urine cytology was combined with serum TPA the overall sensitivity reached 80%. We conclude that serum TPA combined with urine cytology may be used as a prognostic marker for bladder cancer.

  5. Urothelial carcinoma with oncocytic features: an extremely rare case presenting a diagnostic challenge in urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing histological variants in urothelial carcinoma (UC) is important because some may be associated with different clinical outcomes and/or therapeutic approaches; being aware of unusual histological variants may also be crucial in preventing diagnostic misinterpretations. Histological variants based on cytoplasmic features, such as clear-cell, plasmacytoid, rhabdoid, and lipoid-rich variants, are described in invasive UC; however, these cytoplasmic features are not formally defined and not usually encountered in non-invasive UC. Oncocytic cytoplasm has not been well described in either invasive or non-invasive UC. Herein, we report an exceedingly rare case of UC with oncocytic features arising in the right renal pelvis, which presented a diagnostic challenge in urine cytology due to the relatively low nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio; however, it could definitively be diagnosed using histological specimens. UC diagnosis is based on the presence of papillary architecture and widespread p53 nuclear accumulation, suggesting malignancy. An oncocytic tumor is generally considered to be not actively dividing, as shown by the low Ki-67 labeling index in this case. In spite of the low proliferative activity, the possibility of intravesicle recurrence (IVR) should be considered since positive preoperative cytology of upper tract UC is a risk factor for IVR after nephroureterectomy.

  6. Distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes in bladder cancer from different Chinese sub-populations and its implication in cancer detection using voided urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Joanna HM

    2011-05-01

    -populations. These profiles demonstrate gradual increases with cancer progression. Finally, detection of gene methylation in voided urine with these distinct DNA methylation markers is more sensitive than urine cytology.

  7. [Quantitative and qualitative bacteriological studies on urine specimens obtained by suprapubic needle aspiration and on midstream-voided samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, R; Seybold, G; Witzenhausen, R; Hessler, M; Niemeyer, G

    1978-06-24

    In 398 patients with suspected urinary tract infection, quantitative and qualitative bacteriological studies were conducted in urine samples obtained by suprapubic needle aspiration of the bladder (BPU) and in midstream-voided specimens (MSU) collected immediately following the aspirations. In MSU, bacteria were found in 96.5% of all cases and in BPU in only 38.2%. Of the infected MSU, 63.3% showed mixed infections, while mixed cultures were found in only 11.2% of infected BPU. In 80% of the investigated patients, the MSU contained at least one more type of bacteria than the BPU, thus indicating urethral contamination. Of the patients with bladder bacteriuria, only 74% had bacterial counts of 10(5)/ml or more in the midstream-voided urine. Accordingly, 26% of the urinary tract infections diagnosed by bladder aspiration would not have been recognized on the basis of a single bacterial count in the midstream-voided urine. On the other hand, about 4% of patients with bacterial counts of 10(5)/ml or more in the MSU had a sterile bladder aspirate. In 72.4% of the infected BPU, E. coli was found, followed in frequency by Enterococcus (14.5%). In the infected MSU, however, Enterococcus was more frequent than C. coli (65.6% and 61.7% respectively). Thus, E. coli appears to be the most important etiological species in infections of the bladder and the kidneys, while Enterococcus seems to be the most frequent contaminant during urethral passage. The most frequent bacterial combination in mixed cultures in both BPU and MSU was that of E. coli and Enterococcus.

  8. Liquid-Based Urine Cytology as a Tool for Detection of Human Papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The β-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis. PMID:22135257

  9. Which urine marker test provides more diagnostic value in conjunction with standard cytology- ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ or Cytokeratin 20 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyuer Serdar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the poor sensitivity of urinary cytological findings for the diagnosis of especially low grade urinary bladder carcinoma, new molecular diagnostic methods have been proposed. We decided to verify the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ (UCyt+™ test and cytology combination and cytokeratin 20 (CK20 and cytology combination in urine as possible diagnostic and monitoring tool for bladder cancer. Methods Evaluation of CK20 expression and UCyt+™ was performed in urine of 90 patients of which 54 with bladder cancer with primary/recurrent diagnosis (low grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC = 23/8 patients, high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC = 18/5 patients, and 36 patients as control; except of neoplastic bladder disease patients. For the evaluation of the three tests, CK20 and UCyt+™ tests were combined with urine cytology and compared with each other. Results The overall sensitivity detected for each tumor marker was as follows: for urine cytology was 75.9% and UCyt+™ was 83.3%, for CK20 70.4%, while the specificity was 66.7% for urine cytology and 86.1% for UCyt+™ and 83.3% for CK20. The sensitivity of cytology and UCyt+™ combination was higher (88.9% than the sensitivity cytology and CK20 combination (77.8%. The simultaneous use of the three markers, sensitivity was reaching 92.5%. Conclusion The UCyt+™ test and CK20 expression are valid tools for the performance of adjunctive analyses with conventional cytologic examination.

  10. Bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) test compared to the urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aiye; Wang, Xiuhua; Gao, Lan; Shi, Juan; Sun, Changyi; Wan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the diagnostic value of bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) tests compared with urine cytology test in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: We searched public databases including PubMed, MEDLINE Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar before December 2012. To collect relevant data of BTA stat tests and urine cytology tests in patients with bladder cancer, we studied meta-analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) of BTA stat tests and cytology tests from published studies. We applied the software of Rev. Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 to the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 13 separate studies consisting of 3462 patients with bladder cancer were considered in the meta-analysis. We found that the BTA stat test had a higher sensitivity than the urine cytology test (0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 to 0.69 vs. 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.46), but the specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the area under the curve (AUC) and Q index of the BTA stat test were lower compared with the urine cytology test. The results of the Egger’s linear regression test showed no publication bias (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the AUC and the Q index of the urine cytology test may be superior to the BTA stat test, but the BTA stat test has greater sensitivity than the urine cytology test. PMID:24940462

  11. Application of the ThinPrep Imaging System in Urine Cytology A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, Bettien M.; Haarsma, Jolanda G.; Ruitenbeek, Teus; Groen, Henk; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this prospective study, for the first time, the authors compared the accuracy of reading urine specimens using the ThinPrep Imager System (TIS) with the accuracy of conventional screening for the detection of abnormal urine cells. METHODS ThinPrep slides were made from 1455 urine speci

  12. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively

  13. Post-voiding residual urine and capacity increase in orthotopic urinary diversion: Standard vs modified technique

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    Bančević Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ever since the time when the first orthotopic urinary diversion (pouch was performed there has been a constant improvement and modification of surgical techniques. The aim has been to create a urinary reservoir similar to normal bladder, to decrease incidence of postoperative complications and provide an improved life quality. The aim of this study was to compare postvoiding residual urine (PVR and capacity of the pouch constructed by standard or modified technique. Methods. In this prospective and partially retrospective clinical study we included 79 patients. In the group of 41 patients (group ST pouch was constructed using 50-70 cm of the ileum (standard technique. In the group of 38 patients (group MT pouch was constructed using 25-35 cm of the ileum (modified technique. Postoperatively, PVR and pouch capacity were measured using ultrasound in a 3-, 6- and 12-month period. Results. Postoperatively, an increase in PVR and pouch capacity was noticed in both groups. Twelve months postoperatively, PVR was significantly smaller in the group MT than in the group ST [23 (0-90 mL vs 109 (0-570 mL, p < 0,001]. In the same period the pouch capacity was significantly smaller in the MT group than in the ST group [460 (290-710 mL vs 892 (480-2 050 mL, p < 0.001]. Conclusion. Postoperatively, an increase in PVR and pouch capacity was noticed during a 12-month period. A year following the operation the pouch created from a shorter ileal segment reached capacity of the 'normal' bladder with small PVR. The pouch created by standard technique developed an unnecessary large PVR and capacity.

  14. Differential diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection and cyclosporin/tacrolimus nephropathy using urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, Masahiro; Toki, Kiyohide; Nishimura, Kennichi; Fukunishi, Takanobu; Nagano, Shunsuke; Namba, Yukiomi; Gudat, Fred; Dalquen, Peter; Mihatsch, M J

    2002-01-01

    A total of 9000 urine samples from 69 kidney transplant recipients were studied for differential diagnoses of transplant rejection and cyclosporin/tacrolimus toxicity. New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining were used to differentiate cells in urine. We also employed an immunocytochemical technique for further identification of exfoliated cells. With New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining, the predominance of proximal tubular cells was useful to differentiate cyclosporin/tacrolimus toxicity from acute rejection in cases of increased serum creatinine level. During rejection episodes, an increased number of mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells were found. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a significant increase of CD2-, CD4- CD8-, CD25- and HLA-DR-positive cells with rejection. However, there was no relationship between Banff criteria rejection grade and the increase of mononuclear cells.

  15. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression on urothelial and inflammatory cells of cystoscopic biopsies and urine cytology as a possible predictive marker for bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mona; Omran, Zeinab; Nosseir, Mona; Lotfy, Abeya; Swellam, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key inducible enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins. It contributes to human carcinogenesis by various mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the possible involvement of COX-2 in human bladder carcinoma by examining its expression on both urothelial and inflammatory cells in tissue biopsies and urine cytology samples of different urinary bladder lesions. A total of 65 patients were included in the study and were selected from cases admitted to Urology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI), Giza, Egypt. They represented seven control cases with almost normal-looking bladder tissue; pure chronic cystitis (n=12); premalignant lesions (18) in the form of squamous metaplasia (n=8) or urothelial dysplasia (n=10) as well as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (n=18), and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) (n=10). Immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and urine cytology samples was performed for all cases using COX-2 (H-62): sc-7951, a rabbit polyclonal antibody. The study revealed positive COX-2 expression on the urothelial and inflammatory cells of cystoscopic biopsies from all cases of pure chronic cystitis, squamous metaplasia and SqCC compared with 42.8% and 71.4% of normal controls, respectively. The score of urothelial COX-2 expression was sequentially up-regulated from normal to chronic cystitis (either pure or associated with premalignant changes) (pUrine cytology samples were positive for COX-2 in a comparable manner to that observed in cystoscopic biopsies. Accordingly, the results of the current study have provided new information in two aspects: First, is the possibility of using the differential COX-2 expression on both inflammatory and urothelial cells as markers for premalignant or malignant transformation; second, besides cystoscopy, urine cytology was found to have a high sensitivity for COX-2 expression and hence proved to be valuable in

  16. A Study on Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Hominis in The Urogenital Tract By Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction with First Void Urine in Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 温泉; 刘洋; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with first void urine (FVU) for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma hominis in male patients.Methods: Matched FVU specimens and urethral swabs were collected from 194 male patients with Nongonococcal Urethritis and tested by nested PCR and cell culture. Cell culture was used as a gold standard for evaluating other assay techniques.Results: For FVU nested PCR assay and FVU cell culture,our results showed that the sensitivity was 100% and 93.3%;specificity was 97.0% and 98.2%; positive predictive value (PPV) was 85.7% and 90.3%, negative predictive value (NPV)was 100% and 98.8%, respectively. The total consistency between the two techniques was 97.4 %.Conclusions: For the diagnosis of Mycoplasma hominis in men, nested PCR detecting FVU is a highly sensitive and specific method. First void urine can replace swab culture or PCR in terms of acceptability and feasibility.

  17. Advancement in urine-based cytological diagnosis for bladder tumors%膀胱癌尿细胞学诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田添; 李俊

    2012-01-01

    While the early detection and treatment of bladder tumor can improve its outcome, it has a high rate of recurrence. Although urine cytology was considered to be one of the gold standards of bladder cancer diagnosis, its sensitivity was low in low grade lesions. This paper introduces several assays which combined urine cytology and biomarkers together. Few methods which may achieve higher sensitivity were also suggested.%膀胱癌如提早发现和治疗可明显改善预后,且其复发率极高,因此膀胱癌的筛查和复发监测十分重要.尿细胞学是膀胱癌诊断的金标准之一,然而其对于低级别的膀胱肿瘤诊断灵敏度不高.改进传统的细胞学检查、探索高效的肿瘤标志物及可靠的联合试验是提高膀胱癌诊断效率的可行方法.

  18. The Consequence of Delayed Fixation on Subsequent Preservation of Urine Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain G. Ahmed,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Degenerative changes caused by delays in urine preservation contribute to false-negative and false-positive interpretation of urothelial disease in cytology. The aim of this study is to assess whether the delay of fixation of urine samples makes any significant difference to urine cytology and morphology, and the limit of acceptability of delay for routine use in the hospital laboratory.Methods: Three cell collection fluids were evaluated by analyzing the preservation and degeneration of cells in urine samples. In this study, 50 voided urine specimens were taken at random from females complaining of vaginal discharge. Each specimen was divided into three sterile containers. The first was immediately centrifugated and the deposit was smeared onto a cleaned micro slide and immediately fixed into 95�0ethyl alcohol for 15 minutes. The remaining two were prepared in the same manner, however, the second after two hours of collection and the third after four hours of collection. The degree of degeneration and thus the preservation were assessed by a table of chosen criteria, then ranked and analyzed using Friedman's nonparametric test, atp=0.05.Results: The results showed a significant difference between the preservation and the delay in urine fixation, p<0.0001.Conclusion: Any delay in fixation of urine specimen for cytology affects the preservation of cells, which may result in miss diagnosis. It is recommended that urine samples for cytology should be fixed immediately after collection.

  19. Role of urine sediment cytology in the diagnosis of renal disorders in comparison with biochemical and histopathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Results: 32.8% of patients with renal disease were in the age group of 31-40 years. Nephrotic syndrome was the most common clinical presentation (33.5% followed by nephritic syndrome (21.4%. The most common histopathological diagnosis was post infectious glomerulonephritis (n = 26 followed by acute interstitial nephritis (n = 17. 14 cases of lupus nephritis were diagnosed all of which were confirmed by and ldquo;full house and rdquo; pattern of immunofluorescence. Both the urine sediment scores had high specificity and positive predictive values in predicting the severity of renal injury. 24 hour urine protein had high positive predictive value in predicting the severity of renal injury. Serum biochemical parameters were insignificant in predicting the severity of renal injury. Conclusion: Urine sediment examination can be used as an effective diagnostic test for predicting the severity of renal injury. The decision of further investigations and follow-up can be certainly decided by taking urine microscopy findings and 24 hour urine protein values into consideration. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 560-568

  20. Void Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelson D.; Paz, Dante; Lares, Marcelo; Ceccarelli, Laura; Lambas, Diego Garcí A.; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Li, Baojiu

    2016-10-01

    Cosmic voids are becoming key players in testing the physics of our Universe.Here we concentrate on the abundances and the dynamics of voids as these are among the best candidatesto provide information on cosmological parameters. Cai, Padilla & Li (2014)use the abundance of voids to tell apart Hu & Sawicki f(R) models from General Relativity. An interestingresult is that even though, as expected, voids in the dark matter field are emptier in f(R) gravity due to the fifth force expellingaway from the void centres, this result is reversed when haloes are used to find voids. The abundance of voids in this casebecomes even lower in f(R) compared to GR for large voids. Still, the differences are significant and thisprovides a way to tell apart these models. The velocity field differences between f(R) and GR, on the other hand, arethe same for halo voids and for dark matter voids.Paz et al. (2013), concentrate on the velocity profiles around voids. First they show the necessityof four parameters to describe the density profiles around voids given two distinct voidpopulations, voids-in-voids and voids-in-clouds. This profile is used to predict peculiar velocities around voids,and the combination of the latter with void density profiles allows the construction of modelvoid-galaxy cross-correlation functions with redshift space distortions. When these modelsare tuned to fit the measured correlation functions for voids and galaxies in the SloanDigital Sky Survey, small voids are found to be of the void-in-cloud type, whereas largerones are consistent with being void-in-void. This is a novel result that is obtaineddirectly from redshift space data around voids. These profiles can be used toremove systematics on void-galaxy Alcock-Pacinsky tests coming from redshift-space distortions.

  1. Comparative study of ProEx C immunocytochemistry and UroVysion fluorescent in-situ hybridization assays on urine cytology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of urothelial carcinoma (UC by urine cytology can be challenging. Recently, ProEx C has been studied as a marker to improve detection of UC. ProEx C is an assay targeting expression of topoisomerase IIa and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and is currently utilized to assist in diagnoses of the gynecological specimens. In this study, we compared the utility of ProEx C and UroVysion in urine specimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven urine specimens with UroVysion assay analysis and surgical biopsy follow-up were selected. The smears were stained with ProEx C. ProEx C and UroVysion assay results were separated into two categories based on surgical biopsy follow-up (benign or neoplastic. Surgical biopsy diagnoses were used as the gold standard for comparative evaluation of the two assays. The surgical follow-up was 9 benign, 2 low grade, and 16 high grade UCs. Results: The sensitivity was 88.9% for ProEx C and 55.6% for UroVysion, while the specificity was 77.8% for ProEx C and 44.4% for UroVysion. Positive predictive value was 88.9% for ProEx C and 66.7% for UroVysion. Negative predictive value was 77.8% and 33.3% for ProEx C and UroVysion, respectively. Using the two-tailed paired t-test, P value of 0.033 was obtained when ProEx C stain was compared with the UroVysion assay. Conclusion: ProEx C immunocytochemistry has a more favorable performance than fluorescent in-situ hybridization with a significant difference between the two assays using paired two-tail t-test (P = 0.0033.

  2. Comparison of the mucin 7 mRNA test and urine cytology for detection bladder cancer%尿脱落细胞黏蛋白7 mRNA检测在膀胱癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣荣; 廖洪; 唐国民; 卢一平; 张林

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨尿脱落细胞黏蛋白7(Muc 7)mRNA检测在膀胱尿路上皮癌诊断中的价值.方法 采用RT-PCR方法检测52例膀胱癌患者和34例泌尿系非肿瘤患者尿脱落细胞中Muc7 mRNA表达情况,同时行尿细胞学检查,比较两种方法诊断膀胱癌的敏感性和特异性.膀胱癌患者52例,男30例,女22例.年龄41~87岁,平均65岁.TNM分期:Ta 1例、T1 22例、≥T2 29例.WHO分级:G1 18例、G2 14例、G3 20例.泌尿系非肿瘤患者34例,男23例,女11例.年龄30~75岁,平均58岁.结果 52例膀胱癌患者中Muc 7 mRNA检测阳性44例,敏感性为84.6%;34例非泌尿系肿瘤患者Muc 7 mRNA阴性29例、假阳性5例,特异性为85.2%,假阳性率为14.7%.膀胱癌患者尿脱落细胞检测阳性18例,敏感性为34.6%;非泌尿系肿瘤患者尿脱落细胞检测阴性31例、假阳性3例,特异性为91.2%,假阳性率为8.8%.尿Muc 7 mRNA检测诊断膀胱癌的敏感性优于尿脱落细胞学检查,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 尿Muc 7 mRNA检测诊断膀胱尿路上皮癌的敏感性优于尿脱落细胞学检查,可以作为膀胱癌的辅助检测指标.%Objective To compare the sensitivity and specificity of mucin 7(Muc7) mRNA test with urine cytology in detection bladder cancer.Methods In 86 patients suspected with bladder cancer,RT-PCR for Muc7 mRNA and urine cytology were conducted in the same urine samples.Fif-ty-two patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma were confirmed histologically.The sensitivity and specificity of Muc7 mRNA and urine cytology were analyzed.Results The overall sensitivity,specificity and false positive of Mue7 mRNA test were 84.6%,85.2% and 14.7% respectively.Those of urine cytology were 34.6%,91.2% and 8.8% respectively.There were no significant differences between urine cytology and Muc7 mRNA test in the specificity and false positive; however,Muc7 mRNA had significantly higher sensitivity than urine cytology in detection of bladder cancer.Conclusion The

  3. Frequency of Septic Complications after Voiding Cystourethrography without Prior Urine Culture in Children Three Months to Six Years of Age with Urinary Tract Infection and Clinical Response to Antibiotic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Pavony, Juan Gonzalo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Bustos Sánchez, Diana Carolina; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Rey Camacho, Sandra Janeth; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Vásquez Blanco, Gladys Johanna; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Lozano, Juan Manuel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    complications secondary to the development of voiding cystourethrography without urine culture in children three months to six years with UTI treated at the Hospital San Ignacio and had adequate clinical response to antibiotics. We designed a retrospective cohort study of two years. We reviewed a total of 243 medical records of patients whose data were extracted based on the data collection form. None of the 59 patients who met the inclusion criteria had septic complications. It intends to de...

  4. Clinical significance of cytology in urine after prostate massage of patients with high PSA value.%PSA值增高患者前列腺按摩后尿液细胞学检查的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓耕; 王培昌; 刘辰庚; 黄花; 张丽春; 孙颖; 姚洁; 相燕红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study clinical utility of the exfoliative cytology of urine after prostate massage obtained from the patients with high PSA value. Methods Urine after prostate massage was obtained from 126 patients with high PSA value before prostate biopsy or operation and Wright ' s stain and cytologic class was done. Each cytology class and patients' age, PSA, were compared. The relationship of patients' age, PSA and cytology class was done by the means of spearman correlation analysis. Results Prostate tissue pathology show that 87 ( 69. 05 % ) cancer and 39 ( 30. 65 % ) non-cancer. Patient numbers in cytologic class 1 to 5 were 8 (9. 19% ) ,13 (17. 94% ) ,21 (24. 14% ) ,26 (29. 89% ) ,19 (21. 84% ) respectively. The prostate fluid cytology had a specificity of 100% and high sensibility(11/19 ,57. 89% in patient with PSA≥ 20μg/L). PSA value has significant difference between classl ,2, 3, 4 and 5. Conclusion The exfoliative cytology of prostatic fluid was a valuable method in detecting the prostate cancer especially in patient with a high PSA value, and it has advantages such as non-invasion and less injury than prostate biopsy.%目的 研究接受前列腺按摩术后的血清PSA增高者的尿液细胞学检查,评估其用于鉴别诊断前列腺癌的价值.方法 126例PSA值增高的患者在行经直肠前列腺穿刺活检前或术前获取前列腺液,进行瑞氏染色和脱落细胞学分级.结果 病理学结果87例(69.05%)为前列腺癌,39例(30.65%)为非前列腺癌组织.脱落细胞学检查结果一至五级分别有8例(9.19%)、13例(17.94%)、21例(24.14%)、26例(29.89%)、19例(21.84%).脱落细胞学检查具有100% 的特异性,在PSA≥20μg/L的患者中,具有较高的敏感性(57.89%).在脱落细胞学分级一至四级之间PSA值差异无统计学意义,一至四级与五级之间PSA值比较差异有统计学意义.结论 PSA值增高患者中行前列腺液脱落细胞学检查诊断前列腺癌是一种有效的方法,尤

  5. Neurogenic voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Petros; Apostolidis, Apostolos

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to analyze and discuss all recently published articles associated with neurogenic voiding discussion providing readers with the most updated knowledge and trigger for further research. They include the proposal of a novel classification system for the pathophysiology of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) which combines neurological defect in a distinct anatomic location, and data on bowel dysfunction, autonomic dysreflexia and urine biomarkers; review of patient-reported outcome measures in NLUTD; review of the criteria for the diagnosis of clinically significant urinary infections; novel research findings on the pathophysiology of NLUTD; and review of data on minimally and more invasive treatments. Despite the extended evidence base on NLUTD, there is a paucity of high-quality new research concerning voiding dysfunction as opposed to storage problems. The update aims to inform clinicians about new developments in clinical practice, as well as ignite discussion for further clinical and basic research in the aforementioned areas of NLUTD.

  6. Urine cytology screening for polvomavirus infection following renal transplantation%定期尿液细胞学检查用于肾移植患者多瘤病毒BK感染监测的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成德; 莫春柏; 沈中阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyzed predictive value of urine cytology for the development of BK viremia and its possible advantage for the early BKVAN prediction.Methods Periodic urine and serum samples obtained from 129 renal transplant patients were analyzed for BKV positivity by urine cytology and real-time polymerase chain reaction.The detective results were compared and analyzed.Results Decoy cells were found in 439 samples from 25 ( 19% ) patients; viral DNA was amplified in 8 (6%) patients,serum samples.BKVN was identified in 3 (2%) patients,all from the group with decoy cell excretion.Urine cyto-logy show sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83% for BKAVN.Interestingly,BK viremia was preceded by BK viruria.Conclusion Urine cytology screening for decoy cell is a reliable marker allowing an early identi-fication of patients at high risk of BKVAN development and therefore assures precocious therapeutic interventions.%目的 探讨尿液细胞学检查在肾移植患者BK病毒感染筛选和监测中的价值.方法 定期收集2006年1月至2008年12月间129例肾移植患者的尿液标本查找诱饵细胞( decoy cell).对decoy细胞阳性者(病毒尿症)聚合酶链反应方法检测预留的血液标本的BK病毒DNA并随访.血肌酐升高及持续性病毒血症、病毒尿症者进行移植肾穿刺活组织检查.对检测结果进行分析评价.结果 25例(19%)患者的439份尿液标本检查到decoy细胞,首次检测到decoy 细胞的中位时间为移植后69(14 ~540)d;8例(6%)患者存在病毒血症,最早出现在移植后119(56~ 540)d.3例(2%)患者病理证实存在多瘤病毒性肾炎,全部来自持续性decoy细胞阳性组患者且存在病毒血症.最早检测到decoy细胞时间比病毒血症(52 d)和病理诊断(81 d)分别提前.decoy细胞检测预警多瘤病毒性肾炎的敏感度为100%,特异性为83%,阳性预测值为12%,阴性预测值为100%.结论 尿液细胞学检查寻找decoy细胞是一项简

  7. Responsibility voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M; Braham, Matthew

    We present evidence for the existence of 'responsibility voids' in committee decision-making, that is, the existence of situations where no member of a committee can individually be held morally responsible for the outcome. We analyse three types of reasons (causal, normative and epistemic) for the

  8. Application of fresh first morning midstream urine in cytological study of bladder cancer patients%晨起第一次新鲜中段尿用于膀胱癌细胞学诊断的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岳; 徐勇; 王锦; 刘冉录; 杨阔; 张昌文; 马宝杰; 张志宏; 乔宝民

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of the application of the fresh first morning midstream urine in cytological study of bladder cancer patients. Methods The results of the fresh first and second morning midstream urine cytological studies for 52 bladder cancer patients were analyzed.Continual three urine samples and single urine sample were treated as study objects respectively. The positive rates in different tumor stages and grades were evaluated. Results The positive rate of overall 52 patients was 78. 8 % (41/52) in fresh first morning midstream urine and 80. 8% ( 42 / 52) in the fresh second morning midstream urine. While in 156 single urine samples, the positive percentages were 56.4%(88/156) and 60. 9% (95/156). The positive rates of the fresh first and second morning midstream urine were 69.7% (23/33) and 72.7% (24/33) respectively in grade 1- 2 patients, and 44.4 % (44/99) and 48. 5 % (48/99) in 99 single urine samples. The positive rates of 42 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were 73. 8% (31/42) and 76.2% (32/42) in the fresh first and second morning midstream urine, while in 126 single urine samples, the positive rates were 54.8% (69/126)and 57.1% (72/126). There were no significant differences between positive rate of the fresh first and second morning midstream urine in diagnosis of bladder cancer, low grade bladder cancer and nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Conclusion The fresh first morning midstream urine can be used for urine cytological study in the diagnosis of bladder cancer, even in the diagnosis of low stage and low grade bladder cancer.%目的 探讨晨起第一次中段尿脱落细胞学检查诊断膀胱癌的临床价值. 方法 分析52例经活检或手术病理确诊为膀胱癌患者晨起第一、二次新鲜中段尿脱落细胞学检查结果,以连续3 d标本结果和单次标本结果为研究对象,按总体、病理分级及临床分期分别计算2个时段尿脱落细胞阳性率,并进行统计学分析.

  9. 膀胱癌术后灌注化疗中检测尿HGF和NMP22含量的临床意义%Clinical significance of HGF and NMP22 of voided urine tests for post-operative bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延继; 于正刚; 朱广博; 侯瑞鹏; 李健; 冯起庆; 李昭夷; 张纪军; 苏彦慧; 王小波

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨膀胱尿路上皮癌术后检测尿肝细胞生长因子(HGF)和核基质蛋白22(NMP22)表达水平在肿瘤复发监测中的临床价值.方法:2005年1月~2009年6月收治膀胱尿路上皮癌患者92例(接受TURBT或膀胱部分切除术者),术后2周开始规律性膀胱灌注化疗药物吡柔比星(THP).采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)分别检测灌注前、灌注6周、6个月和12个月时尿中HGF和NMP22的含量;对照组为31例健康人.结果:92例膀胱癌患者术后12个月有11例复发,复发率12%.未复发者尿HGF和NMP22含量随膀胱灌注时间的延长呈下降趋势,肿瘤复发时却明显升高,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);尿HGF、NMP22含量和尿脱落细胞学检查(VUC)对膀胱尿路上皮癌术后复发诊断的敏感性分别为91%、73%和45%,特异性分别为58%、48%和98%,阳性预测值分别为100% 、80%和71.4%,阴性预测值分别为57% 、48%和93%.结论:检测尿HGF和NMP22含量可以作为膀胱尿路上皮癌术后肿瘤复发监测及早期诊断的有效指标,二者结合具有较高的敏感性和预测性.%Objective:To evaluate clinical significance of Hepatocyte Growth Factor(HGF) and Nuclear Matrix Protein 22CNMP22) of voided urine tests in detecting the relapse of post-operative bladder cancer. Method: A total of 92 patients (males 79, females 13) with bladder cancer and 31 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study were classified into two groups: post-operative patients with bladder cancer were used pirarubicin(THP) ; 31 heathly volunteers. The voided urine of all the patients in before, 6weeks, 6 months, 12 months post perfusion were recovered selectively. HGF and NMP22 kits were used to detect bladder cancer. Voided urine cytology(VUC) was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the screening test. Result:There were 11 cases who relapsed in 92 patients with perfusion in 12 months. The level of HGF and NMP22

  10. Clinical value of urine liquid-based cytology test in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma%尿液基细胞学在诊断尿路上皮癌中的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵焕; 李旻; 郭会芹; 曹箭; 马建辉; 李长岭; 潘秦镜

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic accuracy of urine liquid-based cytology(LBC)for diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma(UC).Methods A total of 603 cases in our department from January 2005 to July 2007 were subject to urine liquid-based cytology test(LBC)and followed by histological examination.Using the histological appearance as the gold standard,the accuracy of LBC test was evaluated.Results A total of 436 cases with histological diagnoses were selected.There were 274 cases of UC and 61 cases of other malignant tumors of urinary system.The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of urine LBC test for malignant tumors were 61.5%,86.5% and 67.1%,respectively.The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 94.1% and 39.2%,respectively.The sensitivity of urine LBC test for UC and non-urothelial malignant tumors were 68.6% and 29.5%,respectively.The sensitivity for UC Was significantly higher than that for non-urothelial malignant tumors.The diagnostic sensitivity of urine LBC test for UC G1,G1-2;G2,G2-3 and G3 was 53.3%,74.5% and 90.6%,respectively.The diagnostic sensitivity of urine LBC was increased with the increacment of histological grade of UC.Conclusions The sensitivity of urine LBC test for high grade UC is high and has a good clinical value.However,for the diagnosis of low grade UC,the sensitivity of LBC test is low and adjuvant test is needed to improve it.%目的 评估尿液基细胞学(LBC)对尿路上皮癌(UV)诊断的准确性.方法 对2005年1月至2007年7月在本院细胞学室做尿LBC检查的603例患者标本和组织学诊断标本进行对照.以细胞学诊断的可疑癌(SUCA)为切入点,组织学诊断为金标准,计算尿液基细胞学的诊断效能.结果 在有组织学随访结果的436例患者中,274例为UC、其他恶性肿瘤61例.尿LBC诊断恶件肿瘤的敏感度、特异度和准确性分别为61.5%、86.5%和67.1%.阳性预测值和阴性预测值分别为94.1%和39.2%.对UC和非尿路上皮恶性肿瘤

  11. Comparison of Nuclear Matrix Protein (NMP22 test with cystoscopy and urine cytology in follow-up of patients with superficial bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ozudogru

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: NMP22 was found more sensitive than urinary cytology. NMP22 were not influenced by intracavitary immunotherapy. As long as tumor grade increased, NMP22 values increased. But no significant relation with tumor stage was detected. The NMP22 test remains incapable for the supplanting of control cystoscopy. Until a better tumor marker was acquired, NMP22 test can be used. In patients with negative NMP22 test, control cystoscopy intervals may prolonged. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(2.000: 64-68

  12. CCL18 in a multiplex urine-based assay for the detection of bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Urquidi

    Full Text Available The early detection of bladder cancer (BCa is pivotal for successful patient treatment and management. Through genomic and proteomic studies, we have identified a number of bladder cancer-associated biomarkers that have potential clinical utility. In a case-control study, we examined voided urines from 127 subjects: 64 tumor-bearing subjects and 63 controls. The urine concentrations of the following proteins were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; C-C motif chemokine 18 (CCL18, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and CD44. Data were compared to a commercial ELISA-based BCa detection assay (BTA-Trak© and voided urinary cytology. We used analysis of the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the ability of CCL18, PAI-1, CD44, and BTA to detect BCa in voided urine samples. Urinary concentrations of CCL18, PAI-1, and BTA were significantly elevated in subjects with BCa. CCL18 was the most accurate biomarker (AUC; 0.919; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8704-0.9674. Multivariate regression analysis highlighted CCL18 (OR; 18.31; 95% CI, 4.95-67.70, p<0.0001 and BTA (OR; 6.43; 95% CI, 1.86-22.21, p = 0.0033 as independent predictors of BCa in voided urine samples. The combination of CCL18, PAI-1 and CD44 improved the area under the curve to 0.938. Preliminary results indicate that CCL18 was a highly accurate biomarker for BCa detection in this cohort. Monitoring CCL18 in voided urine samples has the potential to improve non-invasive tests for BCa diagnosis. Furthermore using the combination of CCL18, PAI-1 and CD44 may make the model more robust to errors to detect BCa over the individual biomarkers or BTA.

