WorldWideScience

Sample records for void shape size

  1. Determination of the void nucleation rate from void size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A method of estimating the void nucleation rate from one void size distribution and from observation of the maximum void radius at prior times is proposed. Implicit in the method are the assumptions that both variations in the critical radius with dose and vacancy thermal emission processes during post-nucleation quasi-steady-state growth may be neglected. (Auth.)

  2. Size-Effects in Void Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2005-01-01

    The size-effect on ductile void growth in metals is investigated. The analysis is based on unit cell models both of arrays of cylindrical voids under plane strain deformation, as well as arrays of spherical voids using an axisymmetric model. A recent finite strain generalization of two higher order...... strain gradient plasticity models is implemented in a finite element program, which is used to study void growth numerically. The results based on the two models are compared. It is shown how gradient effects suppress void growth on the micron scale when compared to predictions based on conventional...... models. This increased resistance to void growth, due to gradient hardening, is accompanied by an increase in the overall strength for the material. Furthermore, for increasing initial void volume fraction, it is shown that the effect of gradients becomes more important to the overall response but less...

  3. Void shape effects and voids starting from cracked inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Numerical, axisymmetric cell model analyses are used to study the growth of voids in ductile metals, until the mechanism of coalescence with neighbouring voids sets in. A special feature of the present analyses is that extremely small values of the initial void volume fraction are considered, dow...

  4. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  5. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation......The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation, the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  6. The Effect of Void Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.O. Potyondy

    2006-01-01

    The bonded-particle model for rock (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004) represents rock by a dense packing of non-uniform-sized circular or spherical particles that are bonded together at their contact points and whose mechanical behavior is simulated by the distinct-element method using the two- and three-dimensional programs PFC2D and PFC3D. A bonded-particle model of lithophysal tuff has been used to study the effect of lithophysae (hollow, bubble-like voids) on the mechanical properties (Young's modulus and unconfined compressive strength) of this rock, and to quantify the variability of these properties. The model reproduces the failure mechanisms observed in the laboratory and exhibits a reduction of strength and modulus with increasing lithophysal volume fraction. The effect of void shape on mechanical properties is studied by inserting randomly distributed voids of simple shape (circle, triangle and star) and by inserting voids corresponding with lithophysal cavities identified in panel maps of the walls of a tunnel through this material. These studies address tunnel-stability issues associated with mechanical degradation of planned emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, which is the designated site for the proposed US high-level nuclear waste repository

  7. Effect of initial void shape on ductile failure in a shear field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    For voids in a shear field unit cell model analyses have been used to show that ductile failure is predicted even though the stress triaxiality is low or perhaps negative, so that the void volume fraction does not grow during deformation. Here, the effect of the void shape is studied by analyzing...... with circular cross-section, i.e. the voids in shear flatten out to micro-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighboring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Even though the mechanism of ductile failure is the same, the load carrying capacity predicted, for the same initial void volume fraction...

  8. Nonlocal plasticity effects on interaction of different size voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2004-01-01

    A nonlocal elastic-plastic material model is used to show that the rate of void growth is significantly reduced when the voids are small enough to be comparable with a characteristic material length. For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the competition between...... dimensional array of spherical voids. It is shown that the high growth rate of very small voids predicted by conventional plasticity theory is not realistic when the effect of a characteristic length, dependent on the dislocation structure, is accounted for. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Effect of the critical size of initial voids on stress-induced migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    The stress-induced migration phenomenon is one of the problems related to the reliability of metal interconnections in semiconductor devices. This phenomenon causes voids and fractures in interconnections. The basic feature of this phenomenon is vacancy migration to minute initial voids. Expanding initial voids grow into larger voids and fractures. The purpose of this work is to theoretically clarify the effects of residual thermal stress and void surface stress on the behavior of the initial voids which exist immediately after a passivation process. Using a spherical metal sample with a spherical void under external stress, vacancy absorption or emission was investigated between the void surface and the sample surface. The behavior of vacancies and atoms was also investigated in interconnections under residual thermal stress. We show that the void or sample surface becomes a vacancy sink or source, depending on the mutual relationship between the surface stress due to the surface-free energy and the residual thermal stress. We also reveal that the initial voids, which exist immediately after a passivation process, grow into larger voids and fractures when the size of the initial voids exceeds the critical size. If the size of the initial void can be controlled to below the critical size, voids and fractures do not occur

  10. Constitutive modeling of rate dependence and microinertia effects in porous-plastic materials with multi-sized voids (MSVs)

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-voids of varying sizes exist in most metals and alloys. Both experiments and numerical studies have demonstrated the critical influence of initial void sizes on void growth. The classical Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model summarizes

  11. Size-effects at a crack-tip interacting with a number of voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    A strain gradient plasticity theory is used to analyse the growth of discretely represented voids in front of a blunting crack tip, in order to study the influence of size effects on two competing mechanisms of crack growth. For a very small void volume fraction the crack tip tends to interact...... of the characteristic material length relative to the initial void radius. For a case showing the multiple void mechanism, it is found that the effect of the material length can change the behaviour towards the void by void mechanism. A material model with three characteristic length scales is compared with a one...

  12. On grain size dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Golubov, S.I.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2001-03-01

    The effect of grain size on void swelling has its origin in the intrinsic property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). The phenomenon was investigated already in the 1970s and it was demonstrated that the grain size dependent void swelling measured under irradiation producing only Frenkel pairs could be satisfactorily explained in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) and dislocation bias. Experimental results reported in the 1980s demonstrated, on the other hand, that the effect of grain boundaries on void swelling under cascade damage conditions was radically different and could not be explained in terms of the SRT. In an effort to understand the source of this significant difference, the effect of grain size on void swelling under cascade damage conditions has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons at 623K to a dose level of ∼0.3 dpa (displacement per atom). The post-irradiation defect microstructure including voids was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The evolution of void swelling was calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM) and the SRT. The grain size dependent void swelling measured experimentally is in good accord with the theoretical results obtained using PMB. Implications of these results on modeling of void swelling under cascade damage conditions are discussed. (au)

  13. On grain-size-dependent void swelling in pure copper irradiated with fission neutrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Zinkle, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of grain size on void swelling has its origin in the intrinsic property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms. The phenomenon had already been investigated in the 1970s and it was demonstrated that the grain......-size-dependent void swelling measured under irradiation producing only Frenkel pairs could be satisfactorily explained in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) and dislocation bias. Experimental results reported in the 1980s demonstrated, on the other hand, that the effect of grain boundaries on void swelling under...

  14. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  15. A variational constitutive model for the distribution and interactions of multi-sized voids

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2013-07-29

    The evolution of defects or voids, generally recognized as the basic failure mechanism in most metals and alloys, has been intensively studied. Most investigations have been limited to spatially periodic cases with non-random distributions of the radii of the voids. In this study, we use a new form of the incompressibility of the matrix to propose the formula for the volumetric plastic energy of a void inside a porous medium. As a consequence, we are able to account for the weakening effect of the surrounding voids and to propose a general model for the distribution and interactions of multi-sized voids. We found that the single parameter in classical Gurson-type models, namely void volume fraction is not sufficient for the model. The relative growth rates of voids of different sizes, which can in principle be obtained through physical or numerical experiments, are required. To demonstrate the feasibility of the model, we analyze two cases. The first case represents exactly the same assumption hidden in the classical Gurson\\'s model, while the second embodies the competitive mechanism due to void size differences despite in a much simpler manner than the general case. Coalescence is implemented by allowing an accelerated void growth after an empirical critical porosity in a way that is the same as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model. The constitutive model presented here is validated through good agreements with experimental data. Its capacity for reproducing realistic failure patterns is shown by simulating a tensile test on a notched round bar. © 2013 The Author(s).

  16. Microstructural characterization of XLPE electrical insulation in power cables: determination of void size distributions using TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markey, L; Stevens, G C

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to progress in our understanding of the ageing mechanisms of high voltage cables submitted to electrical and thermal stresses, we present a quantitative study of voids, the defects which are considered to be partly responsible for cable failure. We propose a method based on large data sets of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of replicated samples allowing for the determination of void concentration distribution as a function of void size in the mesoscopic to microscopic range at any point in the cable insulation. A theory is also developed to calculate the effect of etching on the apparent size of the voids observed. We present the first results of this sort ever obtained on two industrial cables, one of which was aged in an AC field. Results clearly indicate that a much larger concentration of voids occur near the inner semiconductor compared to the bulk of the insulation, independently of ageing. An effect of ageing can also be seen near the inner semiconductor, resulting in an increase in the total void internal surface area and a slight shift of the concentration curve towards larger voids, with the peak moving from about 40 nm to about 50 nm

  17. Constitutive modeling of rate dependence and microinertia effects in porous-plastic materials with multi-sized voids (MSVs)

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2012-11-27

    Micro-voids of varying sizes exist in most metals and alloys. Both experiments and numerical studies have demonstrated the critical influence of initial void sizes on void growth. The classical Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model summarizes the influence of voids with a single parameter, namely the void-volume fraction, excluding any possible effects of the void-size distribution. We extend our newly proposed model including the multi-sized void (MSV) effect and the void-interaction effect for the capability of working for both moderate and high loading rate cases, where either rate dependence or microinertia becomes considerable or even dominant. Parametric studies show that the MSV-related competitive mechanism among void growth leads to the dependence of the void growth rate on void size, which directly influences the void\\'s contribution to the total energy composition. We finally show that the stress-strain constitutive behavior is also affected by this MSV-related competitive mechanism. The stabilizing effect due to rate sensitivity and microinertia is emphasized. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Void formation in NiTi shape memory alloys by medium-voltage electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossmacher, P.; Stober, T.

    1995-01-01

    In-situ electron irradiation experiments of NiTi shape memory alloys, using high-voltage transmission electron microscopes, result in amorphization of the intermetallic compound. In all of these experiments high-voltages more than 1.0 MeV had to be applied in order to induce the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation. To their knowledge no irradiation effects of medium-voltage electrons of e.g. 0.5 MeV have been reported in the literature. In this contribution, the authors describe void formation in two different NiTi shape memory alloys, resulting from in-situ electron irradiation, using a 300 kV electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. First evidence is presented that void formation is correlated with the total oxygen content of the alloys

  19. A 3D Printed Implantable Device for Voiding the Bladder Using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Faezeh Arab; Peh, Wendy Yen Xian; Gammad, Gil Gerald Lasam; Mogan, Roshini Priya; Ng, Tze Kiat; Kuo, Tricia Li Chuen; Ng, Lay Guat; Luu, Percy; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Chengkuo

    2017-11-01

    Underactive bladder or detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a reduction of contraction strength or duration of the bladder wall. Despite the serious healthcare implications of DU, there are limited solutions for affected individuals. A flexible 3D printed implantable device driven by shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators is presented here for the first time to physically contract the bladder to restore voluntary control of the bladder for individuals suffering from DU. This approach is used initially in benchtop experiments with a rubber balloon acting as a model for the rat bladder to verify its potential for voiding, and that the operating temperatures are safe for the eventual implantation of the device in a rat. The device is then implanted and tested on an anesthetized rat, and a voiding volume of more than 8% is successfully achieved for the SMA-based device without any surgical intervention or drug injection to relax the external sphincter.

  20. Study on identically voided pervious concrete made with different sized aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastro Kiran, V.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Pervious concrete (PC) is also known as no fines concrete and has been found to be a reliable stormwater management tool. As a substitution for conventional impervious pavement, PC usage has been increasing during recent years. PC made with different sized aggregate shows different void ratios and changed properties. As void ratio plays a notable role on strength and permeability of PC, this study aims to focus on properties of PC at identical void ratio of 20%, made using aggregates of three size ranges, viz., 4.75-6mm, 10-12.5mm, and 10-20mm. Appropriate alternatives were used to maintain the identical void ratio. As the permeation capacity of PC gets reduced due to the clogging tendency, the life of PC will also get reduced. Hence, to make the PC to sustain for a long time it is necessary to study the clogging behavior. This study investigates the tendency of PC for clogging and the potential for regaining the permeability through de-clogging methods. Clogging tendency of PC is studied by using two sizes (coarse and fine) of clog particles and the changes in permeability are observed. Efficiency of declogging methods like pressure washing and vacuum suction on PC with different sized aggregates are also evaluated.

  1. Why a steady state void size distribution in irradiated UO{sub 2}? A modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, S., E-mail: serge.maillard@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SESC, LLCC, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Martin, G. [CEA, DEN, SESC, LLCC, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); CEA, DEN, SPRC, LECy, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Sabathier, C. [CEA, DEN, SESC, LLCC, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-05-01

    In UO{sub 2} pellets irradiated in standard water reactor, Xe nano-bubbles nucleate, grow, coarsen and finally reach a quasi steady state size distribution: transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations typically report a concentration around 10{sup −4} nm{sup −3} and a radius around 0.5 nm. This phenomenon is often considered as a consequence of radiation enhanced diffusion, precipitation of gas atoms and ballistic mixing. However, in UO{sub 2} thin foils irradiated with energetic ions at room temperature, a nano-void population whose size distribution reaches a similar steady state can be observed, although quasi no foreign atoms are implanted nor significant cation vacancy diffusion expected in conditions. Atomistic simulations performed at low temperature only address the first stage of the process, supporting the assumption of void heterogeneous nucleation: 25 keV sub-cascades directly produce defect aggregates (loops and voids) even in the absence of gas atoms and thermal diffusion. In this work a semi-empirical stochastic model is proposed to enlarge the time scale covered by simulation up to damage levels where every point in the material undergoes the superposition of a large number of sub-cascade impacts. To account for the accumulation of these impacts, simple rules inferred from the atomistic simulation results are used. The model satisfactorily reproduces the TEM observations of nano-voids size and concentration, which paves the way for the introduction of a more realistic damage term in rate theory models.

  2. Measurement of void fraction and bubble size distribution in two-phase flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huahun, G.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of study two phase flow parameter and microstructure has appeared increasingly, with the development of two-phase flow discipline. In the paper, the measurement methods of several important microstructure parameter in a two phase flow vertical channel have been studied. Using conductance probe the two phase flow pattern and the average void fraction have been measured previously by the authors. This paper concerns microstructure of the bubble size distribution and local void fraction. The authors studied the methods of measuring bubble velocity, size distribution and local void fraction using double conductance probes and a set of apparatus. Based on our experiments and Yoshihiro work, a formula of calculated local void fraction has been deduced by using the statistical characteristics of bubbles in two phase flow and the relation between calculated bubble size and voltage has been determined. Finally the authors checked by using photograph and fast valve, which is classical but reliable. The results are the same with what has been studied before

  3. Detecting size and shape of bodies capacitatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1980-01-01

    The size and shape of a body is determined by rolling it between the plates of capacitors and measuring the capacitance changes. A capacitor comprising two parallel, spaced wires inclined to the rolling direction and above and below the rolling body scans sections of the body along its longitudinal axis, another determines the body's lengths and a third comprising two non-parallel wires determines the position of the body. The capacitance changes are compared with those produced by a body of known size and shape so that the size and shape of the body can be determined. (author)

  4. Percolation through voids around overlapping spheres: A dynamically based finite-size scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priour, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The percolation threshold for flow or conduction through voids surrounding randomly placed spheres is calculated. With large-scale Monte Carlo simulations, we give a rigorous continuum treatment to the geometry of the impenetrable spheres and the spaces between them. To properly exploit finite-size scaling, we examine multiple systems of differing sizes, with suitable averaging over disorder, and extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit. An order parameter based on the statistical sampling of stochastically driven dynamical excursions and amenable to finite-size scaling analysis is defined, calculated for various system sizes, and used to determine the critical volume fraction ϕc=0.0317±0.0004 and the correlation length exponent ν =0.92±0.05.

  5. Effect of scale size, orientation type and dispensing method on void ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AIZAT ABAS

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... reduce the formation of void during encapsulation process. Keywords. Ball grid ... Additionally, the usage of LBM to study of void in CUF was again conducted by ... models are fabricated using clear Perspex and plastics beads.

  6. A variational constitutive model for the distribution and interactions of multi-sized voids

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    of the radii of the voids. In this study, we use a new form of the incompressibility of the matrix to propose the formula for the volumetric plastic energy of a void inside a porous medium. As a consequence, we are able to account for the weakening effect

  7. Effect of grain size on void swelling in irradiated materials: A phase-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kunok; Lee, Gyeonggeun; Kwon, Junhyun

    2014-01-01

    The progress of swelling is retarded as the average grain diameter increases in a pure copper case. Within the framework of the production bias model (PBM), their experimental results were quantitatively explained. The phase-field method has already been used to investigate the void/bubble behavior in the irradiated materials. In particular, Millett et al. already incorporated the interaction between the point defect and the grain boundary in their study. Therefore, they described the void denuded zones and void peaked zones adjacent to the grain boundaries, which are already observed in the experimental investigations. We performed the phase-field simulation in order to verify the role of the grain diameter on the void swelling in the cascade damage condition. In addition, our results will be compared with the experimental observations or the theoretical works, such as PBM. Two-dimensional phase-field simulations were performed to investigate the void swelling process in the irradiated materials. We clearly observed the void denuded and void peaked zones, which were already observed in formal experimental and computational approaches. We also found that the progress of swelling was retarded as the average grain diameter increased. The triple junctions, which are believed to be a critical factor t affecting the fracture, are the main cites for the void nucleation and growth in our simulations

  8. Games in new institutional voids: governance interactions that shape the transfer of norms across scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.

    2016-01-01

    Globalization processes have led to the loss of convergence and territorial synchrony of politics, economics and culture at the level of the nation-state. Hajer (2003) argued that this loss of convergence and synchrony created institutional voids: “the lack of clear rules and norms according to

  9. Cosmic void clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Ruiz, A. N.; Ceccarelli, L.; Paz, D.

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are of great interest given their relation to the large scale distribution of mass and the way they trace cosmic flows shaping the cosmic web. Here we show that the distribution of voids has, in consonance with the distribution of mass, a characteristic scale at which void pairs are preferentially located. We identify clumps of voids with similar environments and use them to define second order underdensities. Also, we characterize its properties and analyze its impact on the cosmic microwave background.