  13. 尿脱落细胞学检查改良对原发性输尿管癌的诊断价值%Diagnostic Value of Improved Urine Exfoliative Cytology Test in Primary Ureteral Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨; 张旭辉; 胡操阳; 王东文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic value of the improved urine exfoliative cytology test in the di⁃agnosis of primary ureteral carcinoma. Methods The clinical data of 76 patients with primary ureteral carcino⁃ma were retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was regarded as the gold standard by comparing the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of urine cytology test before and after the improvement. Results In 76 cases, 70 cases were diagnosed as primary ureteral car⁃cinoma. Before and after improvement, the sensitivities were 28.57% and 72.86% separatively. The specificities were 83.33% and 100% . The positive predictive values were 95.24% and 100%. The negative predictive values were 9.09% and 24%. Before and after the data were compared, the difference was statistically significant(χ2=28.03,P<0.01). Conclusion The diagnosis of primary ureteral carcinoma by improved urine cytology is an important diagnostic basis with important clinical significance.%目的:研究改良输尿管导管远端后行尿脱落细胞学检查对原发性输尿管癌的诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析76例初步诊断为原发性输尿管癌患者的临床资料,将术后病理诊断作为金标准,对输尿管导管远端进行改良后行尿脱落细胞学检查,统计分析改良前后的阳性预期值、阴性预期值、敏感性、特异性。结果:76例术后病理确诊为原发性输尿管癌70例。改良前后敏感度分别为28.57%、72.86%,特异性分别为83.33%、100%,阳性预期值分别为95.24%、100%,阴性预期值分别为9.09%、24.00%。改良前后进行配对比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=28.03, P<0.01)。结论:输尿管导管远端改良后行尿脱落细胞学检查为原发性输尿管癌定性提供了重要的诊断依据,具有重要的临床鉴别意义。

  14. 细胞角蛋白20免疫细胞化学染色辅助尿液基细胞学诊断尿路上皮癌的价值%Value of CK20 immunocytochemistry as an adjuvant to urine liquid-based cytology in detection of urothelial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旻; 李红霞; 郭会芹; 赵焕; 赵琳琳; 马建辉; 李长岭; 曹箭; 潘秦镜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) immunocytochemical (ICC) detection in the urine liquid-based cytological specimens in diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma (UC).Methods The study consisted of prospective and retrospective groups.In the prospective group,voided urine samples were collected from patients with a variety of urological conditions and healthy individuals.Urine cytological diagnosis and CK20 ICC were performed on the collected specimens.In the retrospective group,archived urine slides with cytological diagnoses of atypical urothelial cells (AUC),suspicious carcinoma (SuCA) and carcinoma (CA) were selected.Then they were re-stained immunocytochemically with monoclonal antibody against CK20 after decolorization.Histological diagnosis and clinical follow-up result were used as the gold standard for analysis.Results There were 136 cases in the prospective group,including 89 cases of UC,19 cases of other urogenital malignancies,12 cases of benign lesions and 16 cases of normal control.The sensitivity of CK20 ICC in detection of UC was 75.3%,significantly higher than that of LBC (48.3%,P<0.001).The positive rate of CK20 was 64.7% (22/34) in G1 UC,73.3% (22/30) in G2 UC,and 91.3% (21/23) in G3 UC (P <0.001).The specificity of CK20 ICC was 91.5%,the same as that of LBC.There were 163 cases in retrospective group,including 119 cases of UC,17 cases of other urogenital malignancies and 27 cases of benign lesions.The cytological diagnoses of them were 68 cases of CA,47 cases of SuCA and 48 cases of AUC.The positive rates of CK20 ICC in UC and non-UC (other urogenital malignancies and benign lesions) cases were 90.8% and 15.9%,respectively,with a statistically very significant difference (P < 0.001).The LBC of all the 119 cases of UC included 62 (52.1%) cases of CA,35 (29.4%) cases of SuCA and 22 (18.5%) cases of AUC.The positive rates of CK20 in the LBC-diagnosed CA,SuCA and AUC were 96.8%,97.1% and 63.6

  15. HPV testing in first-void urine provides sensitivity for CIN2+ detection comparable with a smear taken by a clinician or a brush-based self-sample: cross-sectional data from a triage population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, A; Del Pino, M; Molijn, A; Rodriguez, A; Torné, A; de Koning, M; Ordi, J; van Kemenade, F; Jenkins, D; Quint, W

    2017-08-01

    To compare the sensitivity of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and genotype detection in self-collected urine samples in the morning (U1), and later on (U2), brush-based self-samples (SS), and clinician-taken smears (CTS) for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) in a colposcopic referral population. Cross-sectional single-centre study. A colposcopy clinic in Spain. A cohort of 113 women referred for colposcopy after an abnormal Pap smear. Women undergoing colposcopy with biopsy for abnormal Pap smears were sent a device (Colli-Pee™, Novosanis, Wijnegem, Belgium) to collect U1 on the morning of colposcopy. U2, CTS, and SS (Evalyn brush™, Rovers Medical Devices B.V., Oss, the Netherlands) were also analysed. All samples were tested for HPV DNA using the analytically sensitive SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 assay and the clinically validated GP5+/6+-EIA-LMNX. Histologically confirmed CIN2+ and hrHPV positivity for 14 high-risk HPV types. Samples from 91 patients were analysed. All CIN3 cases (n = 6) tested positive for hrHPV in CTS, SS, U1, and U2 with both HPV assays. Sensitivity for CIN2+ with the SPF10 system was 100, 100, 95, and 100%, respectively. With the GP5+/6+ assay, sensitivity was 95% in all sample types. The sensitivities and specificities for both tests on each of the sample types did not significantly differ. There was 10-14% discordance on hrHPV genotype. CIN2+ detection using HPV testing of U1 shows a sensitivity similar to that of CTS or brush-based SS, and is convenient. There was substantial to almost excellent agreement between all samples on genotype with both hrHPV assays. There was no advantage in testing U1 compared with U2 samples. Similar CIN2+ sensitivity for HPV testing in first-void urine, physician-taken smear and brush-based self-sample. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Urine Cytology and NMP22 Qualitative Assay in Diagnosis of Recurrent Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma%核基质蛋白22定量分析及尿液细胞学检查评估膀胱癌复发的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓晖; 梁培育; 欧善际; 祖雄兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toassesstheaccuracyofurinecytologyandurinarynuclearmatrixorotein22(NMP22)quali-tativeassayinthediagnosisofrecurrentbladdertransitionalcellcarcinoma(TCC).Methods From2008to2012,144oa-tients with suoerficial bladder TCC were included in Affiliated Hosoital of Hainan Medical University. Each oatient orovided,ev-ery day,3 voided urine samoles for cytology and 1 for NMP22 qualitative assay within 3 d orior to urethrocystoscooy. The sensi-tivityandsoecificityofurinecytologyandNMP22testweredetermined.Results In144oatients,52cases(36.1%)weredi-agnosed as recurrent bladder TCC. The sensitivity,soecificity,oositive oredictive value,negative oredictive value were 78. 8%(41/52),69. 6%(64/92),59. 4%(41/69),85. 3%(64/75),resoectively,in NMP22 test,and 44. 2%(23/52), 83. 7%(77/92),60. 5%(23/38),72. 6%(77/106),resoectively,in urine cytology,the difference in sensitivity and soecificity was significant(χ2 =6. 58,5. 40;P=0. 01,0. 02),that in oositive or negative oredictive values was not(χ2 =3. 13,0. 50;P=0. 08,0. 48). There was difference in sensitivity at different stages,grades,risk stratification between NMP22 qualitative assay and urine cytology(P<0. 05). The sensitivities of NMP22 qualitative assay combined with urine cytol-ogy,NMP22 qualitative assay with cystoscooy,urine cytology with cystoscooy were 88. 5%(46 /52),98. 1%(51/52),94. 2%(49/52),resoectively,indiagnosisofrecurrenceTCC.Conclusion NMP22qualitativeassaycanbeusedtodiagnoserecurrence of TCC,esoecially in low-to-moderate risk grouos. But this assay is restricted in use due to its low soecificity.%目的:评估核基质蛋白22(NMP22)定量分析与尿液细胞学检查对膀胱癌复发的诊断价值。方法选取2008-2012年在海南医学院附属医院住院的浅表性膀胱癌患者144例。在膀胱镜检查之前患者均在3 d内连续每天提供3份用于尿液细胞学检查的尿液样本以及1份用于NMP22定量分析的尿液样本。以病理组织活检作为金标准,对NMP22

  17. Computerized voiding diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H

    1993-01-01

    An electronic, computerized voiding diary, "Compu-Void" (patent pending) was developed in order to simplify, augment, and automate patients' recording of bladder symptomatology. A voiding diary as a tool has the potential to provide essential information for a more complete diagnostic and therefore therapeutic picture for each patient. Two major problems with the standard written voiding diary have been a lack of patient compliance and the limited amount of information it garners. Twenty-five women with various types of voiding dysfunctions were compared to twenty-five age and parity-matched control women in order to determine patient preferences of the Compu-Void when compared to the standard written voiding diary, compliance with each method, and amount and quality of information obtained with each method. Over 90% of subjects and over 70% of control group patients preferred the Compu-Void over the written diary (P Compu-Void exceeded that obtained with the written method.

  18. The Development of Voiding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Henning

    2011-01-01

    The thesis addresses some new aspeccts in the development of voiding function from midgestation into early childhood.......The thesis addresses some new aspeccts in the development of voiding function from midgestation into early childhood....

  19. The Void Galaxy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, R; Platen, E; Beygu, B; van Gorkom, J H; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, M A; Peebles, P J E; Jarrett, T; Rhee, G; Kovac, K; Yip, C -W

    2011-01-01

    The Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) is a multi-wavelength program to study $\\sim$60 void galaxies. Each has been selected from the deepest interior regions of identified voids in the SDSS redshift survey on the basis of a unique geometric technique, with no a prior selection of intrinsic properties of the void galaxies. The project intends to study in detail the gas content, star formation history and stellar content, as well as kinematics and dynamics of void galaxies and their companions in a broad sample of void environments. It involves the HI imaging of the gas distribution in each of the VGS galaxies. Amongst its most tantalizing findings is the possible evidence for cold gas accretion in some of the most interesting objects, amongst which are a polar ring galaxy and a filamentary configuration of void galaxies. Here we shortly describe the scope of the VGS and the results of the full analysis of the pilot sample of 15 void galaxies.

  20. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  1. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  2. Research on the diagnostic values of the detection of urine exfoliated cells by FISH and cytologic technology in bladder urothelial tumor%FISH技术及细胞学技术检测尿脱落细胞对膀胱尿路上皮肿瘤诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 伊惠霞; 张睿

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术及细胞学技术检测尿脱落细胞对膀胱尿路上皮肿瘤诊断价值。方法采用CSP3/CSP7组合探针和GLPp16/CSP17组合探针对膀胱尿路上皮肿瘤疑似患者的尿脱落细胞进行FISH检测,同时采用细胞学技术检测尿脱落细胞,比较2种方法的灵敏度和特异度。结果FISH技术筛查膀胱尿路上皮肿瘤的灵敏度和特异度分别为92.5%和85.0%,细胞学技术的灵敏度和特异度分别为27.5%和90.0%。FISH技术的灵敏度显著高于细胞学技术(P<0.05),但2种方法的特异度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论FISH技术有望成为筛查膀胱尿路上皮肿瘤的新方法。%Objective To compare the diagnostic values of the detection of urine exfoliated cells by FISH and cytology technolo‐gy in bladder urothelial tumor .Methods The combination probes of CSP3/CSP7 and GLPp16/CSP17 were both used in the FISH detection of urine exfoliated cells from suspected patients with bladder urothelial tumor .The urine exfoliated cells were detected by cytology technology at the same time .The sensitivity and the specificity of the two methods were compared .Results The sensitivi‐ty and specificity of FISH for bladder urothelial tumor screening were 92 .5% and 85 .0% respectively ,and those of cytology tech‐nology were 27 .5% and 90 .0% respectively .The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of cytology technology (P0 .05) .Conclusion FISH is expected to become a new method for the screening of bladder urothelial tumor .

  3. Can circulated lung cancer cells pass to the urine without apparent urine tract metastases? A single centre series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Pentheroudakis, George; Malamou-Mitsi, Vassiliki; Pappa, Lina; Bafa, Maria; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2008-04-01

    Urine cytology has been a useful tool for the diagnosis of urinary tract malignancies. However, the presence of tumor cells in the urine sediment without an obvious urothelial metastatic deposit is a rare phenomenon and in patients with lung cancer has never been reported. We present five cases with metastatic lung cancer and positive urine cytology. The possible mechanisms underlining this phenomenon and its implications are discussed.

  4. Voiding dysfunction - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  5. Modeling cosmic void statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art ΛCDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

  6. Bilirubin - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  7. Systemic atherosclerosis and voiding symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Meseri, Reci; Ari, Anıl; Sancar, Ceren; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of atherosclerosis on the storage and voiding symptoms of the bladder in women with overactive bladder (OAB). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with OAB who were evaluated between 2013 and 2015 in our urogynecology unit. Charts were assessed for history, examination findings, urinary diary, quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, urodynamic studies (UDSs), and four main risk factors for atherosclerosis: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. In a previous study, these were defined as vascular risk factors. Cases were excluded for insufficient data, diabetes mellitus with dysregulated blood glucose, or prolapse greater than 1cm to avoid confusing bladder outlet obstruction. We included 167 eligible cases in this study. We evaluated storage and voiding symptoms such as frequency, nocturia, residual urine volume, and voiding difficulties and UDS findings such as maximum bladder capacity, first desire, strong desire, detrusor overactivity, and bladder contractility index. The vascular risk score was categorized as "no risk" if the woman did not have any of the four risk factors and "at risk" if she had any of the factors. Independent sample t-test and chi-square tests were performed for analyses. Among the participants (n=167), 71.9% had at least one vascular risk factor. Those who were at risk were facing significantly more wet-type OAB (p=0.003) and nocturia (p=0.023). Moreover, mean age (p=0.008) and mean gravidity (p=0.020) were significantly higher in the at-risk group, whereas mean total nocturia QOL questionnaire scores (p=0.029) were significantly lower. Our findings suggest that aging and atherosclerosis may be associated with severe OAB and poorer QOL. Nocturia and related parameters of poor quality can be explained by impaired bladder neck perfusion. Future trials need to assess vascular and molecular changes in women with OAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Triage of Premalignant Lesions in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology and Circulating Cell-Free DNA from Urine, Using a Panel of Methylated Human Papilloma Virus and Host Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Valle, Blanca L.; Jedlicka, Anne; Turaga, Nitesh; Folawiyo, Oluwasina; Pirini, Francesca; Lawson, Fahcina; Vergura, Angelo; Noordhuis, Maartje; Dziedzic, Amanda; Perez, Gabriela; Renehan, Marisa; Guerrero-Diaz, Carolina; Rodriguez, Edgar De Jesus; Diaz-Montes, Teresa; Orengo, Jose Rodriguez; Mendez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Trock, Bruce J.; Florea, Liliana; Sidransky, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinically useful molecular tools to triage women for a biopsy upon referral to colposcopy are not available. We aimed to develop a molecular panel to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher lesions (CIN2(+)) in women with abnormal cervical cytology and high-risk HPV (HPV+)

  9. Draining the Local Void

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Karachentsev, Igor D

    2016-01-01

    Two galaxies that lie deep within the Local Void provide a test of the expectation that voids expand. The modest (M_B~-14) HI bearing dwarf galaxies ALFAZOAJ1952+1428 and KK246 have been imaged with Hubble Space Telescope in order to study the stellar populations and determine distances from the luminosities of stars at the tip of the red giant branch. The mixed age systems have respective distances of 8.39 Mpc and 6.95 Mpc and inferred line-of-sight peculiar velocities of -114 km/s and -66 km/s toward us and away from the void center. These motions compound on the Milky Way motion of ~230 km/s away from the void. The orbits of the two galaxies are reasonably constrained by a numerical action model encompassing an extensive region that embraces the Local Void. It is unambiguously confirmed that these two void galaxies are moving away from the void center at several hundred km/s.

  10. Dark matter in voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Richard; Doroshkevich, Andrei G.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    1995-07-01

    The theory of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe through the action of gravitational instability imply the existence of substantial amounts of baryonic dark matter, of the order of 50% of the total baryon content in the universe, in the ``voids'' or under-dense regions seen in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. We discuss also the large-scale structure of dark matter expected in voids and the present and future possibilities for the observation of this baryonic dark matter in ``voids.''

  11. Dark matter in voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, R. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Doroshkevich, A.G. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Teoretical Astrophysics Centrum, Blegsdamsvej 17, Copenhagen DK 2100 (Denmark); Turchaninov, V.I. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The theory of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe through the action of gravitational instability imply the existence of substantial amounts of baryonic dark matter, of the order of 50% of the total baryon content in the universe, in the ``voids`` or under-dense regions seen in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. We discuss also the large-scale structure of dark matter expected in voids and the present and future possibilities for the observation of this baryonic dark matter in ``voids.`` {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  12. The clinical application of urine cytology screening for patients with polyomavirus infection following renal transplantation%尿液细胞学检测方法在肾移植患者多瘤病毒BK感染中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成德; 莫春柏; 沈中阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze predictive value of urine cytology for the development of BK viremia and its possible advantage for the early BKVAN prediction.Methods Periodic urine and serum samples obtained from 129 renal transplant patients were analyzed for BKV positivity by urine cytology and real-time polymerase chain reaction.The detection results were compared and analyzed.Results Decoy cells were found in 439 samples from 25 (19.4%) patients.Viral DNA was amplified in 8 (6.2%) patients'serum samples.BKVN was identified in 3 patients by pathology test from the groups with decoy cell and viremia.Urine cytology show sensitivity of 100%,specificity of 82.5%,the positive predictive value of 12% and negative predictive value of 100% for BKAVN.Interestingly,BK viremia was preceded by BK viruria.Conclusions Urine cytology screening for decoy cell is a reliable marker allowing an early identification of patients at high risk of BKVAN development and therefore assures precocious therapeutic interventions.%目的 探讨尿液细胞学检测方法在肾移植患者多瘤病毒(BKV)感染筛查和监测中的价值.方法 收集2006年1月至2008年12月期间129名肾移植患者的尿液标本,镜检查找诱饵细胞(decoy细胞).再利用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测Decoy细胞阳性患者(病毒尿症)预留的血液标本中相应的核酸并随访.血肌酐升高及持续性病毒血症、病毒尿症者进行移植肾穿刺活检术,对检测结果进行分析评价.结果 25名患者(19.4%,25/129)的439份尿液标本检查到decoy细胞,首次检测到decoy细胞的中位时间为移植后69(14~540)天;8名患者(6.2%)存在病毒血症,最早出现在移植后119(56 ~540)天.3名患者(2.3%)病理证实存在BK病毒肾病(BKVAN),全部来自持续性decoy细胞(+)组且存在病毒血症.最早检测到decoy细胞时间比病毒血症和病理诊断分别提前52和81天.Decoy细胞检测预警BKVAN的敏感度为100%,特异性82.5

  13. 膀胱肿瘤组织及尿液标本中TWIST1基因的甲基化水平研究%Hypermethylation of TWIST1 gene in tumor tissues and voided urine in bladder cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凤全; 杨春; 陈阵

    2014-01-01

    tissues and urine samples. The methylation status of the TWIST1 gene was analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in both urinary bladder cell carcinoma samples, adjacent tissues and urine samples. Sensitivity and speciifcity values of the method were assessed and compared with the results of the cytology test. Results:Methylation of TWIST1 was detected in 88.5%of carcinoma samples and 84%of the paired urine samples,respectively;11.5%carcinoma adjacent tissues and 5.3%control urine sample was methylated. The sensitivity by urine cytology detection method was 49.3%in in bladder cancer patients, and was 17.3%in control group. The sensitivity of TWIST1 genes was 66.7%for low-grade cases. The sensitivity of urine cytology was 33.3%for the same low-grade cases. Conclusion:The methylation analysis of TWIST1 gene may be a simple, non-invasive, sensitive, and speciifc method for early detecting bladder cancer cells in urine.

  14. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  15. Computer Assisted Cytologic Assessment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-27

    Exfoliative Cytology in Oral Cancer Detection. Oral Surg 17. 327-330. TABLE I CATEGORIZATION ACCORDING TO NUCLEAR:CYTOPLASMIC RATIOS CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III... CYTOLOGIC ASSESSMENT Manuscript for Publication 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Bryant, Michael L...CLASSIFICATION OF TH4IS PAGM(37,.n D~a Enterod) d, SF myvqN~ A SF’ .xt COMPUTER ASSISTED CYTOLOGIC ASSESSMENT BRYANT, MICHAEL L. HOLLINGER, JEFFREY 0

  16. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  17. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K W D′Hauwers

    2009-01-01

    We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  18. Void shape effects and voids starting from cracked inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Numerical, axisymmetric cell model analyses are used to study the growth of voids in ductile metals, until the mechanism of coalescence with neighbouring voids sets in. A special feature of the present analyses is that extremely small values of the initial void volume fraction are considered, dow...

  19. Cytologic picture of ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokun Radojka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a rare tumor of the jaw arising from odontogenic epithelium. There are sparse reports in the literature concerning cytologic features of this tumor. This paper presents two cases of ameloblastoma diagnosed by imprint cytology and confirmed histopathologically. The imprints were hypercellular, with single cells and the groups of basaloid and polygonal squamous cells with huge vacuoles in cytoplasm. Stellate and fusiform cells were found in the background of the preparation. These morphologic parameters were sufficient for the cytologic diagnosis of ameloblastoma.

  20. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A computerized voiding diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H

    1996-11-01

    To examine a group of subject and control patient's preferences and compliance with regard to the Compu-Void (CV) electronic voiding diary as compared to the written diary (WD) and to compare the two methods with respect to the type of information obtained and whether the order of use of each method influenced results in the subject group. Thirty-six women between the ages of 20 and 84 with bladder symptoms were compared to a group of 36 age-matched women. In 100% of subjects and 95% of control patients, CV entries exceeded the number made with the WD in voiding events and, in subjects, in incontinence episodes recorded (P < .005 and P < .005, respectively). Over 98% of subjects and over 80% of controls preferred the CV (P < .0005). The order of use of each method in subjects made no significant difference with regard to the volume of information obtained (P < .407), number of leakage events recorded (P < .494) or fluid intake patterns (P < .410). Patients' compliance with each method was not affected by the order of use. Our results suggest an increased volume of data and greater patient compliance in reporting bladder symptoms and events using the CV and that the order of use is not important.

  2. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  3. Contamination Rates of Three Urine-Sampling Methods to Assess Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare contamination rates of three different urine-sampling methods in pregnant women to assess bacteriuria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 pregnant women collected three different midstream urine samples consecutively: morning (first void); midstream (void

  4. Into the Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    17 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a chain of pits on a lava- and dust-covered plain northwest of Tharsis Tholus -- one of the many volcanic constructs in the Tharsis region of Mars. Pit chains, such as this one, are associated with the collapse of surface materials into subsurface voids formed by faulting and expansion -- or extension -- of the bedrock. Location near: 16.4oN, 92.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  5. 检测尿核基质蛋白22筛查膀胱移行细胞癌的临床研究%Clinical study of nuclear matrix protein in urine for detection of bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会清; 余沁楠; 刘沛; 朱锋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of nuclear matrix protein(NMP)as a marker for detection of bladder cancer.Methods For 96 patients suspected with bladder cancer NMP and cytology were determined in the same voided urine samples.The sensitivity and specificity of NMP and urine cytology were analyzed.Results Fifty-five patients were pathologically diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma.and 41 cases were other urological conditions.The sensitivity and specificity of NMP were 80.0%and 87.8%respectively.those of urene cytology were 41.8%and 97.6%respectively.The sensitivity of NMP Was significantly better than urinary cytology in detection of bladder cancer(P<0.05).Conclusion The NMP test iS superior to voided urine cytology in detection of bladder cancer.and it is a effective method for detection of bladder cancer.%目的 探讨检测尿核基质蛋白22(NMP22)在膀胱癌筛查中的应用价值.方法 对96例怀疑膀胱癌者进行尿NMP22与尿细胞学检查,比较两者诊断膀胱癌的敏感度和特异度.结果 96例患者中病理证实膀胱移行细胞癌55例,非膀胱癌41例.尿NMP22的敏感度为80.0%、特异度为87.8%;尿细胞学检查的敏感度为41.8%、特异度为97.6%.NMP22在膀胱癌筛查中的敏感度优于尿细胞学检查(P<0.05).结论 尿NMP22检测在膀胱癌筛查中优于尿细胞学检查,可以作为膀胱癌的临床筛查手段.

  6. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  7. Primary culture media for routine urine processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, J C; Lucia, B; Clark, E.; Berman, M.; Goldstein, J.; D'Amato, R F

    1982-01-01

    It has been recommended that routine microbiological processing of urine specimens include quantitative plating onto blood agar medium along with a selective and differential agar such as MacConkey agar for gram-negative organisms. Few data have been published to justify this combination. To evaluate the validity of this recommendation 2,553 midstream, clean-voided urine samples were quantitatively plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar, which is a selective ...

  8. Evaluation and Targeted Therapy of Voiding Dysfunction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lane S

    2016-06-01

    Significant strides have been made over the past two decades in more precisely evaluating and managing children with voiding complaints. A thorough history should offer insight into the possible causes for the presenting complaints and this should be supplemented by physical examination, urine studies, and select imaging. Uroflowmetry and external sphincter electromyography with measurement of postvoid residual urine should allow for accurate diagnosis using categories offered by the International Children's Continence Society. This ability to make an accurate diagnosis should naturally lead to the use of treatment options (urotherapy, pharmacotherapy, biofeedback, and neuromodulation) that specifically target the responsible cause of the complaints rather than simply their symptoms.

  9. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  10. A novel precision-engineered microfiltration device for capture and characterisation of bladder cancer cells in urine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sensitivity of standard urine cytology for detecting urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is low, attributable largely to its inability to process entire samples, paucicellularity and presence of background cells. Objective: Evaluate performance and practical applicability of a novel portable microfiltration device for capture, enumeration and characterisation of exfoliated tumour cells in urine, and compare it with standard urine cytology for UCB detection. Meth...

  11. Cytological diagnostic of canine transmissible venereal tumor - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulčar Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (CTVT is a benign reticuloendothelial (histiocytic tumor of the dog that mainly affects the external genitalia. This tumor was found in male 2 years old mongrel dog. According the anamnestic data, there was no visible change of its general clinical status, except spontaneous bleeding with blood drops on the praeputium and the presence of blood in the urine. With clinical examination a multilobular mass on radix penis mucosa was found, which actually caused pseudohemorrhagia. The material for cytological diagnostic was taken with the imprint method and 4 cytological films were prepared and strained. The conclusion of the cytological diagnosis was CTVT. The tumor cause only local disturbances, and the differential diagnosis of the other "round cells tumors", histiocytomas, plasmacytomas, lymphoma, some melanomas and especially lymphosarcomas, which could be located on the external genitalia, had a big significance. Although some authors are mentioning spontaneous regression, however, because this is invasive tumor, a complete chirurgical excision was made.

  12. Testing Gravity using Void Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Padilla, Nelson; Li, Baojiu

    2016-10-01

    We investigate void properties in f(R) models using N-body simulations, focusing on their differences from General Relativity (GR) and their detectability. In the Hu-Sawicki f(R) modified gravity (MG) models, the halo number density profiles of voids are not distinguishable from GR. In contrast, the same f(R) voids are more empty of dark matter, and their profiles are steeper. This can in principle be observed by weak gravitational lensing of voids, for which the combination of a spectroscopic redshift and a lensing photometric redshift survey over the same sky is required. Neglecting the lensing shape noise, the f(R) model parameter amplitudes fR0=10-5 and 10-4 may be distinguished from GR using the lensing tangential shear signal around voids by 4 and 8 σ for a volume of 1 (Gpc/h)3. The line-of-sight projection of large-scale structure is the main systematics that limits the significance of this signal for the near future wide angle and deep lensing surveys. For this reason, it is challenging to distinguish fR0=10-6 from GR. We expect that this can be overcome with larger volume. The halo void abundance being smaller and the steepening of dark matter void profiles in f(R) models are unique features that can be combined to break the degeneracy between fR0 and σ8.

  13. Overview of nongynecological samples prepared with liquid-based cytology medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuyue; Solomides, Charalambos; Draganova-Tacheva, Rossitza; Bibbo, Marluce

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology of nongynecological specimens is commonly used in cytology laboratories throughout the world and various processing methods, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, have been reported. The cytological features and performance of liquid-based cytology for various cytology specimens, including body cavity fluids, urine, brushing specimens and fine-needle aspiration of various lesions, were reviewed and compared with the experience of our laboratory and the literature published in PubMed. The parameters for the evaluation of liquid-based cytology and conventional smears were described in the various types of specimens. Criteria for the interpretation of nongynecological liquid-based cytology were highlighted to show differences in cell morphology, background and artifacts. The interpretation requires familiarity with the appearance of liquid-based cytology in the various types of preparations to avoid misdiagnosis. Cell blocks can be prepared with specimens preserved in a liquid-based cytology medium and immunocytochemical stains and molecular testing can be successfully performed. These are important adjuncts in order to reach a definitive diagnosis.

  14. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavaux, Guilhem [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2012-08-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  15. Application of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization in postoperative follow-up monitoring of bladder cancer patients with negative urine cytology%多色荧光原位杂交技术在尿脱落细胞学阴性膀胱癌患者术后随访监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王南雄; 王尉; 吕军; 王健; 叶纯

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨多色荧光原位杂交技术( M-FISH)在尿脱落细胞学阴性膀胱癌患者术后随访监测中的应用价值. 方法 收集接受经尿道膀胱肿瘤切除术后的膀胱尿路上皮癌患者76例,术前、术后随访尿脱落细胞学检查均阴性,分别采用膀胱镜、M-FISH进行术后随访监测.结果 76例患者中14例(18.4%)复发,M-FISH仅检出3例(3.9%)复发,漏诊11例(14.5%). 膀胱镜检查结果阴性54例,复发1例(低级别),M-FISH检查结果阳性. 膀胱镜检查结果可疑12例,复发4例(低级别2例、高级别2例) ,M-FISH检查结果阳性1例(低级别). 膀胱镜检查结果阳性10例,复发9例(低级别5例、高级别4例) ,M-FISH检查结果阳性1例(高级别). 膀胱镜检查结果阴性、M-FISH检查结果为阳性预测复发的敏感性为100%、特异性94 .3%,阳性预测值25%,阴性预测值100%. 膀胱镜检查结果可疑、M-FISH检查结果为阳性预测复发的敏感性为25%、特异性87.5%,阳性预测值50%,阴性预测值70%. 膀胱镜、M-FISH检查结果均为阳性预测复发的敏感性为11.1%、特异性100%,阳性预测值100%,阴性预测值11 .1%. 结论 M-FISH检测在尿脱落细胞学阴性膀胱癌患者术后随访复发中的检出率不高,经济效益低,不考虑作为膀胱癌术后随访的常规监测项目.%Objective To evaluate the application value of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization ( M-FISH) in postoperative follow-up monitoring of bladder cancer patients with negative urine cytology .Methods A total of 78 patients with urothelial cancer who were treated by transurethral resection of the bladder were included in this study .All of them had negative urine cytology .The cystoscopy and M-FISH were used to monitor the recurrence of the disease , and the results were compared.Results In 76 patients, 14 cases recurred (18.4%).M-FISH only detected 3 cases of recurrence (4%), and 11 cases of missed diagnosis (14.5%).Cystoscopy showed 54 cases with

  16. [Effect of disturbing factors on the specificity of exfoliative urinary cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Y; vom Dorp, F; Schenck, M; Rossi, R; Witschier, J; Rübben, H

    2007-09-01

    In the clarification of hematuria and subsequent treatment, a high specificity is expected from urinary cytology when no tumor is present, because false positive results lead to unnecessary diagnostic measures. The aim of this study was to investigate different disturbing factors to determine the specificity of urinary cytology and whether the specificity can be increased by cytometry. Out of 150 patients with no malignant disease, 125 were affected by the following disturbing factors: urinary infection, urolithiasis, transurethral electroresection, utilisation of hypo-osmolar flushing solution or administration of contrast agents. In 5 patients who were diagnosed with urinary infection or urolithiasis, the urine was falsely cytologically determined to be tumor positive, an error which was corrected by cytometric analysis. Therefore, cytometric analysis should be carried out in patients in whom a tumor has been cytologically diagnosed in order to increase the specificity of urinary cytology.

  17. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, C; Gezginç, K; Toy, H; Findik, S; Yilmaz, O

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the 2 methods of cytologic screening to detect abnormalities of the cervical epithelium. This study with 3 groups of women was performed at Selcuk University Meram Medical School between January 2004 and March 2006. In one group (paired sample for specimen collection) women were screened with conventional cytology; in another group (paired sample for specimen collection) they were screened with liquid-based cytology; and in the third group (split sample for specimen collection) they were screened by both methods. The rate of unsatisfactory results was lower in the liquid-based than in the conventional cytology group (6.1% vs. 2.6%; Pliquid-based method, but the difference was not statistically significant. Also, no statistically significant differences between liquid-based and conventional cytology were observed in the detection of other epithelial abnormalities (P>0.05). The liquid-based and conventional cytology methods were found to be equivalent in the detection of cervical epithelial abnormalities.

  18. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  19. Geometry and scaling of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, Jose

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cosmic voids are observed in the distribution of galaxies and, to some extent, in the dark matter distribution. If these distributions have fractal geometry, it must be reflected in the geometry of voids; in particular, we expect scaling sizes of voids. However, this scaling is not well demonstrated in galaxy surveys yet. AIMS: Our objective is to understand the geometry of cosmic voids in relation to a fractal structure of matter. We intend to distinguish monofractal voids from multifractal voids, regarding their scaling properties. We plan to analyse voids in the distributions of mass concentrations (halos) in a multifractal and their relation to galaxy voids. METHODS: We make a statistical analysis of point distributions based on the void probability function and correlation functions. We assume that voids are spherical and devise a simple spherical void finder. For continuous mass distributions, we employ the methods of fractal geometry. We confirm the analytical predictions with numerical simula...

  20. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  1. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  2. Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly pro

  3. Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly

  4. Precision cosmography with stacked voids

    CERN Document Server

    Lavaux, Guilhem

    2011-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the Universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic re dshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Pasczinsky test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the Universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectrosc...

  5. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  6. Cytologic features of pulmonary blastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Shalini C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary blastomas are rare lung neoplasms constituting 0.5% of all lung tumors. This tumor has an aggressive course and needs to be recognized on cytology. A preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary blastoma is difficult to obtain by cytopathologic methods. A diagnosis of biphasic pulmonary blastoma should be considered when there is a dimorphic population of cells on cytology. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressing breathlessness and left-sided chest pain for the past one month. Chest radiograph and computed tomography of thorax revealed an anterior mediastinal mass that was subjected to ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Aspiration cytology showed a highly cellular lesion with a dimorphic population of tumor cells in a necrotic background. The possibility of a non-small cell carcinoma was suggested. Subsequent histopathology revealed the tumor to be a pulmonary blastoma. The importance of recognizing the dimorphic population of cells in cytology is discussed.

  7. Basics of cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

    2011-01-01

    This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

  8. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  9. "Compu-Void II": the computerized voiding diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H

    1996-02-01

    We have previously described an electronic voiding diary, "Compu-Void" (Copyright, 1990) developed to automate recording of bladder symptoms (Rabin et al., 1993). Our objectives in this, the second phase of this study, were to examine a group of subject and control patients' preference and compliance with regard to the "Compu-Void" (CV) compared to the standard written voiding diary (WD), to compare the two methods with respect to the amount and type of information obtained and to determine whether or not the order of use of each recording method influenced results in the subject group. Thirty-six women between the ages of 20 and 84 with bladder symptomatology were compared to a group 36 age-matched women. In 100% of subjects and 95% of control patients, CV entries exceeded the number made with the WD in voiding events and in subjects, in incontinent episodes recorded (P < 0.0005 and P < 0.005, respectively). Over 98% of subjects and over 80% of control patients preferred CV over the WD (p < 0.0005). The order of use of each recording method in subjects made no significant difference with regard to the volume of information obtained (p < 0.407), number of urinary leakage events recorded (p < 0.494), and fluid intake patterns (p < 0.410). Patient impressions of, and compliance with each method were not affected by order of use. The only difference regarding order of use was that most subjects who used the CV first also found the WD to be tedious (61% vs 14%). Our results suggest increased volume of data and of patient compliance in reporting bladder symptoms and events using CV, and that order of use is not an important factor in determining patient impressions of the two methods. The majority of subject and control patients preferred CV over traditional methods. An updated version of the software and hardware is also included.

  10. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPIC Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Urine Test: Creatinine Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine ... Video) Urinary Tract Infections Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Contact Us Print Resources ...

  11. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opening of the vagina. To collect the urine sample: Keeping your labia spread open, urinate a small amount into the toilet bowl, then stop the flow of urine. Hold the urine cup a few inches (or a ...

  12. Urination - difficulty with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cause is infection of the prostate or urinary tract. Symptoms of a possible infection include: Burning or pain with urination Frequent urination Cloudy urine Sense of urgency (strong, sudden urge to urinate) The problem can ...

  13. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Gulati, Anchana; Vedant, Deepak; Kaushal, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA) is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented. PMID:28182060

  14. Coupling effects of void size and void shape on the growth of prolate ellipsoidal microvoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsheng Huang; Zhenhuan Li; Cheng Wang

    2005-01-01

    The combined effects of void size and void shape on the void growth are studied by using the classical spectrum method. An infinite solid containing an isolated prolate spheroidal void is considered to depict the void shape effect and the Fleck-Hutchinson phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory is employed to capture the size effects. It is found that the combined effects of void size and void shape are mainly controlled by the remote stress triaxiality. Based on this, a new size-dependent void growth model similar to the Rice-Tracey model is proposed and an important conclusion about the size-dependent void growth is drawn: the growth rate of the void with radius smaller than a critical radius rc may be ignored. It is interesting that rc is a material constant independent of the initial void shape and the remote stress triaxiality.

  15. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  16. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange;

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  17. The influence Bladder Training Initiation to the Urine Residual of Stroke Patients with Urine Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hidayati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stroke patients usually experience with various dysfunction, including disturbance in elimination because of neurogenic bladder. Urine residue can be used to detect the bladder function in contracting and voiding urine. This research was aimed to compare bladder training initiation after stroke patients have passed the acute phase and one day before the urine catheter was removal. This research was used Quasy experiment posttest-only design with a comparison group design. The sample in this research taking by purposive random sampling method. Urine residue measuring with bladder scan and recorded in the observation sheet. The mean of urine residue in the treatment group was smaller (54,00 ml with SD=144,22 ml if compared with the urine residue volume in control group (101,71 ml with SD=42,55 ml. The influence bladder training in both of treatment and control groups and the differences of the urine residue volume was analyzed with t test independent, there wes no differences between urine residue volume in the groups (p=0,84. Therefore the health institution must consider to develop the system and made a procedure in bladder training program’s and the nurse must do bladder training before the urine catheter was removal. Keywords: bladder training, stroke patient, neurogenic bladder, nurse

  18. Variables predictive of voiding disfunction following aponeurotic sling surgery: multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio H.M. de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aponeurotic sling surgeries can evolve with obstruction or voiding dysfunction in 5 to 20% of patients. There are few studies on factors that could possibly predispose to voiding difficulties or urinary retention. The objective of this work is to identify these potential clinical or urodynamic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 130 patients who underwent aponeurotic sling surgeries were reviewed. All patients underwent a throughout urodynamic study during pre-operative investigation. The variables studied were age above 65 years, previous pelvic surgeries, concomitant surgeries, post-voiding residue higher than 100 mL, vesical obstruction (according to Blaivas-Groutz nomogram and urinary flow under 12 mL/s. Post-voiding residue was assessed on the seventh post-operative day through vesical catheterization. Recovering of spontaneous voiding after 7 post-operative days or with a residue higher than 100 mL, was regarded as voiding dysfunction. Univariate analysis was performed with qui-square test and Fisher's exact test, and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression with alpha = 5%. RESULTS: Age in the studied group ranged from 41 to 83 years (mean 56.7 years, with 69 (53% patients having urethral hypermobility and 61 (47% having intrinsic urethral lesion. Normal voiding occurred in 97 (75.6 % women with 7 post-operative days. The only significant variable in the univariate (p = 0.014 and multivariate (p = 0.017 analysis was post-voiding residue higher than 100 mL. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative presence of a post-voiding residual urine higher than 100 mL was the only variable predictive of voiding dysfunction.

  19. Size-Effects in Void Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2005-01-01

    The size-effect on ductile void growth in metals is investigated. The analysis is based on unit cell models both of arrays of cylindrical voids under plane strain deformation, as well as arrays of spherical voids using an axisymmetric model. A recent finite strain generalization of two higher order...

  20. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  1. Do liquid-based preparations of urinary cytology perform differently than classically prepared cases? Observations from the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucirica, Rodolfo; Bentz, Joel S; Souers, Rhona J; Wasserman, Patricia G; Crothers, Barbara A; Clayton, Amy C; Henry, Michael R; Chmara, Beth Anne; Clary, Karen M; Fraig, Mostafa M; Moriarty, Ann T

    2010-01-01

    The cytomorphology of liquid-based preparations in urine cytology is different than classic slide preparations. To compare the performance of liquid-based preparation specimens to classically prepared urine specimens with a malignant diagnosis in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology. Participant responses between 2000 and 2007 for urine specimens with a reference diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma/carcinoma in situ/dysplasia (HGUCA), squamous cell carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma were evaluated. ThinPrep and SurePath challenges were compared with classic preparations (smears, cytospins) for discordant responses. There were 18 288 pathologist, 11 957 cytotechnologist, and 8086 "laboratory" responses available. Classic preparations comprised 90% (n = 34 551) of urine challenges; 9% (n = 3295) were ThinPrep and 1% (n = 485) were SurePath. Concordance to the general category of "positive-malignant" was seen in 92% of classic preparations, 96.5% of ThinPrep, and 94.6% of SurePath challenges (P Liquid-based preparations performed significantly better in urinary cytology challenges when evaluating malignant categories in the College of American Pathologists interlaboratory comparison program. The liquid-based preparation challenges also performed better for the exact reference interpretation of HGUCA, but no difference was observed for adenocarcinoma challenges. Cytotechnologists perform better than pathologists for all slide types, as well as those demonstrating HGUCA. These results suggest that liquid-based preparations facilitate a more accurate diagnosis than conventional preparations.

  2. Redshift-space distortions around voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Taylor, Andy; Peacock, John A.; Padilla, Nelson

    2016-11-01

    We have derived estimators for the linear growth rate of density fluctuations using the cross-correlation function (CCF) of voids and haloes in redshift space. In linear theory, this CCF contains only monopole and quadrupole terms. At scales greater than the void radius, linear theory is a good match to voids traced out by haloes; small-scale random velocities are unimportant at these radii, only tending to cause small and often negligible elongation of the CCF near its origin. By extracting the monopole and quadrupole from the CCF, we measure the linear growth rate without prior knowledge of the void profile or velocity dispersion. We recover the linear growth parameter β to 9 per cent precision from an effective volume of 3( h-1Gpc)3 using voids with radius >25 h-1Mpc. Smaller voids are predominantly sub-voids, which may be more sensitive to the random velocity dispersion; they introduce noise and do not help to improve measurements. Adding velocity dispersion as a free parameter allows us to use information at radii as small as half of the void radius. The precision on β is reduced to 5 per cent. Voids show diverse shapes in redshift space, and can appear either elongated or flattened along the line of sight. This can be explained by the competing amplitudes of the local density contrast, plus the radial velocity profile and its gradient. The distortion pattern is therefore determined solely by the void profile and is different for void-in-cloud and void-in-void. This diversity of redshift-space void morphology complicates measurements of the Alcock-Paczynski effect using voids.

  3. The life and death of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Falck, Bridget; Onions, Julian; Hamaus, Nico; Knebe, Alexander; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Schneider, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation, growth, merger history, movement, and destruction of cosmic voids detected via the watershed transform in a cosmological N-body dark matter {\\Lambda}CDM simulation. By adapting a method used to construct halo merger trees, we are able to trace individual voids back to their initial appearance and record the merging and evolution of their progenitors at high redshift. For the scales of void sizes captured in our simulation, we find that the void formation rate peaks at scale factor 0.3, which coincides with a growth in the void hierarchy and the emergence of dark energy. Voids of all sizes appear at all scale factors, though the median initial void size decreases with time. When voids become detectable they have nearly their present-day volumes. Almost all voids have relatively stable growth rates and suffer only infrequent minor mergers. Dissolution of a void via merging is very rare. Instead, most voids maintain their distinct identity as annexed subvoids of a larger parent. The...

  4. Size-Effects in Void Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2005-01-01

    The size-effect on ductile void growth in metals is investigated. The analysis is based on unit cell models both of arrays of cylindrical voids under plane strain deformation, as well as arrays of spherical voids using an axisymmetric model. A recent finite strain generalization of two higher order...... strain gradient plasticity models is implemented in a finite element program, which is used to study void growth numerically. The results based on the two models are compared. It is shown how gradient effects suppress void growth on the micron scale when compared to predictions based on conventional...... models. This increased resistance to void growth, due to gradient hardening, is accompanied by an increase in the overall strength for the material. Furthermore, for increasing initial void volume fraction, it is shown that the effect of gradients becomes more important to the overall response but less...

  5. The star formation activity in cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Varela, Jesus; Quilis, Vicent

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of cosmic voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we study the star formation activity of void galaxies. The properties of galaxies living in voids are compared with those of galaxies living in the void shells and with a control sample, representing the general galaxy population. Void galaxies appear to form stars more efficiently than shell galaxies and the control sample. This result can not be interpreted as a consequence of the bias towards low masses in underdense regions, as void galaxy subsamples with the same mass distribution as the control sample also show statistically different specific star formation rates. This highlights the fact that galaxy evolution in voids is slower with respect to the evolution of the general population. Nevertheless, when only the star forming galaxies are considered, we find that the star formation rate is insensitive to the environment, as the main sequence is remarkably constant in the three samples under consideration. This fact...

  6. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  7. Urine versus brushed samples in human papillomavirus screening: study in both genders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Depuydt, C.; Bogers, J.P.; Stalpaert, M.; Vereecken, A.; Wyndaele, J.J.; Tjalma, W.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether urine is a good medium for screening and whether there is a correlation between the amount of extracted DNA and human papillomavirus (HPV)-positivity. METHODS: In the present study, 30 first-voided urine (FVU) specimens and 20 urethroglandular swabs using cervex-brushes f

  8. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  9. Nocturia: The circadian voiding disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturia is a prevalent condition of waking to void during the night. The concept of nocturia has evolved from being a symptomatic aspect of disease associated with the prostate or bladder to a form of lower urinary tract disorder. However, recent advances in circadian biology and sleep science suggest that it might be important to consider nocturia as a form of circadian dysfunction. In the current review, nocturia is reexamined with an introduction to sleep disorders and recent findings in circadian biology in an attempt to highlight the importance of rediscovering nocturia as a problem of chronobiology.

  10. Large-scale clustering of cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwan Chuen; Hamaus, Nico; Desjacques, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We study the clustering of voids using N -body simulations and simple theoretical models. The excursion-set formalism describes fairly well the abundance of voids identified with the watershed algorithm, although the void formation threshold required is quite different from the spherical collapse value. The void cross bias bc is measured and its large-scale value is found to be consistent with the peak background split results. A simple fitting formula for bc is found. We model the void auto-power spectrum taking into account the void biasing and exclusion effect. A good fit to the simulation data is obtained for voids with radii ≳30 Mpc h-1 , especially when the void biasing model is extended to 1-loop order. However, the best-fit bias parameters do not agree well with the peak-background results. Being able to fit the void auto-power spectrum is particularly important not only because it is the direct observable in galaxy surveys, but also our method enables us to treat the bias parameters as nuisance parameters, which are sensitive to the techniques used to identify voids.

  11. The dark matter of galaxy voids

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Weinberg, David H; Warren, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    How do observed voids relate to the underlying dark matter distribution? To examine the spatial distribution of dark matter contained within voids identified in galaxy surveys, we apply Halo Occupation Distribution models representing sparsely and densely sampled galaxy surveys to a high-resolution N-body simulation. We compare these galaxy voids to voids found in the halo distribution, low-resolution dark matter, and high-resolution dark matter. We find that voids at all scales in densely sampled surveys - and medium- to large-scale voids in sparse surveys - trace the same underdensities as dark matter, but they are larger in radius by ~20%, they have somewhat shallower density profiles, and they have centers offset by ~0.4Rv rms. However, in void-to-void comparison we find that shape estimators are less robust to sampling, and the largest voids in sparsely sampled surveys suffer fragmentation at their edges. We find that voids in galaxy surveys always correspond to underdensities in the dark matter, though ...

  12. The dark matter of galaxy voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Weinberg, David H.; Warren, Michael S.

    2014-03-01

    How do observed voids relate to the underlying dark matter distribution? To examine the spatial distribution of dark matter contained within voids identified in galaxy surveys, we apply Halo Occupation Distribution models representing sparsely and densely sampled galaxy surveys to a high-resolution N-body simulation. We compare these galaxy voids to voids found in the halo distribution, low-resolution dark matter and high-resolution dark matter. We find that voids at all scales in densely sampled surveys - and medium- to large-scale voids in sparse surveys - trace the same underdensities as dark matter, but they are larger in radius by ˜20 per cent, they have somewhat shallower density profiles and they have centres offset by ˜ 0.4Rv rms. However, in void-to-void comparison we find that shape estimators are less robust to sampling, and the largest voids in sparsely sampled surveys suffer fragmentation at their edges. We find that voids in galaxy surveys always correspond to underdensities in the dark matter, though the centres may be offset. When this offset is taken into account, we recover almost identical radial density profiles between galaxies and dark matter. All mock catalogues used in this work are available at http://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  13. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  14. The Beckoning Void in Moravagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Bellstrom

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chapter «Mascha,» lying at the heart of Cendrars's Moravagine , contains within it a variety of images and themes suggestive of emptiness. The philosophy of nihilism is exemplified in the motivations and actions of the group of terrorists seeking to plunge Russia into revolutionary chaos. Mascha's anatomical orifice, symbolizing both a biological and a psychological fault, and the abortion of her child, paralleled by the abortion of the revolutionary ideal among her comrades, are also emblematic of the chapter's central void. Moreover, Cendrars builds the theme of hollowness by describing Moravagine with images of omission, such as «empan» (space or span, «absent,» and «étranger.» Moravagine's presence, in fact, characteristically causes an undercurrent of doubt and uncertainty about the nature of reality to become overt. It is this parodoxical presence which seems to cause the narrator (and consequently the narrative to «lose» a day at the most critical moment of the story. By plunging the reader into the narrator's lapsus memoriae , Cendrars aims at creating a feeling of the kind of mental and cosmic disorder for which Moravagine is the strategist and apologist. This technique of insufficiency is an active technique, even though it relies on the passive idea of removing explanation and connecting details. The reader is invited, or lured, into the central void of the novel and, faced with unresolvable dilemmas, becomes involved in the same disorder that was initially produced.

  15. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′Hauwers K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, because HPV-related, life threatening malignancies in men are rare. The importance of male HPV screening lies mainly in HPV vaccination. Young females are the target group for HPV, but men are considered to be the reservoir for HPV and to have a role in the perpetuation of the infection in the general population. We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  16. Universal density profile for cosmic voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P M; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2014-06-27

    We present a simple empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function is universal across void size and redshift, accurately describing a large radial range of scales around void centers with only two free parameters. In analogy to halo density profiles, these parameters describe the scale radius and the central density of voids. While we initially start with a more general four-parameter model, we find two of its parameters to be redundant, as they follow linear trends with the scale radius in two distinct regimes of the void sample, separated by its compensation scale. Assuming linear theory, we derive an analytic formula for the velocity profile of voids and find an excellent agreement with the numerical data as well. In our companion paper [Sutter et al., arXiv:1309.5087 [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published)

  17. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... will take place in the air void, being feed from the capillary, but without pressure build-up in the capillary. If the capillary is not connected to an air void, ice formation will take place in the capillary pore, where it can generate substantial pressure. Like this, frost resistance depends......This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test...

  18. Void Profile from Planck Lensing Potential Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Sawangwit, Utane; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2017-02-01

    We use the lensing potential map from Planck CMB lensing reconstruction analysis and the “Public Cosmic Void Catalog” to measure the stacked void lensing potential. We have made an attempt to fit the HSW void profile parameters from the stacked lensing potential. In this profile, four parameters are needed to describe the shape of voids with different characteristic radii R V . However, we have found that after reducing the background noise by subtracting the average background, there is a residue lensing power left in the data. The inclusion of the environment shifting parameter, {γ }V, is necessary to get a better fit to the data with the residue lensing power. We divide the voids into two redshift bins: cmass1 (0.45Digital Sky Survey voids reside in an underdense region.

  19. Cosmology with void-galaxy correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Warren, Michael S

    2014-01-31

    Galaxy bias, the unknown relationship between the clustering of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is a major hurdle for cosmological inference from large-scale structure. While traditional analyses focus on the absolute clustering amplitude of high-density regions mapped out by galaxy surveys, we propose a relative measurement that compares those to the underdense regions, cosmic voids. On the basis of realistic mock catalogs we demonstrate that cross correlating galaxies and voids opens up the possibility to calibrate galaxy bias and to define a static ruler thanks to the observable geometric nature of voids. We illustrate how the clustering of voids is related to mass compensation and show that volume-exclusion significantly reduces the degree of stochasticity in their spatial distribution. Extracting the spherically averaged distribution of galaxies inside voids from their cross correlations reveals a remarkable concordance with the mass-density profile of voids.

  20. Voids in cosmological simulations over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Powell, Devon; Abel, Tom

    2016-06-01

    We study evolution of voids in cosmological simulations using a new method for tracing voids over cosmic time. The method is based on tracking watershed basins (contiguous regions around density minima) of well-developed voids at low redshift, on a regular grid of density field. It enables us to construct a robust and continuous mapping between voids at different redshifts, from initial conditions to the present time. We discuss how the new approach eliminates strong spurious effects of numerical origin when voids' evolution is traced by matching voids between successive snapshots (by analogy to halo merger trees). We apply the new method to a cosmological simulation of a standard Λ-cold-dark-matter cosmological model and study evolution of basic properties of typical voids (with effective radii 6 h-1 Mpc < Rv < 20 h-1 Mpc at redshift z = 0) such as volumes, shapes, matter density distributions and relative alignments. The final voids at low redshifts appear to retain a significant part of the configuration acquired in initial conditions. Shapes of voids evolve in a collective way which barely modifies the overall distribution of the axial ratios. The evolution appears to have a weak impact on mutual alignments of voids implying that the present state is in large part set up by the primordial density field. We present evolution of dark matter density profiles computed on isodensity surfaces which comply with the actual shapes of voids. Unlike spherical density profiles, this approach enables us to demonstrate development of theoretically predicted bucket-like shape of the final density profiles indicating a wide flat core and a sharp transition to high-density void walls.

  1. Cytopathological features of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder in urine: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryou; Kadota, Kyuichi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Motoyama, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji

    2016-07-01

    Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor that histologically mimics its enteric counterpart. Patients with an isolated villous adenoma have an excellent prognosis, but associated adenocarcinomas can frequently be identified in them as well. There is no literature that discusses the cytopathologic features of villous adenoma. Here we report a case which was diagnosed as villous adenoma histologically, which has been followed up with urine cytology. In urine cytology, many mucin producing cells are recognized. Few cell clusters show glandular formation or arrangement along the basement membrane. When glandular cells with columnar mucin-filled goblet cells are seen in urine cytology, the presence of a primary glandular lesion of the urinary bladder, such as villous adenoma, should be considered possible. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:632-635. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of rectal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, R; Rajwanshi, A; Wig, J D; Gupta, N M; Kesiezie, V; Bhasin, D K; Malik, A K; Gupta, S K; Mehta, S K

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of transproctoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of rectal lesions. Fifty one consecutive patients referred with a presumptive diagnosis of rectal mass were subjected to proctoscopic examination when fine needle aspiration cytology, brush cytology and biopsy samples were taken. Of the 30 patients of malignancy of rectum in whom all the three sampling techniques were applied, the biopsy was positive in 27 (90%), brush cytology in 25 (83.3%) and fine needle aspiration cytology in 29 (96.6%). A combination of fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a positive yield in 96.6% while that fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a yield of 100%. Fine needle aspiration cytology was most helpful in infiltrative tumours. All 10 patients with secondaries in the pouch of Douglas or rectovesical pouch, and the single patient with submucosal rectal carcinoma were correctly diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology. There were no false positive results with fine needle aspiration cytology and no complications were encountered with the procedure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2323600

  3. [Cytological methods for the diagnosis of pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoruk, O G; Bazulina, L M; Lazarev, A F

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented on a cytological examination of 2948 patients with pleuritis carried out during 7 years. Routine methods alongside centrifuging, cytological material staining, immunocytochemical and morphometric procedures were used. Each stage of the investigation was evaluated. Thanks to use of complex procedures, sensitivity of cytological methods for pleuritis diagnosis was raised to 95.2%, specificity--to 100%.

  4. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  5. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  6. Microfilaria in hydrocele fluid cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Patricia Ann; Jayaram, Gita; Mahmud, Rohela; Anuar, A Khairul

    2004-12-01

    Filariasis, a parasitic infection endemic in parts of India, Myanmar, islands of the South Pacific, West and East Africa and Saudi Arabia can be diagnosed from various types of cytopathological specimens. This case documents the detection of filarial infection from hydrocele fluid cytology in a 30-year-old Myanmar migrant worker in Malaysia.

  7. Size effects on void growth in single crystals with distributed voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of void size on void growth in single crystals with uniformly distributed cylindrical voids is studied numerically using a finite deformation strain gradient crystal plasticity theory with an intrinsic length parameter. A plane strain cell model is analyzed for a single crystal...

  8. The darkness that shaped the void: dark energy and cosmic voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E. G. Patrick; van de Weygaert, Rien; Dolag, Klaus; Pettorino, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    We assess the sensitivity of void shapes to the nature of dark energy that was pointed out in recent studies and also investigate whether or not void shapes are useable as an observational probe in galaxy redshift surveys. Our focus is on the evolution of the mean void ellipticity and its underlying

  9. The darkness that shaped the void : Dark energy and cosmic voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E. G. Patrick; van de Weygaert, Rien; Dolag, Klaus; Pettorino, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    We assess the sensitivity of void shapes to the nature of dark energy that was pointed out in recent studies and also investigate whether or not void shapes are useable as an observational probe in galaxy redshift surveys. Our focus is on the evolution of the mean void ellipticity and its underlying

  10. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  11. PARATHYROID CYTOLOGY: A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neck nodules are common in clinical practice which are accessible to Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid being the commonest organ to present as the nodular lesions. Parathyroid lesions can be incidentally encountered during FNA of a thyroid nodule Fine needle aspiration cytology is a safe economical and leading investigation in the diagnosis of neck nodules. Thyroid and parathyroid nodules are indistinguishable clinically. An attempt is made to familiarise the pathologist about the cytomorphological features of parathyroid nodules and simple approach to differentiate from thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 5 years from 2011-2016. Twelve cases of histologically proven parathyroidal lesions are the subjects of study of which 4 cases were diagnosed as parathyroidal cyst and rest as parathyroid adenoma. All the cases underwent fine needle aspiration cytology under ultrasound guidance, Smears were made, stained by H & E and PAP staining method, the slides were reviewed by two cytopathologists. Biochemical and radiological findings were evaluated before giving definitive cytological diagnosis. RESULTS A total number of 12 cases which were histologically proven as parathyroidal lesion. Out of which 4 were cystic lesions which were excluded from the study. Rest of the 8 cases confirmed as parathyroid adenoma which had FNAC were evaluated. 5 cases had positive cytohistological correlation. Three out of 8 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Toxic nodular goitre and Hurthle cell neoplasm due to varied cytomorphology. CONCLUSION Parathyroidal lesions has got low sensitivity and specificity in cytology. The confident diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasm was made in conjunction with biochemical and advanced radiological imaging. In neck nodules which are asymptomatic and at abnormal locations, FNAC through its cytomorphological features has an edge in

  12. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-05-01

    Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a specimen resulted in saving of time. It added a certain amount of objectivity to the

  13. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Prasad Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO stain, PAP (Papanicolaou stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93% in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and

  14. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  15. Voids in cosmological simulations over cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, Radosław; Abel, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study evolution of voids in cosmological simulations using a new method for tracing voids over cosmic time. The method is based on tracking watershed basins (contiguous regions around density minima) of well developed voids at low redshift, on a regular grid of density field. It enables us to construct a robust and continuous mapping between voids at different redshifts, from initial conditions to the present time. We discuss how the new approach eliminates strong spurious effects of numerical origin when voids evolution is traced by matching voids between successive snapshots (by analogy to halo merger trees). We apply the new method to a cosmological simulation of a standard LambdaCDM cosmological model and study evolution of basic properties of typical voids (with effective radii between 6Mpc/h and 20Mpc/h at redshift z=0) such as volumes, shapes, matter density distributions and relative alignments. The final voids at low redshifts appear to retain a significant part of the configuration acquired in in...

  16. A new geometrical approach to void statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M C

    2014-01-01

    Modelling cosmic voids as spheres in Euclidean space, the notion of a de-Sitter configuration space is introduced. It is shown that a uniform distribution over this configuration space yields a power-law approximating the void size distribution in an intermediate range of volumes, as well as an estimate for the fractal dimension of the large scale structure.

  17. Tracing the gravitational potential using cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, Seshadri; Crittenden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The properties of large underdensities in the distribution of galaxies in the Universe, known as cosmic voids, are potentially sensitive probes of fundamental physics. We use data from the MultiDark suite of N-body simulations and multiple halo occupation distribution mocks to study the relationship between galaxy voids and the gravitational potential $\\Phi$. We find that the majority of galaxy voids correspond to local density minima in larger-scale overdensities, and thus lie in potential wells. However, a subset of voids can be identified that closely trace maxima of the gravitational potential and thus stationary points of the velocity field. We identify a new void observable, $\\lambda_v$, which depends on a combination of the void size and the average galaxy density contrast within the void, and show that it provides a good proxy indicator of the potential at the void location. A simple linear scaling of $\\Phi$ as a function of $\\lambda_v$ is found to hold, independent of the redshift and properties of t...

  18. Simulation of dust voids in complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. J. Goedheer,; Land, V.

    2008-01-01

    In dusty radio-frequency (RF) discharges under micro-gravity conditions often a void is observed, a dust free region in the discharge center. This void is generated by the drag of the positive ions pulled out of the discharge by the electric field. We have developed a hydrodynamic model for dusty RF

  19. Assembly of filamentary void galaxy configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2013-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of filamentary configurations of dark matter haloes in voids. Our investigation uses the high-resolution Lambda cold dark matter simulation CosmoGrid to look for void systems resembling the VGS_31 elongated system of three interacting galaxies that was recently

  20. The Hierarchical Structure and Dynamics of Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the common view voids have very complex internal structure and dynamics. Here we show how the hierarchy of structures in the density field inside voids is reflected by a similar hierarchy of structures in the velocity field. Voids defined by dense filaments and clusters can de described as simple expanding domains with coherent flows everywhere except at their boundaries. At scales smaller that the void radius the velocity field breaks into expanding sub-domains corresponding to sub- voids. These sub-domains break into even smaller sub-sub domains at smaller scales resulting in a nesting hierarchy of locally expanding domains. The ratio between the magnitude of the velocity field responsible for the expansion of the void and the velocity field defining the sub voids is approximately one order of magnitude. The small-scale components of the velocity field play a minor role in the shaping of the voids but they define the local dynamics directly affecting the processes of galaxy formation and evoluti...

  1. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  2. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha Nambiar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001, clear background (P = 0.001, uniform distribution (0.005, cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0. The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  3. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed.

  4. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    ...-based cytology (LBC) was initially developed for cervical uterine cancer screening. As compared to conventional smears, this technique reduces the number of unsatisfactory and false positive results with significant improvement in cytodiagnostic accuracy. [4] Most LBC preparations showed a good quality of preparation including cytoplasmic and...

  5. VIDE: The Void IDentification and Examination toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Warren, Michael S; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Zivick, Paul; Mao, Qingqing; Thompson, Benjamin B

    2014-01-01

    We present VIDE, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, an open-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveys and N-body simulations, characterizing their properties, and providing a platform for more detailed analysis. At its core, VIDE uses a greatly enhanced version of ZOBOV (Neyinck 2008) to calculate a Voronoi tessellation for estimating the density field and a watershed transform to construct voids. The watershed levels are used to place voids in a hierarchical tree. VIDE provides significant additional functionality for both pre- and post-processing: for example, VIDE can work with volume- or magnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries, or dark matter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats. It can also randomly subsample inputs and includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model for constructing mock galaxy populations. VIDE outputs a summary of void properties in plain ASCII, and provides a Python API to perform many analysi...

  6. Cytologic diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms (low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma) in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Richard E; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Ohori, N Paul

    2003-04-01

    The 1998 World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification of urothelial neoplasms introduced a category called papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (LMP) and separated it from low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC), which was thought to yield abnormal cells in cytology specimens. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of urine cytology in diagnosing these lesions. Eighty-six paired transurethral surgical biopsy and corresponding urine cytology specimens representing the spectrum of urothelial papillary lesions were examined. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was made, and the distribution was as follows: 16 benign urothelium, 27 LMP, 28 LGPUC, and 15 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (HGPUC). This was followed by a blinded independent review of the urine cytology specimens by three observers. Each cytology case was marked as negative, atypical, suspicious, or positive for malignant cells by using previously published cytologic criteria. When the negative and atypical diagnoses were grouped together as "benign" and the suspicious and malignant diagnoses as "malignant," the detection rate of "malignancy" of the lesions was as follows: LMP, 37%; LGPUC, 25%; and HGPUC, 53%. The false positive rate was 6%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 94%. Detection rates of cells that were at least "atypical" were as follows: LMP, 74%; LGPUC, 79%; and HGPUC, 100%. While most of the LMP and LGPUC cases yielded cells that were at least "atypical," there was no significant difference in the distribution of cytologic diagnoses for LMP and LGPUC cases (P > 0.05). Urine cytology in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification appears to be useful as a screening tool but does not appear to discriminate LMP effectively from LGPUC. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cosmic voids and void lensing in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, C.; Clampitt, J.; Kovacs, A.; Jain, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Nadathur, S.; Gruen, D.; Hamaus, N.; Huterer, D.; Vielzeuf, P.; Amara, A.; Bonnett, C.; DeRose, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M.; Lahav, O.; Miquel, R.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.

    2016-10-26

    Galaxies and their dark matter halos populate a complicated filamentary network around large, nearly empty regions known as cosmic voids. Cosmic voids are usually identified in spectroscopic galaxy surveys, where 3D information about the large-scale structure of the Universe is available. Although an increasing amount of photometric data is being produced, its potential for void studies is limited since photometric redshifts induce line-of-sight position errors of $\\sim50$ Mpc/$h$ or more that can render many voids undetectable. In this paper we present a new void finder designed for photometric surveys, validate it using simulations, and apply it to the high-quality photo-$z$ redMaGiC galaxy sample of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. The algorithm works by projecting galaxies into 2D slices and finding voids in the smoothed 2D galaxy density field of the slice. Fixing the line-of-sight size of the slices to be at least twice the photo-$z$ scatter, the number of voids found in these projected slices of simulated spectroscopic and photometric galaxy catalogs is within 20% for all transverse void sizes, and indistinguishable for the largest voids of radius $\\sim 70$ Mpc/$h$ and larger. The positions, radii, and projected galaxy profiles of photometric voids also accurately match the spectroscopic void sample. Applying the algorithm to the DES-SV data in the redshift range $0.2voids with comoving radii spanning the range 18-120 Mpc/$h$, and carry out a stacked weak lensing measurement. With a significance of $4.4\\sigma$, the lensing measurement confirms the voids are truly underdense in the matter field and hence not a product of Poisson noise, tracer density effects or systematics in the data. It also demonstrates, for the first time in real data, the viability of void lensing studies in photometric surveys.

  8. CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GELATINOUS ASCITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a condition characte rized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity (gela tinous ascites. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an uncommon condition in which mucinous ascites causes progressive abdominal distension and gastrointestina l dysfunction. We present a case of 44 year old female who presented with gradually progres sive abdominal distension since 6 months. An ascitic tap was performed and the fluid wa s sent for cytological study. Cytology showed pools of acellular mucin. On laparotomy there was mucinous material in the abdomen that was evacuated. Appendix and omentum were found t o be thickened, hence appendicectomy was done and omental biopsy taken. Histopathological diagnosis of well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix with rupture and mucinous ascitis was made.

  9. Upper tract urinary cytology to detect upper tract urothelial carcinoma: Using the Johns Hopkins Hospital template and evaluation of its feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary upper urinary tract (UT urothelial carcinoma (UC is rare. UT washing cytology is often used during UT surveillance. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template (JHHT is primarily designed to use on lower tract urine cytology and the data on applying JHHT on UT cytology is limited. We herein study the value of UT cytology in detecting UTUC using JHHT in a cohort. Materials and Methods : One hundred UT cytologic specimens were retrieved from our database during a 10-year period (2001-2011. For each patient, the cytology specimen with the highest degree of abnormality was selected. Histologic sections of these cases were also studied. Results: Seventy-six cases of UT cytology had histologic follow-up by either serial (>2 endoscopic biopsies or nephroureterectomy or ureterectomy. Among them, the cytologic diagnosis of positive or suspicious for high-grade UC (HGUC was made in 15 cases; suspicious for low-grade UC (LGUC in 3 cases; atypical urothelial cells (AUCs of undetermined significance in 19 cases; and negative in 39 cases. Of the 15 cases with diagnosis of positive for HGUC or AUC-HGUC (AUC-H, 10 had histologically confirmed HGUC, 1 had LGUC, and 4 had benign histology. All 3 cases of cytologically suspicious for LGUC had LGUC on concomitant histology. Among the 19 washings with AUCs with unknown significance, 7 were LGUC, 1 was HGUC, and 11 were benign on histology. Six of 39 cases with negative cytology had UC (3 low-grade and 3 high-grade on histology. Combining positive and AUC-H for UC diagnoses, sensitivity, and specificity for detecting HGUC were 71.4% and 91.9%, while for LGUC were 21.4% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: UT washing cytology has high specificity for detecting UC, especially HGUC. Using JHHT on UT washing cytology is feasible, but the category of LGUC may need modification.

  10. Modelling Void Abundance in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F

    2016-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f(R) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surv...

  11. Redshift-space distortions around voids

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Peacock, John A; Padilla, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    We have derived estimators for the linear growth rate of density fluctuations using the cross-correlation function of voids and haloes in redshift space, both directly and in Fourier form. In linear theory, this cross-correlation contains only monopole and quadrupole terms. At scales greater than the void radius, linear theory is a good match to voids traced out by haloes in N-body simulations; small-scale random velocities are unimportant at these radii, only tending to cause small and often negligible elongation of the redshift-space cross-correlation function near its origin. By extracting the monopole and quadrupole from the cross-correlation function, we measure the linear growth rate without prior knowledge of the void profile or velocity dispersion. We recover the linear growth parameter $\\beta$ to 9% precision from an effective volume of 3(Gpc/h)^3 using voids with radius greater than 25Mpc/h. Smaller voids are predominantly sub-voids, which may be more sensitive to the random velocity dispersion; the...

  12. Voids' System in the Woven Composite Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavla VOZKOVA

    2006-01-01

    Composites are common material constructions for high-tech use now. Mechanical properties of woven reinforced composites are influenced by voids inside the structure.Voids could be classified to the two sections. Long and thin cracks are more dangerous than pores. It is important to find relations between preparation and place of occurrence of voids. This paper classifies defects according to rise mechanism, point of occurrence, orientation, size and affect to the properties. Image analysis was used for observing samples. Future work would be oriented not only to observing real samples, but also to calculate mechanical properties from real and ideal structures in 3D woven reinforced composites.

  13. Practical Statistics for the Voids Between Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaninetti, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The voids between galaxies are identified withthe volumes of the Poisson Voronoi tessellation.Two new survival functions for the apparent radii of voids are derived. The sectional normalized area ofthe Poisson Voronoi tessellation is modelledby the Kiang function and by the exponential function. Two new survival functions with equivalent sectional radius are therefore derived; they represent an alternative to the survival function of voids between galaxies as given by the self-similar distribution. The spatial appearance of slices of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey is simulated.