  10. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Ravi Sheth

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution

  11. Study of Bubble Size, Void Fraction, and Mass Transport in a Bubble Column under High Amplitude Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical vibration is known to cause bubble breakup, clustering and retardation in gas-liquid systems. In a bubble column, vibration increases the mass transfer ratio by increasing the residence time and phase interfacial area through introducing kinetic buoyancy force (Bjerknes effect and bubble breakup. Previous studies have explored the effect of vibration frequency (f, but minimal effort has focused on the effect of amplitude (A on mass transfer intensification. Thus, the current work experimentally examines bubble size, void fraction, and mass transfer in a bubble column under relatively high amplitude vibration (1.5 mm < A <9.5 mm over a frequency range of 7.5–22.5 Hz. Results of the present work were compared with past studies. The maximum stable bubble size under vibration was scaled using Hinze theory for breakage. Results of this work indicate that vibration frequency exhibits local maxima in both mass transfer and void fraction. Moreover, an optimum amplitude that is independent of vibration frequency was found for mass transfer enhancements. Finally, this work suggests physics-based models to predict void fraction and mass transfer in a vibrating bubble column.

  12. Set Size, Individuation, and Attention to Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Lisa; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated a shape bias in categorizing and naming solid objects. This research has shown that when an entity is conceptualized as an individual object, adults and children attend to the object's shape. Separate research in the domain of numerical cognition suggest that there are distinct processes for quantifying small and…

  13. Hyperuniformity, quasi-long-range correlations, and void-space constraints in maximally random jammed particle packings. II. Anisotropy in particle shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Chase E; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-05-01

    We extend the results from the first part of this series of two papers by examining hyperuniformity in heterogeneous media composed of impenetrable anisotropic inclusions. Specifically, we consider maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of hard ellipses and superdisks and show that these systems both possess vanishing infinite-wavelength local-volume-fraction fluctuations and quasi-long-range pair correlations scaling as r(-(d+1)) in d Euclidean dimensions. Our results suggest a strong generalization of a conjecture by Torquato and Stillinger [Phys. Rev. E 68, 041113 (2003)], namely, that all strictly jammed saturated packings of hard particles, including those with size and shape distributions, are hyperuniform with signature quasi-long-range correlations. We show that our arguments concerning the constrained distribution of the void space in MRJ packings directly extend to hard-ellipse and superdisk packings, thereby providing a direct structural explanation for the appearance of hyperuniformity and quasi-long-range correlations in these systems. Additionally, we examine general heterogeneous media with anisotropic inclusions and show unexpectedly that one can decorate a periodic point pattern to obtain a hard-particle system that is not hyperuniform with respect to local-volume-fraction fluctuations. This apparent discrepancy can also be rationalized by appealing to the irregular distribution of the void space arising from the anisotropic shapes of the particles. Our work suggests the intriguing possibility that the MRJ states of hard particles share certain universal features independent of the local properties of the packings, including the packing fraction and average contact number per particle.

  14. A theoretical derivation of the transients related to partial discharges in ellipsoidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, A.; Pedersen, Aage

    1988-01-01

    be drawn about the effects of the gas within the void as well as the size, shape, and location of voids. The method is illustrated by applying it to a spheroidal void in a simple disk-type gas-insulated-substation (GIS) spacer. It is found that the nonattaching gas generates an induced charge...

  15. A NEW STATISTICAL PERSPECTIVE TO THE COSMIC VOID DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pycke, J-R; Russell, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we obtain the size distribution of voids as a three-parameter redshift-independent log-normal void probability function (VPF) directly from the Cosmic Void Catalog (CVC). Although many statistical models of void distributions are based on the counts in randomly placed cells, the log-normal VPF that we obtain here is independent of the shape of the voids due to the parameter-free void finder of the CVC. We use three void populations drawn from the CVC generated by the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) Mocks, which are tuned to three mock SDSS samples to investigate the void distribution statistically and to investigate the effects of the environments on the size distribution. As a result, it is shown that void size distributions obtained from the HOD Mock samples are satisfied by the three-parameter log-normal distribution. In addition, we find that there may be a relation between the hierarchical formation, skewness, and kurtosis of the log-normal distribution for each catalog. We also show that the shape of the three-parameter distribution from the samples is strikingly similar to the galaxy log-normal mass distribution obtained from numerical studies. This similarity between void size and galaxy mass distributions may possibly indicate evidence of nonlinear mechanisms affecting both voids and galaxies, such as large-scale accretion and tidal effects. Considering the fact that in this study, all voids are generated by galaxy mocks and show hierarchical structures in different levels, it may be possible that the same nonlinear mechanisms of mass distribution affect the void size distribution.

  16. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of three-dimensional shape evolution with void formation using Solid-by-Solid model: Application to via and trench filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yutaka; Hiwatari, Yasuaki; Ohara, Katsuhiko; Asa, Fujio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation system for the simulation of three-dimensional shape evolution with void formation as a model for electrodeposition. The basic system is the Solid-by-Solid model which is an extension of the conventional Solid-on-Solid model for crystal growth to include void formation. The advantage of the Solid-by-Solid model is that complex three-dimensional shape evolution accompanying void formation (from point defects to macro voids) can be simulated without the difficulty of treating moving boundaries. This model has been extended to include the solution part in which the migration of ions is simulated by the coarse-grained random walk. A multi-scale method is employed to generate the concentration gradient in the diffusion layer. The extended model is applied to the simulation of via and trench fillings by copper electrodeposition. Three kinds of additives are included: suppressors, accelerators and chloride ions. The mechanism of void formation, effects of additives and their influence on the bottom-up filling are discussed within the framework of this model

  17. Detection of atomic scale changes in the free volume void size of three-dimensional colorectal cancer cell culture using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Lopez-Euba, Tamara; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Plazaola, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides a direct measurement of the free volume void sizes in polymers and biological systems. This free volume is critical in explaining and understanding physical and mechanical properties of polymers. Moreover, PALS has been recently proposed as a potential tool in detecting cancer at early stages, probing the differences in the subnanometer scale free volume voids between cancerous/healthy skin samples of the same patient. Despite several investigations on free volume in complex cancerous tissues, no positron annihilation studies of living cancer cell cultures have been reported. We demonstrate that PALS can be applied to the study in human living 3D cell cultures. The technique is also capable to detect atomic scale changes in the size of the free volume voids due to the biological responses to TGF-β. PALS may be developed to characterize the effect of different culture conditions in the free volume voids of cells grown in vitro.

  18. CLUSTER DYNAMICS LARGELY SHAPES PROTOPLANETARY DISK SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: kvincke@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  19. Body size and allometric variation in facial shape in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jacinda R; Manyama, Mange F; Cole, Joanne B; Gonzalez, Paula N; Percival, Christopher J; Liberton, Denise K; Ferrara, Tracey M; Riccardi, Sheri L; Kimwaga, Emmanuel A; Mathayo, Joshua; Spitzmacher, Jared A; Rolian, Campbell; Jamniczky, Heather A; Weinberg, Seth M; Roseman, Charles C; Klein, Ophir; Lukowiak, Ken; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt

    2018-02-01

    Morphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape. Our study is based on two large cross-sectional cohorts of children, one from Tanzania and the other from the United States (N = 7,173). We employ 3D facial imaging and geometric morphometrics to relate facial shape to age and anthropometric measures. The two populations differ significantly in facial shape, but the magnitude of this difference is small relative to the variation within each group. Allometric variation for facial shape is similar in both populations, representing a small but significant proportion of total variation in facial shape. Different measures of size are associated with overlapping but statistically distinct aspects of shape variation. Only half of the size-related variation in facial shape can be explained by the first principal component of four size measures and age while the remainder associates distinctly with individual measures. Allometric variation in the human face is complex and should not be regarded as a singular effect. This finding has important implications for how size is treated in studies of human facial shape and for the developmental basis for allometric variation more generally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How river rocks round: resolving the shape-size paradox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Domokos

    Full Text Available River-bed sediments display two universal downstream trends: fining, in which particle size decreases; and rounding, where pebble shapes evolve toward ellipsoids. Rounding is known to result from transport-induced abrasion; however many researchers argue that the contribution of abrasion to downstream fining is negligible. This presents a paradox: downstream shape change indicates substantial abrasion, while size change apparently rules it out. Here we use laboratory experiments and numerical modeling to show quantitatively that pebble abrasion is a curvature-driven flow problem. As a consequence, abrasion occurs in two well-separated phases: first, pebble edges rapidly round without any change in axis dimensions until the shape becomes entirely convex; and second, axis dimensions are then slowly reduced while the particle remains convex. Explicit study of pebble shape evolution helps resolve the shape-size paradox by reconciling discrepancies between laboratory and field studies, and enhances our ability to decipher the transport history of a river rock.

  1. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite...... and (iii) strain localization. The critical strain for void formation depends on hardness of the martensite, but is independent of the volume fraction, shape, size and distribution of the martensite. The strain partitioning between the martensite and ferrite depends on the volume fraction and hardness...... of the martensite accelerates the void formation in the martensite by enlarging the size of voids both in the martensite and ferrite. It is suggested that controlling the hardness and structural parameters associated with the martensite particles such as morphology, size and volume fraction are the essential...

  2. The size and shape of the foramen magnum in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Zdilla

    2017-01-01

    Results and Conclusions: The study demonstrates that, within each distinct population, the size of the FM is significantly larger in males than in females; however, there are no significant differences in the shapes of the foramina between sexes. However, when comparing different populations to one another, there are significant differences with regard to both the size and shape of the FM. This study also presents a new model of FM ontogeny. Specifically, the growth occurring between the anterior and posterior foraminal boundaries before 5 years of age predicts the ultimate shape of the adult FM.

  3. Size and shape dependent lattice parameters of metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, W. H.; Wang, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the size and shape dependent lattice parameters of metallic nanoparticles, where the particle shape difference is considered by introducing a shape factor. It is predicted that the lattice parameters of nanoparticles in several nanometers decrease with decreasing of the particle size, which is consistent with the corresponding experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that the particle shape can lead to 10% of the total lattice variation. The model is a continuous media model and can deal with the nanoparticles larger than 1 nm. Since the shape factor approaches to infinity for nanowires and nanofilms, therefore, the model cannot be generalized to the systems of nanowires and nanofilms. For the input parameters are physical constants of bulk materials, therefore, the present model may be used to predict the lattice variation of different metallic nanoparticles with different lattice structures

  4. Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Doshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the importance of target geometry in recognition was investigated. The studies reported here reveal that attachment of particles of different geometries to macrophages exhibits a strong dependence on size and shape. For all sizes and shapes studied, particles possessing the longest dimension in the range of 2-3 microm exhibited highest attachment. This also happens to be the size range of most commonly found bacteria in nature. The surface features of macrophages, in particular the membrane ruffles, might play an important role in this geometry-based target recognition by macrophages. These findings have significant implications in understanding the pathogenicity of bacteria and in designing drug delivery carriers.

  5. Void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.; Wohlenberg, T.

    1976-01-01

    Void lattices in metals apparently owe their stability to elastically anisotropic interactions. An ordered array of voids on the anion sublattice in fluorite does not fit so neatly into this scheme of things. Crowdions may play a part in the formation of the void lattice, and stability may derive from other sources. (Auth.)

  6. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Shape, size and temperature dependency of thermal expansion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M GOYAL

    2018-05-19

    May 19, 2018 ... Oriental J. Chem.32(4), 2193 (2016), is extended in the present study using Qi and Wang model [Mater. Chem. Phys. ... Nanomaterials; shape factor; size effect; thermal expansion; equation of state. ... als are different from that of their bulk material. ..... and 1c along with the present calculated results. It is.

  8. Application of a model of plastic porous materials including void shape effects to the prediction of ductile failure under shear-dominated loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean Baptiste; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    , a numerical implementation of the model is proposed and incorporated into the SYSTUS® and ABAQUS® finite element programmes (through some freely available UMAT (Leblond, 2015) in the second case). Second, the implementation in SYSTUS® is used to simulate previous "numerical experiments" of Tvergaard...... and coworkers (Tvergaard, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2015a; Dahl et al., 2012; Nielsen et al., 2012) involving the shear loading of elementary porous cells, where softening due to changes of the void shape and orientation was very apparent. It is found that with a simple, heuristic modelling of the phenomenon...

  9. Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly

  10. Size, Shape, and Sequence-Dependent Immunogenicity of RNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijin; Li, Hui; Ma, Mengshi; Fu, Jian; Dong, Yizhou; Guo, Peixuan

    2017-12-15

    RNA molecules have emerged as promising therapeutics. Like all other drugs, the safety profile and immune response are important criteria for drug evaluation. However, the literature on RNA immunogenicity has been controversial. Here, we used the approach of RNA nanotechnology to demonstrate that the immune response of RNA nanoparticles is size, shape, and sequence dependent. RNA triangle, square, pentagon, and tetrahedron with same shape but different sizes, or same size but different shapes were used as models to investigate the immune response. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by these RNA nanoarchitectures were assessed in macrophage-like cells and animals. It was found that RNA polygons without extension at the vertexes were immune inert. However, when single-stranded RNA with a specific sequence was extended from the vertexes of RNA polygons, strong immune responses were detected. These immunostimulations are sequence specific, because some other extended sequences induced little or no immune response. Additionally, larger-size RNA square induced stronger cytokine secretion. 3D RNA tetrahedron showed stronger immunostimulation than planar RNA triangle. These results suggest that the immunogenicity of RNA nanoparticles is tunable to produce either a minimal immune response that can serve as safe therapeutic vectors, or a strong immune response for cancer immunotherapy or vaccine adjuvants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Size, Shape, and Sequence-Dependent Immunogenicity of RNA Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA molecules have emerged as promising therapeutics. Like all other drugs, the safety profile and immune response are important criteria for drug evaluation. However, the literature on RNA immunogenicity has been controversial. Here, we used the approach of RNA nanotechnology to demonstrate that the immune response of RNA nanoparticles is size, shape, and sequence dependent. RNA triangle, square, pentagon, and tetrahedron with same shape but different sizes, or same size but different shapes were used as models to investigate the immune response. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by these RNA nanoarchitectures were assessed in macrophage-like cells and animals. It was found that RNA polygons without extension at the vertexes were immune inert. However, when single-stranded RNA with a specific sequence was extended from the vertexes of RNA polygons, strong immune responses were detected. These immunostimulations are sequence specific, because some other extended sequences induced little or no immune response. Additionally, larger-size RNA square induced stronger cytokine secretion. 3D RNA tetrahedron showed stronger immunostimulation than planar RNA triangle. These results suggest that the immunogenicity of RNA nanoparticles is tunable to produce either a minimal immune response that can serve as safe therapeutic vectors, or a strong immune response for cancer immunotherapy or vaccine adjuvants.

  12. Size- and shape-dependent surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2018-05-01

    As the fundamental properties, the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals play a key role in the physical and chemical changes. However, it remains ambiguous about the quantitative influence regularities of size and shape on the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals. Thus by introducing interface variables into the Gibbs energy and combining Young-Laplace equation, relations between the surface thermodynamic properties (surface Gibbs energy, surface enthalpy, surface entropy, surface energy and surface heat capacity), respectively, and size of nanocrystals with different shapes were derived. Theoretical estimations of the orders of the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals agree with available experimental values. Calculated results of the surface thermodynamic properties of Au, Bi and Al nanocrystals suggest that when r > 10 nm, the surface thermodynamic properties linearly vary with the reciprocal of particle size, and when r < 10 nm, the effect of particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties becomes greater and deviates from linear variation. For nanocrystals with identical equivalent diameter, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the larger the surface thermodynamic properties (absolute value) are.

  13. Size, Shape and Impurity Effects on Superconducting critical temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masaki; Kato, Masaru; Sato, Osamu

    Bulk superconductors have their own critical temperatures Tc. However, for a nano-structured superconductor, Tc depends on size and shape of the superconductor. Nishizaki showed that the high pressure torsion on bulks of Nb makes Tc higher, because the torsion makes many nano-sized fine grains in the bulks. However the high pressure torsion on bulks of V makes Tc lower, and Nishizaki discussed that the decrease of Tc is caused by impurities in the bulks of V. We studied size, shape, and impurity effects on Tc, by solving the Gor'kov equations, using the finite element method. We found that smaller and narrower superconductors show higher Tc. We found how size and shape affects Tc by studying spacial order parameter distributions and quasi-particle eigen-energies. Also we studied the impurity effects on Tc, and found that Tc decreases with increase of scattering rate by impurities. This work was supported in part of KAKENHI Grant Number JP26400367 and JP16K05460, and program for leading graduate schools of ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology-Japan.

  14. XRD characterisation of nanoparticle size and shape distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, N.; Kalceff, W.; Cline, J.P.; Bonevich, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The form of XRD lines and the extent of their broadening provide useful structural information about the shape, size distribution, and modal characteristics of the nanoparticles comprising the specimen. Also, the defect content of the nanoparticles can be determined, including the type, dislocation density, and stacking faults/twinning. This information is convoluted together and can be grouped into 'size' and 'defect' broadening contributions. Modern X-ray diffraction analysis techniques have concentrated on quantifying the broadening arising from the size and defect contributions, while accounting for overlapping of profiles, instrumental broadening, background scattering and noise components. We report on a combined Bayesian/Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) technique developed for use in the certification of a NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) for size-broadened line profiles. The approach used was chosen because of its generality in removing instrumental broadening from the observed line profiles, and its ability to determine not only the average crystallite size, but also the distribution of sizes and the average shape of crystallites. Moverover, this Bayesian/MaxEnt technique is fully quantitative, in that it also determines uncertainties in the crystallite-size distribution and other parameters. Both experimental and numerical simulations of size broadened line-profiles modelled on a range of specimens with spherical and non-spherical morphologies are presented to demonstrate how this information can be retrieved from the line profile data. The sensitivity of the Bayesian/MaxEnt method to determining the size distribution using varying a priori information are emphasised and discussed

  15. Splenic Anomalies of Shape, Size, and Location: Pictorial Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet Elcin Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spleen can have a wide range of anomalies including its shape, location, number, and size. Although most of these anomalies are congenital, there are also acquired types. Congenital anomalies affecting the shape of spleen are lobulations, notches, and clefts; the fusion and location anomalies of spleen are accessory spleen, splenopancreatic fusion, and wandering spleen; polysplenia can be associated with a syndrome. Splenosis and small spleen are acquired anomalies which are caused by trauma and sickle cell disease, respectively. These anomalies can be detected easily by using different imaging modalities including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and also Tc-99m scintigraphy. In this pictorial essay, we review the imaging findings of these anomalies which can cause diagnostic pitfalls and be interpreted as pathologic processes.