  14. The darkness that shaped the void: dark energy and cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, E G Patrick; Dolag, Klaus; Pettorino, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We assess the sensitivity of void shapes to the nature of dark energy that was pointed out in recent studies. We investigate whether or not void shapes are useable as an observational probe in galaxy redshift surveys. We focus on the evolution of the mean void ellipticity and its underlying physical cause. Methods: We analyse the morphological properties of voids in five sets of cosmological N-body simulations, each with a different nature of dark energy. Comparing voids in the dark matter distribution to those in the halo population, we address the question of whether galaxy redshift surveys yield sufficiently accurate void morphologies. Voids are identified using the parameter free Watershed Void Finder. The effect of redshift distortions is investigated as well. Results: We confirm the statistically significant sensitivity of voids in the dark matter distribution. We identify the level of clustering as measured by \\sigma_8(z) as the main cause of differences in mean void shape . We find that in the h...

  15. Cosmic voids and void lensing in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C.; Clampitt, J.; Kovacs, A.; Jain, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Nadathur, S.; Gruen, D.; Hamaus, N.; Huterer, D.; Vielzeuf, P.; Amara, A.; Bonnett, C.; DeRose, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M.; Lahav, O.; Miquel, R.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; DES Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic voids are usually identified in spectroscopic galaxy surveys, where 3D information about the large-scale structure of the Universe is available. Although an increasing amount of photometric data is being produced, its potential for void studies is limited since photometric redshifts induce line-of-sight position errors of ≥50 Mpc h-1which can render many voids undetectable. We present a new void finder designed for photometric surveys, validate it using simulations, and apply it to the high-quality photo-z redMaGiC galaxy sample of the DES Science Verification data. The algorithm works by projecting galaxies into 2D slices and finding voids in the smoothed 2D galaxy density field of the slice. Fixing the line-of-sight size of the slices to be at least twice the photo-z scatter, the number of voids found in simulated spectroscopic and photometric galaxy catalogues is within 20 per cent for all transverse void sizes, and indistinguishable for the largest voids (Rv ≥ 70 Mpc h-1). The positions, radii, and projected galaxy profiles of photometric voids also accurately match the spectroscopic void sample. Applying the algorithm to the DES-SV data in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.8, we identify 87 voids with comoving radii spanning the range 18-120 Mpc h-1, and carry out a stacked weak lensing measurement. With a significance of 4.4σ, the lensing measurement confirms that the voids are truly underdense in the matter field and hence not a product of Poisson noise, tracer density effects or systematics in the data. It also demonstrates, for the first time in real data, the viability of void lensing studies in photometric surveys.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration cytology and scrape cytology in oral cavity lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nesreen H. Hafez; Mohamed I. Fahim

    2014-01-01

    Background — The oral cavity can be home for a wide variety of lesions. To date, biopsy has remained the gold standard for diagnosing these lesions. Purpose — This study was carried out to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cytology in the oral lesions and to address the cytologic-histologic correlation. Patients and Methods — This prospective study included 72 patients with intraoral lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or scrap cytology was performed. The smears were immediate...

  17. Comparison of centrifuged liquid based cytology method with conventional brush cytology in oral lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Dwivedi; Akhil Agarwal; Vineet Raj; Bina Kashyap; Shaleen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the study of cells that are shed or scrapped off from mucosal surfaces. Centrifuged Liquid based cytology is a modified technique employed in the present study. Aims: To compare the utility of centrifuged liquid based cytology with conventional cytology in oral lesions after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: 50 cases of oral lesions comprising of normal mucosa (n=14), hyperkeratotic lesions (n=17), ulcerated lesions (n=7) and at...

  18. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  19. Protein urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria Images White nail syndrome Protein urine test References Gerber GS, Brendler CB. Evaluation of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ...

  20. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  1. Urine concentration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003608.htm Urine concentration test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to ...

  2. Education and training in cytology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tötsch, M

    2016-10-01

    Education and training in cytology in Europe is hampered by the fact that there is no homogenous programme across Europe. This can be observed for (Cyto)Pathologists and Cytotechnologists. However, lack of workforce and lack of a pan-European Cytology diploma are decreasing motivation among junior staff to dedicate their professional interests to cytology. Cytology and histology are complementary approaches for the diagnosis or exclusion of disease in patients and there are many individual efforts of National Societies to maintain competencies in cytology by workshops, seminars, tutorials and congresses. Furthermore, professional organizations such as the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) - Section Pathology are working together in order to develop a pan-European Cytology diploma. The EFCS is part supported by EU funding in this endeavour. Activities are ongoing in the fields of training (Eurocytology) and examination (QUATE Aptitude Test - Quality Assurance, Training and Examination) or both (Cy-Test). Modern techniques such as Webatlas with teaching modules in cytology and Tele(cyto)pathology are more and more integrated in daily teaching activities resulting in standardization of cytology in Europe.

  3. Properties of Galaxies in and around Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, U

    1997-01-01

    Two surveys for intrinsically faint galaxies towards nearby voids have been conducted at the MPI für Astronomie, Heidelberg. One selected targets from a new diameter limited ($\\Phi \\ge 5''$) catalog with morphological criteria while the other used digitized objective prism Schmidt plates to select mainly HII dwarf galaxies. For some 450 galaxies, redshifts and other optical data were obtained. We studied the spatial distribution of the sample objects, their luminosity function, and their intrinsic properties. Most of the galaxies belong to already well known sheets and filaments. But we found about a dozen highly isolated galaxies in each sample (nearest neighborhood distance $\\ge 3 h_{75}^{-1} Mpc$). These tend to populate additional structures and are not distributed homogeneously throughout the voids. As our results on 'void galaxies' still suffer from small sample statistics, I also tried to combine similar existing surveys of nearby voids to get further hints on the larger structure and on the luminosit...

  4. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  5. Topology optimization with flexible void area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for including fixed-area flexible void domains into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. As opposed to the standard passive elements approach of rigidly specifying void areas within the design domain, the suggested approach allows these areas...... to be flexibly reshaped and repositioned subject to penalization on their moments of inertia, the positions of their centers of mass, and their shapes. The flexible void areas are introduced through a second, discrete design variable field, using the same discretization as the standard field of continuous...... density variables. The formulation is based on a combined approach: The primary sub-problem is to minimize compliance, subject to a volume constraint, with a secondary sub-problem of minimizing the disturbance from the flexible void areas. The design update is performed iteratively between the two...

  6. Neutron Imaging Calibration to Measure Void Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Void fraction is an intuitive parameter that describes the fraction of vapor in a two-phase flow. It appears as a key variable in most heat transfer and pressure drop correlations used to design evaporating and condensing heat exchangers, as well as determining charge inventory in refrigeration systems. Void fraction measurement is not straightforward, however, and assumptions on the invasiveness of the measuring technique must be made. Neutron radiography or neutron imaging has the potential to be a truly non-invasive void fraction measuring technique but has until recently only offered qualitative descriptions of two-phase flow, in terms of flow maldistributions, for example. This paper describes the calibration approach necessary to employ neutron imaging to measure steady-state void fraction. Experiments were conducted at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold Guide 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

  7. Void growth in metals: Atomistic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traiviratana, Sirirat [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bringa, Eduardo M. [Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Benson, David J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, Marc A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: mameyers@ucsd.edu

    2008-09-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations in monocrystalline and bicrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to tensile uniaxial strains; the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. It is observed that many of these shear loops develop along two slip planes (and not one, as previously thought), in a heretofore unidentified mechanism of cooperative growth. The emission of dislocations from voids is the first stage, and their reaction and interaction is the second stage. These loops, forming initially on different {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes, join at the intersection, if the Burgers vector of the dislocations is parallel to the intersection of two {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes: a <1 1 0> direction. Thus, the two dislocations cancel at the intersection and a biplanar shear loop is formed. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work-hardened region surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried out on voids with different sizes, and a size dependence of the stress threshold to emit dislocations was obtained by MD, in disagreement with the Gurson model which is scale independent. This disagreement is most marked for the nanometer sized voids. The scale dependence of the stress required to grow voids is interpreted in terms of the decreasing availability of optimally oriented shear planes and increased stress required to nucleate shear loops as the void size is reduced. The growth of voids simulated by MD is compared with the Cocks-Ashby constitutive model and significant agreement is found. The density of geometrically necessary dislocations as a function of void size is calculated based on the emission of shear loops and their outward propagation. Calculations are also carried out for a void at the interface between two grains to simulate polycrystalline

  8. Zipf's law for fractal voids and a new void-finder

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, J

    2005-01-01

    Voids are a prominent feature of fractal point distributions but there is no precise definition of what is a void (except in one dimension). Here we propose a definition of voids that uses methods of discrete stochastic geometry, in particular, Delaunay and Voronoi tessellations, and we construct a new algorithm to search for voids in a point set. We find and rank-order the voids of suitable examples of fractal point sets in one and two dimensions to test whether Zipf's power-law holds. We conclude affirmatively and, furthermore, that the rank-ordering of voids conveys similar information to the number-radius function, as regards the scaling regime and the transition to homogeneity. So it is an alternative tool in the analysis of fractal point distributions with crossover to homogeneity and, in particular, of the distribution of galaxies.

  9. High Frequency Stimulation of the Pelvic Nerve Inhibits Urinary Voiding in Anesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Crook

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urge Urinary Incontinence: “a sudden and uncontrollable desire to void which is impossible to defer” is extremely common and considered the most bothersome of lower urinary tract conditions. Current treatments rely on pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurotoxicological approaches to manage the disorder, by reducing the excitability of the bladder muscle. However, some patients remain refractory to treatment. An alternative approach would be to temporarily suppress activity of the micturition control circuitry at the time of need i.e., urgency. In this study we investigated, in a rat model, the utility of high frequency pelvic nerve stimulation to produce a rapid onset, reversible suppression of voiding. In urethane-anesthetized rats periodic voiding was induced by continuous infusion of saline into the bladder whilst recording bladder pressure and electrical activity from the external urethral sphincter (EUS. High frequency (1–3 kHz, sinusoidal pelvic nerve stimulation initiated at the onset of the sharp rise in bladder pressure signaling an imminent void aborted the detrusor contraction. Urine output was suppressed and tone in the EUS increased. Stimulating the right or left nerve was equally effective. The effect was rapid in onset, reversible, and reproducible and evoked only minimal “off target” side effects on blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, uterine pressure, or rectal pressure. Transient contraction of abdominal wall was observed in some animals. Stimulation applied during the filling phase evoked a small, transient rise in bladder pressure and increased tonic activity in the EUS, but no urine output. Suppression of micturition persisted after section of the contralateral pelvic nerve or after ligation of the nerve distal to the electrode cuff on the ipsilateral side. We conclude that high frequency pelvic nerve stimulation initiated at the onset of an imminent void provides a potential means to control urinary

  10. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Zomer, S.F.; Tilburg, J.M. van; Snijders, M.P.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and

  11. Void Statistics and Void Galaxies in the 2dFGRS

    CERN Document Server

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    For the 2dFGRS we study the properties of voids and of fainter galaxies within voids that are defined by brighter galaxies. Our results are compared with simulated galaxy catalogues from the Millenium simulation coupled with a semianalytical galaxy formation recipe. We derive the void size distribution and discuss its dependence on the faint magnitude limit of the galaxies defining the voids. While voids among faint galaxies are typically smaller than those among bright galaxies, the ratio of the void sizes to the mean galaxy separation reaches larger values. This is well reproduced in the mock galaxy samples studied. We provide analytic fitting functions for the void size distribution. Furthermore, we study the galaxy population inside voids defined by objects with $B_J -5\\log{h}< -20$ and diameter larger than 10 \\hMpc. We find a clear bimodality of the void galaxies similar to the average comparison sample. We confirm the enhanced abundance of galaxies in the blue cloud and a depression of the number of ...

  12. Cluster-Void Degeneracy Breaking: Dark Energy, Planck and the Largest Cluster & Void

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlén, Martin; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy cluster and void abundances breaks the degeneracy between mean matter density $\\Omega_{\\rm m}$ and power spectrum normalization $\\sigma_8$. In a first for voids, we constrain $\\Omega_{\\rm m} = 0.21 \\pm 0.10$ and $\\sigma_8 = 0.95 \\pm 0.21$ for a flat $\\Lambda$CDM universe, using extreme-value statistics on the claimed largest cluster and void. The Planck-consistent results detect dark energy with two objects, independently of other dark energy probes. Cluster-void studies also offer complementarity in scale, density, and non-linearity - of particular interest for testing modified-gravity models.

  13. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional

  14. [Value of fluorescence in situ hybridization of urine exfoliative cells in diagnosis of urinary bladder neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Gong, Jing; Zeng, Hao; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Yu-chun; Chen, Min; Zhou, Qiao

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) examination of urine exfoliative cells in the diagnosis of urinary bladder neoplasms. The urine samples were collected from 100 patients with suspected urinary bladder neoplasms and 20 normal control subjects. Both FISH examination and cytology study of urine exfoliative cells were conducted with each sample. The specificity and sensitivity of FISH and cytology were analyzed on the basis of bladder biopsy histology. The sensitivity of FISH examination of bladder malignant tumor was 93.5% (87/93), which was much higher than that of cytology (49.5%, 46/93). Biopsies confirmed 88 cases of urothelial carcinoma among the 100 suspected patients, with 46 high grade tumors and 42 low grade tumors; 30 cases of high stage (T(2-4)) and 58 cases of low stage (T(a-1)). The sensitivity of FISH examination of urothelial carcinoma was 94.3%, which was much higher than that of cytology (52.3%). FISH examination was significantly more sensitive than cytology for low grade and low stage urothelial carcinoma, as well as for rare non-urothelial malignancies (P cytology of bladder malignancies was 92.6% (25/27) and 96.3% (26/27), for urothelial carcinoma was 81.3% (26/32) and 96.9% (31/32), respectively. FISH shows high sensitivity and relatively high specificity for the detection of urinary bladder neoplasms, especially for the diagnosis of low grade urothelial carcinoma and non-urothelial malignancies, which were difficult to be detected by cytology.

  15. 38 CFR 3.207 - Void or annulled marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled....

  16. ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kiyohide

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production via NADPH oxidase (NOX contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in urothelial carcinoma (UC of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology. Methods NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining. Results NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C. Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C vs. 75% in ROS-C, and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously

  17. Multiple void interaction of pipeline steel in triaxial stress fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-wen QIU; Ze-xi YUAN; Gui-feng ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional unit cell models were developed to study the damage induced by void growth in ductile materials. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the void shape and random spatial void arrangements. The periodical void arrays of body cen-tered cubic are investigated by analyzing representative unit cells. The isotropic behavior of the matrix material is modeled using v. Mises plasticity. The cell models are analyzed by the large strain finite element method under monotonic loading while keeping the constant stress triaxiality. Results showed that when void density increased, effects of void aspects on void growth gradu-ally diminished.

  18. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...

  19. Effect of void cluster on ductile failure evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a non-uniform void distribution in a ductile material is investigated by using a cell model analysis to study a material with a periodic pattern of void clusters. The special clusters considered consist of a number of uniformly spaced voids located along a plane perpendicular...... to the maximum principal tensile stress. A plane strain approximation is used, where the voids are parallel cylindrical holes. Clusters with different numbers of voids are compared with the growth of a single void, such that the total initial volume of the voids, and thus also the void volume fractions...... understanding, different transverse stresses on the unit cell are considered to see the influence of different levels of stress triaxiality. Also considered are different initial ratios of the void spacing to the void radius inside the clusters. And results are shown for different levels of strain hardening...

  20. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, S; Diego, J M; Iliev, I T; Gottlöber, S; Watson, W A; Yepes, G

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or -- within the range of the simulated catalogue -- on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  1. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Diego, J. M.; Iliev, I. T.; Gottlöber, S.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or - within the range of the simulated catalogue - on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  2. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  3. Cosmic Voids: structure, dynamics and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2009-01-01

    In this review we discuss several aspects of Cosmic Voids. Voids are a major component of the large scale distribution of matter and galaxies in the Universe. They are of instrumental importance for understanding the emergence of the Cosmic Web. Their relatively simple shape and structure makes them into useful tools for extracting the value of a variety cosmic parameters, possibly including even that of the influence of dark energy. Perhaps most promising and challenging is the issue of the galaxies found within their realm. Not only does the pristine environment of voids provide a promising testing ground for assessing the role of environment on the formation and evolution of galaxies, the dearth of dwarf galaxies may even represent a serious challenge to the standard view of cosmic structure formation.

  4. Void coalescence within periodic clusters of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. I. A.; Worswick, M. J.; Pilkey, A. K.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of particle clustering on void damage rates in a ductile material under triaxial loading conditions is examined using three-dimensional finite element analysis. An infinite material containing a regular distribution of clustered particles is modelled using a unit cell approach. Three discrete particles are introduced into each unit cell while a secondary population of small particles within the surrounding matrix is represented using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) constitutive equations. Deformation strain states characteristic of sheet metal forming are considered; that is, deep drawing, plane strain and biaxial stretching. Uniaxial tensile stress states with varying levels of superimposed hydrostatic tension are also examined. The orientation of a particle cluster with respect to the direction of major principal loading is shown to significantly influence failure strains. Coalescence of voids within a first-order particle cluster (consisting of three particles) is a stable event while collapse of inter-cluster ligaments leads to imminent material collapse through void-sheeting.

  5. Effectiveness of tolterodine in nonneurogenic voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ramesh

    2006-11-01

    The efficacy of tolterodine was analysed in children with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction, using dysfunctional voiding symptom score (DVSS). Of 44 patients (mean age 9.3 yrs; M:F = 25:19), 36 received long acting tolterodine tartrate at a dose of 2mg OD and 8 at a dose of 4mg OD. The mean (SD) DVSS before and after the treatment was 17.1 (2.8) and 12.0 (2.4). There was a significant improvement in the mean DVSS score at the end of the treatment (Students t test P tolterodine is effective in children with voiding dysfunction. The single daily dose has good compliance and minimal side effect profile.

  6. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  7. Malposition of catheters during voiding cystourethrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, V.; Konen, O.; Shapiro, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging Sapir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba and Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Grunebaum, M. [Veteran Pediatric Radiologist, Kfar Saba (Israel)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report catheter malposition during voiding cystourethrography. Eight hundred forty-three voiding cystourethrography (265 males and 578 females, aged 1 week to 12 years, mean age 2 years) were performed during a period of 4 years. The conventional standard procedure was applied. In 3 cases with passed history of urinary tract infection the catheter entered directly into the ureter. In all these cases the uretero-vesical reflux was present on the same side where the catheter entered. It appears that insertion of a catheter into the ureter is possible only in the presence of an anomaly or pathology at the vesicoureteric junction. (orig.)

  8. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof;

    The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  9. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Priya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  12. Urinary Tract Effects After Multifocal Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation of the Kidney: Acute and Chronic Monitoring by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Intravenous Urography and Urinary Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, Johann Jakob, E-mail: johann.wendler@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Pech, Maciej [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Porsch, Markus; Janitzky, Andreas [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Fischbach, Frank [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Buhtz, Peter; Vogler, Klaus [University of Magdeburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Huehne, Sarah [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Borucki, Katrin [University of Magdeburg, Institute of Clinical Chemistry (Germany); Strang, Christof [University of Magdeburg, Department of Anaesthesiology (Germany); Mahnkopf, Dirk [Institute of Medical Technology and Research (Germany); Ricke, Jens [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Liehr, Uwe-Bernd [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The nonthermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a novel potential ablation modality for renal masses. The aim of this study was the first evaluation of NTIRE's effects on the renal urine-collecting system using intravenous urography (IVU) and urinary cytology in addition to histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Eight percutaneous NTIRE ablations of the renal parenchyma, including the calyxes or pelvis, were performed in three male swine. MRI, IVU, histology, and urinary cytology follow-ups were performed within the first 28 days after treatment. Results: MRI and histological analysis demonstrated a localized necrosis 7 days and a localized scarification of the renal parenchyma with complete destruction 28 days after NTIRE. The urine-collecting system was preserved and showed urothelial regeneration. IVU and MRI showed an unaltered normal morphology of the renal calyxes, pelvis, and ureter. A new urinary cytology phenomenon featured a temporary degeneration by individual vacuolization of detached transitional epithelium cells within the first 3 days after NTIRE. Conclusions: This first urographical, urine-cytological, and MRI evaluation after porcine kidney NTIRE shows multifocal parenchyma destruction while protecting the involved urine-collecting system with regenerated urothelial tissue. NTIRE could be used as a targeted ablation method of centrally located renal masses.

  13. Morphologic features of prostatic adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep® urinary cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kevin L; Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2011-02-01

    Malignant cells of prostatic adenocarcinoma are rarely identified in urine. In most cases, this finding is associated with high stage tumor. Numerous descriptions of the morphology of prostatic adenocarcinoma have been reported using cytocentrifugated specimens. However, no specific morphologic description of prostatic adenocarcinoma in urine using liquid-based cytology has been previously described. Four cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma in urine using ThinPrep® liquid-based preparations were identified between 2002 and 2009 at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. Three patients had either high stage tumor or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, while the remaining patient had low stage tumor. The morphology of each case was evaluated with specific attention to cell size, nuclear characteristics, nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, and cytoplasmic characteristics. The resulting key features for prostatic adenocarcinoma in urine are clustering, increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, and prominent nucleoli. Though typically the presence of prostatic adenocarcinoma in urine implies high stage tumor, cells of lower stage tumors may be seen in urine as well.

  14. Void Reactivity Coefficient Analysis during Void Fraction Changes in Innovative BWR Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Slavickas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the void reactivity variation in innovative BWR fuel assemblies is presented in this paper. The innovative assemblies are loaded with high enrichment fresh UO2 and MOX fuels. UO2 fuel enrichment is increased above existing design limitations for LWR fuels (>5%. MOX fuel enrichment with fissile Pu content is established to achieve the same burnup level as that of high enrichment UO2 fuel. For the numerical analysis, the TRITON functional module of SCALE 6.1 code with the 238-group ENDF/B-VI cross section data library was applied. The investigation of the void reactivity feedback is performed in the entire 0–100% void fraction range. Higher values of void reactivity coefficient for assembly loaded with MOX fuel are found in comparison with values for assembly loaded with UO2 fuel. Moreover, coefficient values for MOX fuel are positive over 75% void fraction. The variation of the void reactivity coefficient is explained by the results of the decomposition analysis based on four-factor formula and neutron absorption reactions for main isotopes. Additionally, the impact of the moderation enhancement on the void reactivity coefficient was investigated for the innovative assembly with MOX fuel.

  15. Cosmic Voids and Void Lensing in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, C; Kovacs, A; Jain, B; García-Bellido, J; Nadathur, S; Gruen, D; Hamaus, N; Huterer, D; Vielzeuf, P; Amara, A; Bonnett, C; DeRose, J; Hartley, W G; Jarvis, M; Lahav, O; Miquel, R; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sheldon, E; Wechsler, R H; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Annis, J; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Krause, E; Kuehn, K; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Melchior, P; Plazas, A A; Reil, K; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Walker, A R; Weller, J

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies and their dark matter halos populate a complicated filamentary network around large, nearly empty regions known as cosmic voids. Cosmic voids are usually identified in spectroscopic galaxy surveys, where 3D information about the large-scale structure of the Universe is available. Although an increasing amount of photometric data is being produced, its potential for void studies is limited since photometric redshifts induce line-of-sight position errors of $\\sim50$ Mpc/$h$ or more that can render many voids undetectable. In this paper we present a new void finder designed for photometric surveys, validate it using simulations, and apply it to the high-quality photo-$z$ redMaGiC galaxy sample of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. The algorithm works by projecting galaxies into 2D slices and finding voids in the smoothed 2D galaxy density field of the slice. Fixing the line-of-sight size of the slices to be at least twice the photo-$z$ scatter, the number of voids found in these ...

  16. The sparkling Universe: a scenario for cosmic void motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Laura; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Lares, Marcelo; Paz, Dante J.; Maldonado, Victoria E.; Luparello, Heliana E.; Garcia Lambas, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Cosmic voids are prominent features of the Universe, encoding relevant information of the growth and evolution of structure through their dynamics. Here, we perform a statistical study of the global motion of cosmic voids using both a numerical simulation and observational data. Their relation to large-scale mass flows and the physical effects that drive those motions. We analyse the bulk motions of voids, finding void mean bulk velocities in the range 300-400 km s-1, depending on void size and the large-scale environment. Statistically, small voids move faster, and voids in relatively higher density environments have higher bulk velocities. Also, we find large-scale overdensities (underdensities) along (opposite to) the void motion direction, suggesting that void motions respond to a pull-push mechanism. Our analysis suggests that their relative motions are generated by large-scale density fluctuations. In agreement with linear theory, voids embedded in low (high) density regions mutually recede (attract) each other, providing the general mechanism to understand the bimodal behaviour of void motions. We have also inferred void motions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using linear theory, finding that their estimated motions are in qualitatively agreement with the results of the simulation. Our results suggest a scenario of galaxies and galaxy systems flowing away from void centres with the additional, and more relevant, contribution of the void bulk motion to the total velocity.

  17. Changes in voiding behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T eBiallosterski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides cognitive decline and behavioral alteration, urinary incontinence often occurs in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. To determine whether the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, APPSL/PS1M146L mouse, shows alteration of the urinary bladder function and anxiety, as for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, we examined the urinary marking behavior in relation to affective behavior. At 18 months of age voiding behavior of APPSL/PS1M146L (APP/PS1 and wild type (WT mice was assessed by using a modified filter paper assay in combination with video tracing, with the cage divided into a center and corner zones. Anxiety-related behavior and locomotion were respectively tested in an elevated zero maze and an open field. The APP/PS1 mice urinated more in the center zone than the WT mice. The total volume of markings was significantly lower in the APP/PS1 mice. In both groups, the average volume of a marking in the corner zone was larger than in the center zone. In the elevated zero maze, the APP/PS1 mice spent less time in the open arms of the arena, considered as anxiogenic zones, than the WT mice. During the open field task, the APP/PS1 mice covered a longer distance than the WT mice. These findings show that the APP/PS1 mice have a different voiding behavior compared to the WT mice, i.e. urinating with small volumes and voiding in the center of the cage, and suggest that increased locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors are factors in the change in voiding pattern in the APP/PS1 mouse.

  18. Changes in voiding behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallosterski, B. T.; Prickaerts, J.; Rahnama’i, M. S.; de Wachter, S.; van Koeveringe, G. A.; Meriaux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Besides cognitive decline and behavioral alteration, urinary incontinence often occurs in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine whether the transgenic mouse model of AD, APP/PS1 (APPSL/PS1M146L) mouse, shows alteration of the urinary bladder function and anxiety, as for patients with AD, we examined the urinary marking behavior in relation to affective behavior. At 18 months of age voiding behavior of APP/PS1 and wild type (WT) mice was assessed by using a modified filter paper assay in combination with video tracing, with the cage divided into a center and corner zones. Anxiety-related behavior and locomotion were respectively tested in an elevated zero maze (EZM) and an open field (OF). The APP/PS1 mice urinated more in the center zone than the WT mice. The total volume of markings was significantly lower in the APP/PS1 mice. In both groups, the average volume of a marking in the corner zone was larger than in the center zone. In the EZM, the APP/PS1 mice spent less time in the open arms of the arena, considered as anxiogenic zones, than the WT mice. During the OF task, the APP/PS1 mice covered a longer distance than the WT mice. These findings show that the APP/PS1 mice have a different voiding behavior compared to the WT mice, i.e., urinating with small volumes and voiding in the center of the cage, and suggest that increased locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors are factors in the change in voiding pattern in the APP/PS1 mouse. PMID:26379542

  19. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional cytolog

  20. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional cytolog

  1. Urine testing for diabetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Marsden

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urine testing is relatively cheap and easy to do. Urine testing can be used to check for blood in the urine, to check for infection (by detecting the presence of white blood cells or protein and can show up other systemic problems such as liver problems (by showing abnormal bilirubin levels. Urine testing can also detect ketones in the urine.

  2. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-09-15

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

  3. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all ...

  4. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...

  5. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-09-15

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

  6. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2012-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.

  7. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the assumptio

  8. Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, P. W.; Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in voids can be described in terms of the charges induced on the terminal electrodes of the system. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured is discussed. The method is illustrated by applying it to a s...

  9. Atomistic modeling of shock-induced void collapse in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, L P; Erhart, P; Bringa, E M; Meyers, M A; Lubarda, V A; Schneider, M S; Becker, R; Kumar, M

    2005-03-09

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that shock-induced void collapse in copper occurs by emission of shear loops. These loops carry away the vacancies which comprise the void. The growth of the loops continues even after they collide and form sessile junctions, creating a hardened region around the collapsing void. The scenario seen in our simulations differs from current models that assume that prismatic loop emission is responsible for void collapse. We propose a new dislocation-based model that gives excellent agreement with the stress threshold found in the MD simulations for void collapse as a function of void radius.

  10. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  11. ImmunoCytTM and cytology for diagnosis of bladder carcinoma:a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Minggen; Zheng Zhouda; Zhuang Zhiming; Zhao Xiaokun; Xu Zhenqiang; Lin Haili

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently,cystoscopy and urine cytology are standard modalities in therapy monitoring and follow-up of bladder carcinoma (BC).Cystoscopy is an invasive and uncomfortable procedure while cytology has a limited value because it is operator-dependent and has low sensitivity.This study was to assess the accuracy of ImmunoCyt in detecting BC by comparing it with cytology using systemic analyses of studies published in both English and Chinese.Methods Cochrane systematic evaluation was used to search through MEDLINE,EMBASE,Cochrane Library,CMCC,and CNKI for studies regarding ImmunoCyt and cytology for detection of BC.Data were extracted and analyzed by the software MetaDiSc 1.4.Results In total 42 relevant studies were searched,of which 15 were enrolled and 12 491 patients were included.Heterogeneity,except for threshold effects,was found within these studies.A meta-analysis was performed using the random effect model.Pooled accuracy indicators like sensitivity,specificity,and diagnostic odds ratio of ImmunoCytTM and cytology were 0.75 (0.73-0.77) vs.0.45 (0.43-0.48),0.73 (0.72-0.74) vs.0.97 (0.96-0.97),and 10.97 (7.53-15.99) vs.16.40 (10.57-25.46),respectively.The sensitivity of both was increased with the increase of tumor grade and stage.The area under summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.834 4 and 0.853 4 and the Q index 0.766 7 and 0.785 3 for ImmunoCyt and cytology,respectively.Combination of both can obviously improve the accuracy of diagnosis.Conclusions ImmunoCyt has a high sensitivity in detecting BC,but its specificity is low.As an important adjunct,ImmunoCytTM can not replace cytology,but combined with cytology it could improve sensitivity with high specificity in the detection and postoperative monitoring of BC.

  12. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shashikala, R; Indira, A P; Manjunath, G S; Rao, K Arathi; Akshatha, B K

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially...

  13. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Diagnosis Exams and Tests for Cancer Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Waiting to hear ... who tell you whether the cells in your biopsy sample are cancer or not. How is cancer ...

  14. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Adenomatatoid tumor: Cytological diagnosis of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumor is a benign neoplasm of mesothelial cell origin that occurs in both male and female genital tracts. Fine needle aspiration cytology has an important role in the preoperative diagnosis of the male genital adenomatoid tumor and is a rapid, reliable, conclusive, and cost-effective diagnostic tool that can be used to take appropriate surgical decisions. Pathologists should be aware of the cytological features of such lesions so as to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. We present here two cases, one in the testis and another in the epididymis in a 35 year-old and a 30 year-old male respectively, which were diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and later confirmed by histopathology. We present the cytological features and histopathological correlation of these cases.

  16. Conjunctival impression cytology in computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Bansal, R; Khare, A; Malik, K P S; Malik, V K; Jain, K; Jain, C

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the computer users develop the features of dry eye. To study the cytological changes in the conjunctiva using conjunctival impression cytology in computer users and a control group. Fifteen eyes of computer users who had used computers for more than one year and ten eyes of an age-and-sex matched control group (those who had not used computers) were studied by conjunctival impression cytology. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results in the control group were of stage 0 and stage I while the computer user group showed CIC results between stages II to stage IV. Among the computer users, the majority ( > 90 %) showed stage III and stage IV changes. We found that those who used computers daily for long hours developed more CIC changes than those who worked at the computer for a shorter daily duration. © NEPjOPH.

  17. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    , subject to shear dominated loading. To account for both length scales involved in this study, a continuum model that includes the softening effect of damage evolution in shear is used to represent the matrix material surrounding the primary voids. Here, a recently extended Gurson-type model is used, which......Failure under intense shearing at close to zero stress triaxiality is widely observed for ductile metallic materials, and is identified in experiments as smeared-out dimples on the fracture surface. Numerical cell-model studies of equal sized voids have revealed that the mechanism governing...... secondary damage that co-exists with or nucleation in the ligaments between larger voids that coalesce during intense shearing. A numerical cell-model study is carried out to gain a parametric understanding of the overall material response for different initial conditions of the two void populations...

  18. Pancreatic cytology: standardised terminology and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Machado, M A

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cytology can make a real difference to the management of patients. However it is a challenge in those cases where a definitive diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made with confidence. This creates the need for a unified terminology and nomenclature system that provides intra- and interdepartmental guidance for diagnosis. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has published new guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology, addressing indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management.

  19. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... español Sangre en la orina (hematuria) What Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine (pee), ...

  20. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  1. A Cosmic Watershed: the WVF Void Detection Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Platen, Erwin; Jones, Bernard J T

    2007-01-01

    On megaparsec scales the Universe is permeated by an intricate filigree of clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, the Cosmic Web. For the understanding of its dynamical and hierarchical history it is crucial to identify objectively its complex morphological components. One of the most characteristic aspects is that of the dominant underdense Voids, the product of a hierarchical process driven by the collapse of minor voids in addition to the merging of large ones. In this study we present an objective void finder technique which involves a minimum of assumptions about the scale, structure and shape of voids. Our void finding method, the Watershed Void Finder (WVF), is based upon the Watershed Transform, a well-known technique for the segmentation of images. Importantly, the technique has the potential to trace the existing manifestations of a void hierarchy. The basic watershed transform is augmented by a variety of correction procedures to remove spurious structure resulting from sampling noise. This study c...

  2. Influence of bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor contractility on residual urine in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 武治津; 高居忠

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the degree of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), detrusor contractility and residual urine in patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods In 181 patients with BPH, degree of BOO, detrusor contractility, residual urine caculated from cathetering combined with the difference between the filling and the voiding were recorded and analysized statistically using urodynamic technique.Results Residual urine increased when the detusor contractility was weakened (F=12.134, P=0.001). In patients wih severe BOO, there was no significant difference in residual urine (F=2.386, P=0.071).Conclusions Increased residual urine is mainly resulted from decreased detrusor contractility. BOO has no significant influence on residual urine. Some patients with normal or weakened detrusor contractility may have more residual urine

  3. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  4. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanonik, K.; Platen, E.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an Hi survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the Hi polar disk. Yet the Hi mass in th

  5. Void Coalescence Processes Quantified Through Atomistic and Multiscale Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E; Seppala, E T; Dupuy, L M; Belak, J

    2007-01-12

    Simulation of ductile fracture at the atomic scale reveals many aspects of the fracture process including specific mechanisms associated with void nucleation and growth as a precursor to fracture and the plastic deformation of the material surrounding the voids and cracks. Recently we have studied void coalescence in ductile metals using large-scale atomistic and continuum simulations. Here we review that work and present some related investigations. The atomistic simulations involve three-dimensional strain-controlled multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations of copper. The correlated growth of two voids during the coalescence process leading to fracture is investigated, both in terms of its onset and the ensuing dynamical interactions. Void interactions are quantified through the rate of reduction of the distance between the voids, through the correlated directional growth of the voids, and through correlated shape evolution of the voids. The critical inter-void ligament distance marking the onset of coalescence is shown to be approximately one void radius based on the quantification measurements used, independent of the initial separation distance between the voids and the strain-rate of the expansion of the system. No pronounced shear flow is found in the coalescence process. We also discuss a technique for optimizing the calculation of fine-scale information on the fly for use in a coarse-scale simulation, and discuss the specific case of a fine-scale model that calculates void growth explicitly feeding into a coarse-scale mechanics model to study damage localization.