  16. Cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramic particles of different sizes and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Honma, Rieko; Sumita, Masae; Hanawa, Takao

    2004-02-01

    When artificial hip or knee joints are implanted in the human body, they release metallic, ceramic, and polymeric debris into the surrounding tissues. The toxicity of the released particles is of two types: chemical, caused by the released soluble ions and monomers, and mechanical, a result of mechanical stimulation produced by the insoluble particles. In this study, the cytotoxicity of particles of TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, and SiC for murine fibroblasts and macrophages were examined to evaluate just their mechanical toxicity because these particles are not expected to release soluble metal ions. Different sizes and shapes of TiO2 particles were used to evaluate the effect of size and shape on particle cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the cytotoxicity of ceramic particles does not depend on their chemical species. Cytotoxicity levels were lower than those of corresponding metal ions, indicating that the mechanical toxicity of particles is lower than the chemical toxicity of released soluble ions and monomers. The differences in size did not affect the mechanical toxicity of these particles. The dendritic particles had a higher cytotoxicity level for macrophages than did spindle and spheric particles. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 244-256, 2004

  17. Shape, size, and distribution of magnetic particles in Bjurbole chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules from the Bjurbole chondritic meteorite (L4) exhibit saturation remanence magnetization (SIRM) values which vary over three orders of magnitude. REM values (Natural Remanence Magnetization/SIRM) for Allende (C3V) and Chainpur (LL3) are less than 0.01 but in Bjurbole some chondrules were found to have REM values greater than 0.1 with several greater than 0.2. REM values greater than 0.1 are abnormal and cannot be acquired during weak field cooling. If exposure to a strong field (whatever the source) during the chondrules' history is responsible for the high REM values, was such history associated with a different processing which might have resulted in different shape, size, and distribution of metal particles compared to chondrules having REM values of less than 0.01? Furthermore, magnetic hysteresis results show a broad range of magnetic hardness and other intrinsic magnetic properties. These features must be related to (1) size and amount of metal; and (2) properties of, and amount of, tetrataenite in the chondrules (all chondrules thus far subjected to thermomagnetic analysis show the presence of tetrataenite). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study is underway to determine the relationship between the shape, size, and distribution of metal particles within individual chondrules and the magnetic properties of these chondrules. Results from the SEM study in conjunction with magnetic property data may also help to discern effects from possible lightning strikes in the nebula prior to incorporation of the chondrules into the parent body.

  18. Nuclear export of RNA: Different sizes, shapes and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tobias; Ngo, Linh H; Wickramasinghe, Vihandha O

    2018-03-01

    Export of protein-coding and non-coding RNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is critical for gene expression. This necessitates the continuous transport of RNA species of different size, shape and function through nuclear pore complexes via export receptors and adaptor proteins. Here, we provide an overview of the major RNA export pathways in humans, highlighting the similarities and differences between each. Its importance is underscored by the growing appreciation that deregulation of RNA export pathways is associated with human diseases like cancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC VOIDS IN SIMULATIONS AND MOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.; Pycke, J.-R., E-mail: er111@nyu.edu, E-mail: jrp15@nyu.edu [Division of Science and Mathematics, New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-01-20

    Following up on previous studies, we complete here a full analysis of the void size distributions of the Cosmic Void Catalog based on three different simulation and mock catalogs: dark matter (DM), haloes, and galaxies. Based on this analysis, we attempt to answer two questions: Is a three-parameter log-normal distribution a good candidate to satisfy the void size distributions obtained from different types of environments? Is there a direct relation between the shape parameters of the void size distribution and the environmental effects? In an attempt to answer these questions, we find here that all void size distributions of these data samples satisfy the three-parameter log-normal distribution whether the environment is dominated by DM, haloes, or galaxies. In addition, the shape parameters of the three-parameter log-normal void size distribution seem highly affected by environment, particularly existing substructures. Therefore, we show two quantitative relations given by linear equations between the skewness and the maximum tree depth, and between the variance of the void size distribution and the maximum tree depth, directly from the simulated data. In addition to this, we find that the percentage of voids with nonzero central density in the data sets has a critical importance. If the number of voids with nonzero central density reaches ≥3.84% in a simulation/mock sample, then a second population is observed in the void size distributions. This second population emerges as a second peak in the log-normal void size distribution at larger radius.

  20. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  1. Automatic focusing of attention on object size and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Galera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we investigated the automatic adjusting of the attentional focus to simple geometric shapes. The participants performed a visual search task with four stimuli (the target and three distractors presented always around the fixation point, inside an outlined frame not related to the search task. A cue informed the subject only about the possible size and shape of the frame, not about the target. The results of the first experiment showed faster target detection in the valid cue trials, suggesting that attention was captured automatically by the cue shape. In the second experiment, we introduced a flanker stimulus (compatible or incompatible with the target in order to determine if attentional resources spread homogenously inside and outside the frame. The results showed that performance depended both on cue validity and frame orientation. The flanker effect was dependent on compatibility and flanker position (vertical or horizontal meridian. The results of both experiments suggest that the form of an irrelevant object can capture attention despite participants’ intention and the results of the second experiment suggest that the attentional resources are more concentrated along the horizontal meridian.

  2. Magnetic properties of crystalline nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ana T.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Campus de Caraubas, RN 333, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Dantas, Ana L.; Almeida, N.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210 Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    The effects of shape and finite size on the physical behavior of nanostructured antiferromagnetic particles are investigated. They were modeled as ellipsoidal systems which preserve the crystalline structure of the correspondent bulk material. In our analysis we consider nanoparticles composed by magnetic ions which are themselves insensitive to the presence of surfaces and/or interfaces. Results are shown for structures similar to MnF{sub 2} and NiO crystals. Special attention is given to these last once their singular magnetic arrangement, as well as, their use at different technological and/or biomedical applications, has motivated intense experimental studies at different laboratories. We use the parameters that describe the correspondent bulk material to discuss the magnetic behavior of these particles for different volumes and shapes. - Highlights: • The number of magnetic phases of tetragonal AFM nanoparticles depends on their shape. • Hysteresis loops of NiO particles depends on the direction of the dc magnetic field. • The high frequencies normal modes of NiO particles are insensitive to their geometry.

  3. Hydrologic Controls on Shallow Landslide Location, Size, and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellugi, D.; Milledge, D.; Perron, T.; McKean, J. A.; Dietrich, W.; Rulli, M.

    2012-12-01

    Shallow landslides, typically involving just the soil mantle, are principally controlled by topography, soil and root strengths, and soil thickness, and are typically triggered by storm-induced increases in pore water pressure. The response of a landscape to landslide-triggering storms will thus depend on factors such as rainfall totals, storm intensity and duration, and antecedent moisture conditions. The two dominant mechanisms that generate high pore water pressures at a point are topographically-steered lateral subsurface flow (over timescales of days to weeks), and rapid vertical infiltration (over timescales of minutes to hours). We aim to understand the impact of different storm characteristics and hydrologic regimes on shallow landslide location, size, and shape. We have developed a regional-scale model, which applies a low-parameter grid-based multi-dimensional slope stability model within a novel search algorithm, to generate discrete landslide predictions. This model shows that the spatial organization of parameters such as root strength and pore water pressure has a strong control on shallow landslide location, size, and shape. We apply this model to a field site near Coos Bay, OR, where a ten-year landslide inventory has been mapped onto high-resolution topographic data. Our model predicts landslide size generally increases with increasing rainfall intensity, except when root strength is extremely high and pore pressures are topographically steered. The distribution of topographic index values (the ratios of contributing area to slope) of predicted landslides is a clear signature of the pore water pressure generation mechanism: as laterally dominated flow increases, landslides develop in locations with lower slopes and higher contributing areas; in contrast, in the case of vertically-dominated pore pressure rise, landslides are consistently found in locations with higher slopes and lower contributing areas. While in both cases landslides are found in

  4. Irradiation-induced void evolution in iron: A phase-field approach with atomistic derived parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan-Yuan; Ding Jian-Hua; Huang Shao-Song; Zhao Ji-Jun; Liu Wen-Bo; Ke Xiao-Qin; Wang Yun-Zhi; Zhang Chi

    2017-01-01

    A series of material parameters are derived from atomistic simulations and implemented into a phase field (PF) model to simulate void evolution in body-centered cubic (bcc) iron subjected to different irradiation doses at different temperatures. The simulation results show good agreement with experimental observations — the porosity as a function of temperature varies in a bell-shaped manner and the void density monotonically decreases with increasing temperatures; both porosity and void density increase with increasing irradiation dose at the same temperature. Analysis reveals that the evolution of void number and size is determined by the interplay among the production, diffusion and recombination of vacancy and interstitial. (paper)

  5. Cosmic Topology: Studying The Shape And Size Of Our Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzaguirre, Amelia; Hajian, A.

    2010-01-01

    The question of the size and the shape of our universe is a very old problem that has received considerable attention over the past few years. The simplest cosmological model predicts that the mean density of the universe is very close to the critical density, admitting a local geometry of the universe that is flat. Current results from different cosmological observations confirm this to the percent level accuracy. General Relativity (being a local theory) only determines local geometry, which allows for the possibility of a multiply connected universe with a zero (or small) curvature. To study the global shape, or topology, of the universe, one can use cosmological observations on large scales. In this project we investigate the possibility of a ``small universe'', that is, a compact finite space, by searching for planar symmetries in the CMB anisotropy maps provided by the five-year WMAP observations in two foreground cleaned maps (WMAP ILC map and the Tegmark, et al. (TOH) map ). Our results strongly suggest that the small universe model is not a viable topology for the universe.

  6. Calcium Pectinate Beads Formation: Shape and Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-Beng Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationship between process variables and the size and shape of pectin solution droplets upon detachment from a dripping tip as well as Ca-pectinate beads formed after gelation via image analysis. The sphericity factor (SF of the droplets was generally smaller than 0.05. There was no specific trend between the SF of the droplets and the pectin concentration or the dripping tip radius. The SF the beads formed from high-concentration pectin solutions and a small dripping tip was smaller than 0.05. The results show that the Reynolds number and Ohnesorge number of the droplets fall within the operating region for forming spherical beads in the shape diagram, with the exception to the lower boundary. The lower boundary of the operating region has to be revised to Oh = 2.3. This is because the critical viscosity for Ca-pectinate bead formation is higher than that of Ca-alginate beads. On the other hand, the radius of the droplets and beads increased as the dripping tip radius increased. The bead radius can easily be predicted by Tate’s law equation.

  7. Size dependent nanomechanics of coil spring shaped polymer nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiba, Shota; Masui, Kyoko; Taguchi, Natsuo; Hamano, Tomoki; Kawata, Satoshi; Shoji, Satoru

    2015-11-27

    Direct laser writing (DLW) via two-photon polymerization (TPP) has been established as a powerful technique for fabrication and integration of nanoscale components, as it enables the production of three dimensional (3D) micro/nano objects. This technique has indeed led to numerous applications, including micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), metamaterials, mechanical metamaterials, and photonic crystals. However, as the feature sizes decrease, an urgent demand has emerged to uncover the mechanics of nanosized polymer materials. Here, we fabricate coil spring shaped polymer nanowires using DLW via two-photon polymerization. We find that even the nanocoil springs follow a linear-response against applied forces, following Hooke's law, as revealed by compression tests using an atomic force microscope. Further, the elasticity of the polymer material is found to become significantly greater as the wire radius is decreased from 550 to 350 nm. Polarized Raman spectroscopy measurements show that polymer chains are aligned in nanowires along the axis, which may be responsible for the size dependence. Our findings provide insight into the nanomechanics of polymer materials fabricated by DLW, which leads to further applications based on nanosized polymer materials.

  8. Understanding the shape of the Earth and measuring its size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltatzis, Evangelos; Galanaki, Angeliki

    2016-04-01

    Most elementary students have problems and misconceptions regarding the shape of the Earth. Teachers often contribute to this confusion telling the students that the Earth is almost spherical, but not explaining to them, how the Earth can be spherical while it appears. It would be helpful for students to understand how humanity came with the idea of the spherical Earth (to be precise the Earth is ellipsoid). Historically, most cultures describe the Earth as flat. That changes with the ancient Greek culture. We don't know exactly how the Greeks first understood the spherical shape of the Earth, but some Greek philosophers give some arguments why the Earth must be a sphere. We can discuss these arguments and observations with the students. First, if someone travels in the south, he can see the southern constellations rise higher above the horizon. We can give students pictures of the night sky in southern regions and compare them with observations of ''their'' night sky. Second, in the lunar eclipse we can see the round shadow of the Earth. Third, whenever a ship is on the horizon, his low part is invisible . This is known as "hull-down". Moreover, the low part of mountains is invisible from the sea, due to the curvature of the Earth. It is always better to make these observations in real life but it can also be done via videos and pictures. The realization of the spherical shape of the Earth was sine qua non for the first good measurement of its size. In the second part of the project, following the ancient mathematician Eratosthenes's steps, students can measure the size of the Earth, , find pleasure in doing experimental work and realize how important mathematics is in everyday life. Two sticks, situated a long distance away from each other, can give us approximately the circumference , the radius and the diameter of the Earth. Eratosthenes used geometry combined to the knowledge of ancient Greek culture that the Earth is spherical (360°). He knew the distance

  9. Size and shape in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera; Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L A; Passos, G B; Carvalho, C A L; Araújo, E D

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in wing shape among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides obtained in 23 locations in the semi-arid region of Bahia state (Brazil). Analysis of the Procrustes distances among mean wing shapes indicated that population structure did not determine shape variation. Instead, populations were structured geographically according to wing size. The Partial Mantel Test between morphometric (shape and size) distance matrices and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, was used for a more detailed understanding of size and shape determinants. A partial Mantel test between morphometris (shape and size) variation and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, revealed that size (but not shape) is largely influenced by altitude (r = 0.54 p < 0.01). These results indicate greater evolutionary constraints for the shape variation, which must be directly associated with aerodynamic issues in this structure. The size, however, indicates that the bees tend to have larger wings in populations located at higher altitudes.

  10. Ancestral Variations in the Shape and Size of the Zygoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettlé, Anna C; Demeter, Fabrice P; L'abbé, Ericka N

    2017-01-01

    The variable development of the zygoma, dictating its shape and size variations among ancestral groups, has important clinical implications and valuable anthropological and evolutionary inferences. The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the variations in the zygoma with ancestry. Ancestral variation in the zygoma reflects genetic variations because of genetic drift as well as natural selection and epigenetic changes to adapt to diet and climate variations with possible intensification by isolation. Prominence of the zygoma, zygomaxillary tuberosity, and malar tubercle have been associated with Eastern Asian populations in whom these features intensified. Prominence of the zygoma is also associated with groups from Eastern Europe and the rest of Asia. Diffusion of these traits occurred across the Behring Sea to the Arctic areas and to North and South America. The greatest zygomatic projections are exhibited in Arctic groups as an adaptation to extreme cold conditions, while Native South American groups also present with other features of facial robusticity. Groups from Australia, Malaysia, and Oceania show prominence of the zygoma to a certain extent, possibly because of archaic occupations by undifferentiated Southeast Asian populations. More recent interactions with Chinese groups might explain the prominent cheekbones noted in certain South African groups. Many deductions regarding evolutionary processes and diversifications of early groups have been made. Cognisance of these ancestral variations also have implications for forensic anthropological assessments as well as plastic and reconstructive surgery. More studies are needed to improve accuracy of forensic anthropological identification techniques. Anat Rec, 300:196-208, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Size and shape dependent Gibbs free energy and phase stability of titanium and zirconium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Shiyun; Qi Weihong; Huang Baiyun; Wang Mingpu; Li Yejun

    2010-01-01

    The Debye model of Helmholtz free energy for bulk material is generalized to Gibbs free energy (GFE) model for nanomaterial, while a shape factor is introduced to characterize the shape effect on GFE. The structural transitions of Ti and Zr nanoparticles are predicted based on GFE. It is further found that GFE decreases with the shape factor and increases with decreasing of the particle size. The critical size of structural transformation for nanoparticles goes up as temperature increases in the absence of change in shape factor. For specified temperature, the critical size climbs up with the increase of shape factor. The present predictions agree well with experiment values.

  12. Differentiating gold nanorod samples using particle size and shape distributions from transmission electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Wu, Xiaochun; Ji, Yinglu; Buhr, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Song, Nam Woong; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Burchett, Woodrow W.; Lambert, Joshua; Stromberg, Arnold J.

    2018-04-01

    Size and shape distributions of gold nanorod samples are critical to their physico-chemical properties, especially their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. This interlaboratory comparison study developed methods for measuring and evaluating size and shape distributions for gold nanorod samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The objective was to determine whether two different samples, which had different performance attributes in their application, were different with respect to their size and/or shape descriptor distributions. Touching particles in the captured images were identified using a ruggedness shape descriptor. Nanorods could be distinguished from nanocubes using an elongational shape descriptor. A non-parametric statistical test showed that cumulative distributions of an elongational shape descriptor, that is, the aspect ratio, were statistically different between the two samples for all laboratories. While the scale parameters of size and shape distributions were similar for both samples, the width parameters of size and shape distributions were statistically different. This protocol fulfills an important need for a standardized approach to measure gold nanorod size and shape distributions for applications in which quantitative measurements and comparisons are important. Furthermore, the validated protocol workflow can be automated, thus providing consistent and rapid measurements of nanorod size and shape distributions for researchers, regulatory agencies, and industry.

  13. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  14. Effects of nano-void density, size and spatial population on thermal conductivity: a case study of GaN crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X W; Jones, R E

    2012-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of a crystal is sensitive to the presence of surfaces and nanoscale defects. While this opens tremendous opportunities to tailor thermal conductivity, true ‘phonon engineering’ of nanocrystals for a specific electronic or thermoelectric application can only be achieved when the dependence of thermal conductivity on the defect density, size and spatial population is understood and quantified. Unfortunately, experimental studies of the effects of nanoscale defects are quite challenging. While molecular dynamics simulations are effective in calculating thermal conductivity, the defect density range that can be explored with feasible computing resources is unrealistically high. As a result, previous work has not generated a fully detailed understanding of the dependence of thermal conductivity on nanoscale defects. Using GaN as an example, we have combined a physically motivated analytical model and highly converged large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of defects on thermal conductivity. An analytical expression for thermal conductivity as a function of void density, size, and population has been derived and corroborated with the model, simulations, and experiments. (paper)

  15. Size and shape control in the overgrowth of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratto, Fulvio; Matteini, Paolo; Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We report on a new sustainable approach to manipulate the optical behaviour and geometrical properties of gold nanorods in aqueous solutions by fine control of their overgrowth. In our approach, the overgrowth is realized by modulation of the reduction of the gold ions which are left as Au 1+ after the primary step of the synthesis (typically as much as ∼80% of the gold ions available in the growth solution). The progress of the reduction requires the gradual addition of ascorbic acid, which transforms the Au 1+ into Au 0 and may be performed in the original growth solution with no need for any further manipulation. By control of the total amount and rate of administration of the ascorbic acid, we prove the possibility to realize a systematic modulation of the average lengths, diameters, shapes (rod or dog-bone like), and light extinction of the nanoparticles. A slow overgrowth leads to a gradual enlargement of the lengths and diameters at almost constant shape. In contrast, a faster overgrowth results into a more complex modification of the overall shape of the gold nanorods.

  16. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  17. Effect of Contact Conditions on Void Coalescence at Low Stress Triaxiality Shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    , the deformed voids develop into shapes that closely resemble micro-cracks. It is found that the predictions using the frictionless pseudo-contact approach are in rather good agreement with corresponding simulations that fully account for frictionless contact. In particular, good agreement is found at close...... to zero stress triaxiality. Furthermore, it is shown that accounting for friction at the void surface strongly postpones the onset of coalescence, hence, increasing the overall material ductility. The changes in overall material behavior are here presented for a wide range of initial material and loading...... conditions, such as various stress triaxialities, void sizes, and friction coefficients....

  18. Micrometer-scale 3-D shape characterization of eight cements: Particle shape and cement chemistry, and the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction particle size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, S.T.; Nie, X.; Stutzman, P.E.; Garboczi, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Eight different portland cements were imaged on a synchrotron beam line at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray microcomputed tomography at a voxel size of about 1 μm per cubic voxel edge. The particles ranged in size roughly between 10 μm and 100 μm. The shape and size of individual particles were computationally analyzed using spherical harmonic analysis. The particle shape difference between cements was small but significant, as judged by several different quantitative shape measures, including the particle length, width, and thickness distributions. It was found that the average shape of cement particles was closely correlated with the volume fraction of C 3 S (alite) and C 2 S (belite) making up the cement powder. It is shown that the non-spherical particle shape of the cements strongly influence laser diffraction results, at least in the sieve size range of 20 μm to 38 μm. Since laser diffraction particle size measurement is being increasingly used by the cement industry, while cement chemistry is always a main factor in cement production, these results could have important implications for how this kind of particle size measurement should be understood and used in the cement industry.

  19. Size and shape in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera; Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Nunes

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify differences in wing shape among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides obtained in 23 locations in the semi-arid region of Bahia state (Brazil. Analysis of the Procrustes distances among mean wing shapes indicated that population structure did not determine shape variation. Instead, populations were structured geographically according to wing size. The Partial Mantel Test between morphometric (shape and size distance matrices and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, was used for a more detailed understanding of size and shape determinants. A partial Mantel test between morphometris (shape and size variation and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, revealed that size (but not shape is largely influenced by altitude (r = 0.54 p < 0.01. These results indicate greater evolutionary constraints for the shape variation, which must be directly associated with aerodynamic issues in this structure. The size, however, indicates that the bees tend to have larger wings in populations located at higher altitudes.

  20. Deconstructing cartilage shape and size into contributions from embryogenesis, metamorphosis, and tadpole and frog growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Christopher S; Murawinski, Danny; Horne, Virginia

    2015-06-01

    Understanding skeletal diversification involves knowing not only how skeletal rudiments are shaped embryonically, but also how skeletal shape changes throughout life. The pharyngeal arch (PA) skeleton of metamorphosing amphibians persists largely as cartilage and undergoes two phases of development (embryogenesis and metamorphosis) and two phases of growth (larval and post-metamorphic). Though embryogenesis and metamorphosis produce species-specific features of PA cartilage shape, the extents to which shape and size change during growth and metamorphosis remain unaddressed. This study uses allometric equations and thin-plate spline, relative warp and elliptic Fourier analyses to describe shape and size trajectories for the ventral PA cartilages of the frog Xenopus laevis in tadpole and frog growth and metamorphosis. Cartilage sizes scale negatively with body size in both growth phases and cartilage shapes scale isometrically or close to it. This implies that most species-specific aspects of cartilage shape arise in embryogenesis and metamorphosis. Contributions from growth are limited to minor changes in lower jaw (LJ) curvature that produce relative gape narrowing and widening in tadpoles and frogs, respectively, and most cartilages becoming relatively thinner. Metamorphosis involves previously unreported decreases in cartilage size as well as changes in cartilage shape. The LJ becomes slightly longer, narrower and more curved, and the adult ceratohyal emerges from deep within the resorbing tadpole ceratohyal. This contrast in shape and size changes suggests a fundamental difference in the underlying cellular pathways. The observation that variation in PA cartilage shape decreases with tadpole growth supports the hypothesis that isometric growth is required for the metamorphic remodeling of PA cartilages. It also supports the existence of shape-regulating mechanisms that are specific to PA cartilages and that resist local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity.

  1. The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2013-09-01

    To use tobacco industry documents on cigarette pack shape, size and openings to identify industry findings on associations with brand imagery, product attributes, consumer perceptions and behaviour. Internal tobacco industry research and marketing documents obtained through court disclosure contained in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library were searched using keywords related to pack shapes, sizes and opening methods. The search identified 66 documents related to consumer research and marketing plans on pack shape, size and openings, drawn from 1973 to 2002. Industry research consistently found that packs that deviated from the traditional flip-top box projected impressions of 'modern', 'elegant' and 'unique' brand imagery. Alternative pack shape and openings were identified as an effective means to communicate product attributes, particularly with regard to premium quality and smooth taste. Consumer studies consistently found that pack shape, size and opening style influenced perceptions of reduced product harm, and were often used to communicate a 'lighter' product. Slim, rounded, oval and booklet packs were found to be particularly appealing among young adults, and several studies demonstrated increased purchase interest for tobacco products presented in novel packaging shape or opening. Evidence from consumer tracking reports and company presentations indicate that pack innovations in shape or opening method increased market share of brands. Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and increase cigarette sales. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Trends in maar crater size and shape using the global Maar Volcano Location and Shape (MaarVLS) database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graettinger, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    A maar crater is the top of a much larger subsurface diatreme structure produced by phreatomagmatic explosions and the size and shape of the crater reflects the growth history of that structure during an eruption. Recent experimental and geophysical research has shown that crater complexity can reflect subsurface complexity. Morphometry provides a means of characterizing a global population of maar craters in order to establish the typical size and shape of features. A global database of Quaternary maar crater planform morphometry indicates that maar craters are typically not circular and frequently have compound shapes resembling overlapping circles. Maar craters occur in volcanic fields that contain both small volume and complex volcanoes. The global perspective provided by the database shows that maars are common in many volcanic and tectonic settings producing a similar diversity of size and shape within and between volcanic fields. A few exceptional populations of maars were revealed by the database, highlighting directions of future research to improve our understanding on the geometry and spacing of subsurface explosions that produce maars. These outlying populations, such as anomalously large craters (>3000 m), chains of maars, and volcanic fields composed of mostly maar craters each represent a small portion of the database, but provide opportunities to reinvestigate fundamental questions on maar formation. Maar crater morphometry can be integrated with structural, hydrological studies to investigate lateral migration of phreatomagmatic explosion location in the subsurface. A comprehensive database of intact maar morphometry is also beneficial for the hunt for maar-diatremes on other planets.

  3. The dark matter of galaxy voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Weinberg, David H.; Warren, Michael S.

    2014-03-01

    How do observed voids relate to the underlying dark matter distribution? To examine the spatial distribution of dark matter contained within voids identified in galaxy surveys, we apply Halo Occupation Distribution models representing sparsely and densely sampled galaxy surveys to a high-resolution N-body simulation. We compare these galaxy voids to voids found in the halo distribution, low-resolution dark matter and high-resolution dark matter. We find that voids at all scales in densely sampled surveys - and medium- to large-scale voids in sparse surveys - trace the same underdensities as dark matter, but they are larger in radius by ˜20 per cent, they have somewhat shallower density profiles and they have centres offset by ˜ 0.4Rv rms. However, in void-to-void comparison we find that shape estimators are less robust to sampling, and the largest voids in sparsely sampled surveys suffer fragmentation at their edges. We find that voids in galaxy surveys always correspond to underdensities in the dark matter, though the centres may be offset. When this offset is taken into account, we recover almost identical radial density profiles between galaxies and dark matter. All mock catalogues used in this work are available at http://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  4. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial discharges in spheroidal voids: Void orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Partial discharge transients can be described in terms of the charge induced on the detecting electrode. The influence of the void parameters upon the induced charge is examined and discussed for spheroidal voids. It is shown that a quantitative interpretation of the induced charge requires...

  6. Absorption Efficiencies of Forsterite. I: DDA Explorations in Grain Shape and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Wooden, Diane; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S.; Woodward, Charles E.; Murphy, Jim R.

    2013-01-01

    We compute the absorption efficiency (Q(sub abs)) of forsterite using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) in order to identify and describe what characteristics of crystal grain shape and size are important to the shape, peak location, and relative strength of spectral features in the 8 - 40 micron wavelength range. Using the DDSCAT code, we compute Q(sub abs) for non-spherical polyhedral grain shapes with a(sub eff) = 0.1 micron. The shape characteristics identified are: 1) elongation/reduction along one of three crystallographic axes; 2) asymmetry, such that all three crystallographic axes are of different lengths; and 3) the presence of crystalline faces that are not parallel to a specific crystallographic axis, e.g., non-rectangular prisms and (di)pyramids. Elongation/reduction dominates the locations and shapes of spectral features near 10, 11, 16, 23.5, 27, and 33.5 micron, while asymmetry and tips are secondary shape effects. Increasing grain sizes (0.1 - 1.0 micron) shifts the 10, 11 micron features systematically towards longer wavelengths and relative to the 11 micron feature increases the strengths and slightly broadens the longer wavelength features. Seven spectral shape classes are established for crystallographic a-, b-, and c-axes and include columnar and platelet shapes plus non-elongated or equant grain shapes. The spectral shape classes and the effects of grain size have practical application in identifying or excluding columnar, platelet or equant forsterite grain shapes in astrophysical environs. Identification of the shape characteristics of forsterite from 8 - 40 micron spectra provides a potential means to probe the temperatures at which forsterite formed.

  7. Shape and size effects on layered Ni/PZT/Ni composites magnetoelectric performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, D A; Zhang, S G; Qiao, L J [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: lqiao@ustb.edu.cn

    2008-09-07

    This paper presents the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in trilayered Ni/PZT/Ni composites which is related to their size and shape. The ME composites with the same interfacial areas but different geometrical shapes have different ME voltage coefficients. Longitudinal resonant modes in the rectangular and triangular trilayered ME composites were studied. One should choose optimized size, shape and working frequency of the ME composites in order to gain the maximum ME effect. This study plays a guiding role for trilayered ME composites design for real applications. (fast track communication)

  8. Design comparisons of TRU burner cores with similar sodium void worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Ji, Kim; Young Il, Kim; Young Jin, Kim; Nam Zin, Cho

    2001-01-01

    This study summarizes the neutronic performance and fuel cycle behavior of five geometrically-different transuranic (TRU) burner cores with similar low sodium void reactivity. The conceptual cores encompass core geometries for annular, two-region homogeneous, dual pin type, pan-shaped and H-shaped cores. They have been designed with the same assembly specifications and managed to have similar end-of-cycle sodium void reactivities and beginning-of-cycle peak power densities through the changes in the core size and configuration. The requirement of low sodium void reactivity is shown to lead each design concept to characteristic neutronics performance and fuel cycle behavior. The H-/pan-shaped cores allow the core compaction as well as higher rate of TRU burning. (author)

  9. Strengthening of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys by grain size refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, A.; Masuya, T.; Kumai, S.; Inoue, A.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of the shape memory effect was measured either by bending, tensile and compression tests in the temperature range 77∝300 K. The yield stress increased substantially by the grain size refinement, yet maintaining a good shape memory effect. In addition to usual mentioned slow strain rate tests (about 10 -3 s -1 ), shape deformation was given at high strain rate (10 3 s -1 ) by hammering, in order to induce fine structure. It is also found that the shape memory effect under an opposing force was improved by the high-speed deformation. (orig.)

  10. A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

  11. Determination of size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, DI.

    1961-01-01

    For testing the size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic uranium oxide powders the following method for analysing the grain size of powders were developed and implemented: microscopic analysis and sedimentation method. A gravimetry absorption device was constructed for determining the specific surfaces of powders

  12. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2017-02-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  13. Pediatric Voiding Cystourethrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scan for mobile link. Children's (Pediatric) Voiding Cystourethrogram A children’s (pediatric) voiding cystourethrogram uses fluoroscopy – a form of real-time x-ray – to examine a child’s bladder ...

  14. Patients' evaluation of shape, size and colour of solid dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A.B.A.; Møller-Sonnergaard, J.; Christrup, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the swallow ability and the patient preferences of tablets and capsules with different sizes, shapes, surfaces and colours. Method: Patients were asked to swallow tablets with different surface and size, while tablets with different shape and colour were...... visually assessed. They were asked to indicate their preferences. Results: Gelatine capsules were found easier to swallow than tablets and coated tablets were found easier than uncoated normal tablets. The preferred colour was white both for tables and capsules, and the most disliked colours were purple...... tablets and brown capsules. The preferred shape was strongly arched circular for small tablets, oval for medium sized and big tablets. The difficulty to swallow tablets increased with increasing size. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the ideal tablet is small and white, strongly arched...

  15. Elastic wave scattering from multiple voids (porosity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.O.; Rose, J.H.; Thompson, R.B.; Wormley, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic backscatter measurement technique which provides a convenient way to determine certain characteristics of a distribution of voids (porosity) in materials. A typical ultrasonic sample prepared by placing the ''frit'' in a crucible in an RF induction heater is shown. The results of the measurements were Fourier transformed into an amplitude-frequency description, and were then deconvolved with the transducer response function. Several properties needed to characterize a void distribution are obtained from the experimental results, including average void size, the spatial extent of the voids region, the average void separation, and the volume fraction of material contained in the void distribution. A detailed comparison of values obtained from the ultrasonic measurements with visually determined results is also given

  16. ACCURACY RESEARCH OF THE DIAMETRICAL SIZES FORMING AT GEAR SHAPING BY STEPPED CUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rasulov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of forming accuracy for diametrical sizes at gear shaping with stepped cutter and the traditional method. Analysis of static technological dimensional pitch size chain of wheels being cut is performed. It was revealed that the most of transmission errors of the wheels, formed by the traditional gear-shaped cutter are caused by manufacturing and installation error of the cutter and result from the formation of each tooth of the wheel with a certain tool. This is not the case with gear shaping by step cutter since at that, the profiles of all gear teeth are formed by means of tooth profile mostly remote from the tool rotation axis. Analysis of occurrence of setting-up errors typical for the above gear shaping methods has been performed. At gear shaping with stepped cutter there are no setting-up error components. It was revealed that this fact causes the absence of errors in the tool position before its each double motion. The accuracy of diametrical sizes increases. Formation mechanism of tool installation errors and workpiece are also given and their analysis is presented. Findings in the field of gear shaping with stepped cutter comply with results of research carried out by the other authors in the field of traditional gear shaping.

  17. Effect of the shape of a nano-object on quantum-size states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyuba, Vladimir; Kulchin, Yurii; Milichko, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an original functional method that makes it easy to determine the effect of any deviation in the shape of a nano-object from the well-studied shape (e.g., spherical) on the quantum characteristics of charge localized inside the nano-object. The maximum dimension of the object is determined by the magnitude of influence of quantum-size effects on quantum states of charge, and is limited by 100 nm. This method is ideologically similar to the perturbation theory, but the perturbation of the surface shape, rather than the potential, is used. Unlike the well-known variational methods of theoretical physics, this method is based on the assumption that the physical quantity is a functional of surface shape. Using the method developed, we present the quantum-size state of charges for two different complex shapes of nano-objects. The results from analyzing the quantum-size states of charge in the nano-objects with a deformed spherical shape indicated that the shape perturbations have a larger effect on the probability density of locating a particle inside the nano-object than on the surface energy spectrum and quantum density of the states.