  6. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanonik, K.; Platen, E.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an Hi survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the Hi polar disk. Yet the Hi mass in th

  7. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    CERN Document Server

    Villata, M

    2012-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter ($\\sim5\\times10^{15}\\,M_\\odot$) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require vo...

  8. Evaluation of cytologic findings in feline conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillström, Anna; Tvedten, Harold; Källberg, Maria; Hanås, Sofia; Lindhe, Anna; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2012-06-01

    Cytologic examination of smears prepared from ocular swabs of conjunctiva from cats with conjunctivitis permits identification of the type of inflammation and possibly specific microorganisms. Results of studies of the diagnostic utility of cytology for detection of infectious causes of feline conjunctivitis have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to describe cytologic findings in cats with conjunctivitis and to compare those findings with results of PCR analysis for feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), Chlamydophila felis (C felis), and Mycoplasma felis (M felis). Conjunctival smears from 88 cats with conjunctivitis and 10 healthy control cats were stained with a Romanowsky stain and evaluated for the type of inflammation and evidence of an infectious agent. PCR analysis for FHV-1, C felis, and M felis was performed. Infectious agents identified by PCR analysis were FHV-1 in 9 cats (10%), C felis in 8 cats (9%), and M felis in 6 cats (7%). Inclusions interpreted as chlamydial inclusions were found in all cytologic smears from cats positive for C felis by PCR analysis and in 3 PCR-negative cats. Inclusions interpreted as Mycoplasma organisms were found in 3 of 6 cats that were PCR-positive for M felis and in 1 PCR-negative cat. FHV-1 inclusion bodies were not detected on cytologic examination. Cytologic examination can be diagnostic for C felis infection when many typical inclusions are present. Cytologic examination was unreliable in diagnosing M felis infection, and viral inclusions of FHV-1 were not found in specimens stained with Romanowsky stains. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Iono, D; Honey, M; Ramya, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1-0) line emission and follow up Halpha imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1-0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most under dense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Halpha line luminosities. CO(1--0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)E+9 Msun. The H$\\alpha$ imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star forma...

  10. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  11. Urinating more at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium level Certain medicines, including water pills (diuretics) Diabetes insipidus Waking often during the night to urinate can ... medicines are you taking? Have you changed your diet? Do you drink caffeine and alcohol? If so, ...

  12. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  13. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  14. Increased residual urine in patients with bladder neuropathy secondary to suprasacral spinal cord lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, M E; Kiviat, M D

    1980-05-01

    Multichannel urodynamic studies were done on 30 patients with incomplete bladder emptying secondary to suprasacral spinal cord lesions. In 11 patients fluoroscopy was done simultaneously. A single most important factor accounting for the increased residual urine was present in 21 cases: inadequate detrusor contraction in 10, sphincter dyssynergia in 6 and bladder neck obstruction in 5. A combination of 2 of these factors was present in 3 patients. Although the initial residual urine volume was high in 6 patients voiding during the urodynamic study was efficient and no residual urine was demonstrated at that time. Urethral pressure profiles were variable, depending on whether a spastic external sphincter contraction was present during the procedure. It is concluded that bladder pressure and sphincter electromyographic measurement during voiding, combined with fluoroscopy, are ideal methods to identify the factors responsible for incomplete emptying in problem cases. The urethral pressure profile is of limited value in the initial assessment of these patients.

  15. [The liquid cytology in clinical practice: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalova, I P; Kasoian, K T; Savostikova, M V

    2011-12-01

    The lecture covers one of the most perspective directions in clinical cytology. The emergence of liquid cytology is related to preparation of thin-layer specimens of organism liquids. Nowadays, the liquid cytology spreads more and more due to eephi application in different areas of cytological diagnostics, including screening of cervix uteri diseases, automatic screening, punctate tests, endoscopic and other materials. The lecture presents the basics of method, the characteristics of pre-analytic stage, the approaches to preparation of cytological specimens and cell blocks. The main possibilities, characteristics and perspectives of liquid cytology on the stage of rapid development of molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  16. Nonlocal plasticity effects on interaction of different size voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2004-01-01

    A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between...... an increased growth rate due to the stress concentrations around the larger voids and a reduced growth rate due to the nonlocal effects is studied. The analyses are based on an axisymmetric unit cell model with special boundary conditions, which allow for a relatively simple investigation of a full three...

  17. The Mechanism of Hydrogen-facilitating Initiation of Voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武扬; 蒋兴钢; 肖纪美

    1994-01-01

    By combining the hydrogen-induced local plastic deformation theory with the decohesive theory and the hydrogen pressure theory, a new mechanism of hydrogen-facilitating initiation of voids has been proposed. Through facilitating the local plastic deformation and reducing the cohesive strength, hydrogen promotes both initiating a nanocrack and blunting the nanocrack into a void, resulting in hydrogen-promoting initiation of the void. On the other hand, hydrogen can enhance the stability of the void through reducing the cohesive strength and forming a hydrogen pressure in the void.

  18. The Void Galaxy Survey: Photometry, structure and identity of void galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beygu, B; van der Hulst, J M; Jarrett, T H; Kreckel, K; van de Weygaert, R; van Gorkom, J H; Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze photometry from deep B-band images of 59 void galaxies in the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), together with their near-infrared 3.6$\\mu$m and 4.5$\\mu$m Spitzer photometry. The VGS galaxies constitute a sample of void galaxies that were selected by a geometric-topological procedure from the SDSS DR7 data release, and which populate the deep interior of voids. Our void galaxies span a range of absolute B-magnitude from $\\rm{M_B=-15.5}$ to $\\rm{M_B=-20}$, while at the 3.6$\\mu$m band their magnitudes range from $\\rm{M_{3.6}=-18}$ to $\\rm{M_{3.6}=-24}$. Their B-[3.6] colour and structural parameters indicate these are star forming galaxies. A good reflection of the old stellar population, the near-infrared band photometry also provide a robust estimate of the stellar mass, which for the VGS galaxies we confirm to be smaller than $3 \\times 10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$. In terms of the structural parameters and morphology, our findings align with other studies in that our VGS galaxy sample consists mostly of small late-t...

  19. Imprint cytology: A boon in tissue diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusheela Rajesh Gore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of imprint cytology has provided great impetus to cytodiagnosis due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapid results. It plays a significant role in the rapid diagnosis of the lesions. Objectives: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology and thereby to evaluate its diagnostic utility. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. It included 105 cases. Both benign and malignant lesions from different organ systems were included in the study. Various techniques like touch imprints scrape cytology and squash preparations were used according to the nature of tissue sample. The cytodiagnosis was correlated with histopathological (HP diagnosis to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology. Results: Maximum lesions were of central nervous system (25.7% followed by breast, head, and neck. Imprint cytology diagnosis had sensitivity of 95.5% with 100% specificity for detection of benign and malignant lesions. Overall accuracy of detecting type of lesion was 98.1%. Total discordance with HP diagnosis was found in 1.9% of cases. Conclusion: The use of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis provides a rapid and efficient means of pathological assessment which in experienced hand, is capable of obtaining a high degree of accuracy. Its use is highly recommended routinely.

  20. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  1. Void Coalescence Processes Quantified through Atomistic and Multiscale Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E; Seppala, E T; Dupuy, L M; Belak, J

    2005-12-31

    Simulation of ductile fracture at the atomic scale reveals many aspects of the fracture process including specific mechanisms associated with void nucleation and growth as a precursor to fracture and the plastic deformation of the material surrounding the voids and cracks. Recently we have studied void coalescence in ductile metals using large-scale atomistic and continuum simulations. Here we review that work and present some related investigations. The atomistic simulations involve three-dimensional strain-controlled multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations of copper. The correlated growth of two voids during the coalescence process leading to fracture is investigated, both in terms of its onset and the ensuing dynamical interactions. Void interactions are quantified through the rate of reduction of the distance between the voids, through the correlated directional growth of the voids, and through correlated shape evolution of the voids. The critical inter-void ligament distance marking the onset of coalescence is shown to be approximately one void radius based on the quantification measurements used, independent of the initial separation distance between the voids and the strain-rate of the expansion of the system. No pronounced shear flow is found in the coalescence process.

  2. A Cosmic Void Catalog of SDSS DR12 BOSS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qingqing; Berlind, Andreas A.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Scoccimarro, Román; Tinker, Jeremy L.; McBride, Cameron K.; Schneider, Donald P.; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    We present a cosmic void catalog using the large-scale structure galaxy catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This galaxy catalog is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 and is the final catalog of SDSS-III. We take into account the survey boundaries, masks, and angular and radial selection functions, and apply the ZOBOV void finding algorithm to the Galaxy catalog. We identify a total of 10,643 voids. After making quality cuts to ensure that the voids represent real underdense regions, we obtain 1,228 voids with effective radii spanning the range 20–100 {h}-1 {Mpc} and with central densities that are, on average, 30% of the mean sample density. We release versions of the catalogs both with and without quality cuts. We discuss the basic statistics of voids, such as their size and redshift distributions, and measure the radial density profile of the voids via a stacking technique. In addition, we construct mock void catalogs from 1000 mock galaxy catalogs, and find that the properties of BOSS voids are in good agreement with those in the mock catalogs. We compare the stellar mass distribution of galaxies living inside and outside of the voids, and find no large difference. These BOSS and mock void catalogs are useful for a number of cosmological and galaxy environment studies.

  3. The Use of Molecular Analyses in Voided Urine for the Assessment of Patients with Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Beukers (Willemien); R. Kandimalla (Raju); D. van Houwelingen (Diandra); H. Kovacic (Hrvoje); J.-F.D. Chin (Jie-Fen); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); L. Dyrskjot (Lars); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction:Patients presenting with painless hematuria form a large part of the urological patient population. In many cases, especially in younger patients, the cause of hematuria is harmless. Nonetheless, hematuria could be a symptom of malignant disease and hence most patients will

  4. The marriage of cytology and cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, Paola; Qian, Xiaohua; Cibas, Edmund S

    2013-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed extraordinary advances in the field of cytogenetics, with the discovery that a multitude of neoplasms is characterized by identifiable chromosomal changes. The ability of Cytogenetics to aid in the identification and precise classification of a variety of neoplasms has not gone unnoticed by Cytology. In particular, Cytology has recognized Cytogenetics as a welcome companion in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors, lymphomas, renal and urothelial tumors, and mesothelioma. This relationship requires a good understanding of the proper handling of specimens for optimal evaluation by Cytogenetics. The marriage of Cytology and Cytogenetics will likely grow stronger as more solid tumors (eg, salivary gland neoplasms) are discovered that harbor characteristic chromosomal abnormalities.

  5. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  6. The void galaxy survey: photometry, structure and identity of void galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygu, B.; Peletier, R. F.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kreckel, K.; van de Weygaert, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse photometry from deep B-band images of 59 void galaxies in the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), together with their near-infrared 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm Spitzer photometry. The VGS galaxies constitute a sample of void galaxies that were selected by a geometric-topological procedure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data release, and which populate the deep interior of voids. Our void galaxies span a range of absolute B-magnitude from MB = -15.5 to -20, while at the 3.6 μm band their magnitudes range from M3.6 = -18 to -24. Their B-[3.6] colour and structural parameters indicate these are star-forming galaxies. A good reflection of the old stellar population, the near-infrared band photometry also provide a robust estimate of the stellar mass, which for the VGS galaxies we confirm to be smaller than 3 × 1010 M⊙. In terms of the structural parameters and morphology, our findings align with other studies in that our VGS galaxy sample consists mostly of small late-type galaxies. Most of them are similar to Sd-Sm galaxies, although a few are irregularly shaped galaxies. The sample even includes two early-type galaxies, one of which is an AGN. Their Sérsic indices are nearly all smaller than n = 2 in both bands and they also have small half-light radii. In all, we conclude that the principal impact of the void environment on the galaxies populating them mostly concerns their low stellar mass and small size.

  7. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration cytology and scrape cytology in oral cavity lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen H. Hafez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background — The oral cavity can be home for a wide variety of lesions. To date, biopsy has remained the gold standard for diagnosing these lesions. Purpose — This study was carried out to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cytology in the oral lesions and to address the cytologic-histologic correlation. Patients and Methods — This prospective study included 72 patients with intraoral lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC or scrap cytology was performed. The smears were immediately fixed in 95% alcohol for Papanicolaou staining. If there was sufficient material, cell block was prepared. When indicated immunocytochemical study was ordered. Final cytologic results were then compared with the definitive histopathological diagnoses which were considered the gold standard. Results — Cytologically, 28 patients (38.9% were diagnosed as benign/atypical and 44 (61.1% as malignant/suspicious. The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was inflammation (42.9% of benign cases. The most common malignant cytologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma (36.4%. Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones. There were 3 false negative cases and one false positive case. The sensitivity was 93.5%; specificity was 96.2%; positive predictive value (PPV was 97.7%; negative predictive value (NPV was 89.3% with a diagnostic accuracy of 94.4%. P-value was <0.001. Kappa was 0.882. Conclusion — FNAC was found to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of oral lesions. Detailed cytomorphologic examination coupled with clinical data and appropriate immunocytochemical study, in some cases, can lead to an accurate diagnosis. Overlapping features of some tumors, especially in minor salivary gland, as well as limitation of sampling, were responsible for the inaccurate diagnoses.

  9. Collapse of elongated voids in porous energetic materials: Effects of void orientation and aspect ratio on initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Schmidt, Martin J.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    The sensitivity of porous energetic materials depends on mesostructural heterogeneities such as voids, defects, cracks, and grain boundaries. The mesostructure of pressed explosives contains voids of arbitrary shapes including elongated voids of various orientations and aspect ratios. Mesoscale simulations to date have analyzed the effect of void morphology on the sensitivity of energetic materials for idealized shapes such as cylindrical, conical, and elliptical. This work analyzes the sensitivity behavior of elongated voids in an HMX matrix subject to shock loading. Simulations show that sensitivity of elongated voids depends strongly on orientation as well as aspect ratio. Ranges of orientations and aspects ratios are identified that enhance or inhibit initiation. Insights obtained from single elongated void analyses are used to identify sensitive locations in an imaged mesostructure of a pressed explosive sample.

  10. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco J Collado [Dpto de Ingenieria Mecanica-Motores Termicos, CPS-B, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An essential element in thermal-hydraulics is the accurate prediction of the vapor void fraction, or fraction of the flow cross-sectional area occupied by steam. Recently, the author has suggested to calculate void fraction working exclusively with thermodynamic properties. It is well known that the usual 'flow' quality, merely a mass flow rate ratio, is not at all a thermodynamic property because its expression in function of thermodynamic properties includes the slip ratio, which is a parameter of the process not a function of state. By the other hand, in the classic and well known expression of the void fraction - in function of the true mass fraction of vapor (also called 'static' quality), and the vapor and liquid densities - does not appear the slip ratio. Of course, this would suggest a direct procedure for calculating the void fraction, provided we had an accurate value of the true mass fraction of vapor, clearly from the heat balance. However the classic heat balance is usually stated in function of the 'flow' quality, what sounds really contradictory because this parameter, as we have noted above, is not at all a thermodynamic property. Then we should check against real data the actual relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the applied heat. For saturated flow boiling just from the inlet of the heated tube, and not having into account the kinetic and potential terms, the uniform applied heat per unit mass of inlet water and per unit length (in short, specific linear heat) should be closely related to a (constant) slope of the mixture enthalpy. In this work, we have checked the relation between the specific linear heat and the thermodynamic enthalpy of the liquid-vapor mixture using the actual mass fraction. This true mass fraction is calculated using the accurate measurements of the outlet void fraction taken during the Cambridge project by Knights and Thom in the sixties for

  11. Fat embolism syndrome and pulmonary microvascular cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, X; Vallés, J; Cabezuelo, M A; Fernandez, R; Artigas, A

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary microvascular cytology consists of analysis of capillary blood sampled while a Swan-Ganz catheter is in the wedge position. This technique has proved to be useful in the diagnosis of lymphangitic spread of carcinoma in the lungs and there are case reports of their use in amniotic fluid embolism. Its usefulness in diagnosing fat embolism syndrome has been shown only rarely. We report a new case in which pulmonary microvascular cytologic study allowed a definite diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. We suggest obtaining routinely samples of capillary blood when a pulmonary catheter is in place and fat embolism is suspected on a clinical basis.

  12. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  13. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  14. Do public schools teach voiding dysfunction? Results of an elementary school teacher survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher S; Abousally, Chadi T; Austin, J Christopher; Boyt, Margaret A; Hawtrey, Charles E

    2003-09-01

    Dysfunctional voiding in children may partly be learned, and constitutes a significant percentage of pediatric urological referrals. Half of a child's waking hours are spent at school, suggesting a significant potential impact on learned toileting behaviors. Nonetheless, data on teacher perception and practice regarding pediatric voiding are lacking. A total of 1,000, 21-question surveys were mailed to randomly selected Iowa public elementary school teachers, of which 467 were returned and analyzed. Eighty percent of respondents reported set times for student bathroom breaks. More than half requested all children go to the bathroom at the set times. One-third asked a child requesting a break in the middle of class to wait. Thirty-five percent and 48%, respectively, reported the boys and girls bathrooms were always sanitary. Forty-seven percent and 36% believed bathroom sanitation was progressively worse during the day for boys and girls bathrooms, respectively. Forty-two percent and 34% noticed bullying and lack of supervision, respectively, in the boys bathrooms. Seventeen percent, 16% and 15% suspect an underlying health problem in children who urinate more frequently than normal, or wet or defecate in their pants, respectively. More experienced teachers are significantly more likely to report these suspicions to the school nurse. Only 18% of respondents reported receiving information about abnormal voiding or stooling. Only 8% were aware of specialists trained to treat children with these problems. Teachers report suboptimal toileting conditions for many children at public schools. These conditions appear to become significantly worse following kindergarten. Teachers have the potential to have a significant impact on dysfunctional voiding but are infrequently informed regarding these issues.

  15. The view from the boundary: a new void stacking method

    CERN Document Server

    Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new method for stacking voids and deriving their profile that greatly increases the potential of voids as a tool for precision cosmology. Given that voids are highly non-spherical and have most of their mass at their edge, voids are better described relative to their boundary rather than relative to their centre, as in the conventional spherical stacking approach. The boundary profile is obtained by computing the distance of each volume element from the void boundary. Voids can then be stacked and their profiles computed as a function of this boundary distance. This approach enhances the weak lensing signal of voids, both shear and convergence, by a factor of two when compared to the spherical stacking method. It also results in steeper void density profiles that are characterised by a very slow rise inside the void and a pronounced density ridge at the void boundary, in qualitative agreement with theoretical models of expanding spherical underdensities. The resulting boundary density profile i...

  16. Voids in Ly{\\alpha} Forest Tomographic Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Casey W; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2 - 12 $h^{-1}$Mpc in a large N-body simulation at $z = 2.5$, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Ly{\\alpha} flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogs to the density void catalog and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids ($r > 6 \\, h^{-1}$Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing CLAMATO survey covering 1 deg$^2$ would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshi...

  17. The sparkling Universe: the coherent motions of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Lambas, Diego G; Ceccarelli, Laura; Ruiz, Andrés N; Paz, Dante J; Maldonado, Victoria E; Luparello, Heliana E

    2015-01-01

    We compute the bulk motions of cosmic voids, using a $\\Lambda$CDM numerical simulation considering the mean velocities of the dark matter inside the void itself and that of the haloes in the surrounding shell. We find coincident values of these two measures in the range $\\sim$ 300-400 km/s, not far from the expected mean peculiar velocities of groups and galaxy clusters. When analysing the distribution of the pairwise relative velocities of voids, we find a remarkable bimodal behaviour consistent with an excess of both systematically approaching and receding voids. We determine that the origin of this bimodality resides in the void large scale environment, since once voids are classified into void-in-void (R-type) or void-in-cloud (S-type), R-types are found mutually receding away, while S-types approach each other. The magnitude of these systematic relative velocities account for more than 100 km/s, reaching large coherence lengths of up to 200 h$^{-1}$ Mpc . We have used samples of voids from the Sloan Digi...

  18. Effects of Voids on Concrete Tensile Fracturing: A Mesoscale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional mesoscale modeling framework, which considers concrete as a four-phase material including voids, is developed for studying the effects of voids on concrete tensile fracturing under the plane stress condition. Aggregate is assumed to behave elastically, while a continuum damaged plasticity model is employed to describe the mechanical behaviors of mortar and ITZ. The effects of voids on the fracture mechanism of concrete under uniaxial tension are first detailed, followed by an extensive investigation of the effects of void volume fraction on concrete tensile fracturing. It is found that both the prepeak and postpeak mesoscale cracking in concrete are highly affected by voids, and there is not a straightforward relation between void volume fraction and the postpeak behavior due to the randomness of void distribution. The fracture pattern of concrete specimen with voids is controlled by both the aggregate arrangement and the distribution of voids, and two types of failure modes are identified for concrete specimens under uniaxial tension. It is suggested that voids should be explicitly modeled for the accurate fracturing simulation of concrete on the mesoscale.

  19. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillas, Enrique; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. Using a spherical underdensity finder, we analyse voids using the mass field and subhalo tracers in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes in a (100 cMpc)3 volume. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with DM-only simulations that use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When identifying voids in the mass field, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one due to the action of galaxy feedback polluting void regions with hot gas, specially for small voids with rvoid ≤ 10 Mpc. We find that the way in which galaxy tracers are selected has a strong impact on the inferred void properties. Voids identified using galaxies selected by their stellar mass are larger and have cuspier density profiles than those identified by galaxies selected by their total mass. Overall, baryons have minimal effects on void statistics, as void properties are well captured by DM-only simulations, but it is important to account for how galaxies populate DM haloes to estimate the observational effect of different cosmological models on the statistics of voids.

  20. Telomerase Activity Detected by Quantitative Assay in Bladder Carcinoma and Exfoliated Cells in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fedriga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is one of the most determining factors for patient survival. The detection of telomerase activity is a potentially promising tool in the diagnosis of bladder and other types of cancer due to the high expression of this enzyme in tumor cells. We carried out a quantitative evaluation of telomerase activity in urine samples in an attempt to determine a cut-off capable of identifying cancer patients. Telomerase activity was quantified by fluorescence TRAP assay in urine from 50 healthy volunteers and in urine and bioptic tumor samples from 56 previously untreated bladder cancer patients and expressed in arbitrary enzymatic units (AEU. Telomerase activity in urine ranged from 0 to 106 AEU (median 0 in healthy donors and from 0 to 282 AEU (median 87 in patients with cancer. A telomerase expression higher than the cut off value determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was observed in 78% of cases, regardless of tumor grade and in 71% (15/21 of cases of nonassessable or negative cytology. The quantitative analysis of telomerase activity in urine enabled us to define cut-off values characterized by different sensitivity and specificity. Cytologic and telomerase determination, used sequentially, enabled us to detect about 90% of tumors.

  1. The human urine metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaila Bouatra

    Full Text Available Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify a total of: 209 (209 by NMR, 179 (85 by GC-MS, 127 (127 by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40 by ICP-MS and 10 (10 by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database

  2. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weijgaert, Marinus; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2014-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral h

  3. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Peletier, Reynier F

    2014-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Halpha, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key re...

  4. The Void Galaxy Survey: Morphology and Star Formation Properties of Void Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beygu, B; van der Hulst, J M; Peletier, R; Jarrett, T; van de Weygaert, R; van Gorkom, J H; Aragón-Calvo, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the structural and star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Our aim is to study in detail the physical properties of these void galaxies and study the effect of the void environment on galaxy properties. We use Spitzer 3.6 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ and B-band imaging to study the morphology and color of the VGS galaxies. For their star formation properties, we use Halpha and GALEX near-UV imaging. We compare our results to a range of galaxies of different morphologies in higher density environments. We find that the VGS galaxies are in general disk dominated and star forming galaxies. Their star formation rates are, however, often less than 1 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$ $\\rm{yr^{-1}}$. There are two early-type galaxies in our sample as well. In $\\rm{r_{e}}$ versus $\\rm{M_{B}}$ parameter space, VGS galaxies occupy the same space as dwarf irregulars and spirals.

  5. The Void Galaxy Survey: Star Formation Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Beygu, B; van der Hulst, J M; Jarrett, T H; Peletier, R; van de Weygaert, R; van Gorkom, J H; Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from $\\rm{H\\alpha}$ and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4 $\\rm{\\mu m}$, 4.6 $\\rm{\\mu m}$, 12 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ and 22 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ WISE emission is used as star formation and mass indicator. Infrared and optical colours show that the VGS sample displays a wide range of dust and metallicity properties. We combine these measurements with stellar and HI masses to measure the specific SFRs ($\\rm{SFR/M_{*}}$) and star formation efficiencies ($\\rm{SFR/M_{HI}}$). We compare the star formation properties of our sample with galaxies in the more moderate density regions of the cosmic web, 'the field'. We find that specific SFRs of the VGS galaxies as a function of stellar and HI mass are similar to those of the galaxies in these field regions. Their $\\rm{SFR\\alpha}$ is slightly elevated than the galaxies in the field for a given total HI mass. ...

  6. Eumycetoma versus actinomycetoma: Diagnosis on cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Nishat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by various genera of fungi producing specific colored granules known as grains. A 45-year-old farmer presented clinically with a left foot mass with multiple discharging sinuses existing for last 3 years. Clinical and radiological findings suggested a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis with suspicion of tuberculosis. Imprints plus fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC smears exhibited distinct brown-black colonies of a fungus having branching and septate hyphae embedded in matrix like material against a mixed inflammatory background. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS stain gave positive staining and subsequent fungal culture confirmed the cytological diagnosis and aided in species identification as Madurella mycetomatis. Thus, eumycetoma can precisely be diagnosed and confidently differentiated from similar conditions such as actinomycetoma by simple and inexpensive cytological techniques such as FNAC and imprint smears, employing routine May-Grόnwald-Giemsa, Papanicolaou and simple PAS stains on cytological specimen, thus leading to rapid diagnosis for institution of correct treatment.

  7. Cytological findings in scintigraphically nonfunctioning thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Branislava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major one among the procedures for evaluating changes in the thyroid nodules is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used in diagnostic algoritham of nodules. Less than 5% of examined nodules show to be malignant. Scintigraphically, nodules could be classified as functional and nonfunctional. It is estimated that the risk of malignacy in nonfunctional nodules ranges from 8% to 25% and more. Aspiration punction provides 100% specific and positive predictive value. The aim of the study was to establish the distribution of cytological findings in nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. Methods. The prospective study enrolled 112 patients, 104 women and 8 men, submitted to thyroid scintigraphy for known thyroid nodule disorder. Scintigraphy was performed about half an hour after iv administration of 74 MBq of sodium-pertehnetate. A pin hole collimator was used. Scintigrams were visually evaluated, and absence of radiopharmaceutic in a nodule was estimated as nonfunctional one. Such nodules were afterwards subjected to FNAB and material obtained was cytologically analyzed. Results. In our patients nonfunctioning nodules comprised tissue of colloid struma, thyroid cyst, regular thyroid tissue, follicular lesion, oxiphillic lesion, papillary carcinoma tissue and tissue of lymphocytic thyroiditis. The most frequent cytological finding were colloid cysts (52%. A total of 70% were female nodules. Five citological findings were histopathologically analyzed. Conclusion. Cytological finding of nonfunctional nodules determines of the decision on radical therapy, and our preliminary results imply the need of FNAB routine use in nuclear medicine practice.

  8. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interpreted by individuals qualified under §§ 493.1469 or 493.1483, to be negative for epithelial cell... screening are not required to include tissue pathology slides and previously examined cytology slides... or reparative changes or any of the following epithelial cell abnormalities: (i) Squamous cell....

  9. External quality assurance in nongynecologic cytology: The Australasian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Paul W; Frost, Felicity; Finnimore, Jo L; Wright, R Gordon; Cummings, Margaret C

    2017-05-01

    The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Cytopathology Quality Assurance Program has operated an external quality assurance program in nongynecologic cytopathology since 1993. Glass slide preparations of a wide range of nongynecologic cases were circulated to approximately 200 cytopathology laboratories in 16 countries. General nongynecologic cytology cases were manufactured from residual specimens after routine diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases were made by sampling fresh tissue and making direct specimens. The majority of cases consisted of both air-dried and fixed preparations. Results returned to laboratories included illustrated case discussions highlighting diagnostic features, key differential diagnoses, and useful adjunctive tests. The current study reviewed >22,000 results for 123 nongynecologic cases. Cases found to cause the most diagnostic difficulties included serous effusion cases with metastatic carcinoma in a dispersed pattern, well-differentiated carcinoma, and cellular reactive cases; urine specimens with sparse malignant cells; reactive pneumocytes in a bronchoalveolar lavage; breast FNA cases with papillary lesions; gestational specimens; and fibroadenoma. FNA specimens from the lung and thyroid, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, generally were well reported. The use of multiple preparations of the same specimen has allowed interlaboratory comparison, and the quality assurance program has played an educational role as well as informing the laboratory accreditation process. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:349-361. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Ductile damage of porous materials with two populations of voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Pierre-Guy; Monerie, Yann; Suquet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to the modelling of ductile damage in uranium dioxide. This polycrystalline material contains two populations of voids of well separated size. The problem addressed here is the prediction of the effective flow surface of a Gurson material containing randomly oriented oblate voids. The case of spherical voids is considered first and the variational approach of Gurson is generalized by adding a compressible component to his original velocity field. The case of aligned oblate voids is then considered and a suitable generalization of a velocity field due to Gologanu et al. (ASME J. Engrg. Mater. Technol. 116 (1994) 290-297) is proposed. The extension to randomly oriented voids is achieved by averaging over all orientations. In each case, rigorous upper bounds and approximate estimates are derived and compared (in the case of spherical voids) with Finite Element simulations. To cite this article: P.-G. Vincent et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  11. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depressions & spatial complexity

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do they represent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probes and measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive to the nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to the nature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing ground for our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we review the key aspects of the structure and dynamics of voids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstrate how the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildup of voids.

  12. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with SDSS10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this article we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  13. Improvement of the cytological diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Leonov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the comparative results of cytological examination of alcohol-induced bladder washouts by liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology in 323 patients, including 150 with suspected bladder cancer (BC and 173 patients after performed combination or combined treatment for BC. The performed investigation has established that the diagnostic value of liquid-based cytology in diagnosing BC and its local recurrences is 1.3-fold higher than that of conventional cytology.

  14. Liquid based cytology improves the positive predictive value of glandular smears compared to conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, R J; Errington, C A; Mansour, D J A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in an urban setting decreases the diagnosis of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) and improves the positive predictive value (PPV) of cervical cytological screening. A retrospective database review was conducted identifying women with cervical cytological abnormalities including glandular neoplasia (grade 6) before and after the introduction of LBC. Following the introduction of LBC the rate of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) referrals fell from 1.08% to 0.69% of all cervical cytological abnormalities. There was a significant reduction in 'abnormal' cytological samples subsequently found to be associated with no invasive or preinvasive disease but no decrease in the number showing preinvasive or invasive disease. A significant decrease in number of patients having a final diagnosis of normal/inflammatory or wart changes was seen in those patients referred during the LBC period (p cytological glandular neoplasia referrals but not at the expense of missing preinvasive and invasive cancers. It has also increased the PPV of cervical sampling to detect preinvasive and invasive cancer from 59.6% to 76.0%.

  15. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    1960-01-01

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  16. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Classical maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Intermediate maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Maple syrup urine disease Other Diagnosis ...

  17. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  18. An observational detection of the bridge effect of void filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, Junsup; Hoyle, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The bridge effect of void filaments is a phrase coined by Park & Lee (2009b) to explain the correlations found in a numerical experiment between the luminosity of the void galaxies and the degree of the straightness of their host filaments. Their numerical finding implies that a straight void filament provides a narrow channel for the efficient transportation of gas and matter particles from the surroundings into the void galaxies. To observationally confirm the presence of the bridge effect of void filaments, we identify the filamentary structures from the Sloan void catalog and determine the specific size of each void filament as a measure of its straightness. Using both classical and Bayesian statistics, we indeed detect a strong tendency that the void galaxies located in the more straight filaments are on average more luminous, which is in agreement with the numerical prediction. It is also shown that the strength of correlation increases with the spatial extent of the void filaments, which can be phy...

  19. Quantifying Effects of Voids in Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Marlana B.; Sankar, Bhavani V.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Randomness in woven ceramic matrix composite architecture has been found to cause large variability in stiffness and strength. The inherent voids are an aspect of the architecture that may cause a significant portion of the variability. A study is undertaken to investigate the effects of many voids of random sizes and distributions. Response surface approximations were formulated based on void parameters such as area and length fractions to provide an estimate of the effective stiffness. Obtaining quantitative relationships between the properties of the voids and their effects on stiffness of ceramic matrix composites are of ultimate interest, but the exploratory study presented here starts by first modeling the effects of voids on an isotropic material. Several cases with varying void parameters were modeled which resulted in a large amount of variability of the transverse stiffness and out-of-plane shear stiffness. An investigation into a physical explanation for the stiffness degradation led to the observation that the voids need to be treated as an entity that reduces load bearing capabilities in a space larger than what the void directly occupies through a corrected length fraction or area fraction. This provides explanation as to why void volume fraction is not the only important factor to consider when computing loss of stiffness.

  20. On de-Sitter Geometry in Cosmic Void Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Gary W; Yoshida, Naoki; Chon, Sunmyon

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the geometrical concept of a 4-dimensional de-Sitter configuration of spheres in Euclidean 3-space and modelling voids in the Universe as spheres, we show that a uniform distribution over this configuration space implies a power-law for the void number density which is consistent with results from the excursion set formalism and from data, for an intermediate range of void volumes. We also discuss the effect of restricting the survey geometry on the void statistics. This work is a new application of de-Sitter geometry to cosmology and also provides a new geometrical perspective on self-similarity in cosmology.

  1. The sparkling Universe: a scenario for cosmic void motions

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccarelli, Laura; Lares, Marcelo; Paz, Dante J; Maldonado, Victoria E; Luparello, Heliana E; Lambas, Diego Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We perform a statistical study of the global motion of cosmic voids using both a numerical simulation and observational data. We analyse their relation to large--scale mass flows and the physical effects that drive those motions. We analyse the bulk motions of voids, defined by the mean velocity of haloes in the surrounding shells in the numerical simulation, and by galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We find void mean bulk velocities close to 400 km/s, comparable to those of haloes (~ 500-600 km/s), depending on void size and the large--scale environment. Statistically, small voids move faster than large ones, and voids in relatively higher density environments have higher bulk velocities than those placed in large underdense regions. Also, we analyze the mean mass density around voids finding, as expected, large--scale overdensities (underdensities) along (opposite to) the void motion direction, suggesting that void motions respond to a pull--push mechanism. This contrasts with massive ...