  18. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  19. Fundamental study on laser manipulation of contamination particles with determining shape, size and species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Isao; Fujii, Taketsugu

    1995-01-01

    It has been desired to eliminate or collect the contamination particles of radioisotope in each sort of species or shape and size non-invasively. The shape and size of particle can be determined from the shape and distribution of diffraction pattern of particle in the parallel laser beam, the species of particle can be discriminated by the fluorescence from resonance of laser beam, or by the laser Raman scattering, and the particle suspended in the air or falling down in a vacuum can be levitated against the gravity and trapped by the radiation force and the trapping force of the focussed laser beam in the atmosphere or in a vacuum. For the purpose of the non-invasive manipulation of contamination particles, the laser manipulation technique, image processing technique with Multiplexed Matched Spatial Filter and the determination technique of laser Raman scattering or fluorescence from resonance of laser light were combined in the experiments. The shape, size and species of particles trapped in the focal plane of focused Ar laser beam can be determined simultaneously and instantaneously from the shape and intensity distributions of diffraction patterns of the particles in the irradiation of parallel coherent beam of He-Ne laser, and fluorescence from the resonance of YAG laser beam with variable wave length. In this research, a new technique is proposed to manipulate non-invasively the contamination particles determined with the shape, size and species in the atmosphere or in a vacuum, by laser beam. (author)

  20. The Genetic Basis of Baculum Size and Shape Variation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Schultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid divergence of male genitalia is a preeminent evolutionary pattern. This rapid divergence is especially striking in the baculum, a bone that occurs in the penis of many mammalian species. Closely related species often display diverse baculum morphology where no other morphological differences can be discerned. While this fundamental pattern of evolution has been appreciated at the level of gross morphology, nearly nothing is known about the genetic basis of size and shape divergence. Quantifying the genetic basis of baculum size and shape variation has been difficult because these structures generally lack obvious landmarks, so comparing them in three dimensions is not straightforward. Here, we develop a novel morphometric approach to quantify size and shape variation from three-dimensional micro-CT scans taken from 369 bacula, representing 75 distinct strains of the BXD family of mice. We identify two quantitative trait loci (QTL that explain ∼50% of the variance in baculum size, and a third QTL that explains more than 20% of the variance in shape. Together, our study demonstrates that baculum morphology may diverge relatively easily, with mutations at a few loci of large effect that independently modulate size and shape. Based on a combination of bioinformatic investigations and new data on RNA expression, we prioritized these QTL to 16 candidate genes, which have hypothesized roles in bone morphogenesis and may enable future genetic manipulation of baculum morphology.

  1. Comparison of the free volume sizes and shapes determined from crystallographic and PALS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tydda Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different classes of molecular crystals were investigated. The first group was benzenediols, which are characterized by the same chemical composition but a different organization of their crystallographic structures; all of the compounds from this group have only one kind of free volumes. The second class was represented by olanzapine, which has more complex chemical composition and two kinds of free volumes in the structure. The o-Ps lifetime values determined from positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS measurements agree quite well with those calculated for sizes found from crystallographic data for benzenediols (agreement within 10% of the lifetime values. For olanzapine, a good agreement is observed in the case of cuboidal free volumes, while for the other kind of void, the agreement is less satisfactory. Positronium diffusion coefficient determined from o-Ps redistribution in olanzapine agrees with these found for polymers.

  2. Common Noctule Bats Are Sexually Dimorphic in Migratory Behaviour and Body Size but Not Wing Shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Teague O'Mara

    Full Text Available Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year. We tested for univariate and multivariate size and shape dimorphism using data sets derived from wing photos and biometric data collected during pre-migratory spring captures in Switzerland. Females had forearms that are on average 1% longer than males and are 1% heavier than males after emerging from hibernation, but we found no sex differences in other size, shape, or other functional characters in any wing parameters during this pre-migratory period. Female-biased size dimorphism without wing shape differences indicates that reproductive advantages of big mothers are most likely responsible for sexual dimorphism in this species, not load compensation or shape differences favouring aerodynamic efficiency during pregnancy or migration. Despite large behavioural and ecological sex differences, morphology associated with a specialized feeding niche may limit potential dimorphism in narrow-winged bats such as common noctules and the dramatic differences in migratory behaviour may then be accomplished through plasticity in wing kinematics.

  3. Welcome to wonderland: the influence of the size and shape of a virtual hand on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenauger, Sally A; Leyrer, Markus; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    The notion of body-based scaling suggests that our body and its action capabilities are used to scale the spatial layout of the environment. Here we present four studies supporting this perspective by showing that the hand acts as a metric which individuals use to scale the apparent sizes of objects in the environment. However to test this, one must be able to manipulate the size and/or dimensions of the perceiver's hand which is difficult in the real world due to impliability of hand dimensions. To overcome this limitation, we used virtual reality to manipulate dimensions of participants' fully-tracked, virtual hands to investigate its influence on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects. In a series of experiments, using several measures, we show that individuals' estimations of the sizes of virtual objects differ depending on the size of their virtual hand in the direction consistent with the body-based scaling hypothesis. Additionally, we found that these effects were specific to participants' virtual hands rather than another avatar's hands or a salient familiar-sized object. While these studies provide support for a body-based approach to the scaling of the spatial layout, they also demonstrate the influence of virtual bodies on perception of virtual environments.

  4. Welcome to wonderland: the influence of the size and shape of a virtual hand on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Linkenauger

    Full Text Available The notion of body-based scaling suggests that our body and its action capabilities are used to scale the spatial layout of the environment. Here we present four studies supporting this perspective by showing that the hand acts as a metric which individuals use to scale the apparent sizes of objects in the environment. However to test this, one must be able to manipulate the size and/or dimensions of the perceiver's hand which is difficult in the real world due to impliability of hand dimensions. To overcome this limitation, we used virtual reality to manipulate dimensions of participants' fully-tracked, virtual hands to investigate its influence on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects. In a series of experiments, using several measures, we show that individuals' estimations of the sizes of virtual objects differ depending on the size of their virtual hand in the direction consistent with the body-based scaling hypothesis. Additionally, we found that these effects were specific to participants' virtual hands rather than another avatar's hands or a salient familiar-sized object. While these studies provide support for a body-based approach to the scaling of the spatial layout, they also demonstrate the influence of virtual bodies on perception of virtual environments.

  5. Simultaneous Topology, Shape, and Sizing Optimisation of Plane Trusses with Adaptive Ground Finite Elements Using MOEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norapat Noilublao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel integrated design strategy to accomplish simultaneous topology shape and sizing optimisation of a two-dimensional (2D truss. An optimisation problem is posed to find a structural topology, shape, and element sizes of the truss such that two objective functions, mass and compliance, are minimised. Design constraints include stress, buckling, and compliance. The procedure for an adaptive ground elements approach is proposed and its encoding/decoding process is detailed. Two sets of design variables defining truss layout, shape, and element sizes at the same time are applied. A number of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs are implemented to solve the design problem. Comparative performance based on a hypervolume indicator shows that multiobjective population-based incremental learning (PBIL is the best performer. Optimising three design variable types simultaneously is more efficient and effective.

  6. Size and shape-dependent cytotoxicity profile of gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Malankowska, Anna; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Grześkowiak, Bartosz F; Tuśnio, Karol; Słomski, Ryszard; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana; Jurga, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, in particular gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), offer a wide spectrum of applications in biomedicine. A crucial issue is their cytotoxicity, which depends greatly on various factors, including morphology of nanoparticles. Because metallic nanoparticles have an effect on cell membrane integrity, their shape and size may affect the viability of cells, due to their different geometries as well as physical and chemical interactions with cell membranes. Variations in the size and shape of gold nanoparticles may indicate particular nanoparticle morphologies that provide strong cytotoxicity effects. Synthesis of different sized and shaped bare AuNPs was performed with spherical (~ 10 nm), nanoflowers (~ 370 nm), nanorods (~ 41 nm), nanoprisms (~ 160 nm) and nanostars (~ 240 nm) morphologies. These nanostructures were characterized and interacting with cancer (HeLa) and normal (HEK293T) cell lines and cell viability tests were performed by WST-1 tests and fluorescent live/dead cell imaging experiments. It was shown that various shapes and sizes of gold nanostructures may affect the viability of the cells. Gold nanospheres and nanorods proved to be more toxic than star, flower and prism gold nanostructures. This may be attributed to their small size and aggregation process. This is the first report concerning a comparison of cytotoxic profile in vitro with a wide spectrum of bare AuNPs morphology. The findings show their possible use in biomedical applications.

  7. The sink strengths of voids and the expected swelling for both random and ordered void distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, T.M.; Murphy, S.M.; Bullough, R.; Wood, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    The sink strength of a void has been obtained when the void is a member of a random or ordered distribution of voids. The former sink strength derivation has employed the embedding model and the latter the cellular model. In each case the spatially varying size-effect interaction between the intrinsic point defects and the voids has been included together with the presence of other sink types in addition to the voids. The results are compared with previously published sink strengths that have made use of an approximate representation for the size-effect interactions, and indicate the importance of using the exact form of the interaction. In particular the bias for interstitials compared with vacancies of small voids is now much reduced and contamination of the surfaces of such voids no longer appears essential to facilitate the nucleation and growth of the voids. These new sink strengths have been used, in conjunction with recently published dislocation sink strengths, to calculate the expected swelling of materials containing network dislocations and voids. Results are presented for both the random and the void lattice situations. (author)

  8. Forces and dynamics in epithelial domes of controlled size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Ibars, Ernest; Casares, Laura; Gomez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Uroz, Marina; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    Mechanobiology of epithelia plays a central role in morphogenesis, wound healing, and tumor progression. Its current understanding relies on mechanical measurements on flat epithelial layers. However, most epithelia in vivo exhibit a curved 3D shape enclosing a pressurized lumen. Using soft micropatterned substrates we produce massive parallel arrays of epithelial domes with controlled size and basal shape. We measure epithelial traction, tension, and luminal pressure in epithelial domes. The local stress tensor on the freestanding epithelial membrane is then mapped by combining measured luminal pressure and local curvature. We show that tension and cell shape are highly anisotropic and vary along the meridional position of the domes. Finally, we establish constitutive relations between shape, tension, and pressure during perturbations of the contractile machinery, osmotic shocks, and spontaneous fluctuations of dome volume. Our findings contradict a description of the epithelium as a fluid capillary surface. Cells in the dome are unable to relax into a uniform and isotropic tensional state through sub- and supra-cellular rearrangements. Mapping epithelial shape, tension, and pressure will enable quantitative studies of mechanobiology in 3D epithelia of controlled size and shape.

  9. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  10. General classification of maturation reaction-norm shape from size-based processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2011-01-01

    for growth and mortality is based on processes at the level of the individual, and is motivated by the energy budget of fish. MRN shape is a balance between opposing factors and depends on subtle details of size dependence of growth and mortality. MRNs with both positive and negative slopes are predicted...

  11. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles are well controlled by simply ... quently used to synthesize magnetic ferrites from different iron precursors ... added to the mixture resulting in a dark brown precipitate. Figure 2. (a–c). TG–DTA .... Doyle P S, Bibette J, Bancaud A and Viovy J L 2002 Science. 295 2237.

  12. Basic properties of full-size st ructural flakeboards fabricated with flakes on a shaping lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddie W. Prie

    1977-01-01

    Structural exterior flakeboards manufactured in 4 by 8 ft (1.22 by 2.44 m ) size with phenolic resin and flakes produced on a shaping-lathe headrig were evaluated for plate shear modulus, internal bond, bending properties, and 24-hour water soak stability. Both mixed and single species flakeboards were produced. Panels with mixed flakes had 20% by weight of hickory,...

  13. One-pot size and shape controlled synthesis of DMSO capped iron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/029/06/0617-0621. Keywords. Iron oxide; thermal decomposition; TEM; VSM. Abstract. We report here the capping of iron oxide nanoparticles with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to make chloroform soluble iron oxide nanoparticles. Size and shape of the capped iron oxide nanoparticles ...

  14. Children's Concepts of the Shape and Size of the Earth, Sun and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Children's understandings of the shape and relative sizes of the Earth, Sun and Moon have been extensively researched and in a variety of ways. Much is known about the confusions which arise as young people try to grasp ideas about the world and our neighbouring celestial bodies. Despite this, there remain uncertainties about the conceptual models…

  15. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

  16. The evolution of voids in the adhesion approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Varun; Sathyaprakah, B. S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-08-01

    We apply the adhesion approximation to study the formation and evolution of voids in the universe. Our simulations-carried out using 1283 particles in a cubical box with side 128 Mpc-indicate that the void spectrum evolves with time and that the mean void size in the standard Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE)-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) model with H50 = 1 scals approximately as bar D(z) = bar Dzero/(1+2)1/2, where bar Dzero approximately = 10.5 Mpc. Interestingly, we find a strong correlation between the sizes of voids and the value of the primordial gravitational potential at void centers. This observation could in principle, pave the way toward reconstructing the form of the primordial potential from a knowledge of the observed void spectrum. Studying the void spectrum at different cosmological epochs, for spectra with a built in k-space cutoff we find that the number of voids in a representative volume evolves with time. The mean number of voids first increases until a maximum value is reached (indicating that the formation of cellular structure is complete), and then begins to decrease as clumps and filaments erge leading to hierarchical clustering and the subsequent elimination of small voids. The cosmological epoch characterizing the completion of cellular structure occurs when the length scale going nonlinear approaches the mean distance between peaks of the gravitaional potential. A central result of this paper is that voids can be populated by substructure such as mini-sheets and filaments, which run through voids. The number of such mini-pancakes that pass through a given void can be measured by the genus characteristic of an individual void which is an indicator of the topology of a given void in intial (Lagrangian) space. Large voids have on an average a larger measure than smaller voids indicating more substructure within larger voids relative to smaller ones. We find that the topology of individual voids is strongly epoch dependent

  17. Gold nanoparticle size and shape influence on osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchao; Li, Jia'en Jasmine; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xinlong; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored for biomedical applications due to their advantages of facile synthesis and surface functionalization. Previous studies have suggested that AuNPs can induce differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts. However, how the size and shape of AuNPs affect the differentiation response of stem cells has not been elucidated. In this work, a series of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated Au nanospheres, Au nanostars and Au nanorods with different diameters of 40, 70 and 110 nm were synthesized and their effects on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were investigated. All the AuNPs showed good cytocompatibility and did not influence proliferation of hMSCs at the studied concentrations. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was dependent on the size and shape of AuNPs. Sphere-40, sphere-70 and rod-70 significantly increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition of cells while rod-40 reduced the ALP activity and calcium deposition. Gene profiling revealed that the expression of osteogenic marker genes was down-regulated after incubation with rod-40. However, up-regulation of these genes was found in the sphere-40, sphere-70 and rod-70 treatment. Moreover, it was found that the size and shape of AuNPs affected the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs through regulating the activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP). These results indicate that the size and shape of AuNPs had an influence on the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, which should provide useful guidance for the preparation of AuNPs with defined size and shape for their biomedical applications.Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored for biomedical applications due to their advantages of facile synthesis and surface functionalization. Previous studies have suggested that AuNPs can induce differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts. However, how the size and shape of AuNPs affect the

  18. On void nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Nucleation of viable voids in irradiated materials is considered. The mechanism of evaporation and absorption of interstitials and vacancies disregarding the possibility of void merging is laid down into the basis of the discussion. The effect of irradiated material structure on void nucleation is separated from the effect of the properties of supersaturated solutions of vacancies and interstitials. An analytical expression for the nucleation rate is obtained and analyzed in different cases. The interstitials are concluded to effect severely the nucleation rate of viable voids

  19. Crystal size and shape analysis of Pt nanoparticles in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontard, L Cervera; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Ozkaya, D; Hyde, T; Midgley, P A; Ash, P

    2006-01-01

    The majority of industrial catalysts are high-surface-area solids, onto which an active component is dispersed in the form of nanoparticles that have sizes of between 1 and 20 nm. In an industrial environment, the crystal size distributions of such particles are conventionally measured by using either bright-field transmission electron microscope (TEM) images or X-ray diffraction. However, the analysis of particle sizes and shapes from two-dimensional bright-field TEM images is affected by variations in image contrast between adjacent particles, by the difficulty of distinguishing the particles from their matrix, and by overlap between particles when they are imaged in projection. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) electron tomography provides a convenient technique for overcoming many of these problems, by allowing the three-dimensional shapes and sizes of high atomic number nanoparticles that are supported on a low atomic number support to be recorded. Here, we discuss the three-dimensional analysis of particle sizes and shapes from such tomographic data, and we assess whether such measurements provide different information from that obtained using two-dimensional TEM images and X-ray diffraction measurements

  20. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  1. Active liquid-like behavior of nucleoli determines their size and shape in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangwynne, Clifford P; Mitchison, Timothy J; Hyman, Anthony A

    2011-03-15

    For most intracellular structures with larger than molecular dimensions, little is known about the connection between underlying molecular activities and higher order organization such as size and shape. Here, we show that both the size and shape of the amphibian oocyte nucleolus ultimately arise because nucleoli behave as liquid-like droplets of RNA and protein, exhibiting characteristic viscous fluid dynamics even on timescales of Nucleoli exhibit a broad distribution of sizes with a characteristic power law, which we show is a consequence of spontaneous coalescence events. These results have implications for the function of nucleoli in ribosome subunit processing and provide a physical link between activity within a macromolecular assembly and its physical properties on larger length scales.

  2. Size-dependent modification of asteroid family Yarkovsky V-shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B. T.; Morbidelli, A.; Walsh, K. J.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The thermal properties of the surfaces of asteroids determine the magnitude of the drift rate cause by the Yarkovsky force. In the general case of Main Belt asteroids, the Yarkovsky force is indirectly proportional to the thermal inertia, Γ. Aim. Following the proposed relationship between Γ and asteroid diameter D, we find that asteroids' Yarkovsky drift rates might have a more complex size dependence than previous thought, leading to a curved family V-shape boundary in semi-major axis, a, vs. 1/D space. This implies that asteroids are drifting faster at larger sizes than previously considered decreasing on average the known ages of asteroid families. Methods: The V-Shape curvature is determined for >25 families located throughout the Main Belt to quantify the Yarkovsky size-dependent drift rate. Results: We find that there is no correlation between family age and V-shape curvature. In addition, the V-shape curvature decreases for asteroid families with larger heliocentric distances suggesting that the relationship between Γ and D is weaker in the outer MB possibly due to homogenous surface roughness among family members.

  3. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    of different material length parameters in a multi-parameter theory is studied, and it is shown that the important length parameter is the same as under purely hydrostatic loading. It is quantified how micron scale voids grow less rapidly than larger voids, and the implications of this in the overall strength...... of the material is emphasized. The size effect on the onset of coalescence is studied, and results for the void volume fraction and the strain at the onset of coalescence are presented. It is concluded that for cracked specimens not only the void volume fraction, but also the typical void size is of importance...... to the fracture strength of ductile materials....