  2. New Statistical Perspective to The Cosmic Void Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Pycke, Jean-Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we obtain the size distribution of voids as a 3-parameter redshift independent log-normal void probability function (VPF) directly from the Cosmic Void Catalog (CVC). Although many statistical models of void distributions are based on the counts in randomly placed cells, the log-normal VPF that we here obtain is independent of the shape of the voids due to the parameter-free void finder of the CVC. We use three void populations drawn from the CVC generated by the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) Mocks which are tuned to three mock SDSS samples to investigate the void distribution statistically and the effects of the environments on the size distribution. As a result, it is shown that void size distributions obtained from the HOD Mock samples are satisfied by the 3-parameter log-normal distribution. In addition, we find that there may be a relation between hierarchical formation, skewness and kurtosis of the log-normal distribution for each catalog. We also show that the shape of the 3-paramet...

  3. A study of process induced voids in resistance welding of thermoplastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, H.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Bersee, H.E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Void formation in resistance welding of woven fabric reinforced thermoplastic composites was investigated. Void contents were measured using optical microscopy and digital image process. Un-even void distributions were observed in the joints, and more voids were found in the middle of the joints than the edges. A higher welding pressure was shown to help reduce the void generation. The mechanisms of void formation, in particular fibre de-compaction induced voids and residual moisture induced ...

  4. Behaviour of voids in a shear field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2009-01-01

    to a plane connecting the ends of the micro-crack is used as an approximate representation of contact stresses during frictionless sliding. In a previous study of the same problem the author applied hydrostatic pressure inside the nearly closed micro-crack to approximate contact conditions. The transverse...... surface loads used in the present analyses avoid the tendency to unrealistically elongate the voids. It is found that even though the model applied here gives significantly later occurrence of a maximum overall shear stress than that found by using hydrostatic pressure, the present model does predict...... a maximum in all the cases analyzed and thus illustrates the micro-mechanism leading to failure of the material by localization of plastic flow....

  5. Formation of Voids from Negative Density Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, J. C. N.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se estudia la formaci6n de huecos a partir de un espectro negativo de perturbaciones, tomando en cuenta la expansi6n del Universo, arrastre por fotones, enfriamiento por fotones, fotoionizaci6n, ioniza- ci6n colisional, enfriamiento Lyman a y la formaci6n y enfriamiento de moleculas H2. Nuestros resultados predicen la existencia de regiones 1/10 de Ia densidad promedio para regiones de masa lO - 1O10M . ABSTRACT. In the present paer we study the formation of voids from a negative spectrum of perturbations taking into account the expansion of the Universe, photon-drag, photon-cooling, photoionization, collisional ionization, Lyman a cooling and the formation and cooling of 112 molecules. Our results predict the existence of regions 1/10 the average density for regions of mass 1O - 1O10M@ : CLUSTERS-GALAXIES - COSMOLOGY

  6. Comparative study of the results from conventional cervico-vaginal oncotic cytology and liquid-based cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Sueli Aparecida Batista; Evangelista, Dilson Henrique Ramos; Talamonte, Valdely Helena; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    To compare two oncotic cervical cytology techniques, the conventional and the liquid-based cytology, in low risk patients for uterine cervical cancer. Comparative prospective study with 100 patients who came to their annual gynecological exam, and were submitted simultaneously to both techniques. We used the McNemar test, with a significance level of p cytology and in 84% of the liquid-based cytology had statistical significance. As for the diagnosis of atypical cells they were detected in 3% of conventional cytology and in 10% of liquid-based cytology (p = 0.06). Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were the most prevalent abnormality. The liquid-based cytology performance was better when compared with colposcopy (guided biopsy), presenting sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%. There was no cytological and histological concordance for the conventional cytology. Liquid-based cytology had a better performance to diagnose atypical cells and the cytohistological concordance was higher than in the conventional cytology.

  7. Pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, M P; De Silva, S

    1999-02-01

    The aims of this study are to document pitfalls in cytologic diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and highlight possible ways to minimize them. One hundred consecutive thyroid aspirates with features diagnostic or suggestive of AT, performed and reported by the first author, were included in the study. Follow-up was traced and cytologic features responsible for indecisiveness were re-assessed in those reported as suggestive of AT. The features were then correlated with the results of serologic and thyroid function tests and clinical features, and an attempt was made to amend the final diagnosis using an integrated approach. Seventy eight were diagnostic and 22 were suggestive of AT. In the latter 22, features responsible for the indecisiveness were: cytologic atypia, in the form of nuclear enlargement, irregularity and grooves and altered chromatin texture, in 14 (64%); nucleoli with suspicion of a coexisting neoplasm in three (13.6%), two of which showed epithelial preponderance, crowding and discohesion; sparse inflammation in four (18%); a predominant lymphoid population without epithelial cells resembling a reactive lymph node in one (4.5%); co-existing toxic features in two (9%); and scanty smears in one (4.5%). Eighteen of the 22 suspected of AT had follow-up. Six had been assessed histologically; three with features suspicious of a neoplasm were diagnosed respectively as a papillary carcinoma (PC), Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC) and a multinodular goitre (MNG) with degenerate changes. The other three were confirmed as AT; one with cytologic atypia, one with sparse inflammation and the third as cytologically resembling a reactive lymphnode. In ten of the remaining 12, the final diagnosis could be revised following an integrated approach with possible reduction of the indecisiveness. Potential pitfalls are: cytologic atypia occurring in AT; abundance or scarcity of background inflammation; low cell yield; and co-existing toxicity and malignancies. Epithelial

  8. Urinary AQP2 excretion is increased during nephrotic syndrome and is associated with reduced urine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, René Frydensbjerg; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Frøkjær, Jørgen

    of the study was to investigate the urinary presence of the renal water channel AQP2 and it´s correlation to urine production in children with NS. METHODS: A total of 20 (7 girls) children with NS were included with a mean age of 9.1±3.2 yrs. Urine samples were collected from the second morning void at debut......OBJECTIVES: Edema is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and has largely been attributed to sodium retention. Yet low plasma sodium is frequently observed in children with acute NS suggesting that a disturbance in renal water handling may coexist together with sodium retention. The aim......, patients exhibit an increased excretion of AQP2 in urine compared with remission and increased uAQP2 concentration correlated with reduced urine production. Further studies are needed to investigate if uAQP2 contributes to a positive free water balance in NS independently of sodium retention....

  9. A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the urethral diverticulum: Utility of urinary cytology and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Nakatsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinomas rarely arise from the urethral diverticulum. In this report, we present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the urethral diverticulum. A 42-year-old woman complained of bloody discharge and lower back pain. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving the region surrounding the urethra and cystourethroscopy showed papillary and villous tumors in the urethral diverticula. Cytology of the urine sediment showed papillary or spherical clusters of atypical cells, some of which had clear abundant cytoplasm and formed mirror ball-like clusters, suggesting adenocarcinoma. Although histological diagnosis was indeterminate by biopsy and transurethral resection (TUR because of absence of stromal invasion, surgically resected specimen via cysturethrectomy revealed that the tumor was clear cell carcinoma. Urinary cytological findings and immunohistochemical analysis for CD15, Ki-67, and p53 might be useful for accurate diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma that arises from the urethral diverticulum when sufficient materials are not available by biopsy and TUR.

  10. The role of urine markers, white light cystoscopy and fluorescence cystoscopy in recurrence, progression and follow-up of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, I.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Witjes, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for approximately 70 % of all bladder cancer cases and represents a heterogeneous pathological entity, characterized by a variable natural history and oncological outcome. The combination of cystoscopy and urine cytology is considered the gold stan

  11. Diagnostic approach for cancer cells in urine sediments by 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic detection in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Makito; Nakai, Yasushi; Anai, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Kuwada, Masaomi; Onishi, Sayuri; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2014-05-01

    Bladder urothelial carcinoma is diagnosed and followed up after transurethral resection using a combination of cystoscopy, urine cytology and urine biomarkers at regular intervals. However, cystoscopy can overlook flat lesions like carcinoma in situ, and the sensitivity of urinary tests is poor in low-grade tumors. There is an emergent need for an objective and easy urinary diagnostic test for the management of bladder cancer. In this study, three different modalities for 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic diagnostic tests were used. We developed a compact-size, desktop-type device quantifying red fluorescence in cell suspensions, named "Cellular Fluorescence Analysis Unit" (CFAU). Urine samples from 58 patients with bladder cancer were centrifuged, and urine sediments were then treated with ALA. ALA-treated sediments were subjected to three fluorescence detection assays, including the CFAU assay. The overall sensitivities of conventional cytology, BTA, NMP22, fluorescence cytology, fluorescent spectrophotometric assay and CFAU assay were 48%, 33%, 40%, 86%, 86% and 87%, respectively. Three different ALA-based assays showed high sensitivity and specificity. The ALA-based assay detected low-grade and low-stage bladder urothelial cells at shigher rate (68-80% sensitivity) than conventional urine cytology, BTA and NMP22 (8-20% sensitivity). Our findings demonstrate that the ALA-based fluorescence detection assay is promising tool for the management of bladder cancer. Development of a rapid and automated device for ALA-based photodynamic assay is necessary to avoid the variability induced by troublesome steps and low stability of specimens.

  12. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, A. J.; Michelett, D.; Granett, B.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.

    2016-10-01

    Using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres we identified 245 voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We show how by modelling the anisotropic void-galaxy cross correlation function we can probe the growth rate of structure.

  13. An Interacting Galaxy System along a Filament in a Void

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van de Weijgaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological voids provide a unique environment for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. The galaxy population in their interiors has properties significantly different from average field galaxies. As part of our Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have found a system of three interacting galaxies

  14. A Cosmic Void Catalog of SDSS DR12 BOSS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Qingqing; Scherrer, Robert J; Scoccimarro, Roman; Tinker, Jeremy L; McBride, Cameron K; Neyrinck, Mark C; Schneider, Donald P; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We present a cosmic void catalog using the large-scale structure galaxy catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This galaxy catalog is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 and is the final catalog of SDSS-III. We take into account the survey boundaries, masks, and angular and radial selection functions, and apply the ZOBOV void finding algorithm to the galaxy catalog. After making quality cuts to ensure that the voids represent real underdense regions, we identify 1228 voids with effective radii spanning the range 20-100Mpc/h and with central densities that are, on average, 30% of the mean sample density. We discuss the basic statistics of voids, such as their size and redshift distributions, and measure the radial density profile of the voids via a stacking technique. In addition, we construct mock void catalogs from 1000 mock galaxy catalogs, and find that the properties of BOSS voids are in good agreement with those in the mock catalogs. We compare the stella...

  15. Tensor anisotropy as a tracer of cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to find voids in cosmological simulations based on the tidal and the velocity shear tensors definitions of the cosmic web. We use the fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from the eigenvalues of each web scheme as a void tracer. We identify voids using a watershed transform based on the local minima of the FA field without making any assumption on the shape or structure of the voids. We test the method on the Bolshoi simulation and report on the abundance and radial averaged profiles for the density, velocity and fractional anisotropy. We find that voids in the velocity shear web are smaller than voids in the tidal web, with a particular overabundance of very small voids in the inner region of filaments/sheets. We classify voids as subcompensated/overcompansated depending on the absence/presence of an overdense matter ridge in their density profile, finding that close to $65\\%$ and $35\\%$ of the total population are classified into each category, respectively. Finally, we find evidence ...

  16. The relationship between void waves and flow regime transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Drew, D.A.; Kalkach-Navarro, S.; Park, J.W.

    1992-12-31

    The results of an extensive experimental and analytical study on the relationship between void waves and flow regime transition are presented, in particular, the bubbly/slug flow regime transition. It is shown that void wave instability signals a flow regime transition.

  17. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe natu

  18. STRESS CONCENTRATION DUE TO A SPHERICAL VOID UNDER HERTZIAN CONTACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ALACI,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the method of estimating the stress concentrator effect of a spherical void from an elastic half-space. An essential part consists in estimation of FEM error by finding the contact pressure from half-plane using an analytical method. Next, the stress concentrator effect of the same void, except for placed into elastic space, is found.

  19. High gain durable anti-reflective coating with oblate voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are single layer transparent coatings with an anti-reflective property, a hydrophobic property, and that are highly abrasion resistant. The single layer transparent coatings contain a plurality of oblate voids. At least 1% of the oblate voids are open to a surface of the single layer transparent coatings.

  20. The Aspen-Amsterdam void finder comparison project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colberg, Joerg M.; Pearce, Frazer; Foster, Caroline; Platen, Erwin; Brunino, Riccardo; Neyrinck, Mark; Basilakos, Spyros; Fairall, Anthony; Feldman, Hume; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hoyle, Fiona; Mueller, Volker; Nelson, Lorne; Plionis, Manolis; Porciani, Cristiano; Shandarin, Sergei; Vogeley, Michael S.; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2008-01-01

    Despite a history that dates back at least a quarter of a century, studies of voids in the large-scale structure of the Universe are bedevilled by a major problem: there exist a large number of quite different void-finding algorithms, a fact that has so far got in the way of groups comparing their

  1. Locating voids beneath pavement using pulsed electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinway, W. J.; Echard, J. D.; Luke, C. M.

    1981-11-01

    The feasibility of using pulsed electromagnetic wave technology for locating and sizing voids beneath reinforced and nonreinforced portland cement concrete pavements is determined. The data processing techniques developed can be implemented to provide information for void depth and sizing to + or - 1/2 in. and spatial location within + or - 6 in. A very short pulse radar directly connected to a microcomputer was chosen as the equipment necessary to obtain measurements. This equipment has the required accuracy and reliability, and is a cost effective solution for the void locating problem. The radar provides a signal return from voids that has unique characteristics that can be examined to provide information regarding the location, depth, and shape of the void. The microcomputer provides a means of real time processing to extract the information from the radar signal return and record the results. Theoretical modeling of signal returns from voids led to suitable techniques for locating and sizing voids beneath the pavement. Analysis and application of these techniques to radar measurements verified the theoretical predictions that radar can be used to determine the location, size, and shape of actual voids.

  2. Warmth Elevating the Depths: Shallower Voids with Warm Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lin F; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) has been proposed as an alternative to cold dark matter (CDM), to resolve issues such as the apparent lack of satellites around the Milky Way. Even if WDM is not the answer to observational issues, it is essential to constrain the nature of the dark matter. The effect of WDM on haloes has been extensively studied, but the small-scale initial smoothing in WDM also affects the present-day cosmic web and voids. It suppresses the cosmic "sub-web" inside voids, and the formation of both void haloes and subvoids. In N-body simulations run with different assumed WDM masses, we identify voids with the zobov algorithm, and cosmic-web components with the origami algorithm. As dark-matter warmth increases, the initial-conditions smoothing increases, and the number of voids and subvoids is suppressed. Also, void density profiles change, their shapes become flatter inside the void radius, while edges of the voids remain unchanged. Also, filaments and walls become cleaner, as the sub-structures in be...

  3. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  4. Impression cytology of melanocytic conjunctival tumours using the Biopore membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S; Missotten, G S; De Wolff-Rouendaal, D; Verbeke, S L J; Van Luijk, C M; Veselic-Charvat, M; de Keizer, R J W

    2007-01-01

    To compare a new Biopore membrane impression cytology method with the routinely used exfoliative cytology in patients with a melanocytic lesion of the conjunctiva. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with a conjunctival melanocytic lesion underwent Biopore membrane impression cytology as well as exfoliative cytology. A histologic sample was also available in 26 cases. All Biopore samples were stained immediately with RAL 555. Both Biopore and exfoliative cytology samples were assessed by two cytopathologists and graded into four different categories of atypia. Twenty-three out of 26 Biopores and 20 out of 24 for the exfoliative smears correlated with the corresponding histologic sample. Biopore cytology resulted in higher numbers of cells with a greater density compared to exfoliative cytology. Biopore cytology can be used for cytologic sampling of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. Because of the larger amount and higher density of cells obtained with the Biopore membrane, interpretation by a pathologist is easier and faster. Sampling of the fornix, caruncula, and ocular material in children is difficult with the Biopore method, and exfoliative cytology seems to be the favorable test in those situations.

  5. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  6. Dislocation and void segregation in copper during neutron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Horsewell, Andy

    1986-01-01

    High-purity (99. 999%) and fully annealed copper specimens have been irradiated in the DR-3 reactor at Riso to doses of 1 multiplied by 10**2**2 and 5 multiplied by 10**2**2 neutrons (fast)m** minus **2(2 multiplied by 10** minus **3 dpa and 1 multiplied by 10** minus **2 dpa, respectively...... were distributed between these walls. The dislocation walls were practically free of voids and generally had a void-denuded zone along them. The density of dislocations (loops and segments) was very low in the region containing voids (i. e. between the dislocation walls). Even with this low dislocation...... density, the void swelling rate was very high (approximately 2. 5% per dpa). The implications of the segregated distribution of sinks for void formation and growth are briefly discussed....

  7. Alignment of galaxy spins in the vicinity of voids

    CERN Document Server

    Slosar, Anze

    2008-01-01

    We provide limits on the alignment of galaxy orientations with the direction to the void center for galaxies lying near the edges of voids. We locate spherical voids in volume limited samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the HB inspired void finder and investigate the orientation of (color selected) spiral galaxies that are nearly edge-on or face-on. In contrast with previous literature, we find no statistical evidence for departure from random orientations. Expressed in terms of the parameter c, introduced by Lee & Pen to describe the strength of such an alignment, we find that c<0.11(0.13) at 95% (99.7%) confidence limit within a context of a toy model that assumes a perfectly spherical voids with sharp boundaries.

  8. Two new methods to detect cosmic voids without density measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Elyiv, Andrii; Pollina, Giorgia; Baldi, Marco; Branchini, Enzo; Cimatti, Andrea; Moscardini, Lauro

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic voids are effective cosmological probes to discriminate among competing world models. Their precise and unbiased identification is a prerequisite to perform accurate observational tests. The identification is generally based on density or geometry criteria that, because of their very nature, are prone to shot noise errors. In this work we propose two new void finders that are based on dynamical and clustering criteria to select voids in the Lagrangian coordinates and minimise the impact of sparse sampling. The first approach exploits the Zeldovich approximation to trace back in time the orbits of galaxies located in the voids and their surroundings, whereas the second uses the observed galaxy-galaxy correlation function to relax the objects' spatial distribution to homogeneity and isotropy. In both cases voids are defined as regions of the negative velocity divergence in Lagrangian coordinates, that can be regarded as sinks of the back-in-time streamlines of the mass tracers. To assess the performance ...

  9. The cosmic web in CosmoGrid void regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-10-01

    We study the formation and evolution of the cosmic web, using the high-resolution CosmoGrid ΛCDM simulation. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the large-scale structure around void halo groups, and compare this to observations of the VGS-31 galaxy group, which consists of three interacting galaxies inside a large void. The structure around such haloes shows a great deal of tenuous structure, with most of such systems being embedded in intra-void filaments and walls. We use the Nexus+} algorithm to detect walls and filaments in CosmoGrid, and find them to be present and detectable at every scale. The void regions embed tenuous walls, which in turn embed tenuous filaments. We hypothesize that the void galaxy group of VGS-31 formed in such an environment.

  10. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to thenature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing groundfor our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we reviewthe key aspects of the structure and dynamics ofvoids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstratehow the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildupof voids.

  11. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Anjali S Phatke; Nalini Vinayak Kadgi; Sharda R Rane; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histo...

  13. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  15. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal V Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality.

  16. Time for evidence-based cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed.

  17. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  18. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  19. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Munoz

    Full Text Available Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204 were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R. HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58 and two low-risk (LR-HPV (HPV-6/11 types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine followed by HPV-31(47.2% in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7% in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  20. Cytological Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules: Emphasis on Correlation with Sonographic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Woung Youn; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. Materials and Methods Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had a conclusive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was based on pathology from surgery, repeated FNA cytology or follow-up of more than one year. Cytological results were divided into five groups: benign, indeterminate (follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm), suspicious for malignancy, malignant, and inadequate. US findings were categorized as benign or suspicious. Cytological results and US categories were analyzed. Results Final diagnosis was concluded upon in 819 nodules based on pathology (n=311), repeated FNA cytology (n=204) and follow-up (n=304), of which 634 were benign and 185 were malignant. There were 560 benign nodules, 141 malignant nodules, 49 nodules with inadequate results, 21 with indeterminate results, and 48 that were suspicious for malignancy. The positive and negative predictive values of the US categories were 59.1% and 97.0%, and those of the cytological results were 93.7% and 98.9%. The US categories were significantly correlated with final diagnosis in the benign (p=0.014) and suspicious for malignancy (pcytological result groups, but not in the inadequate and indeterminate cytological results groups. The false positive and negative rates of cytological results were 1.9% and 3.2%. Conclusion Sonographic findings can be useful when used alongside cytological results, especially in nodules with cytological results that are benign or suspicious for malignancy. PMID:21786450

  1. Diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic males by testing urine by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Domeika, M; Bassiri, M; Mårdh, P A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) (MikroTrak; Syva) was compared with PCR (Amplicor; Roche) for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine (FVU) from 184 men attending a skin and venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 18.5%. Discrepant results between Syva EIA and Roche PCR were retested by using major outer membrane protein primer-based PCR. After retesting, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive and negative p...

  2. Repeating cytological preparations on liquid-based cytology samples: A methodological advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alvaro P; Maia, Henrique Felde; di Loretto, Celso; Krunn, Patrícia; Túlio, Siumara; Collaço, Luis Martins

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the rule that repeating cytological preparations on liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, diagnosis, microbiological, and hormonal evaluations. We reviewed 156 cases of pap-stained preparations of exfoliated cervical cells in two slides processed by DNA-Cytoliq System. After sample repeat/dilution, limiting factors affecting sample adequacy were removed in nine cases and three unsatisfactory cases were reclassified as satisfactory. Diagnosis was altered in 24 cases. Of these, the original diagnosis in 15 was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; after the second slide examination, diagnosis in 5 of the 15 cases changed to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 3 to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 7 to absence of lesion. Microbiological evaluation was altered, with Candida sp. detected in two repeated slides. Repeat slide preparation or dilution of residual samples enhances cytological diagnosis and decreases effects of limiting factors in manually processed DIGENE DCS LBC.

  3. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2013-01-01

    signed out as normal, (3) liquid-based cytology (LBC) with 50% automatically signed out as normal, (4) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal, and (5) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal and with 16 preselected areas for attention in manual reading. We calculated proportion......Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  4. Tzanck Cytology in Diagnosis of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Durdu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tzanck smear test is a simple, rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive diagnostic method based on the investigation of characteristics of individual cells. For diagnosis of cutaneous diseases, cytology was first used by Arnault Tzanck in 1947. After this date, Tzanck cytology has been used in the diagnosis of various erosive-vesiculobullous, nodular, and tumoral skin lesions. In daily dermatology practice, the most common use areas of cytology are diagnosis of herpetic infections, cutaneous leishmaniasis, leprosy, and autoimmune bullous diseases. The purpose of cytology in autoimmune bullous diseases is to rapidly distinguish pemphigus from subepidermal bullous disease. In this review article, taking and staining methods of cytologic specimen for the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases, and the cytologic findings have been reviewed.

  5. Properties of hydrogen induced voids in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J; Fischer, T; Hieckmann, E; Hiller, M; Lavrov, E V [Institute for Applied Physics/Semiconductor Physics, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-06-08

    After heat treatment, silicon samples implanted with high doses of hydrogen exhibit blistering and defoliation of thin silicon layers. The process is used commercially in the fabrication of thin silicon-on-insulator layers (Smart Cut(registered)). In the present study we investigate the behaviour of hydrogen after different processing steps, which lead to thin Si layers bonded to glass substrates. A set of hydrogen implanted samples is studied by means of low temperature photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy (visible and infrared). The formation of Si-H bonds is detected after implantation together with a build-up of internal strain. After annealing, the relaxation of the implanted layers is found to be connected with the formation of hydrogen saturated vacancies and the formation of H{sub 2} molecules filling up larger voids. A comparison is made with hydrogen plasma treated samples, where well defined platelets on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes are found to trap hydrogen molecules. No direct evidence of the role of {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}100{r_brace} platelets in the blistering process is found in the implanted layers from our study. We determine considerable compressive stresses in the bonded Si layers on glass substrates. The photoluminescence is strongly enhanced in these bonded layers but red-shifted due to a strain reduced band gap.

  6. Radionuclide voiding cystography in intrarenal reflux detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzoni, G.; Perale, R.; Bui, F.; Pitter, M.; Pavanello, L.; Boscolo, R.; Passerini Glazel, G.; Macri, C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of detecting intra-renal reflux (IRR) with a more sensitive procedure, 48 children with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent intravenous urography (IVU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCU) using a solution containing contrast medium and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid particles which are known to persist in the renal parenchyma for a long time. Scintigraphic images were taken at 5 and 20 hours after VCU. 18 children had no vesico-ureteral reflux, 11 showed unilateral and 19 bilateral VUR, which was therefore present in 49 renal units. Among the 49 renal refluxing units (RRUs) IRR was detected radiologically in 8; of these isotopic activity in the renal area was present in all 6 RRUs who were examined at 20 hours. Of the remaining 41 RRUs with no radiologically detectable IRR 24 were evaluated at 20 hours and 5 (21%) showed renal radioactivity. Renal scars were significantly more frequent in kidneys with radioisotopic activity at 20 hours. The results of this study indicate that radionuclide cystography using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is a reliable procedure for demonstrating IRR, and to this end is more sensitive than X-ray VCU. Radionuclide cystography with sulfur colloid particles should therefore be considered a simple and useful complementary procedure, which is more sensitive than X-ray VCU in the diagnosis and follow-up of IRR.

  7. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. US Pilot Study of Lumbar to Sacral Nerve Rerouting to Restore Voiding and Bowel Function in Spina Bifida: 3-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Peters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report our experience with creating a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex arc with intradural lumbar to sacral motor root microanastomosis to restore bladder/bowel function in spina bifida patients. Methods. Urinary/bowel changes from baseline to three years were evaluated with questionnaires, voiding diaries, urodynamics (UDS, and renal function studies. Treatment response was defined as CIC ≤ once/day with stable renal function, voiding efficiency > 50%, and no worsening of motor function. Results. Of 13 subjects (9 female, median age 8 years, 3 voided small amounts at baseline, one voided 200 cc (voiding efficiency 32%, 4/13 reported normal bowels, and 2/13 were continent of stool. Postoperatively, all had transient lower extremity weakness; one developed permanent foot drop. Over three years, renal function remained stable and mean maximum cystometric capacity (MCC increased (P=0.0135. In the 10 that returned at 3 years, 7 were treatment responders and 9 had discontinued antimuscarinics, but most still leaked urine. Only 2/8 with baseline neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO still had NDO, all 3 with compliance <10 mL/cm H2O had normalized, 7/10 considered their bowels normal, 5/10 were continent of stool, and 8/10 would undergo the procedure again. Conclusion. Lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting can improve elimination in spina bifida patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378664.

  9. Scaling of voids and fractality in the galaxy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, J; Gaite, Jose; Manrubia, Susanna C.

    2002-01-01

    We study here, from first principles, what properties of voids are to be expected in a fractal point distribution and how the void distribution is related to its morphology. We show this relation in various examples and apply our results to the distribution of galaxies. If the distribution of galaxies forms a fractal set, then this property results in a number of scaling laws to be fulfilled by voids. Consider a fractal set of dimension $D$ and its set of voids. If voids are ordered according to decreasing sizes (largest void has rank R=1, second largest R=2 and so on), then a relation between size $\\Lambda$ and rank of the form $\\Lambda (R) \\propto R^{-z}$ must hold, with $z = d/D$, and where $d$ is the euclidean dimension of the space where the fractal is embedded. The physical restriction $D 1$ in a fractal set. The average size $\\bar \\Lambda$ of voids depends on the upper ($\\Lambda_u$) and the lower ($\\Lambda_l$) cut-off as ${\\bar \\Lambda} \\propto \\Lambda_u^{1-D/d} \\Lambda_l^{D/d}$. Current analysis of v...

  10. Partial discharges within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, H. A.; Chen, G.; Bakar, A. H. A.; Mokhlis, H.; Tunio, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    A void in a dielectric insulation material may exist due to imperfection in the insulation manufacturing or long term stressing. Voids have been identified as one of the common sources of partial discharge (PD) activity within an insulation system, such as in cable insulation and power transformers. Therefore, it is important to study PD phenomenon within void cavities in insulation. In this work, a model of PD activity within two spherical voids in a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed using finite element analysis software to study the parameters affecting PD behaviour. The parameters that have been taken into account are the void surface conductivity, electron generation rate and the inception and extinction fields. Measurements of PD activity within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin under ac sinusoidal applied voltage have also been performed. The simulation results have been compared with the measurement data to validate the model and to identify the parameters affecting PD behaviour. Comparison between measurements of PD activity within single and two voids in a dielectric material have also been made to observe the difference of the results under both conditions.

  11. Measuring Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from the clustering of voids

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Yu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal, from voids based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependency of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the meth...

  12. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Paillas, Enrique; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. We analyse voids in the mass and subhalo density field in the EAGLE simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Lambda cold dark matter Universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with simulations that only follow the evolution of DM, but use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When using the mass in the simulation, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one, but this difference comes mainly from voids with radii smaller than 5 Mpc. We do not find significant differences in the density profiles between voids in EAGLE and its...

  13. Primary anorectal mucosal melanoma detected by anorectal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ryan Paul; Chiaffarano, Jeanine; Alexander, Melissa; Octavius, Jolene; Azar, Omar; Shi, Yan; Yee-Chang, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    The detection of primary anorectal melanoma on anal cytology is a rare and challenging diagnosis. We report a case where anorectal cytology showed isolated malignant cells with oval nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and elongated wispy cytoplasmic projections. There was no evidence of squamous dysplasia or melanin pigment identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary anorectal melanoma detected in anorectal cytology. Detection of malignancies other than squamous cell carcinoma can be seen on anorectal cytology and should be considered when there is no evidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:452-455. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thymic carcinoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Y; Kuo, S H; Chang, D B; Yang, P C; Lee, Y C; Hsu, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the thymus are very rare, and their cytologic findings have not been reported previously in English. Retrospective study of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features in four histopathologically verified thymic carcinoid tumors are described here in detail. The FNA cytology of thymic carcinoids is characterized by predominantly single and some loose clusters of small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm, interspersed with some larger cells with moderate to abundant, granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis of the cytologic features between carcinoid tumor and other mediastinal tumors is also discussed.

  15. The perceived and actual diagnostic utility of veterinary cytological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, N; Dewhurst, E

    2009-04-01

    To establish the proportion of cytology samples sent to a commercial veterinary laboratory that yields diagnostically useful information in the context of current use and perceptions of cytology. Nine hundred and forty-five cytology submissions were retrospectively collected and categorised according to diagnostic utility. A survey into the use and perceptions of cytology was distributed at the British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress 2008. A specific diagnosis was reached in 23.1 per cent of samples and a cytological diagnosis in 35.3 per cent. 22.4 per cent of samples yielded some useful information, but 19.2 per cent were unacceptable. Seventy-four participants in the survey took an average of 3.9 cytological samples per week, of which they examined 27.0 per cent in-house only, 21.6 per cent in-house before sending to an external laboratory and 51.4 per cent were sent externally without prior examination. "To obtain a definitive diagnosis" was the principal reason cited for performing cytology. Results suggest that cytology is underused and may be applied in an inappropriate context in the UK. It is hoped that illustrating the diagnostic outcome of samples received by a commercial laboratory will encourage increased, appropriate use of cytology.

  16. Stepwise Application of Urine Markers to Detect Tumor Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Surveillance for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal use of urine markers in the surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC remains unclear. Aim of the present study was to investigate the combined and stepwise use of the four most broadly available urine markers to detect tumor recurrence in patients undergoing surveillance of NMIBC. Patients and Methods. 483 patients with history of NMIBC were included. Cytology, UroVysion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, immunocytology (uCyt+, and NMP22 ELISA were performed before surveillance cystoscopy. Characteristics of single tests and combinations were assessed by contingency analysis. Results. 128 (26.5% patients had evidence of tumor recurrence. Sensitivities and negative predictive values (NPVs of the single tests ranged between 66.4–74.3 and 82.3–88.2%. Two-marker combinations showed sensitivities and NPVs of 80.5–89.8 and 89.5–91.2%. A stepwise application of the two-test combinations with highest accuracy (cytology and FISH; cytology and uCyt+; uCyt+ and FISH showed NPVs for high-risk recurrences (G3/Cis/pT1 of 98.8, 98.8, and 99.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Combinations of cytology, FISH, immunocytology, and NMP22 show remarkable detection rates for recurrent NMIBC. Stepwise two-test combinations of cytology, FISH, and immunocytology have a low probability of missing a high-risk tumor. The high sensitivities may justify the use of these combinations in prospective studies assessing the use of urine markers to individualize intervals between cystoscopies during follow-up.

  17. Decay of charge deposited on the wall of gaseous void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    After partial discharge activity within a gaseous void, charges accumulate on the wall of the void. The decay of such charges due to surface currents at the void wall is studied analytically, and the factors affecting this decay are indicated. The results show that in terms of the basic time...... constant, the decay can take a considerable amount of time. The decay rate is significantly reduced by an increase in the permittivity of the bulk medium. The dominating influence of this permittivity is likewise reflected in the increased duration and thereby prolonged inhomogeneity of the electric field...

  18. Overall accuracy of cervical cytology and clinicopathological significance of LSIL cells in ASC-H cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Lee, J M; Yun, H G; Park, U S; Hwang, S U; Pyo, J-S; Sohn, J H

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and (ii) to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of the presence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cells in atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-H) cytology. We retrospectively reviewed paired cytological and histological findings from 3141 patients. ASC-H cytology was classified as either ASC-H or LSIL with some features suggestive of the presence of a concurrent HSIL (LSIL-H). Clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated through a retrospective study and meta-analysis. The accuracy of the cytological diagnosis was 93.7% (2942 of 3141 cases). The positive predictive value (PPV) of ASC-H for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+ ) was 51.4%. In cases of LSIL-H, CIN 2+ histology was more prevalent in the pre-menopausal period (19-44 years) than in peri- and postmenopausal periods (older than 45 years) (P = 0.024). There was no difference in the ability of LSIL-H and ASC-H to predict CIN 2+. The Pap smear is a good cervical cancer screening method. Although there was no difference in the predictive value for CIN 2+ between LSIL-H and ASC-H, the presence of definite LSIL cells was more predictive of CIN 2+ in younger patients than in older patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  20. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  1. Oral hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2010-01-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion.

  2. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  3. A variational void coalescence model for ductile metals

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-08-17

    We present a variational void coalescence model that includes all the essential ingredients of failure in ductile porous metals. The model is an extension of the variational void growth model by Weinberg et al. (Comput Mech 37:142-152, 2006). The extended model contains all the deformation phases in ductile porous materials, i.e. elastic deformation, plastic deformation including deviatoric and volumetric (void growth) plasticity followed by damage initiation and evolution due to void coalescence. Parametric studies have been performed to assess the model\\'s dependence on the different input parameters. The model is then validated against uniaxial loading experiments for different materials. We finally show the model\\'s ability to predict the damage mechanisms and fracture surface profile of a notched round bar under tension as observed in experiments. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  4. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)], E-mail: yanicet@fis.ucm.es; Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Castro, V. de [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    Positron annihilation experiments were performed on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER prepared by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The results revealed the presence of small voids in these materials in the as-HIPed conditions. Their evolution under isochronal annealing experiments was investigated. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibited a characteristic signature attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated voids at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature showed three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K void coarsening had effect. Above 1323 K some voids annealed out, but others, associated to oxide particles and small precipitates, survived to annealing at 1523 K. Transmission electron microscopy observations were also performed to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K.