  4. Children's Concepts of the Shape and Size of the Earth, Sun and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2013-02-01

    Children's understandings of the shape and relative sizes of the Earth, Sun and Moon have been extensively researched and in a variety of ways. Much is known about the confusions which arise as young people try to grasp ideas about the world and our neighbouring celestial bodies. Despite this, there remain uncertainties about the conceptual models which young people use and how they theorise in the process of acquiring more scientific conceptions. In this article, the relevant published research is reviewed critically and in-depth in order to frame a series of investigations using semi-structured interviews carried out with 248 participants aged 3-18 years from China and New Zealand. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data concerning the reasoning of these subjects (involving cognitive categorisations and their rank ordering) confirmed that (a) concepts of Earth shape and size are embedded in a 'super-concept' or 'Earth notion' embracing ideas of physical shape, 'ground' and 'sky', habitation of and identity with Earth; (b) conceptual development is similar in cultures where teachers hold a scientific world view and (c) children's concepts of shape and size of the Earth, Sun and Moon can be usefully explored within an ethnological approach using multi-media interviews combined with observational astronomy. For these young people, concepts of the shape and size of the Moon and Sun were closely correlated with their Earth notion concepts and there were few differences between the cultures despite their contrasts. Analysis of the statistical data used Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two-Sample Tests with hypotheses confirmed at K-S alpha level 0.05; rs : p < 0.01.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study on Male Genital Shape and Size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baku Takahara

    Full Text Available Male genital morphology of animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating systems have been one of the most diverse and rapidly evolving morphological traits. The male genital morphology in general is known to have low phenotypic and genetic variations, but the genetic basis of the male genital variation remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster and its closely related species are morphologically very similar, but the shapes of the posterior lobe, a cuticular projection on the male genital arch are distinct from each other, representing a model system for studying the genetic basis of male genital morphology. In this study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of D. melanogaster to perform genome wide association analysis on posterior lobe morphology. We quantified the outline shape of posterior lobes with Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis and performed principal component analysis, and posterior lobe size. The first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2 explained approximately 88% of the total variation of the posterior lobe shape. We then examined the association between the principal component scores and posterior lobe size and 1902142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. As a result, we obtained 15, 14 and 15 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size with P-values smaller than 10(-5. Based on the location of the SNPs, 13, 13 and six protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size, respectively. In addition to the previous findings showing that the intraspecific posterior shape variation are regulated by multiple QTL with strong effects, the present study suggests that the intraspecific variation may be under polygenic regulation with a number of loci with small effects. Further studies are required for investigating whether these candidate genes are responsible for the intraspecific posterior lobe shape variation.

  6. NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) Benchmark. Volume II: uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of void distribution and critical power - Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydogan, F.; Hochreiter, L.; Ivanov, K.; Martin, M.; Utsuno, H.; Sartori, E.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the specification for the uncertainty exercises of the international OECD/NEA, NRC and NUPEC BFBT benchmark problem including the elemental task. The specification was prepared jointly by Pennsylvania State University (PSU), USA and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organisation, in cooperation with the OECD/NEA and the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA Saclay, France). The work is sponsored by the US NRC, METI-Japan, the OECD/NEA and the Nuclear Engineering Program (NEP) of Pennsylvania State University. This uncertainty specification covers the fourth exercise of Phase I (Exercise-I-4), and the third exercise of Phase II (Exercise II-3) as well as the elemental task. The OECD/NRC BFBT benchmark provides a very good opportunity to apply uncertainty analysis (UA) and sensitivity analysis (SA) techniques and to assess the accuracy of thermal-hydraulic models for two-phase flows in rod bundles. During the previous OECD benchmarks, participants usually carried out sensitivity analysis on their models for the specification (initial conditions, boundary conditions, etc.) to identify the most sensitive models or/and to improve the computed results. The comprehensive BFBT experimental database (NEA, 2006) leads us one step further in investigating modelling capabilities by taking into account the uncertainty analysis in the benchmark. The uncertainties in input data (boundary conditions) and geometry (provided in the benchmark specification) as well as the uncertainties in code models can be accounted for to produce results with calculational uncertainties and compare them with the measurement uncertainties. Therefore, uncertainty analysis exercises were defined for the void distribution and critical power phases of the BFBT benchmark. This specification is intended to provide definitions related to UA/SA methods, sensitivity/ uncertainty parameters, suggested probability distribution functions (PDF) of sensitivity parameters, and selected

  7. Statistics and geometry of cosmic voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, José

    2009-01-01

    We introduce new statistical methods for the study of cosmic voids, focusing on the statistics of largest size voids. We distinguish three different types of distributions of voids, namely, Poisson-like, lognormal-like and Pareto-like distributions. The last two distributions are connected with two types of fractal geometry of the matter distribution. Scaling voids with Pareto distribution appear in fractal distributions with box-counting dimension smaller than three (its maximum value), whereas the lognormal void distribution corresponds to multifractals with box-counting dimension equal to three. Moreover, voids of the former type persist in the continuum limit, namely, as the number density of observable objects grows, giving rise to lacunar fractals, whereas voids of the latter type disappear in the continuum limit, giving rise to non-lacunar (multi)fractals. We propose both lacunar and non-lacunar multifractal models of the cosmic web structure of the Universe. A non-lacunar multifractal model is supported by current galaxy surveys as well as cosmological N-body simulations. This model suggests, in particular, that small dark matter halos and, arguably, faint galaxies are present in cosmic voids

  8. Parking simulation of three-dimensional multi-sized star-shaped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Chen, Huisu; Xu, Wenxiang; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The shape and size of particles may have a great impact on the microstructure as well as the physico-properties of particulate composites. However, it is challenging to configure a parking system of particles to a geometrical shape that is close to realistic grains in particulate composites. In this work, with the assistance of x-ray tomography and a spherical harmonic series, we present a star-shaped particle that is close to realistic arbitrary-shaped grains. To realize such a hard particle parking structure, an inter-particle overlapping detection algorithm is introduced. A serial sectioning approach is employed to visualize the particle parking structure for the purpose of justifying the reliability of the overlapping detection algorithm. Furthermore, the validity of the area and perimeter of solids in any arbitrary section of a plane calculated using a numerical method is verified by comparison with those obtained using an image analysis approach. This contribution is helpful to further understand the dependence of the micro-structure and physico-properties of star-shaped particles on the realistic geometrical shape. (paper)

  9. Temperature controlled 'void' formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of voids in structural materials during high temperature deformation or irradiation is essentially dependent upon the existence of 'vacancy supersaturation'. The role of temperature dependent diffusion processes in 'void' formation under varying conditions, and the mechanical property changes associated with this microstructure are briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. Void nucleation at heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyyedi, S.A.; Hadji-Mirzai, M.; Russell, K.C.

    The energetics and kinetics of void nucleation at dislocations and interfaces are analyzed. These are potential void nucleation sites only when they are not point defect sinks. Both kinds of site are found to be excellent catalysts in the presence of inert gas

  11. Normal mediastinal lymph node size and shape; CT and cadaver study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Chung Kie; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    With the view point of size, shape and arrangement pattern, authors present normal mediastinal lymph node from the analysis of 61 cases of CT scan and multidirectional section of 2 cadavers. The result were as follows: 1. Transverse diameter of the lymph nodes, demonstrated in cadaver section, was 3 to 6mm in upper paratracheal area and 5 to 14mm in juxta-carinal and AP-window area. Arrangement of the lymph nodes showed tendency of longitudinal direction in lower paratracheal, and juxtacarinal area, while that of AP window showed tendency of AP direction as long axis. 2. Mean and the largest size of the lymph nodes demonstrated in CT scan were 3.7mm, 8mm in upper paratracheal area, and 6mm, 12mm in lower paratracheal area, and 7.1mm, 14mm in juxtacarinal area, and 6.3mm and 11mm in aorticopulmonary window area. 3. Size of the lymph nodes in CT scan showed linear increasing tendency according to increasing age (y=0.32, p<0.005). 4. Shape of the lymph nodes in CT scan were mostly round in upper paratracheal area while that of aorticopulmonary window showed higher incidence of oval and elongated shape. 5. Recommended size criterior of abnormal lymph node is 10mm in upper paratracheal area and 15mm in the other area

  12. Investigation of Size Effects to the Mixing Performance on the X-shaped Micro-Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the developing of micro-electro-mechanical-system, MEMS, the fabrication of the microminiaturization devices becomes obviously important. The advances in the basic understanding of fluid physics have opened an era of application of fluid dynamics systems using microchannels. The purpose of this study is to research the flow transport phenomenon by employing different kinds of micro-channel sizing in X-shaped micro-channels. As the working fluid, water is injected to microchannel at different mass flow rate. Over a wide range of flow condition, 1.06 < Re < 514, in X-shaped micro-channels, the mixture performances of numerical simulation, flow visualization, and temperature distribution remain the same. At the same mass flow rate as the Reynolds number below 112.53, the biggest channel size had the slowest flow velocity and got the best mixing performance; as the Reynolds number above 112.53, the smaller the channel sizing, the lower the pressure drops and the faster velocity becomes. The transition form early from laminar flow, the unsteady flow is an advantage for mixing in the limited mixing area, therefore 0.7 mm got the best mixing performance. It is clear that the size of the channel plays an important role in the X-shaped micro-channels.

  13. A multidimensional stability model for predicting shallow landslide size and shape across landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milledge, David G; Bellugi, Dino; McKean, Jim A; Densmore, Alexander L; Dietrich, William E

    2014-11-01

    The size of a shallow landslide is a fundamental control on both its hazard and geomorphic importance. Existing models are either unable to predict landslide size or are computationally intensive such that they cannot practically be applied across landscapes. We derive a model appropriate for natural slopes that is capable of predicting shallow landslide size but simple enough to be applied over entire watersheds. It accounts for lateral resistance by representing the forces acting on each margin of potential landslides using earth pressure theory and by representing root reinforcement as an exponential function of soil depth. We test our model's ability to predict failure of an observed landslide where the relevant parameters are well constrained by field data. The model predicts failure for the observed scar geometry and finds that larger or smaller conformal shapes are more stable. Numerical experiments demonstrate that friction on the boundaries of a potential landslide increases considerably the magnitude of lateral reinforcement, relative to that due to root cohesion alone. We find that there is a critical depth in both cohesive and cohesionless soils, resulting in a minimum size for failure, which is consistent with observed size-frequency distributions. Furthermore, the differential resistance on the boundaries of a potential landslide is responsible for a critical landslide shape which is longer than it is wide, consistent with observed aspect ratios. Finally, our results show that minimum size increases as approximately the square of failure surface depth, consistent with observed landslide depth-area data.

  14. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the ‘best’ for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus. The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298459

  15. Size, shape and age-related changes of the mandibular condyle during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Habernig, Sandra; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinics for Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurenmann, Traudel [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    To determine age-related differences in the size and shape of the mandibular condyle in children to establish anatomical reference values. A total of 420 mandibular condyles in 210 children (mean age, 7 years) were retrospectively analysed by using computed tomography (CT) imaging. The greatest left-right (LRD) and anterior-posterior (APD) diameters and the anteversion angles (AA) were measured by two readers. An APD/LRD ratio was calculated. The shape of the condyles was graded into three types on sagittal images. Correlations of parameters with the children's age were assessed by using Pearson's correlation analyses. The LRD (mean, 14.1 {+-} 2.4 mm), APD (mean, 7.3 {+-} 1.0 mm) and LRD/APD ratio (mean, 1.9 {+-} 0.3) increased (r{sub LRD} = 0.70, p < 0.01; r{sub APD} = 0.56, p < 0.01; r{sub rat} = 0.28, p < 0.01) while the AA (mean, 27 {+-} 7 ) decreased significantly (r{sub antang} = -0.26, p < 0.001) with age. The condylar shape as determined on sagittal images correlated significantly with age (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). Boys had significantly higher anteversion angles (p < 0.01), greater LRDs (p < 0.05) and greater mean ratios (p < 0.05). The mandibular condyle is subject to significant age-related changes in size and shape during childhood. As the size of the condyles increases with age, the anteversion angles decrease and the shape of the condyle turns from round to oval. (orig.)

  16. Morphologically and size uniform monodisperse particles and their shape-directed self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Joshua E.; Bell, Howard Y.; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher Bruce

    2017-09-12

    Monodisperse particles having: a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology are disclosed. Due to their uniform size and shape, the monodisperse particles self assemble into superlattices. The particles may be luminescent particles such as down-converting phosphor particles and up-converting phosphors. The monodisperse particles of the invention have a rare earth-containing lattice which in one embodiment may be an yttrium-containing lattice or in another may be a lanthanide-containing lattice. The monodisperse particles may have different optical properties based on their composition, their size, and/or their morphology (or shape). Also disclosed is a combination of at least two types of monodisperse particles, where each type is a plurality of monodisperse particles having a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology; and where the types of monodisperse particles differ from one another by composition, by size, or by morphology. In a preferred embodiment, the types of monodisperse particles have the same composition but different morphologies. Methods of making and methods of using the monodisperse particles are disclosed.

  17. Otolith shape and size: The importance of age when determining indices for fish-stock separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mapp, James; Hunter, Ewan; Van Der Kooij, Jeroen; Songer, Sally; Fisher, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Stock-separation of highly mobile Clupeids (sprat – Sprattus sprattus and herring – Clupea harengus) using otolith morphometrics was explored. Analysis focused on three stock discrimination problems with the aim of reassigning individual otoliths to source populations using experiments undertaken using a machine learning environment known as \\{WEKA\\} (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis). Six feature sets encoding combinations of size and shape together with nine learning algorithms we...

  18. Influence of preservative and mounting media on the size and shape of monogenean sclerites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankoua, Severin-Oscar; Bitja Nyom, Arnold R; Bahanak, Dieu Ne Dort; Bilong Bilong, Charles F; Pariselle, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Based on Cichlidogyrus sp. (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) specimens from Hemichromis sp. hosts, we tested the influence of different methods to fix/preserve samples/specimens [frozen material, alcohol or formalin preserved, museum process for fish preservation (fixed in formalin and preserved in alcohol)] and different media used to mount the slides [tap water, glycerin ammonium picrate (GAP), Hoyer's one (HM)] on the size/shape of sclerotized parts of monogenean specimens. The results show that the use of HM significantly increases the size of haptoral sclerites [marginal hooks I, II, IV, V, and VI; dorsal bar length, width, distance between auricles and auricle length, ventral bar length and width], and changes their shape [angle opening between shaft and guard (outer and inner roots) in both ventral and dorsal anchors, ventral bar much wider, dorsal one less curved]. This influence seems to be reduced when specimens/samples are fixed in formalin. The systematics of Monogenea being based on the size and shape of their sclerotized parts, to prevent misidentifications or description of invalid new species, we recommend the use of GAP as mounting medium; Hoyer's one should be restricted to monogenean specimens fixed for a long time which are more shrunken.

  19. Entropic effects, shape, and size of mixed micelles formed by copolymers with complex architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Moultos, Othonas; Vlahos, Costas

    2015-11-01

    The entropic effects in the comicellization behavior of amphiphilic A B copolymers differing in the chain size of solvophilic A parts were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, mixtures of miktoarm star copolymers differing in the molecular weight of solvophilic arms were investigated. We found that the critical micelle concentration values show a positive deviation from the analytical predictions of the molecular theory of comicellization for chemically identical copolymers. This can be attributed to the effective interactions between copolymers originated from the arm size asymmetry. The effective interactions induce a very small decrease in the aggregation number of preferential micelles triggering the nonrandom mixing between the solvophilic moieties in the corona. Additionally, in order to specify how the chain architecture affects the size distribution and the shape of mixed micelles we studied star-shaped, H-shaped, and homo-linked-rings-linear mixtures. In the first case the individual constituents form micelles with preferential and wide aggregation numbers and in the latter case the individual constituents form wormlike and spherical micelles.

  20. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  1. Investigation of influence of falling rock size and shape on traveling distance due to earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In evaluation of seismic stability of surrounding slope in a nuclear power plant, as a part of residual risk evaluation, it is essential to confirm the effects of surrounding slope failure on a important structure, when slope failure probability is not sufficiently small for extremely large earthquake. So evaluation of slope failure potential based on a falling rocks analyses considering slope failure using discontinuous model such as distinct element method(DEM) will be employed in near future. But, these slope collapse analysis by discontinuous model needs determination of input data of falling rock size and shape, and some problems about determination method of these size and shape condition and analysis accuracy are remained. In this study, the results of slope collapse experiment by shaking table and numerical simulation of this experiment by DEM is conducted to clarify the influence of falling rock size and shape on traveling distance. As a results, it is indicated that more massive and larger rock model gives safety side evaluation for traveling distance. (author)

  2. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tremlová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  3. Temporal trends in vertebral size and shape from medieval to modern-day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Junno

    Full Text Available Human lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the upper body. Loads lifted and carried by the upper extremities cause significant loading stress to the vertebral bodies. It is well established that trauma-induced vertebral fractures are common especially among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological factors that could have affected the prevalence of trauma-related vertebral fractures from medieval times to the present day. To determine if morphological differences existed in the size and shape of the vertebral body between medieval times and the present day, the vertebral body size and shape was measured from the 4th lumbar vertebra using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and standard osteometric calipers. The modern samples consisted of modern Finns and the medieval samples were from archaeological collections in Sweden and Britain. The results show that the shape and size of the 4th lumbar vertebra has changed significantly from medieval times in a way that markedly affects the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral column. These changes may have influenced the incidence of trauma- induced spinal fractures in modern populations.

  4. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  5. Controlling the Size and Shape of the Elastin-Like Polypeptide based Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletzky, Kiril; Shuman, Hannah; Maraschky, Adam; Holland, Nolan

    Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) trimer constructs make reliable environmentally responsive micellar systems because they exhibit a controllable transition from being water-soluble at low temperatures to aggregating at high temperatures. It has been shown that depending on the specific details of the ELP design (length of the ELP chain, pH and salt concentration) micelles can vary in size and shape between spherical micelles with diameter 30-100 nm to elongated particles with an aspect ratio of about 10. This makes ELP trimers a convenient platform for developing potential drug delivery and bio-sensing applications as well as for understanding micelle formation in ELP systems. Since at a given salt concentration, the headgroup area for each foldon should be constant, the size of the micelles is expected to be proportional to the volume of the linear ELP available per foldon headgroup. Therefore, adding linear ELPs to a system of ELP-foldon should result in changes of the micelle volume allowing to control micelle size and possibly shape. The effects of addition of linear ELPs on size, shape, and molecular weight of micelles at different salt concentrations were studied by a combination of Dynamic Light Scattering and Static Light Scattering. The initial results on 50 µM ELP-foldon samples (at low salt) show that Rh of mixed micelles increases more than 5-fold as the amount of linear ELP raised from 0 to 50 µM. It was also found that a given mixture of linear and trimer constructs has two temperature-based transitions and therefore displays three predominant size regimes.

  6. On the observability of coupled dark energy with cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Carlesi, Edoardo; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Taking N-body simulations with volumes and particle densities tuned to match the sloan digital sky survey DR7 spectroscopic main sample, we assess the ability of current void catalogues to distinguish a model of coupled dark matter-dark energy from Λ cold dark matter cosmology using properties of cosmic voids. Identifying voids with the VIDE toolkit, we find no statistically significant differences in the ellipticities, but find that coupling produces a population of significantly larger voids, possibly explaining the recent result of Tavasoli et al. In addition, we use the universal density profile of Hamaus et al. to quantify the relationship between coupling and density profile shape, finding that the coupling produces broader, shallower, undercompensated profiles for large voids by thinning the walls between adjacent medium-scale voids. We find that these differences are potentially measurable with existing void catalogues once effects from survey geometries and peculiar velocities are taken into account.

  7. Optical Response of CeB_6 Nanoparticles with Different Sizes and Shapes from Discrete-Dipole Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Luo-Meng; Bao Li-Hong; Tegus, O.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete dipole approximation is used to investigate the optical response of CeB_6 nanoparticles with different sizes and different shapes. The extinction valley in the visible light range becomes narrower and the extinction peak at the near infrared region (NIR) is red-shifted with the increasing particle size. In addition, the extinction peak value of the spherical particle decreases more rapidly than that of cubic-shaped particle with an increase in the particle size, and the cubic-shaped particles exhibit better performance on blocking NIR radiation than spherical-shaped particles. The calculation results coincide well with the reported experimental results. (paper)

  8. Evolutionary morphology in shape and size of haptoral anchors in 14 Ligophorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Abril; Sarabeev, Volodimir; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance. Overall significant phylogenetic signal was found in the data. Allometric effects on anchor shape were moderate or non-significant in the case of evolutionary allometry. Relatively phylogenetically distant species occurring on the same host differed markedly in anchor morphology indicating little influence of host species on anchor form. Our results suggest that common descent and shared evolutionary history play a major role in determining the shape and, to a lesser degree in the size of haptoral anchors in Ligophorus spp. The present approach allowed tracing paths of morphological evolution in anchor shape. Species with narrow anchors and long shafts were associated predominately with Liza saliens. This morphology was considered to be ancestral relative to anchors of species occurring on Liza haematocheila and M. cephalus possessing shorter shafts and longer roots. Evidence for phylogenetic signal was more compelling for the ventral anchors, than for the dorsal ones, which could reflect different functional roles in attachment to the gills. Although phylogeny and homoplasy may act differently in other monogeneans, the present study delivers a common framework to address effectively the relationships among morphology, phylogeny and other traits, such as host specificity

  9. Evolutionary morphology in shape and size of haptoral anchors in 14 Ligophorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abril Rodríguez-González

    Full Text Available The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance. Overall significant phylogenetic signal was found in the data. Allometric effects on anchor shape were moderate or non-significant in the case of evolutionary allometry. Relatively phylogenetically distant species occurring on the same host differed markedly in anchor morphology indicating little influence of host species on anchor form. Our results suggest that common descent and shared evolutionary history play a major role in determining the shape and, to a lesser degree in the size of haptoral anchors in Ligophorus spp. The present approach allowed tracing paths of morphological evolution in anchor shape. Species with narrow anchors and long shafts were associated predominately with Liza saliens. This morphology was considered to be ancestral relative to anchors of species occurring on Liza haematocheila and M. cephalus possessing shorter shafts and longer roots. Evidence for phylogenetic signal was more compelling for the ventral anchors, than for the dorsal ones, which could reflect different functional roles in attachment to the gills. Although phylogeny and homoplasy may act differently in other monogeneans, the present study delivers a common framework to address effectively the relationships among morphology, phylogeny and other traits, such

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles for power absorption: Optimizing size, shape and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, M.A.; Torres, T.E.; Andres-Verges, M.; Costo, R.; Presa, P. de la; Serna, C.J.; Morales, M.P.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M.R.; Goya, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study on the magnetic properties of naked and silica-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 110 nm. Their efficiency as heating agents was assessed through specific power absorption (SPA) measurements as a function of particle size and shape. The results show a strong dependence of the SPA with the particle size, with a maximum around 30 nm, as expected for a Neel relaxation mechanism in single-domain particles. The SiO 2 shell thickness was found to play an important role in the SPA mechanism by hindering the heat outflow, thus decreasing the heating efficiency. It is concluded that a compromise between good heating efficiency and surface functionality for biomedical purposes can be attained by making the SiO 2 functional coating as thin as possible. - Graphical Abstract: The magnetic properties of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles from 5 to 110 nm are presented, and their efficiency as heating agents discussed as a function of particle size, shape and surface functionalization.

  11. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dellicour

    Full Text Available Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal

  12. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Gerard, Maxence; Prunier, Jérôme G; Dewulf, Alexandre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size) variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal/structure within the

  13. A simple shape-free model for pore-size estimation with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ken; Hyodo, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is one of the methods for estimating pore size in insulating materials. We present a shape-free model to be used conveniently for such analysis. A basic model in classical picture is modified by introducing a parameter corresponding to an effective size of the positronium (Ps). This parameter is adjusted so that its Ps-lifetime to pore-size relation merges smoothly with that of the well-established Tao-Eldrup model (with modification involving the intrinsic Ps annihilation rate) applicable to very small pores. The combined model, i.e., modified Tao-Eldrup model for smaller pores and the modified classical model for larger pores, agrees surprisingly well with the quantum-mechanics based extended Tao-Eldrup model, which deals with Ps trapped in and thermally equilibrium with a rectangular pore.

  14. A simple shape-free model for pore-size estimation with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ken; Hyodo, Toshio

    2013-06-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is one of the methods for estimating pore size in insulating materials. We present a shape-free model to be used conveniently for such analysis. A basic model in classical picture is modified by introducing a parameter corresponding to an effective size of the positronium (Ps). This parameter is adjusted so that its Ps-lifetime to pore-size relation merges smoothly with that of the well-established Tao-Eldrup model (with modification involving the intrinsic Ps annihilation rate) applicable to very small pores. The combined model, i.e., modified Tao-Eldrup model for smaller pores and the modified classical model for larger pores, agrees surprisingly well with the quantum-mechanics based extended Tao-Eldrup model, which deals with Ps trapped in and thermally equilibrium with a rectangular pore.

  15. Size and diluted magnetic properties of diamond shaped graphene quantum dots: Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic properties of diamond shaped graphene quantum dots have been investigated by varying their sizes with the Monte Carlo simulation. The magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities have been studied with dilutions x (magnetic atom), several sizes L (carbon atom) and exchange interaction J between the magnetic atoms. The all magnetic susceptibilities have been situated at the transitions temperatures of each parameters. The obtained values increase when increases the values of x, L and J. The effect of exchanges interactions and crystal field on the magnetization has been discussed. The magnetic hysteresis cycles for several dilutions x, sizes L, exchange interactions J and temperatures T. The magnetic coercive increases with increasing the exchange interactions and decreases when the temperatures values increasing.

  16. Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Li, Ju; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Martensitic transformation usually creates hierarchical internal structures beyond mere change of the atomic crystal structure. Multi-stage nucleation is thus required, where nucleation (level-1) of the underlying atomic crystal lattice does not have to be immediately followed by the nucleation of higher-order superstructures (level-2 and above), such as polysynthetic laths. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we directly observe the nucleation of the level-2 superstructure in a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal under compression, with critical super-nuclei size L2c around 500 nm. When the sample size D decreases below L2c, the superelasticity behavior changes from a flat stress plateau to a continuously rising stress-strain curve. Such size dependence definitely would impact the application of shape memory alloys in miniaturized MEMS/NEMS devices.

  17. Effect of grain size on superelasticity in Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Omori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of grain size on superelastic properties in Fe-34Mn-15Al-7.5Ni alloy wires with a ⟨110⟩ fiber-texture were investigated by cyclic tensile tests. It was confirmed that the critical stress for induced martensitic transformation and the superelastic strain are functions of relative grain size d/D (d: mean grain diameter, D: wire diameter, and that the critical stress is proportional to (1–d/D2 as well as in Cu-based shape memory alloys. A large superelastic strain of about 5% was obtained in the specimen with a large relative grain size over d/D = 1.

  18. Air void clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been identified as a potential source of : low strengths in concrete mixes by several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research was : carried out to (1) develop a quantitati...

  19. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  20. Chest roentgenographic findings of thymic size and shape in respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Young Ho; Yoon, Sung Do; Sung, Ki Yeal; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Jong Woo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1984-01-01

    Thymic size can be affected by both exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids. Development of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is influenced by adrenal cortical function. Thus, thymic size in RDS is considered to be enlarged due to decreased adrenal cortical function. To find whether the presence of RDS correlates with the thymus, the size and shape of the thymus were evaluated in the radiographs of premature infants with RDS, without RDS (control prematurity) and normal infants. The subjects were consisted of chest films of Korean premature infants, 120 with RDS, 60 without RDS, and 60 of normal infants taken at the Department of Radiology, Our Lady of Mercy Hospital during the period of 62 months since January 1978. Relative size of the thymus was determine by cardiothymic/thoracic ratio (CT /T ratio). Grading and location of the thymic prominence as well as incidence of the shape were examined. And all the relations among the radiographs of RDS, control prematurity and normal infants were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The CT/T ratio of premature infants with RDS was significantly greater than that of control prematurity and normal infants (P< 0.01). 2. The incidence of bilateral thymic prominence was more frequent in premature infant with RDS than in control prematurity and normal infants (P<0.05). 3. The frequency of thymic prominence was greater in the right than left side in all the three groups (P<0.05). 4. As in the shape of the thymus, a rounded type was most frequent, and a triangular type was least frequent in all three groups. 5. Incident of RDS was very low (9.8%) when the CT/T ratio is below 0.3 and it was very high (90.9%) when the CT/T ratio is above 0.49.

  1. Structure Sensitivity Study of Waterborne Contaminant Hydrogenation Using Shape- and Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng; McCalman, Dorrell C.; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R.; Schneider, William F.; Werth, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic reduction with Pd has emerged as a promising technology to remove a suite of contaminants from drinking water, such as oxyanions, disinfection byproducts, and halogenated pollutants, but low activity is a major challenge for application. To address this challenge, we synthesized a set of shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles and evaluated the activity of three probe contaminants (i.e., nitrite, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and diatrizoate) as a function of facet type (e.g., (100), (110), (111)), ratios of low- to high-coordination sites, and ratios of surface sites to total Pd (i.e., dispersion). Reduction results for an initial contaminant concentration of 100 μM show that initial turnover frequency (TOF0) for nitrite increases 4.7-fold with increasing percent of (100) surface Pd sites (from 0% to 95.3%), whereas the TOF0 for NDMA and for diatrizoate increases 4.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively, with an increasing percent of terrace surface Pd sites (from 79.8% to 95.3%). Results for an initial nitrite concentration of 2 mM show that TOF0 is the same for all shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles. Trends for TOF0 were supported by results showing that all catalysts but one were stable in shape and size up to 12 days; for the exception, iodide liberation in diatrizoate reduction appeared to be responsible for a shape change of 4 nm octahedral Pd nanoparticles. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations for the free energy change of hydrogen (H2), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) adsorption and a two-site model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism suggest that competition of adsorbates for different Pd sites can explain the TOF0 results. Our study shows for the first time that catalytic reduction activity for waterborne contaminant removal varies with the Pd shape and size, and it suggests that Pd catalysts can be tailored for optimal performance to treat a variety of contaminants for drinking water. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Structure Sensitivity Study of Waterborne Contaminant Hydrogenation Using Shape- and Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2013-03-01

    Catalytic reduction with Pd has emerged as a promising technology to remove a suite of contaminants from drinking water, such as oxyanions, disinfection byproducts, and halogenated pollutants, but low activity is a major challenge for application. To address this challenge, we synthesized a set of shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles and evaluated the activity of three probe contaminants (i.e., nitrite, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and diatrizoate) as a function of facet type (e.g., (100), (110), (111)), ratios of low- to high-coordination sites, and ratios of surface sites to total Pd (i.e., dispersion). Reduction results for an initial contaminant concentration of 100 μM show that initial turnover frequency (TOF0) for nitrite increases 4.7-fold with increasing percent of (100) surface Pd sites (from 0% to 95.3%), whereas the TOF0 for NDMA and for diatrizoate increases 4.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively, with an increasing percent of terrace surface Pd sites (from 79.8% to 95.3%). Results for an initial nitrite concentration of 2 mM show that TOF0 is the same for all shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles. Trends for TOF0 were supported by results showing that all catalysts but one were stable in shape and size up to 12 days; for the exception, iodide liberation in diatrizoate reduction appeared to be responsible for a shape change of 4 nm octahedral Pd nanoparticles. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations for the free energy change of hydrogen (H2), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) adsorption and a two-site model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism suggest that competition of adsorbates for different Pd sites can explain the TOF0 results. Our study shows for the first time that catalytic reduction activity for waterborne contaminant removal varies with the Pd shape and size, and it suggests that Pd catalysts can be tailored for optimal performance to treat a variety of contaminants for drinking water. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Size- and shape-dependent clinical and mycological efficacy of silver nanoparticles on dandruff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar MF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad F Anwar,1 Deepak Yadav,2 Swati Jain,3 Sumeet Kapoor,4 Shweta Rastogi,5 Indu Arora,6 Mohammed Samim1 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, 3Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 4Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 5Department of Chemistry, Hans Raj College, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Dandruff is a prominent scalp problem caused by the growth of fungus Malassezia furfur, potentially cascading into dermal inflammation, itching, and tissue damage. The present work outlines a detailed analysis of the treatment of scalp infection using silver nanomaterials (Ag NMs, and focuses on biocidal activity owing to manipulation of size, shape, and structure. Monodisperse silver spherical nanoparticles (NPs and nanorods (NRs were synthesized by chemical routes that were characterized using analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Ag NMs demonstrated enhanced biocidal tendencies compared to market available drugs, itracanozole and ketoconazole, showing greater zones of inhibition. The obtained 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs and 50 nm NRs showed concentration-, size-, and shape-dependent antifungal activity, with 20 nm spherical-shaped NPs exhibiting excellent potency. Minimum inhibitory concentration for 20 nm was lowest at 0.2 mg/mL in comparison to 0.3 mg/mL for NRs. Primary irritation index was 0.33 and 0.16 for 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs, respectively, while 50 nm rod-shaped NMs exhibited negligible redness. An in vivo model for M. furfur infection was generated by passing fungi subcutaneously in rats’ skin. Again, 20 nm particles showed best normalization of skin after 10 days on regular dosing, in comparison with bigger and rod-shaped particles. The statistical clinical score was

  4. Ecological and evolutionary influences on body size and shape in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Glaberman, Scott; Tarroso, Pedro; Caccone, Adalgisa; Claude, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Oceanic islands are often inhabited by endemic species that have undergone substantial morphological evolutionary change due to processes of multiple colonizations from various source populations, dispersal, and local adaptation. Galápagos marine iguanas are an example of an island endemic exhibiting high morphological diversity, including substantial body size variation among populations and sexes, but the causes and magnitude of this variation are not well understood. We obtained morphological measurements from marine iguanas throughout their distribution range. These data were combined with genetic and local environmental data from each population to investigate the effects of evolutionary history and environmental conditions on body size and shape variation and sexual dimorphism. Our results indicate that body size and shape are highly variable among populations. Sea surface temperature and island perimeter, but not evolutionary history as depicted by phylogeographic patterns in this species, explain variation in body size among populations. Conversely, evolutionary history, but not environmental parameters or island size, was found to influence variation in body shape among populations. Finally, in all populations except one, we found strong sexual dimorphism in body size and shape in which males are larger, with higher heads than females, while females have longer heads than males. Differences among populations suggest that plasticity and/or genetic adaptation may shape body size and shape variation in marine iguanas. This study will help target future investigations to address the contribution of plasticity versus genetic adaptation on size and shape variation in marine iguanas.

  5. Effects of shape and size of agar gels on heating uniformity during pulsed microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Reyes, Nohemí; Temis-Pérez, Ana L; López-Malo, Aurelio; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2015-05-01

    Model gel systems with different shape (sphere, cylinder, and slab) and size (180 and 290 g) were prepared with agar (5%) and sucrose (5%). Dielectric constant (ε'), loss factor (ε"), thermophysical properties, and temperature distribution of the model system were measured. Each agar model system was immersed and suspended in water, and then, heated in a microwave oven with intermittent heating until the core temperature reached 50 °C. The ε' and ε" of agar gels decreased when frequency increased. The density and thermal conductivity values of the agar gels were 1033 kg/m(3) and 0.55 W/m °C, respectively. The temperature distribution of sphere, cylinder, and slab was different when similar power doses were applied. The slab reached 50 °C in less time (10 min) and showed a more uniform heating than spheres and cylinders in both sizes. Agar model systems of 180 g heated faster than those of 290 g. The coldest point was the center of the model systems in all studied cases. Shape and size are critical food factors that affect the heating uniformity during microwave heating processes. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. A Quantitative Comparison Between Size, Shape, Topology and Simultaneous Optimization for Truss Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Müller

    Full Text Available Abstract There are typically three broad categories of structural optimization namely size, shape and topology. Over the past few decades various researchers have focused on developing techniques for optimizing structures by considering either one or a combination of these aspects. In this paper the efficiency of these techniques are investigated in an effort to quantify the improvement of the result obtained by utilizing a more complex optimization routine. The percentage of the structural weight saved and computational effort required are used as measures to compare these techniques. The well-known genetic algorithm with elitism is used to perform these tests on various benchmark structures found in literature. Some of the results that are obtained include that a simultaneous approach produces, on average, a 22 % better solution than a simple size optimization and a 12 % improvement when compared to a staged approach where the size, shape and topology of the structure is considered sequentially. From these results, it is concluded that a significant saving can be made by using a more complex optimization routine, such as a simultaneous approach.