  5. Evolution of shock through a void in foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Smidt, J. M.; Murphy, T. J.; Douglass, M. R.; Devolder, B. G.; Fincke, J. R.; Schmidt, D. W.; Cardenas, T.; Newman, S. G.; Hamilton, C. E.; Sedillo, T. J.; Los Alamos, NM 87544 Team

    2016-10-01

    Marble implosion is an experimental campaign intended to study the effects of heterogeneous mix on fusion burn. A spherical capsule is composed of deuterated plastic foam of controlled pore (or void) size with tritium fill in pores. As capsule implosion evolves, the initially separated deuterium and tritium will mix, producing DT yields. Void evolution during implosion is of interest for the Marble campaign. A shock tube, driven by the laser at Omega, was designed to study the evolution of a shock through a foam-filled ``void'' and subsequent void evolution. Targets were comprised of a 100 mg/cc CH foam tube containing a 200-µm diameter, lower density doped foam sphere. High-quality, radiographic images were obtained from both 2% iodine-doped in plastic foam and 15% tin-doped in aerogel foam. These experiments will be used to inform simulations.

  6. Measurement and Analysis of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE) is one of the important parameters in the design and safety analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In some serious accident conditions, for example the total instantaneous blockage (TIB) accident,

  7. Uroflowmetry in neurologically normal children with voiding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Nielsen, K.K.; Kristensen, E S

    1985-01-01

    of neurological deficits underwent a complete diagnostic program including intravenous urography, voiding cystography and cystoscopy as well as spontaneous uroflowmetry, cystometry-emg and pressure-flow-emg study. The incidence of dyssynergia was 22%. However, neither the flow curve pattern nor single flow...... variables were able to identify children with dyssynergia. Consequently uroflowmetry seems inefficient in the screening for dyssynergia in neurological normal children with voiding disorders in the absence of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction....

  8. Evaluation of the cytologic diagnosis of canine prostatic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Joshua R; Canfield, Paul J; Martin, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    Canine prostatic disease is commonly investigated using cytologic techniques, especially now that ultrasound-guided fine needle cell aspiration (US-FNA) is widely available. Few studies, however, have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of prostatic cytology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cytologic investigation of prostatic disease using US-FNA and other methods in comparison with histopathologic diagnosis. Cytologic and histopathologic specimens of prostate or paraprostatic tissue from 25 adult dogs were retrospectively evaluated. Cytologic samples were obtained by US-FNA, prostatic massage, or direct impression smears or aspirates of tissue at surgery. Histopathologic sections were obtained from tissue collected by biopsy or at necropsy. Cytologic diagnoses were categorized as nondiagnostic (n = 2); cyst (n = 1); squamous metaplasia (n = 2); inflammation (n = 4); benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; n = 5); inflammation and BPH (n = 3); inflammation, BPH, and neoplasia (n = 1); inflammation and neoplasia (n = 3); and neoplasia (n = 4). Cytologic diagnoses agreed with final histologic diagnoses in 20 of the 25 cases (80%). Of those samples collected by US-FNA, 75% were concordant. Four samples obtained by US-FNA and 1 sample obtained by prostatic massage and wash had discordant results. The results of this study suggest strong agreement between cytologic and histopathologic diagnoses for prostatic conditions. Discordance in results obtained by US-FNA usually was the result of the pathologic process rather than a failure to obtain an appropriate sample.

  9. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation...

  10. The subthalamic nucleus : Part I: Development, cytology, topography and connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology concerns the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types p

  11. Void Growth in Single and Bicrystalline Metals: Atomistic Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traiviratana, Sirirat; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Benson, David J.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2007-12-01

    MD simulations in monocrystalline and bicrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to both tensile uniaxial and hydrostatic strains; the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. However, these shear loops develop along two slip planes (and not one, as previously thought), in a heretofore unidentified mechanism of cooperative growth. The emission of dislocations from voids is the first stage, and their reaction and interaction is the second stage. These loops, forming initially on different {111} planes, join at the intersection, the Burgers vector of the dislocations being parallel to the intersection of two {111} planes: a direction. Thus, the two dislocations cancel at the intersection and a biplanar shear loop is formed. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work hardened layer surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried out on voids with different sizes, and a size dependence of the stress response to emitted dislocations was observed, in disagreement with the Gurson model[1] which is scale independent. Calculations were also carried out for a void at the interface between two grains.

  12. Low and High Surface Brightness Galaxies at Void Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccarelli, L; Lambas, D G; Galaz, G; Padilla, N D

    2012-01-01

    We study the relative fraction of low and high surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs and HSBGs) at void walls in the SDSS DR7. We focus on galaxies in equal local density environments. We assume that the host dark-matter halo mass (for which we use SDSS group masses) is a good indicator of local density. This analysis allows to examine the behavior of the abundance of LSBG and HSBG galaxies at a fixed local density and distinguish the large-scale environment defined by the void geometry. We compare galaxies in the field, and in the void walls; the latter are defined as the volume of void shells of radius equal to that of the void. We find a significant decrement, a factor $\\sim 4$, of the relative fraction of blue, active star-forming LSBGs in equal mass groups at the void walls and the field. This decrement is consistent with an increase of the fraction of blue, active star-forming HSBGs. By contrast, red LSBGs and HSBGs show negligible changes. We argue that these results are consistent with a scenario where L...

  13. The Effect of Nearby Voids on Galaxy Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucklein, Brian K; Hintz, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The size, shape and degree of emptiness of void interiors sheds light on the details of galaxy formation. A particularly interesting question is whether void interiors are completely empty or contain a dwarf population. However the nearby voids that are most conducive for dwarf searches have large angular diameters, on the order of a steradian, making it difficult to redshift-map a statistically significant portion of their volume to the magnitude limit of dwarf galaxies. As part of addressing this problem, we investigate here the usefulness of number counts in establishing the best locations to search inside nearby (d < 300 Mpc) galaxy voids, utilizing Wolf plots of log(n < m) vs. m as the basic diagnostic. To illustrate expected signatures, we consider the signature of three void profiles, "cut out", "built up", and "universal profile" carved into Monte-Carlo Schechter function models. We then investigate the signatures of voids in the Millennium Run dark matter simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  14. ACK filling void first algorithm and performance for asynchronous OPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Shi, Yonghe; Chen, Qianbin; Pan, Yingjun

    2007-11-01

    OPS with feedback shared FDL buffer produce large voids due to FDL buffers only supplying discrete step delay and causing FDL queue virtually occupation. By analyzing the TCP traffic and ACK packets feature, the ACK packet void filling first scheduling is presented to decrease packet loss rate and to reduce the FDL voids. When the FDL buffer void size is fit for the ACK packet, the ACK packet is scheduled to FDL immediately. An ACK and non-ACK packets difference and process flow is designed according the TCP packet frame structure. Compared with the conventional FIFO scheduling and smallest FDL void first scheduling, the algorithm reduces greatly the number of ACK occupying the FDL buffer and eliminates large numbers of ACK's bad influence on efficiency of IP data transmission under different FDL buffer depth and traffic load. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheduling makes use of ACK packets first void filling scheduling mechanism to reduce FDL excess load, increases output utilization and reduce packet loss ratio for asynchronous optical network. This approach is shown to minimize the FDL numbers with the feature of high stabilization and photonic integration and to improve real time TCP traffic performance for Internet network.

  15. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  16. Predictive value of exfoliative cytology in pigmented conjunctival lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Sander; van Luijk, Chantal M; Missotten, Guy S; Veselic-Charvat, Maud; de Wolff-Rouendaal, Didi; de Keizer, Rob J W

    2006-04-01

    Pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva are often difficult to classify clinically. Exfoliative cytology may be helpful, but reliable data regarding the sensitivity and specificity of this test are currently lacking. We determined the value of exfoliative cytology with regard to pigmented conjunctival lesions. A total of 294 smears from 182 patients were screened for malignancy within 6 months of exfoliative cytology. Smears were classified according to the following categories: grade 0 = insufficient material for diagnosis; grade 1 = normal conjunctival cells; grade 2 = melanocytes with mild atypia; grade 3 = melanocytes with moderate atypia, and grade 4 = melanocytes with severe atypia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of exfoliative cytology were 85%, 78%, 59% and 93%, respectively. Exfoliative cytology is a fast, easy and non-invasive technique that may be used in the evaluation of patients with a pigmented conjunctival lesion.

  17. Collagenous spherulosis: An interesting cytological finding in breast lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous spherulosis (CS is a rare and interesting entity associated with benign breast lesions. CS is an incidental finding picked up only on 0.2% of cytology specimen. Typically cytologically of CS of breast consists of central spherical hyaline spherule surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The central hyaline spherule has been found to be basement membrane material histochemically and immunohistochemically. The importance of recognizing CS of breast lies in the fact that similar hyaline globules can occur in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (ACCB. The two lesions need to be differentiated on cytology failing which inappropriate treatment can be given for either of the two lesions. We present here a case of CS associated with benign breast lesion and a case of ACCB to describe their cytological features and key points to differentiate them cytologically.

  18. Cytological diagnosis of collagenous spherulosis of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday A Gokhale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous spherulosis is a rare entity usually seen in association with benign breast lesions. It is often picked up incidentally with a reported incidence of about 0.2% in cytological material. There are very few reports describing cytomorphological features of collagenous spherulosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the only case reported from the middle-east region. The presence of hyaline spherules surrounded by a single layer of benign myoepithelial cells is the hallmark of collagenous spherulosis on FNA. However, due to close cytological resemblance, it can be misdiagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A 40-year-old woman presented with a history of a painless lump in the infraareolar region of left breast for a year. Fine needle aspiration was performed. The smears showed scanty cellularity comprising of cohesive clusters and a few branching fragments of benign ductal epithelial cells closely intermingled with many spherical, acellular homogenous hyaline globules. Few bare bipolar nuclei were noted in the background. A diagnosis of collagenous spherulosis associated with benign proliferative breast disease was made. Cytopathologists need to be aware of this entity in order to differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast which requires radical treatment.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  20. Effects of void size and gas content on electrical breakdown in lightweight, mechanically compliant, void-filled dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. A.; Lagasse, R. R.; Russick, E. M.; Schroeder, J. L.

    2002-03-01

    Dielectric potting materials (encapsulants) are used to prevent air breakdown in high-voltage electrical devices. We report breakdown strengths in void-filled encapsulants, stressed with unipolar voltage pulses of the order of 10 μs duration. High strengths, on the order of 100 kV mm-1, are measured under these test conditions. The materials studied include low-density open celled gel-derived foams with cell sizes of 4 μm or less, closed celled CO2-blown polystyrene and urethane foams, and epoxies containing 48 vol % of hollow glass microballoon (GMB) fillers. These last specimens varied the void gas (N2 or SO2) and also the void diameters (tens to hundreds of μm). Our measurements are thought to be directly sensitive to the rate of field-induced ionization events in the void gas; however, the breakdown strengths of the materials tested appeared to vary in direct proportion with the conventional Paschen-law gas-discharge inception threshold, the electric stress at which gas-ionization avalanches become possible. The GMB-epoxy specimens displayed this type of dependence of breakdown strength on the void-gas density and void size, but the measurements were an order of magnitude above the conventional predictions. Small-celled foams also showed increased breakdown strengths with decreased cell size, although their irregular void geometry prevented a direct comparison with the more uniformly structured microballoon-filled encapsulants. The experimental observations are consistent with a breakdown mechanism in which the discharge of a few voids can launch a full breakdown in the composite material.

  1. Comparative study of the results from conventional cervico-vaginal oncotic cytology and liquid-based cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Stabile,Sueli Aparecida Batista; Evangelista,Dilson Henrique Ramos; Talamonte,Valdely Helena; Lippi,Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two oncotic cervical cytology techniques, the conventional and the liquid-based cytology, in low risk patients for uterine cervical cancer. METHODS: Comparative prospective study with 100 patients who came to their annual gynecological exam, and were submitted simultaneously to both techniques. We used the McNemar test, with a significance level of p

  2. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Isolation and control of voids and void-hillocks during molecular beam epitaxial growth of HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, D.; Aqariden, F.; Frazier, J.; Gutzler, S.; Orent, T.; Shih, H. D.

    2000-06-01

    Formation of small voids and defect complexes involving small voids during the molecular beam epitaxial growth of mercury cadmium telluride on cadmium zinc telluride was investigated. Some of these defects were demonstrated to form away from the substrate-epi interface. Other defects were demonstrated to close before reaching the top surface without leaving any perturbations on the surface, thus remaining completely hidden. The voids, which formed away from the substrate-epifilm fixed interface, nucleated on defects introduced into the film already grown, leading to the formation of defect complexes, unlike the voids which nucleated at the substrate-epifilm fixed interface. These defect complexes are decorated with high density dislocation nests. The voids which closed before reaching the film surface usually also nucleated slightly away from the film-substrate interface, continued to replicate for a while as the growth progressed, but then relatively rapidly closed off at a significant depth from the film surface. These voids also appeared to form defect complexes with other kinds of defects. Correlations between these materials defects and performance of individual vertically integrated photodiode (VIP) devices were demonstrated, where the relative location of these defects with respect to the junction boundary appears to be particularly important. Elimination or reduction of fluctuations in relative flux magnitudes or substrate temperature, more likely during multi-composition layer growth, yielded films with significantly lower defect concentrations.

  4. Breaking the vicious circle: Onabotulinum toxin A in children with therapy-refractory dysfunctional voiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. 't Hoen (Lisette); J. van den Hoek (Joop); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); F. van der Toorn; J.R. Scheepe (Jeroen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction An increased activity of the external urethral sphincter or pelvic floor muscles during voluntary voiding leads to dysfunctional voiding. Frequently reported symptoms are urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections and high post-void residuals. Dysfunctional voiding is a

  5. Size-effects at a crack-tip interacting with a number of voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    of the characteristic material length relative to the initial void radius. For a case showing the multiple void mechanism, it is found that the effect of the material length can change the behaviour towards the void by void mechanism. A material model with three characteristic length scales is compared with a one...

  6. A study of process induced voids in resistance welding of thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, H.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Bersee, H.E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Void formation in resistance welding of woven fabric reinforced thermoplastic composites was investigated. Void contents were measured using optical microscopy and digital image process. Un-even void distributions were observed in the joints, and more voids were found in the middle of the joints tha

  7. Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.M., E-mail: hallmm63@comcast.net [MacRay Consulting, 1366 Hillsdale Drive, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation void swelling can cause distortion of reactor core components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constrained swelling can drive stresses beyond acceptable levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compressive stresses decrease irradiation swelling rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation creep relaxes swelling-driven stresses and core restraint forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling-driven creep stresses are consistent with predictions of a proposed model. - Abstract: Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 Degree-Sign C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 Degree-Sign C and 504 Degree-Sign C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are

  8. Cause Analysis on the Void under Slabs of Cement Concrete Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Zhu, Guo Xin; Baozhu

    2017-06-01

    This paper made a systematic analysis on the influence of the construction, environment, water and loads on the void beneath road slabs, and also introduced the formation process of structural void and pumping void, and summarizes the deep reasons for the bottom of the cement concrete pavement. Based on the analysis above, this paper has found out the evolution law of the void under slabs which claimed that the void usually appeared in the slab corners and then the cross joint, resulting void in the four sides with the void area under the front slab larger than the rear one.

  9. THE INSTABILITY OF THE DIFFUSION-CONTROLLED GRAIN-BOUNDARY VOID IN STRESSED SOLID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 李中华

    2003-01-01

    As atoms migrate along a void surface and grain-boundary, driven by various thermodynamic forces, the grain-boundary void changes its shape and volume. When the void changes its configuration, the free energy of the system also changes. In this article, the free energy is calculated for an evolving grain-boundary void filled with gas in a stressed solid. Then the instability conditions and the equilibrium shape of the void are determined as a function of the grain-boundary and surface energies, the void volume, the externally applied stresses, as well as the internal pressure built up by the gas filled in the void.

  10. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  11. Impression cytology: a novel sampling technique for conjunctival cytology of the feline eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eördögh, Réka; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Tichy, Alexander; Nell, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Impression cytology is a noninvasive investigation of the ocular surface. It uses the adhesive features of different filter papers to collect a monolayer of epithelial cells from the cornea and/or conjunctiva. Samples obtained by impression cytology exhibit all characteristics of an ideal cytology specimen. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of impression cytology and determine the most appropriate filter paper to achieve maximum diagnostic value of the feline eye. Ten healthy cats. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, eight different filter papers (FPs) with various pore sizes were tested: 3.0-, 1.2-, 0.8-, 0.45-, 0.22-, 0.05- and 0.025-μm cellulose acetate papers and a 0.4-μm Biopore membrane (BM). Samples were obtained from the superior bulbar and from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva. In the second phase, three different sampling methods - with and without topical anesthesia, and with topical anesthesia and drying of the conjunctiva - were compared employing the BM encased in the intended BM device (BMD). Samples were evaluated for cellularity and quality of cells. In the first phase, samples obtained from the superior bulbar conjunctiva with the BM had the most sufficient cellularity and quality. In the second phase, BMD with topical anesthesia and additional drying of the conjunctiva was the most ideal method. The BMD may prove to be a suitable diagnostic tool for clinicians. Sampling is quick, processing is simple, and a large area of intact cells can be harvested. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Value of exfoliative cytology for investigating bile duct strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Varsamidakis, N; Dooley, J; Deery, A; Dick, R; Kurzawinski, T; Hobbs, K

    1992-01-01

    The cause of a biliary tract stricture may be difficult to determine radiologically. Exfoliative biliary cytology was evaluated in 62 patients (median age 65 years, range 30-94) with biliary tract strictures presenting to the Hepatobiliary Unit between January 1984 and December 1989. Bile samples were taken during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 42 patients, percutaneous cholangiography in 14, and both in six. The site of stricturing was upper third of the bile duct in 43% (n = 27), middle third in 10% (n = six), and lower third in 47% (n = 29). Of the 47 patients with radiological appearances of a malignant stricture, 22 (47%) had histological confirmation by biopsy either under computed tomography guidance, at endoscopy, at operation, or at necropsy. Fourteen of the 47 patients had positive cytology (30%). In seven patients cytology alone established the presence of malignancy (15%) and in the other seven positive cytology was confirmed by histology. The addition of cytology to tissue biopsy therefore allowed malignancy to be confirmed in 29 of the 47 patients (62%). None of the 15 patients subsequently shown to have benign disease had positive cytology. Sensitivity of the technique was 30% and specificity 100%. Samples for exfoliative cytology are simple to obtain, the results are highly specific and should be a routine part of the investigation of biliary strictures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1446870

  13. Liquid-based cytology in oral cavity squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Roberto; Pentenero, Monica; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology is a practical tool for early diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and potentially malignant lesion (OPML), but is not yet extensively used. A literature review evaluated conventional and liquid-based oral diagnostic cytology efficacy and efficiency. 'Special' techniques like liquid-based cytology, computer-assisted cytology, Oral CDx, DNA ploidy, immunocytochemistry, molecular analyses and microhistology were reviewed. Cytology was useful when diagnosing OSCC and OPML. Oral CDx may assess dysplastic changes in clinically suspicious (class I) lesions, with doubtful efficacy in apparently innocuous (class II) lesions. Flow and/or image cytometry and immunocytochemistry can identify markers for the prediction of evolution of the OPML to OSCC. Molecular biology can detect the minimal residual clonal population of cancer cells in field cancerization and oral mucosa surgical margins. Microhistology is a reliable first level test in class II lesions for selected cases requiring surgical biopsy. Conventional cytology helps in OSCC and OPML screening; liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhancing both sensitivity and specificity, and provides material for further investigation. Sampling with the 'curette technique' permits collection of 'accidental' tissue fragments used as microbiopsies and proved a useful first-level test for the management of class II OPML.

  14. Liquid-based endometrial cytology: the Florence and Bari experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, A M; Resta, L; Napoli, A; Taddei, G L

    2009-04-01

    Several diagnostic procedures are available to investigate the endometrium, i.e. sonography, hysteroscopy, biopsy, endometrial curettage and cytology. Among these, endometrial cytology is less commonly utilized. Although the use of cytology in the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma has already been proposed due to its low cost and simple execution, a general consensus has not been reached. The improvement of the diagnostic capacity of endometrial cytology following the introduction of a liquid-based method suggests that this test should be routinely used in endometrial diagnosis. The main advantages of this method are the reduction in confounding factors, the distribution of cells on a thin layer and the possibility to obtain more slides from the same sample. The aim of this article is to focus on the methodological procedures and diagnostic criteria in liquid-based endometrial cytology based on the experience in two Italian centres: Department of Pathology, University of Bari and Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence. The sampling method used by the Bari authors consists in the collection of liquid for uterine distension during hysteroscopy, while the Florence group used an endometrial brush. The sensitivity and specificity at Bari were 75% and 83%, respectively, and were 94-100% and 95-100% at Florence, respectively. Endometrial cytology provided sufficient diagnostic material significantly more often than biopsy. We thus propose that endometrial cytology can be used in routine diagnosis either alone or in association with other diagnostic procedures in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by clinical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Matsuda,1 Hisayoshi Nakajima,2 Khaleque N Khan,1 Terumi Tanigawa,1 Daisuke Hamaguchi,1 Michio Kitajima,1 Koichi Hiraki,1 Shingo Moriyama,3 Hideaki Masuzaki11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Health Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Shimabara Maternity Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Methods: This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD cytology.Results: The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture.Conclusion: The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Keywords: actinomycosis, cytology, pathology, intrauterine contraceptive device, pelvic inflammatory disease

  16. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  17. Autonomous robot for detecting subsurface voids and tunnels using microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stacy S.; Crawford, Nicholas C.; Croft, Leigh Ann; Howard, Michael; Miller, Stephen; Rippy, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Tunnels have been used to evade security of defensive positions both during times of war and peace for hundreds of years. Tunnels are presently being built under the Mexican Border by drug smugglers and possibly terrorists. Several have been discovered at the border crossing at Nogales near Tucson, Arizona, along with others at other border towns. During this war on terror, tunnels under the Mexican Border pose a significant threat for the security of the United States. It is also possible that terrorists will attempt to tunnel under strategic buildings and possibly discharge explosives. The Center for Cave and Karst Study (CCKS) at Western Kentucky University has a long and successful history of determining the location of caves and subsurface voids using microgravity technology. Currently, the CCKS is developing a remotely controlled robot which will be used to locate voids underground. The robot will be a remotely controlled vehicle that will use microgravity and GPS to accurately detect and measure voids below the surface. It is hoped that this robot will also be used in military applications to locate other types of voids underground such as tunnels and bunkers. It is anticipated that the robot will be able to function up to a mile from the operator. This paper will describe the construction of the robot and the use of microgravity technology to locate subsurface voids with the robot.

  18. The Aspen--Amsterdam Void Finder Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Colberg, Joerg M; Foster, Caroline; Platen, Erwin; Brunino, Riccardo; Neyrinck, Mark; Basilakos, Spyros; Fairall, Anthony; Feldman, Hume; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hoyle, Fiona; Mueller, Volker; Nelson, Lorne; Plionis, Manolis; Porciaini, Cristiano; Shandarin, Sergei; Vogeley, Michael S; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2008-01-01

    Despite a history that dates back at least a quarter of a century studies of voids in the large--scale structure of the Universe are bedevilled by a major problem: there exist a large number of quite different void--finding algorithms, a fact that has so far got in the way of groups comparing their results without worrying about whether such a comparison in fact makes sense. Because of the recent increased interest in voids, both in very large galaxy surveys and in detailed simulations of cosmic structure formation, this situation is very unfortunate. We here present the first systematic comparison study of thirteen different void finders constructed using particles, haloes, and semi--analytical model galaxies extracted from a subvolume of the Millennium simulation. The study includes many groups that have studied voids over the past decade. We show their results and discuss their differences and agreements. As it turns out, the basic results of the various methods agree very well with each other in that they...

  19. An analytical model for porous single crystals with ellipsoidal voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiakop, A.; Constantinescu, A.; Danas, K.

    2015-11-01

    A rate-(in)dependent constitutive model for porous single crystals with arbitrary crystal anisotropy (e.g., FCC, BCC, HCP, etc.) containing general ellipsoidal voids is developed. The proposed model, denoted as modified variational model (MVAR), is based on the nonlinear variational homogenization method, which makes use of a linear comparison porous material to estimate the response of the nonlinear porous single crystal. Periodic multi-void finite element simulations are used in order to validate the MVAR for a large number of parameters including cubic (FCC, BCC) and hexagonal (HCP) crystal anisotropy, various creep exponents (i.e., nonlinearity), several stress triaxiality ratios, general void shapes and orientations and various porosity levels. The MVAR model, which involves a priori no calibration parameters, is found to be in good agreement with the finite element results for all cases considered in the rate-dependent context. The model is then used in a predictive manner to investigate the complex response of porous single crystals in several cases with strong coupling between the anisotropy of the crystal and the (morphological) anisotropy induced by the shape and orientation of the voids. Finally, a simple way of calibrating the MVAR with just two adjustable parameters is depicted in the rate-independent context so that an excellent agreement with the FE simulation results is obtained. In this last case, this proposed model can be thought as a generalization of the Gurson model in the context of porous single crystals and general ellipsoidal void shapes and orientations.

  20. 3D Property Modeling of Void Ratio by Cokriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lingqing; Pan Mao; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    Void ratio measures compactness of ground soil in geotechnical engineering. When samples are collected in certain area for mapping void ratios, other relevant types of properties such as water content may be also analyzed. To map the spatial distribution of void ratio in the area based on these types of point, observation data interpolation is often needed. Owing to the variance of sampling density along the horizontal and vertical directions, special consideration is required to handle anisotropy of estimator. 3D property modeling aims at predicting the overall distribution of property values from limited samples, and geostatistical method can he employed naturally here because they help to minimize the mean square error of estimation. To construct 3D property model of void ratio, cokriging was used considering its mutual correlation with water content, which is another important soil parameter. Moreover, K-D tree was adopted to organize the samples to accelerate neighbor query in 3D space during the above modeling process. At last, spatial configuration of void ratio distribution in an engineering body was modeled through 3D visualization, which provides important information for civil engineering purpose.

  1. Only the Lonely: H I Imaging of Void Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Aragón-Calvo, M A; van Gorkom, J H; van de Weygaert, R; van der Hulst, J M; Kovač, K; Yip, C -W; Peebles, P J E

    2010-01-01

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, as well as provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We have completed a pilot survey for the HI imaging aspects of a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), imaging 15 void galaxies in HI in local (d < 100 Mpc) voids. HI masses range from 3.5 x 10^8 to 3.8 x 10^9 M_sun, with one nondetection with an upper limit of 2.1 x 10^8 M_sun. Our galaxies were selected using a structural and geometric technique to produce a sample that is purely environmentally selected and uniformly represents the void galaxy population. In addition, we use a powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that allows us to probe a large volume around each targeted galaxy, simultaneously providing an environmentally constrained sample of for...

  2. Electromigration of intergranular voids in metal films for microelectronic interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, A; Ravve, I

    2003-01-01

    Voids and cracks often occur in the interconnect lines of microelectronic devices. They increase the resistance of the circuits and may even lead to a fatal failure. Voids may occur inside a single grain, but often they appear on the boundary between two grains. In this work, we model and analyze numerically the migration and evolution of an intergranular void subjected to surface diffusion forces and external voltage applied to the interconnect. The grain-void interface is considered one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of the electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled fourth-order one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs. The boundary conditions are specified at the triple points, which are common to both neighboring grains and the void. The solution of these equations uses a finite difference scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and is also coupled to the solution of a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout the grain. Since the v...

  3. Constraints on Cosmology and Gravity from the Dynamics of Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Weller, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    The Universe is mostly composed of large and relatively empty domains known as cosmic voids, whereas its matter content is predominantly distributed along their boundaries. The remaining material inside them, either dark or luminous matter, is attracted to these boundaries and causes voids to expand faster and to grow emptier over time. Using the distribution of galaxies centered on voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and adopting minimal assumptions on the statistical motion of these galaxies, we constrain the average matter content Ωm=0.281 ±0.031 in the Universe today, as well as the linear growth rate of structure f /b =0.417 ±0.089 at median redshift z ¯=0.57 , where b is the galaxy bias (68% C.L.). These values originate from a percent-level measurement of the anisotropic distortion in the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, ɛ =1.003 ±0.012 , and are robust to consistency tests with bootstraps of the data and simulated mock catalogs within an additional systematic uncertainty of half that size. They surpass (and are complementary to) existing constraints by unlocking cosmological information on smaller scales through an accurate model of nonlinear clustering and dynamics in void environments. As such, our analysis furnishes a powerful probe of deviations from Einstein's general relativity in the low-density regime which has largely remained untested so far. We find no evidence for such deviations in the data at hand.

  4. Magnetic pattern at supergranulation scale: the Void Size Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Berrilli, Francesco; Del Moro, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale magnetic pattern of the quiet sun is dominated by the magnetic network. This network, created by photospheric magnetic fields swept into convective downflows, delineates the boundaries of large scale cells of overturning plasma and exhibits voids in magnetic organization. Such voids include internetwork fields, a mixed-polarity sparse field that populate the inner part of network cells. To single out voids and to quantify their intrinsic pattern a fast circle packing based algorithm is applied to 511 SOHO/MDI high resolution magnetograms acquired during the outstanding solar activity minimum between 23 and 24 cycles. The computed Void Distribution Function shows a quasi-exponential decay behavior in the range 10-60 Mm. The lack of distinct flow scales in such a range corroborates the hypothesis of multi-scale motion flows at the solar surface. In addition to the quasi-exponential decay we have found that the voids reveal departure from a simple exponential decay around 35 Mm.

  5. Oral hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Reginald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV, the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion.

  6. Histo-cytological diagnostic accuracy in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, A; Boldrini, L; Alì, G; Servadio, A; Lupi, C; Sensi, E; Miccoli, M; Ribechini, A; Chella, A; Lucchi, M; Leocata, P; Mussi, A; Fontanini, G

    2014-12-01

    The majority of patients with lung cancer are treated on the basis of a diagnosis made from the analysis of a small tumour biopsy or a cytological sample and histotype is becoming a critical variable in clinical workup as it has led to the introduction of newer biologically targeted therapies. Consequently, simply classifying cancers as small cell lung cancers or non-small cell lung cancers is no longer sufficient. From 2009 to 2011, a review of the histo-cytological database was conducted to identify all small biopsy and cytology specimens collected for diagnostic purposes in patients with a thoracic lesion. In total, 941 patients were studied by examining exfoliative and/or aspirative cytological samples. To establish the accuracy of these methods, cytological and biopsy diagnoses were compared with each other and with subsequent resection specimens when available. Moreover, during the diagnostic workup, we examined a validated panel of immunohistochemical markers. The diagnostic concordance of pre-operative diagnoses with surgical samples was high in both cytology and biopsy samples [κ = 0.71, confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-0.81; P cytology and biopsy was moderate (κ = 0.5, CI = 0.43-0.54; P cytology (206/222) and biopsy (155/167) specimens. We found that lung cancer diagnosis and subtyping of cytology and biopsy samples are highly feasible and concordant; thus, the diagnostic approach to lung cancer does not require more invasive procedures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Significance of nuclear morphometry in cytological aspirates of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalhan Shivani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims : This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design : Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods : Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases and benign (29 cases. One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson′s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis : Students "t"-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results : Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions : Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.

  8. Prediction of histological types of endometrial cancer by endometrial cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okadome, Masao; Saito, Toshiaki; Nishiyama, Naoko; Ariyoshi, Kazuya; Shimamoto, Kumi; Shimada, Takako; Kodama, Keisuke; Imamura, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ken-ichi; Taguchi, Kenichi

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have examined the accuracy of preoperative endometrial cytology in diagnosing low- and high-risk histology in women with endometrial cancer (EC). This single-institutional retrospective study compared the accuracy of endometrial cytology and biopsy in preoperatively predicting low-risk and high-risk histology of EC. Between January 2006 and March 2013, 198 women with EC were examined by endometrial cytology, endometrial biopsy and hysterectomy specimen in National Kyushu Cancer Center. Among these women, 110 had endometrial cytology samples available to compare with endometrial biopsy, and were enrolled in our study (mean age ± standard deviation: 59.57 ± 10.32 years). Single-use plastic endometrial suction curettes were used in 12 of the 110 cases and thin metallic curettes for the rest. For type 2 EC, which includes grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and non-endometrioid histology, biopsy was 67.6% sensitive (25/37) and 84.9% specific (62/73); whereas cytology was 70.3% sensitive (26/37) and 91.8% specific (67/73). Cytology precisely diagnosed only one of 14 cases of serous carcinoma, but it diagnosed 11 of the 14 cases as type 2 EC, and its accuracy in distinguishing EC types was not inferior to endometrial biopsy (10/14). For EC, 9.1% (10/110) were unevaluable using biopsy, significantly more than the 0% (0/110) by cytology (P = 0.002). Although preoperative prediction of serous carcinoma was difficult, endometrial cytology had a higher evaluable rate for EC types. Endometrial cytology may complement endometrial biopsy in preoperative women with EC. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Cytology of benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in peritoneal washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly, M; Bongiovanni, M; Kumar, N; Egger, J-F; Pelte, M-F; Genevay, M; Finci, V; Tschanz, E; Pache, J-C

    2008-08-01

    To describe the cytological aspect of peritoneal washings in benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM). Three peritoneal washing specimens stained by standard cytological and histological procedures and analysed by light microscopy. The specimens showed an abundance of monomorphous mesothelial cells devoid of atypia or mitoses. The mesothelial cells were calretinin positive. They also showed numerous squamous metaplastic cells arranged in flat sheets or isolated cells. The background contained some inflammatory cells. The combination of cytology of the peritoneal washing, histology (cell block and surgical specimen) and clinical history allow differentiation of BMPM from other cystic lesions (cystic lymphangioma and malignant mesothelioma).

  10. Koilocytes in urinary cytology in a patient with kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo

    2008-05-01

    We are reporting the case of a 17-year-old girl with kidney transplant under immunosuppressive treatment. Evidences of transplant malfunction led to urinary cytology to rule out BKV infection. The smears showed the presence of koilocytes. Gynecologic examination revealed numerous condylomatous lesions in the vulva, vagina, and cervix. PAP smears showed cells with moderate to severe koilocytic dysplasia. PCR performed on material retrieved from both the smears showed HPV18 DNA sequences. Koilocytes have rarely been documented in urinary cytologic examination. Since post-transplant immunosuppressed patients are prone to develop florid and extensive HPV infections, urinary cytology may prove useful for routine search of cells with this virus cytopathic effect.

  11. Chondroblastoma: Report of two cases diagnosed by cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasudha A Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign cartilage producing neoplasm with a characteristic epiphyseal location. This report documents the cytological features of two cases of chondroblastomas diagnosed by cytology. One of the two cases had an unusual location in the temporomandibular region and the other was located in the epi-metaphyseal region of the right humerus. Smears characteristically revealed chondroblasts and osteoclast-like giant cells. The cytologic diagnosis of chondroblastoma was confirmed on both cases by histopathology. The radiologic appearance and differential diagnosis in both cases are discussed.

  12. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  13. Detection of EGFR mutational profile by direct dideoxy sequencing in cytology and non-cytology biopsy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Connull; Giardina, Tindaro; Carrello, Amerigo; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Amanuel, Benhur

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational analysis is recommended in the diagnostic work-up of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The first diagnostic biopsy is usually obtained by a minimally invasive procedure, especially in patients with unresectable disease. This paper aims to compare the types of somatic EGFR mutations detected by cytology and non-cytology samples by direct dideoxy sequencing and propose practical guidelines for handling such material. Only samples with sufficient polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product were considered, a total 310 samples (302 patients), of which 168 samples were cytology material and 142 samples were non-cytology biopsy material. All samples were assessed for tumour content and bidirectional direct sequencing was performed on exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. There were 49 cases with EGFR mutation detected (16.2%), without a significant difference in the detection of mutations between either cytology or non-cytology material. EGFR mutation was detected in most sample types including endoscopic ultrasound guided FNA, bronchial washings/brushings and pleural/peritoneal fluid samples. Cytology material can provide an adequate source of material for EGFR mutational analysis, with coordinated effort between clinicians and pathologists critical for best outcome.

  14. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  15. [Development of remote wireless mobile voiding diary and a report of its objective voiding in 20 young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhi-chen; Wei, Ben-lin; Meng, Zuo-wei

    2010-08-18

    To find out the data of the micturitions in healthy young people with the remote & mobile voiding diary monitoring system. Twenty healthy young people were studied and ten of them were female. The ages ranged from 22 to 35 years (the mean age: 27.4 years). The females were 22-33 years old (the mean age: 26.4 years ) and the males 24-35 years old (the mean age: 28.4 years). With the remote & mobile voiding diary monitoring system, their voiding information was collected. Through bluetooth, the voiding information was sent to the patient's intelligent cell phone from the collector, then stored directly by intelligent cell phone and wirelessly transmitted to the workstation in the hospital. All of them completed the voiding diaries for 7 days and the data were analyzed. The average micturition of the young healthy people was 5.6 times (3.4-7.4) per 24 hours,in which 5.3 (3.4-7.3) times were in the daytime and 0.3 (0-1.3)times in the night. The functional voiding volume was 318 mL (66-642 mL). The mean voiding volume in 24 hours was 1 724 mL (1152-2 415 mL), in which 1 289 mL (786-2 039 mL) was in the daytime and 435 mL (292-805 mL) in the night. The mean drinking volume was 1 022 mL (453-1 721 mL) in the daytime and 7 mL (0-43 mL) in the night. The nocturia index (Ni) was 1.03, the nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) 26%, and the nocturnal bladder capacity index (NBCi) 0.27. The remote & mobile voiding diary monitoring system can help us get the objective voiding information from young health people for the first time. It is reliable, maneuverable and can be widely used in clinical diagnosis.

  16. Cosmological Black Holes as Seeds of Voids in Galaxy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Stornaiolo, C; Capozziello, Salvatore; Funaro, Maria; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2004-01-01

    Deep surveys indicate a bubbly structure of cosmological large scale which should be the result of evolution of primordial density perturbations. Several models have been proposed to explain origin and dynamics of such features but, till now, no exhaustive and fully consistent theory has been found. We discuss a model where cosmological black holes, deriving from primordial perturbations, are the seeds for large-scale-structure voids. We give details of dynamics and accretion of the system voids-cosmological black holes from the epochs $(z\\simeq10^{3})$ till now finding that void of $40h^{-1}Mpc$ of diameter and under-density of -0.9 will fits the observations without conflicting with the homogeneity and isotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation.

  17. Avoid a Void: The Eradication of Null Dereferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bertrand; Kogtenkov, Alexander; Stapf, Emmanuel

    All object-oriented programs, but also those in C or Pascal as soon as they use pointers, are subject to the risk of run-time crash due to "null pointer dereferencing". Until recently this was the case even in statically typed languages. Tony Hoare has called this problem his "billion-dollar mistake". In the type system of ISO-standard Eiffel, the risk no longer exists: void safety (the absence of null pointer dereferencing) has become a property guaranteed by the type system and enforced by the compiler. The mechanism is fully implemented and major libraries and applications have been made void-safe. This presentation describes the principles of Eiffel's void safety, their implementation and the lessons gained.

  18. Dwarf Galaxies in Voids: Dark Matter Halos and Gas Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeft, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have shown that luminous galaxies are mainly distributed in large filaments and galaxy clusters. The remaining large volumes are virtually devoid of luminous galaxies. This is in concordance with the formation of the large-scale structure in Universe as derived from cosmological simulations. However, the numerical results indicate that cosmological voids are abundantly populated with dark matter haloes which may in principle host dwarf galaxies. Observational efforts have in contrast revealed, that voids are apparently devoid of dwarf galaxies. We investigate the formation of dwarf galaxies in voids by hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Due to the cosmic ultra-violet background radiation low-mass haloes show generally are reduced baryon fraction. We determine the characteristic mass below which dwarf galaxies are baryon deficient. We show that the circular velocity below which the accretion of baryons is suppressed is approximately 40 km/s. The suppressed baryon accretion is caused by the...

  19. On the void explanations of the Cold Spot

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos-Caballero, A; Martínez-González, E; Vielva, P

    2015-01-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution induced on the cosmic microwave background by the presence of a supervoid as the one detected by Szapudi et al. (2015) is reviewed in this letter in order to check whether it could explain the Cold Spot (CS) anomaly. Two different models, previously used for the same purpose, are considered to describe the matter density profile of the void: a top hat function and a compensated profile produced by a Gaussian potential. The analysis shows that, even enabling ellipticity changes or different values for the dark-energy equation of state parameter $\\omega$, the ISW contribution due to the presence of the void does not reproduce the properties of the CS. Finally, the probability of alignment between the void and the CS is also questioned as an argument in favor of a physical connection between these two phenomena.

  20. [Development of a cytological method to detect pregnancy in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M D; Boxaca, M C

    1982-01-01

    Diagnosis of guinea pig pregnancy by the inhibition hemagglutination test used to detect chorionic gonadotrophin in urine showed to be unreliable after the 57% false positive and 3% false negative results obtained over 79 urine samples tested. On the other hand, by comparing the cell morphology of about 60 vaginal smears taken from 20 non-pregnant guinea pigs, stained by a Papanicolaou modified technique, the 4 estrous cycle stages were characterized. The subsequent study of many vaginal smears taken from 15 pregnant guinea pigs showed no pathognomic cells but a picture where 60-70% proestrus and 40-30% diestrus cells appeared. This proestrus-diestrus (Pd) picture was accepted as typical for pregnancy, because it showed up in every pregnant guinea pig lasting all the gestation period, changing only after delivery or abortion. Fecundation does not change the estrous cycle sequence which, as it was proved, progressed normally until it reached this Pd picture. Therefore, the persistence of a Pd picture during +/- 6 days should be considered as diagnosis for pregnancy; when estrus has been detected a Pd picture 12-14 days post estrus as prognosis, and at 16-19 days post-estrus as diagnosis for pregnancy. This cytologic assay proved to be reliable. Besides, once cell characterization has been performed, the staining procedure can be substituted by a direct observation of wet specimen, saving time without loosing accuracy.

  1. Study of void sizes and loading configurations effects on shock initiation due to void collapse in heterogeneous energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sidhartha; Rai, Nirmal; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2015-06-01

    In heterogeneous energetic materials, presence of porosity has been seen to increase its sensitivity towards shock initiation and ignition. Under the application of shock load, the viscoplastic deformation of voids and its collapse leads to the formation of local high temperature regions known as hot spots. The chemical reaction triggers at the hot spot depending on the local temperature and grows eventually leading to ignition and formation of detonation waves in the material. The temperature of the hot spot depends on various factors such as shock strength, void size, void arrangements, loading configuration etc. Hence, to gain deeper understanding on shock initiation and ignition study due to void collapse, a parametric study involving various factors which can affect the hot spot temperature is desired. In the current work, effects of void sizes, shock strength and loading configurations has been studied for shock initiation in HMX using massively parallel Eulerian code, SCIMITAR3D. The chemical reaction and decomposition for HMX has been modeled using Henson-Smilowitz multi step mechanism. The effect of heat conduction has also been taken into consideration. Ignition threshold criterion has been established for various factors as mentioned. The critical hot spot temperature and its size which can lead to ignition has been obtained from numerical experiments.

  2. Voiding trial outcome following pelvic floor repair without incontinence procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Won, Sara; Haviland, Miriam J.; Bargen, Emily Von; Hacker, Michele R.; Li, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Our aim was to identify predictors of postoperative voiding trial failure among patients who had a pelvic floor repair without a concurrent incontinence procedure in order to identify low-risk patients in whom postoperative voiding trials may be modified. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent pelvic floor repair without concurrent incontinence procedures at two institutions from 1 November 2011 through 13 October 2013 after abstracting demographic and clinical data from medical records. The primary outcome was postoperative retrograde voiding trial failure. We used modified Poisson regression to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI). Results Of the 371 women who met eligibility criteria, 294 (79.2 %) had complete data on the variables of interest. Forty nine (16.7%) failed the trial, and those women were less likely to be white (p = 0.04), more likely to have had an anterior colporrhaphy (p = 0.001), and more likely to have had a preoperative postvoid residual (PVR) ≥150 ml (p = 0.001). After adjusting for race, women were more likely to fail their voiding trial if they had a preoperative PVR of ≥150 ml (RR: 1.9; 95 % CI: 1.1–3.2); institution also was associated with voiding trial failure (RR: 3.0; 95 % CI: 1.6–5.4). Conclusions Among our cohort, postoperative voiding trial failure was associated with a PVR of ≥150 ml and institution at which the surgery was performed. PMID:26886553

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of voids distribution in VPI for ITER correction coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juping, E-mail: ljping@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, Jiefeng; Yu, Xiaowu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A sample of correction coil was treated by vacuum pressure impregnation. • The voids in sample were observed by computed tomography. • The voids distributions were simulated in 2-D and 3-D model. • The calculated voids locations had a good agreement with experiment. • The simulation was not accurate in calculating the voids content. - Abstract: The experimental and numerical investigations were conducted to study the voids distribution in VPI (Vacuum Pressure Impregnation) process for correction coil. A sample of correction coil was manufactured by VPI. The voids in sample were observed with computed tomography and the average voids content was tested. The voids content is closely related to infiltration velocity and fluid properties. In former researches, the parameters affecting voids content were combined into a single parameter, namely capillary number. By calculating the capillary numbers in different areas of the sample, the voids distribution could be acquired. The corresponding numerical analyses based on Darcy law were conducted in 2-D and 3-D models. The 2-D case was used to simulate the voids distribution on the section as a simplified model, while the 3-D case demonstrated the spatial distribution of voids. The voids locations were similar in 2-D and 3-D cases, but the voids contents were different. The numerical results were compared with the actual voids distribution in sample. It was found the voids locations were close in numerical and experimental results, but the voids content did not match. The numerical simulations are available for predicting the voids locations in VPI, but not accurate in calculating the voids content.

  4. Voiding patterns in men evaluated by a questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P; Nielsen, K K; Bauer, T;

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire on obstructive and irritative voiding symptoms was sent to 572 men aged between 20 and 79 years, selected at random from the National Register; 337 questionnaires were completed. None of the responders had consulted a doctor because of voiding symptoms. There was a significant...... had symptoms equal in severity to those found in men undergoing prostatectomy; 29% and 11% of men in the eighth decade [corrected] had nocturia twice and 3 times or more respectively; 19% complained of urge incontinence. More information on possible treatment is needed....

  5. Effects of Heterogeneous Sink Distribution on Void Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Volobuyev, A. V.; Gann, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Swelling rates are calculated for two types of material with heterogeneous distributions of dislocations and voids, namely copper irradiated with neutrons to low dose at 250 degree C and heavily cold-worked copper irradiated with 1 MeV electrons in a HVEM at 250 degree C. Both materials...... are considered to consist of non-interacting spherical components with a wall and an inner cell with different dislocation and/or void densities. We subdivide the sphere (wall plus cell) in a number of concentric shells and find a quasi-static solution for the interstitial and vacancy concentrations...

  6. Usefulness of the UBC{sup TM} (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon [School of Medicine, Donaga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2001-06-01

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC{sup TM} test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC{sup TM} test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC{sup TM} test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC{sup TM} tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC{sup TM} concentration was greater than 12 {mu}g/L. UBC{sup TM} levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 {+-}166.4 {mu}g/L) and group B (19.2 {+-} 85.6 {mu}g/L)(p<0.001). Sensitivity for diagnosis of TCC was 89.5% (17/19) in UBC test and 47.4% (9/19) in cytology (p<0.05). Specificity for diagnosis of TCC was 81.5% (53/65) in UBC{sup TM} test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC{sup TM} test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T{sub 1} tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p<0.05) and in grade I (83.3% vs 16.7%, p<005) than cytology. UBC{sup TM} test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC{sup TM} test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC{sup TM} test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC{sup TM} test in association with cytology is helpful to

  7. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    -based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...... of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology. Follow-up histology showed no increase of false positive tests, whilst the share of tests which were "unsatisfactory for evaluation" decreased significantly. Overall, the liquid-based technique would seem to have several advantages compared...

  8. Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama A Chandekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block.

  9. Preparation of Cytology Samples: Tricks of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell

    2017-01-01

    General principles and techniques for collection, preparation, and staining of cytologic samples in the general practice setting are reviewed. Tips for collection of digital images are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between cytological and histological grading of breast cancer and its role in prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shweta; Gupta, Mohan Lal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Assigning grade to breast cancer on FNAC provides prognostic information and guides optimal therapy. Aims: The present study was undertaken to grade breast carcinoma on cytology by Robinson's grading system and correlate it with Elstons modified Bloom Richardson histological grading system. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study done on fifty cases of breast cancer reported on cytology. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for breast carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded. Correlation between cytological and histological grading system was determined. Sensitivity and specificity of Robinson's cytological grading system was calculated in each grade. All cases evaluated for presence of metastasis to axillary lymph nodes. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlation between cytological and histological grading was established using the non parametric Spearman’ s correlation coefficient. Results: Concordance rate between cytological and histological grade was 78%. The coefficient of correlation between cytological grade and histological grade was 0.804 and P value was <0.001 which indicated a strong correlation and significant association between the cytological and histological grade. Sensitivity was maximum in cytological grade I tumors (100%) and least in cytological grade III tumors (45.45%). Specificity was maximum in cytological grade III tumors (94.87%) and least in cytological grade II tumors (72.72%). The incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis was maximum in cytological grade III tumors and grade I tumors. Conclusions: Cytological grade strongly predicts histological grade and is useful in selecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28028331

  11. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  12. TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC HYPER-ELASTIC MATERIAL RECTANGULAR PLATE WITH VOIDS UNDER A UNIAXIAL EXTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昌钧; 任九生

    2003-01-01

    The finite deformation and stress analyses for a transversely isotropic rectangularplate with voids and made of hyper-elastic material with the generalized neo-Hookean strainenergy function under a uniaxial extension are studied. The deformation functions of plateswith voids that are symmetrically distributed in a certain manner are given and the functionsare expressed by two parameters by solving the differential equations. The solution may beapproximately obtained from the minimum potential energy principle. Thus, the analyticsolutions of the deformation and stress of the plate are obtained. The growth of the void.s andthe distribution of stresses along the voids are analyzed and the influences of the degree ofanisotropy, the size of the voids and the distance between the voids are discussed. Thecharacteristics of the growth of the voids and the distribution of stresses of the plates with onevoid, three or five voids are obtained and compared.

  13. Shapes and Sizes of Voids in the LCDM Universe: Excursion Set Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shandarin, S; Heitmann, K; Habib, S; Shandarin, Sergei; Feldman, Hume A.; Heitmann, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    We study the global distribution and morphology of dark matter voids in a LCDM universe using density fields generated by N-body simulations. Voids are defined as isolated regions of the low-density excursion set specified via density thresholds, the density thresholds being quantified by the corresponding filling factors, i.e., the fraction of the total volume in the excursion set. Our work encompasses a systematic investigation of the void volume function, the volume fraction in voids, and the fitting of voids to corresponding ellipsoids and spheres. We emphasize the relevance of the percolation threshold to the void volume statistics of the density field both in the high redshift, Gaussian random field regime, as well as in the present epoch. By using measures such as the Inverse Porosity, we characterize the quality of ellipsoidal fits to voids, finding that such fits are a poor representation of the larger voids that dominate the volume of the void excursion set.

  14. SURFACE EFFECT ON NANOSIZED VOID GROWTH IN A RIGID-PERFECTLY PLASTIC MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Hui; Yiheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the surface effect on the nanosized spherical void growth in a rigid-perfectly plastic material is analyzed and the mechanism of the nanosized void growth with high triaxiality is given. Based on the Rice and Tracey model for a macro void growth, the present model is proposed to account for the nanosized void growth under a uniform remote strain rate field with consideration on the surface effect. It is concluded that the surface effect yields an evident resistant influence on the nanosized void growth. That is, this influence decays as the void radius increases. With high triaxiality, the nanosized void growth is divided into two stages:the initial stage and the mature stage. At the first stage, the void grows slowly and the influence of surface effect is relatively weak, whereas at the second stage, the influene is significant and the void grows drastically.

  15. Morphological and cytological differences within the species Lupinus luteus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lupinus luteus L. from five different geographical proveniences were investigated morphologically and cytologically. The plants originating from Palestine differ from the rest in many morphological traits. Cytologically they differ by one chromosomal translocation. The Palestinian plants give semisterile F1 hybrids with the rest of the species. They are described as a new subspecies: Lupinus luteus L. ssp. orientalis Kazim. et. Kazim.

  16. Cytology of pulmonary Fusobacterium nucleatum infection. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    A patient with pulmonary Fusobacterium nucleatum infection presenting as a solitary nodule is reported. The infectious nature of the lung nodule was disclosed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with Liu's stain. The cytologic characteristics of F nucleatum infection are described. The usefulness of real-time ultrasound in fine needle aspiration diagnosis of a peripheral lung lesion is demonstrated, and the role of Liu's stain in FNAC is emphasized.

  17. Image analysis of aggregate,mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture%Image analysis of aggregate, mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADHIKARI Sanjeev; YOU Zhan-ping; HAO Pei-wen; WANG Hai-nian

    2013-01-01

    The shape characterization and spatial distribution of aggregate,mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture were analyzed.Three air void percentage asphalt mixtures,4%,7% and 8%,respectively,were cut into cross sections and polished.X-ray scanning microscope was used to capture aggregate,mastic,air void phase by the image.The average of polygon diameter was chosen as a threshold to determine which aggregates would be retained on a given sieve.The aggregate morphological image from scanned image was utilized by digital image processing method to calculate the gradation of aggregate and simulate the real gradation.Analysis result shows that the air void of asphalt mixture has influence on the correlation between calculation gradation and actual gradation.When comparing 4.75 mm sieve size of 4%,7% and 8% air void asphalt mixtures,7% air void asphalt mixture has 55% higher than actual size gradation,8% air void asphalt mixture has 8% higher than actual size gradation,and 4% air void asphalt mixture has 3.71% lower than actual size gradation.4% air void asphalt mixture has the best correlation between calculation gradation and actual gradation comparing to other specimens.The air void percentage of asphalt mixture has no obvious influence on the air void orientation,and three asphalt mixtures show the similar air orientation along the same direction.4 tabs,7 figs,17 refs.

  18. Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Pär-Daniel; Elm, Marie; Ulleryd, Peter; Mölstad, Sigvard; Rodhe, Nils; Jonsson, Lars; Andersson, Bengt; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Gunnarsson, Ronny

    2014-08-12

    Up to half the residents of nursing homes for the elderly have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which should not be treated with antibiotics. A complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) and ABU is needed, as diagnostic uncertainty is likely to generate significant antibiotic overtreatment. Previous studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urine might be suitable as such a test. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between laboratory findings of bacteriuria, IL-6 in the urine, dipstick urinalysis and newly onset symptoms among residents of nursing homes. In this cross sectional study, voided urine specimens for culture, urine dipstick and IL-6 analyses were collected from all residents capable of providing a voided urine sample, regardless of the presence of symptoms. Urine specimens and symptom forms were provided from 421 residents of 22 nursing homes. The following new or increased nonspecific symptoms occurring during the previous month were registered; fatigue, restlessness, confusion, aggressiveness, loss of appetite, frequent falls and not being herself/himself, as well as symptoms from the urinary tract; dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency. Recent onset of nonspecific symptoms was common among elderly residents of nursing homes (85/421). Urine cultures were positive in 32% (135/421), Escherichia coli was by far the most common bacterial finding. Residents without nonspecific symptoms had positive urine cultures as often as those with nonspecific symptoms with a duration of up to one month. Residents with positive urine cultures had higher concentrations of IL-6 in the urine (p bacteriuria was linked to nonspecific symptoms.

  19. Exfoliative Cytology in the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayat, Kim Vieira; Correa Dantas, Paulo Elias; Felberg, Sérgio; Galvão, Maria Antonieta; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2017-01-01

    Surface tumors of the eye comprise an ample spectrum of diseases with various clinical manifestations. Diagnosis has been traditionally achieved through core biopsies, but cytology is an innovative, fast, and minimally invasive method. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of exfoliative cytology as an alternative method for the detection of ocular surface squamous neoplasm (OSSN). Exfoliative cytology of the lesions was performed by collecting smears using plastic brushes followed by smearing the cells onto slides and subsequently fixing them in 90% alcohol. Incisional biopsies were performed at the exact same location and sent for processing in 10% formaldehyde. Both the surgical pathologist and cytopathologist were masked to the clinical characteristics and to the corresponding cytological or histological result. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study (12 men and 10 women, median age 52.5 years). Final histological diagnoses comprised 7 cases of pterygium, 7 squamous-cell carcinomas, 4 squamous papillomas, and 4 chronic inflammatory processes. Cytohistological agreement was achieved in 19 (86.4%) of the samples. Cytology showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 85.7%, 86.7%, 75%, and 92.9%, respectively, in detecting OSSN. Exfoliative cytology of the conjunctival lesions is a simple procedure, with high agreement to the histological follow-up. Its broad use could augment the early diagnosis of OSSN, with improvement in patient prognosis.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology studies of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE is the central nervous system (CNS involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The diagnosis of NP-SLE may be difficult due to the lack of specific biomarker. CNS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cytology is diagnostic significant to CNS autoimmune disease. This paper described the characteristics of CSF cytology and evaluated its diagnostic value in NP-SLE. Methods Seventy-six eligible patients with clear diagnosis of NP-SLE were collected for CSF cytological examinations. Results The CSF cytology findings of 25 cases in 76 were abnormal, among which 16 cases showed lymphocytic inflammatory reactions; 8 cases had slight increase of neutrophile granulocyte percent; 9 cases showed lymphocyte-neutrophile inflammation. Activated lymphocytes together with monocytes were present in 24 cases. Among those cases, abnormal endocytosis of monocytes, which presented as monocytes phagocytosing lymphocytes or plasmocytes, was shown in 17 cases; plasmocytes were found in 17 cases. Conclusion The diagnosis of NP-SLE is based on clinical, neuroimaging and CSF studies. Among these methods, the CSF cytology findings are quite useful in practice, since the CSF cytological inflammatory reactions, especially the presentation of abnormal phagocytes in CSF is typical in NP-SLE and indicates its vasculitic mechanism.

  1. Knowledge and Acceptability of Anal Cytology Screening Among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Stephanie A; Debnath, Priyanka; Szlachta-McGinn, Alec W; Maguire, Karla; Garcia, Jorge J; Aserlind, Alexandra; Lipshultz, Emma; Potter, JoNell E

    2016-01-01

    Medical providers have initiated anal cytology screening among women to detect anal neoplasia early. Lack of knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and anticipated screening discomfort may limit patient acceptance. This study investigates attitudes toward anal cytology screening among women. Women seen for gynecologic care at an urban university medical center were invited to complete an anonymous survey assessing their understanding of HPV and interest in anal cytology screening. Subjects reported the level of pain, discomfort, and embarrassment they expected from screening on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Four hundred four women with mean (SD) age 36 (13) years met criteria for participation. Three hundred thirty-five women reported their race: 52% were white and 36% were African American. Three hundred forty-eight women reported their ethnicities: 76% were Hispanic and 12% were Haitian. Twenty-two percent had never heard of HPV, 57% were not familiar with anal cytology screening, 67% acknowledged that screening was very helpful in detecting anal neoplasia early, and 28% were very interested in undergoing screening. Mean (SD) level of anticipated pain, discomfort, and embarrassment during screening was 62 (32), 68 (30), and 58 (34) mm, respectively. Level of familiarity with anal cytology screening (p cytology screening among at-risk women to familiarize them with the procedure, describe its role in detecting anal neoplasia, and address expectations surrounding pain to increase its acceptability.

  2. SENSITIVITY OF IMPRESSION CYTOLOGY IN DIAGNOSING OCULAR SURFACE SQUAMOUS NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleswari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OSSN describes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions, originating from squamous epithelium ranging from simple dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, involving the conjunctiva, limbus and the cornea. Impression cytology refers to the technique by which superficial layers of the ocular surface are removed through application of cellulose acetate filter material onto the ocular surface AIM: To Assess the Sensitivity of Impression Cytology in the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Using Millipore Filter Paper. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a Prospective Observational and Interventional Study conducted at Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Gandhi Medical College/Hospital, Hyderabad. Study was conducted from July2013 to Feb2015 and included 50patients presenting with conjunctival mass at the limbus or on the conjunctiva Hospital ethics committee approval was obtained No financials involved in the study. RESULTS: A total of 50Excision biopsies of 50patients suspected for OSSN were performed there were 40 males and 10females Excision biopsy confirmed the Impression Cytology results in 44 cases. In 6 cases there was poor correlation among which 4cases showed mild dysplasia in Impression Cytology while HPE showed Invasive Squamous cell carcinoma in 2cases few dysplastic cells were noted in Impression cytology but HPE showed Carcinoma in situ. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Impression Cytology has a promising role in diagnosing Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia for its high positive predictive accuracy (95.65% compared with tissue histology.

  3. Cytology of the oral cavity: a re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, R

    2009-02-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology, while an economical and practical tool for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, is not extensively used. The results of conventional (n = 89) and liquid-based (n = 411) oral diagnostic cytology cases are reported and compared to histological diagnosis. Cells were collected using either a Cytobrush device for conventional smears or a dermatological curette (AcuDispo) for liquid-based (Thin Prep) cytology. The "curette technique" allowed for the collection of "accidental" tissue fragments, utilized as microbiopsies. The sensitivity was 86.5% in conventional and 94.7% in liquid-based cytology; specificity was 94.3% and 98.9%, respectively; inadequate samples were present in 12.4% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. Although conventional cytology may be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhances both the sensitivity and specificity, and also provides material for further investigations, e.g. DNA ploidy studies, microhistology, etc.

  4. Impact on liquids : void collapse and jet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gekle, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    A spectacular example of free surface flow is the impact of a solid object on a liquid: At impact a “crown” splash is created and a surface cavity (void) emerges which immediately starts to collapse due to the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding liquid. Eventually the cavity closes in a single

  5. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    The size-effect in metals containing distributed spherical voids is analyzed numerically using a finite strain generalization of a length scale dependent plasticity theory. Results are obtained for stress-triaxialities relevant in front of a crack tip in an elastic-plastic metal. The influence...

  6. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    The size-effect in metals containing distributed spherical voids is analyzed numerically using a finite strain generalization of a length scale dependent plasticity theory. Results are obtained for stress-triaxialities relevant in front of a crack tip in an elastic-plastic metal. The influence...

  7. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of void lattice formation during irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, H. L.; Singh, B. N.

    2003-11-01

    Over the last decade, molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades have revealed that glissile clusters of self-interstitial crowdions are formed directly in cascades and that they migrate one-dimensionally along close-packed directions with extremely low activation energies. Occasionally, under various conditions, a crowdion cluster can change its Burgers vector and glide along a different close-packed direction. The recently developed production bias model (PBM) of microstructure evolution under irradiation has been structured specifically to take into account the unique properties of the vacancy and interstitial clusters produced in the cascades. Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have played a useful role in understanding the defect reaction kinetics of one-dimensionally migrating crowdion clusters as a function of the frequency of direction changes. This has made it possible to incorporate the migration properties of crowdion clusters and changes in reaction kinetics into the PBM. In the present paper we utilize similar KMC simulations to investigate the significant role that crowdion clusters can play in the formation and stability of void lattices. The creation of stable void lattices, starting from a random distribution of voids, is simulated by a KMC model in which vacancies migrate three-dimensionally and self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters migrate one-dimensionally, interrupted by directional changes. The necessity of both one-dimensional migration and Burgers vectors changes of SIA clusters for the production of stable void lattices is demonstrated, and the effects of the frequency of Burgers vector changes are described.

  8. A cosmic watershed : the WVF void detection technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2007-01-01

    On megaparsec scales the Universe is permeated by an intricate filigree of clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, the cosmic web. For the understanding of its dynamical and hierarchical history it is crucial to identify objectively its complex morphological components. One of the most characteristic

  9. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    measurements, tensile tests and hole-expansion tests. The initial microstructure and the deformed microstructure were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In situ tensile tests in a SEM were applied for direct observation of the void formation...

  10. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  11. Impact on liquids : void collapse and jet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gekle, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    A spectacular example of free surface flow is the impact of a solid object on a liquid: At impact a “crown” splash is created and a surface cavity (void) emerges which immediately starts to collapse due to the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding liquid. Eventually the cavity closes in a single p

  12. Predictive efficacy of radioisotope voiding cystography for renal outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kwang Myeung; Choi, Whang; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    As vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) could lead to renal functional deterioration when combined with urinary tract infection, we need to decide whether operative anti-reflux treatment should be performed at the time of diagnosis of VUR. Predictive value of radioisotope voiding cystography (RIVCG) for renal outcome was tested. In 35 children (18 males, 17 females), radiologic voiding cystoure-thrography (VCU), RIVCG and DMSA scan were performed. Change in renal function was evaluated using the follow-up DMSA scan, ultrasonography, and clinical information. Discriminant analysis was performed using individual or integrated variables such as reflux amount and extent at each phase of voiding on RIVCG, in addition to age, gender and cortical defect on DMSA scan at the time of diagnosis. Discriminant function was composed and its performance was examined. Reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase had a significant prognostic value. Total reflux amount was a composite variable to predict prognosis. Discriminant function composed of reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase showed better positive predictive value and specificity than conventional reflux grading. RIVCG could predict renal outcome by disclosing characteristic reflux pattern during various voiding phases.

  13. Compensation for air voids in photoacoustic computed tomography image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Most image reconstruction methods in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) assume that the acoustic properties of the object and the surrounding medium are homogeneous. This can lead to strong artifacts in the reconstructed images when there are significant variations in sound speed or density. Air voids represent a particular challenge due to the severity of the differences between the acoustic properties of air and water. In whole-body small animal imaging, the presence of air voids in the lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal system can limit image quality over large regions of the object. Iterative reconstruction methods based on the photoacoustic wave equation can account for these acoustic variations, leading to improved resolution, improved contrast, and a reduction in the number of imaging artifacts. However, the strong acoustic heterogeneities can lead to instability or errors in the numerical wave solver. Here, the impact of air voids on PACT image reconstruction is investigated, and procedures for their compensation are proposed. The contributions of sound speed and density variations to the numerical stability of the wave solver are considered, and a novel approach for mitigating the impact of air voids while reducing the computational burden of image reconstruction is identified. These results are verified by application to an experimental phantom.

  14. The Effect of Random Voids in the Modified Gurson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huiyang; Yazzie, Kyle; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jiang, Hanqing

    2012-02-01

    The porous plasticity model (usually referred to as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model or modified Gurson model) has been widely used in the study of microvoid-induced ductile fracture. In this paper, we studied the effects of random voids on the porous plasticity model. Finite-element simulations were conducted to study a copper/tin/copper joint bar under uniaxial tension using the commercial finite-element package ABAQUS. A randomly distributed initial void volume fraction with different types of distribution was introduced, and the effects of this randomness on the crack path and macroscopic stress-strain behavior were studied. It was found that consideration of the random voids is able to capture more detailed and localized deformation features, such as different crack paths and different ultimate tensile strengths, and meanwhile does not change the macroscopic stress-strain behavior. It seems that the random voids are able to qualitatively explain the scattered observations in experiments while keeping the macroscopic measurements consistent.

  15. A halo bias function measured deeply into voids without stochasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C; Jeong, Donghui; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between dark-matter haloes and matter in the MIP N-body simulation ensemble, which allows precision measurements of this relationship, even deeply into voids. What enables this is a lack of discreteness, stochasticity, and exclusion, achieved by averaging over hundreds of possible sets of initial small-scale modes, while holding fixed large-scale modes that give the cosmic web. We find (i) that dark-matter-halo formation is greatly suppressed in voids; there is an exponential downturn at low densities in the otherwise power-law matter-to-halo density bias function. Thus, the rarity of haloes in voids is akin to the rarity of the largest clusters, and their abundance is quite sensitive to cosmological parameters. The exponential downturn appears both in an excursion-set model, and in a new model in which fluctuations evolve in voids as in an open universe with an effective Omega_m proportional to a large-scale density. We also find that (ii) haloes typically populate the average halo-...

  16. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces...

  17. Excursion Sets and Non-Gaussian Void Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Noreña, Jorge; Paranjape, Aseem

    2010-01-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity (NG) affects the large scale structure (LSS) of the universe by leaving an imprint on the distribution of matter at late times. Much attention has been focused on using the distribution of collapsed objects (i.e. dark matter halos and the galaxies and galaxy clusters that reside in them) to probe primordial NG. An equally interesting and complementary probe however is the abundance of extended underdense regions or voids in the LSS. The calculation of the abundance of voids using the excursion set formalism in the presence of primordial NG is subject to the same technical issues as the one for halos, which were discussed e.g. in arXiv:1005.1203. However, unlike the excursion set problem for halos which involved random walks in the presence of one barrier $\\delta_c$, the void excursion set problem involves two barriers $\\delta_v$ and $\\delta_c$. This leads to a new complication introduced by what is called the "void-in-cloud" effect discussed in the literature, which is unique to the...

  18. Impact on liquids : void collapse and jet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gekle, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    A spectacular example of free surface flow is the impact of a solid object on a liquid: At impact a “crown” splash is created and a surface cavity (void) emerges which immediately starts to collapse due to the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding liquid. Eventually the cavity closes in a single p

  19. Effect of void structure of photocatalyst paper on VOC decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Shuji; Iguchi, Yumi; Ichiura, Hideaki; Kitaoka, Takuya; Tanaka, Hiroo; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    TiO2 powder-containing paper composites, called TiO2 paper, were prepared by a papermaking technique, and their photocatalytic efficiency was investigated. The TiO2 paper has a porous structure originating from the layered pulp fiber network, with TiO2 powders scattered on the fiber matrix. Under UV irradiation, the TiO2 paper decomposed gaseous acetaldehyde more effectively than powdery TiO2 and a pulp/TiO2 mixture not in paper form. Scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion analysis revealed that the TiO2 paper had characteristic unique voids ca. 10 microm in diameter, which might have contributed to the improved photocatalytic performance. TiO2 paper composites having different void structures were prepared by using beaten pulp fibers with different degrees of freeness and/or ceramic fibers. The photodecomposition efficiency was affected by the void structure of the photocatalyst paper, and the initial degradation rate of acetaldehyde increased with an increase in the total pore volume of TiO2 paper. The paper voids presumably provided suitable conditions for TiO2 catalysis, resulting in higher photocatalytic performance by TiO2 paper than by TiO2 powder and a pulp/TiO2 mixture not in paper form.

  20. The cosmic web in CosmoGrid void regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of the cosmic web, using the high-resolution CosmoGrid ΛCDM simulation. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the large-scale structure around void halo groups, and compare this to observations of the VGS-31 galaxy group, which consists of three interact