  7. Size- and Shape-Dependent Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Wet Chemical Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram Raza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs of different shapes and sizes were prepared by solution-based chemical reduction routes. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor, tri-sodium citrate (TSC and sodium borohydride as reducing agents, while polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was used as a stabilizing agent. The morphology, size, and structural properties of obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. Spherical AgNPs, as depicted by SEM, were found to have diameters in the range of 15 to 90 nm while lengths of the edges of the triangular particles were about 150 nm. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks of different spherical silver colloids occurring in the wavelength range of 397 to 504 nm, whereas triangular particles showed two peaks, first at 392 nm and second at 789 nm as measured by UV-VIS. The XRD spectra of the prepared samples indicated the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. The in vitro antibacterial properties of all synthesized AgNPs against two types of Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were examined by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method. It was noticed that the smallest-sized spherical AgNPs demonstrated a better antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains as compared to the triangular and larger spherical shaped AgNPs.

  8. Anti-Gravity Loop-shaped heat pipe with graded pore-size wick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yong; Zhou Rui; Lu Longsheng; Xie Zichun

    2012-01-01

    An Anti-Gravity Loop-Shaped Heat Pipe (AGLSHP) with a Continuous Graded Pore-Size Wick (CGPSW) was developed for the cooling of electronic devices at the anti-gravity orientation on the ground. At this orientation, heat is transferred toward the direction of the gravitational field. The AGLSHP consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a vapor line and a liquid line. The CGPSW is formed by sintered copper powders and it is filled inside the evaporator and the liquid line. The corresponding test system was developed to investigate the start-up characteristics and heat transfer performance of the AGLSHP at the anti-gravity orientation. The experimental result shows that, the AGLSHP has the capability to start-up reliably without any temperature overshoot or oscillation at the test heat loads. And the AGLSHP is able to keep the temperature of the evaporator below 105 °C and the overall thermal resistance below 0.24 °C/W at the heat load of 100 W. It is also found that the ideal heat load range of the AGLSHP at the anti-gravity orientation is from 30 W to 90 W. In this power range the overall thermal resistance stabilizes at about 0.15 °C/W, and the maximum temperature of the evaporator is lower than 84 °C at the heat load of 90 W. - Highlights: ► We present a loop-shaped heat pipe for the anti-gravity application on the ground. ► We present the continuous graded pore-size wick and its fabrication process. ► We test the start-up and heat transfer performance of this loop-shaped heat pipe. ► This loop-shaped heat pipe starts up reliably and has satisfying heat transfer capability.

  9. Effects of shape, size, and pyrene doping on electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuamit, Thanawit; Ratanasak, Manussada; Rungnim, Chompoonut; Parasuk, Vudhichai

    2017-11-25

    Effects of size, shape, and pyrene doping on electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) were theoretically investigated using density functional theory method with PBE, B3PW91, and M06-2X functionals and cc-pVDZ basis set. Two shapes of zigzag GNFs, hexagonal (HGN) and rhomboidal (RGN), were considered. The energy band gap of GNF depends on shape and decreases with size. The HGN has larger band gap energy (1.23-3.96 eV) than the RGN (0.13-2.12 eV). The doping of pyrene and pyrene derivatives on both HGN and RGN was also studied. The adsorption energy of pyrene and pyrene derivatives on GNF does not depend on the shape of GNFs with energies between 21 and 27 kcal mol -1 . The substituent on pyrene enhances the binding to GNF but the strength does not depend on electron withdrawing or donating capability. The doping by pyrene and pyrene derivatives also shifts the HOMO and LUMO energies of GNFs. Both positive (destabilizing) and negative (stabilizing) shifts on HOMO and LUMO of GNFs were seen. The direction and magnitude of the shift do not follow the electron withdrawing and donating capability of pyrene substituents. However, only a slight shift was observed for doped RGN. A shift of 0.19 eV was noticed for HOMO of HGN doped with 1-aminopyrene (pyNH 2 ) and of 0.04 eV for LUMO of HGN doped with 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid (pyCOOH). Graphical Abstract HOMO and LUMO Energies of pyrene/pyrene derivatives doped Graphene Nanoflakes.

  10. Food web structure shaped by habitat size and climate across a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Piccoli, Gustavo C O; de Omena, Paula M; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago

    2016-10-01

    Habitat size and climate are known to affect the trophic structure and dynamics of communities, but their interactive effects are poorly understood. Organisms from different trophic levels vary in terms of metabolic requirements and heat dissipation. Indeed, larger species such as keystone predators require more stable climatic conditions than their prey. Likewise, habitat size disproportionally affects large-sized predators, which require larger home ranges and are thus restricted to larger habitats. Therefore, food web structure in patchy ecosystems is expected to be shaped by habitat size and climate variations. Here we investigate this prediction using natural aquatic microcosm (bromeliad phytotelmata) food webs composed of litter resources (mainly detritus), detritivores, mesopredators, and top predators (damselflies). We surveyed 240 bromeliads of varying sizes (water retention capacity) across 12 open restingas in SE Brazil spread across a wide range of tropical latitudes (-12.6° to -27.6°, ca. 2,000 km) and climates (Δ mean annual temperature = 5.3°C). We found a strong increase in predator-to-detritivore mass ratio with habitat size, which was representative of a typical inverted trophic pyramid in larger ecosystems. However, this relationship was contingent among the restingas; slopes of linear models were steeper in more stable and favorable climates, leading to inverted trophic pyramids (and top-down control) being more pronounced in environments with more favorable climatic conditions. By contrast, detritivore-resource and mesopredator-detritivore mass ratios were not affected by habitat size or climate variations across latitudes. Our results highlight that the combined effects of habitat size, climate and predator composition are pivotal to understanding the impacts of multiple environmental factors on food web structure and dynamics. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Lead, zinc and copper fine powder with controlled size and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A Rabah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the preparation of lead, zinc and copper powders by hydrometallurgy from secondary resources. Chloride, sulphate and acetate salts of zinc, copper and lead were prepared. The powders were prepared by reducing the ionic species of these metals by hydrazine hydrate or ascorbic acid. The effect of addition of some water soluble polar organic solvents to the aqueous salt solutions on the morphology and particle size of the prepared powder was studied. Findings were explained on the basis of the transition state theory and according to the Hughes and Ingold’s rule. Aqueous solutions alone produce metal powder having different size and irregular shape. The presence of polar organic solvents with high molecular weight and polarity produce powders having controlled size and regular morphology. The reason was because solvent polarity enhances the rate of red-ox reactions between metal ions and the reducing agent. The mean particle size of the powder was 60 um with zinc, 80 um with copper, and 90 um with lead. The extent of productivity was ≥98%. Results highlighted that the chemical reduction of the ionic species took place in a sequence steps. The first is a diffusion of the reactants across a boundary layer established at the polar site of the organic solvent molecules. The next step is the direct contact of the reactants. The third step involved reduction to yield powder. The last is the backward diffusion of the powder outside the boundary layer. Results showed that addition of water-miscible solvents having high dielectric constant increased the polarity of the medium. This energizes and enhances the one or more t step of the model to be more rapid to yield particles with small size and symmetrical shape.

  12. Failure by void coalescence in metallic materials containing primary and secondary voids subject to intense shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    Failure under intense shearing at close to zero stress triaxiality is widely observed for ductile metallic materials, and is identified in experiments as smeared-out dimples on the fracture surface. Numerical cell-model studies of equal sized voids have revealed that the mechanism governing...... this shear failure mode boils down to the interaction between primary voids which rotate and elongate until coalescence occurs under severe plastic deformation of the internal ligaments. The objective of this paper is to analyze this failure mechanism of primary voids and to study the effect of smaller...... secondary damage that co-exists with or nucleation in the ligaments between larger voids that coalesce during intense shearing. A numerical cell-model study is carried out to gain a parametric understanding of the overall material response for different initial conditions of the two void populations...

  13. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  14. Influence of shape and size of the particles on jigging separation of plastics mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Fernando; Castilho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Plastics are popular for numerous applications due to their high versatility and favourable properties such as endurance, lightness and cheapness. Therefore the generation of plastic waste is constantly increasing, becoming one of the larger categories in municipal solid waste. Almost all plastic materials are recyclable, but for the recycling to be possible it is necessary to separate the different types of plastics. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of the jig separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. For this study six granulated plastics had been used: Polystyrene (PS), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET-S, PET-D) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC-M, PVC-D). Plastics mixtures were subjected to jigging in a laboratorial Denver mineral jig. The results showed that the quality of the jigging separation varies with the mixture, the density differences and with the size and shape of the particles. In the case of particles with more regular shapes the quality of separation of bi-component plastic mixtures improved with the increase of the particle size. For lamellar particles the influence of particle size was minimal. In general, the beneficiation of plastics with similar densities was not effective, since the separation efficiency was lower than 25%. However, in bi-component plastic mixtures that join a low density plastic (PS) with a high density one (PMMA, PET-S, PET-D, PVC-M and PVC-D), the quality of the jigging separation was greatly improved. The PS grade in the sunk was less than 1% for all the plastic mixtures. Jigging proved to be an effective method for the separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. Jigging separation will be enhanced if the less dense plastic, that overflows, has a lamellar shape and if the denser plastic, that sinks, has a regular one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of particle shape and size on nanofluid properties for potential Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR in oil and gas industry is very important to increase oil recovery and prolong the lifetime of a reservoir but it has been very costly and losing properties of EOR agent due to harsh condition. Nanoparticles have been used in EOR application since they are not degradable in reservoir condition and used in smaller amount compared to polymer usage. Commonly, EOR techniques are focusing on increasing the sweep efficiency by controlling the mobility ratio between reservoir fluid and injected fluid. Thus, this research aimed to analyze the nanofluid viscosity at different particle size and shape, volumetric concentration and types of dispersing fluid, as well as to determine the oil recovery performance at different nanofluid concentration. The nanofluid viscosity was investigated at nanoparticle sizes of 15nm and 60nm and shapes of 15nm spherical-solid and porous. Five nanofluid samples with concentration ranging from 0.1wt.% to 7wt.% were used to investigate the effect of volumetric concentration. Distilled water, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG and brine were used for the effect of dispersing fluids. Oil recovery was investigated at five different concentrations of nanofluid samples through flooding test. It was found that viscosity of nanofluid increased with decreasing particle size and increasing volumetric concentration. Solid shape particle and increasing dispersing fluid viscosity resulted in higher nanofluid viscosity. The higher the nanofluid concentration, the higher the oil recovery obtained. It can be concluded that nanofluid properties have been significantly affected by the environment and the particle used for potential EOR application.

  16. Using Light Curves to Characterize Size and Shape of Pseudo-Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Heather M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Barker, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Photometric measurements were collected for a new study aimed at estimating orbital debris sizes based on object brightness. To obtain a size from optical measurements the current practice is to assume an albedo and use a normalized magnitude to calculate optical size. However, assuming a single albedo value may not be valid for all objects or orbit types; material type and orientation can mask an object s true optical cross section. This experiment used a CCD camera to record data, a 300 W Xenon, Ozone Free collimated light source to simulate solar illumination, and a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom to move the piece of simulated debris through various orientations. The pseudo-debris pieces used in this experiment originate from the European Space Operations Centre s ESOC2 ground test explosion of a mock satellite. A uniformly illuminated white ping-pong ball was used as a zero-magnitude reference. Each debris piece was then moved through specific orientations and rotations to generate a light curve. This paper discusses the results of five different object-based light curves as measured through an x-rotation. Intensity measurements, from which each light curve was generated, were recorded in five degree increments from zero to 180 degrees. Comparing light curves of different shaped and sized pieces against their characteristic length establishes the start of a database from which an optical size estimation model will be derived in the future.

  17. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K.; Visscher, P.M.; Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    ), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program...... effects under the assumptions of no nonadditive effect. The pattern of age trends was inconsistent. However, when significant there was a decrease in heritability with advancing age. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that adult body size, shape, and composition are highly heritable in both women and men...

  18. Magnetization Reversal of Nanoscale Islands: How Size and Shape Affect the Arrhenius Prefactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Herzog, G.; Stapelfeldt, T.; Berbil-Bautista, L.; Bode, M.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2009-09-01

    The thermal switching behavior of individual in-plane magnetized Fe/W(110) nanoislands is investigated by a combined study of variable-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Even for islands consisting of less than 100 atoms the magnetization reversal takes place via nucleation and propagation. The Arrhenius prefactor is found to strongly depend on the individual island size and shape, and based on the experimental results a simple model is developed to describe the magnetization reversal in terms of metastable states. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations confirm the model and provide new insight into the microscopic processes involved in magnetization reversal of smallest nanomagnets.

  19. Characteristics of Teeth: A Review of Size, Shape, Composition, and Appearance of Maxillary Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Although digital technologies play an increasingly integral role in dentistry, there remains a need for dental professionals to understand the fundamentals of tooth anatomy, form, occlusion, and color science. In this article, the size, shape, composition, and appearance of maxillary anterior teeth will be discussed from esthetic and functional perspectives. A total of 600 extracted maxillary incisors were studied: 200 each of central incisors, lateral incisors, and cuspids. The purpose of the article is to exhibit and discuss factors that make teeth unique and diverse. Understanding these aspects of teeth aids dental professionals in more effectively creating realistic and highly esthetic restorations for patients.

  20. Body size and shape misperception and visual adaptation: An overview of an emerging research paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Kirsten L; Mond, Jonathan; Stephen, Ian D; Mitchison, Deborah; Stevenson, Richard J; Hay, Phillipa; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-12-01

    Although body size and shape misperception (BSSM) is a common feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia, little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Recently, a new approach has emerged, based on the long-established non-invasive technique of perceptual adaptation, which allows for inferences about the structure of the neural apparatus responsible for alterations in visual appearance. Here, we describe several recent experimental examples of BSSM, wherein exposure to "extreme" body stimuli causes visual aftereffects of biased perception. The implications of these studies for our understanding of the neural and cognitive representation of human bodies, along with their implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  1. Modeling size effects on the transformation behavior of shape memory alloy micropillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Edwin A Peraza; Lagoudas, Dimitris C

    2015-01-01

    The size dependence of the thermomechanical response of shape memory alloys (SMAs) at the micro and nano-scales has gained increasing attention in the engineering community due to existing and potential uses of SMAs as solid-state actuators and components for energy dissipation in small scale devices. Particularly, their recent uses in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have made SMAs attractive options as active materials in small scale devices. One factor limiting further application, however, is the inability to effectively and efficiently model the observed size dependence of the SMA behavior for engineering applications. Therefore, in this work, a constitutive model for the size-dependent behavior of SMAs is proposed. Experimental observations are used to motivate the extension of an existing thermomechanical constitutive model for SMAs to account for the scale effects. It is proposed that such effects can be captured via characteristic length dependent material parameters in a power-law manner. The size dependence of the transformation behavior of NiFeGa micropillars is investigated in detail and used as model prediction cases. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element framework and used to simulate and predict the response of SMA micropillars with different sizes. The results show a good agreement with experimental data. A parametric study performed using the calibrated model shows that the influence of micropillar aspect ratio and taper angle on the compression response is significantly smaller than that of the micropillar average diameter. It is concluded that the model is able to capture the size dependent transformation response of the SMA micropillars. In addition, the simplicity of the calibration and implementation of the proposed model make it practical for the design and numerical analysis of small scale SMA components that exhibit size dependent responses. (paper)

  2. Foraging Habitat Distributions Affect Territory Size and Shape in the Tuamotu Kingfisher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C. Kesler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I studied factors influencing territory configuration in the Tuamotu kingfisher (Todiramphus gambieri. Radiotelemetry data were used to define territory boundaries, and I tested for effects on territory size and shape of landscape habitat composition and foraging patch configuration. Tuamotu kingfisher territories were larger in areas with reduced densities of coconut plantation foraging habitat, and territories were less circular in the study site that had a single slender patch of foraging habitat. Maximum territory length did not differ between study sites, however, which suggested that the size of Tuamotu kingfisher territories might be bounded by the combined influence of maximum travel distances and habitat configurations. Results also suggested that birds enlarge territories as they age. Together, results supported previous work indicating that territory configurations represent a balance between the costs of defending a territory and gains from territory ownership.

  3. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  4. Chromosomal inversions effect body size and shape in different breeding resources in Drosophila buzzatii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Iriarte, P J; Norry, F M; Hasson, E R

    2003-07-01

    The cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii provides an excellent model for the study of reaction norms across discrete environments because it breeds on rotting tissues (rots) of very different cactus species. Here we test the possible effects of second chromosome inversions on body size and shape (wing loading) across suitable natural breeding substrates. Using homokaryotypic stocks derived from several lines homozygous for four naturally occurring chromosomal inversions, we show that arrangements significantly affect size-related traits and wing loading. In addition, karyotypes show differing effects, across natural breeding resources, for wing loading. The 2st and 2jz(3) arrangements decrease and the 2j arrangement increases wing loading. For thorax length and wing loading, karyotypic correlations across host plants are slightly lower in females than in males. These results support the hypothesis that these traits have a genetic basis associated with the inversion polymorphism.

  5. Ion guiding in macro-size insulating capillaries: straight, tapered, and curved shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takao M.

    2018-02-01

    When keV energy ions are injected into a tilted insulating capillary, a certain fraction of the injected ions are transported through the tilt angle of the capillary. This ion guiding phenomenon is considered to be caused by a self-organizing charge distribution, where the inner wall of the capillary becomes charged by initial incoming ions. The charge distribution, which is formed, can guide following ions toward the exit of the capillary. Since the initial discovery of this effect, studies of ion guiding by insulating capillaries have been extended to various materials, and different sizes and shapes of capillaries. In recent years, some investigations of the guiding effect of macro-size curved capillaries have also been reported. In this review, relevant studies in a history of ion guiding in curved capillaries are discussed and future directions in this field are considered.

  6. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, S.; Saar, E.; Einasto, J.

    2016-01-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe

  7. New Atrophic Acne Scar Classification: Reliability of Assessments Based on Size, Shape, and Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sewon; Lozada, Vicente Torres; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Tan, Jerry; Rueda, Maria Jose; Layton, Alison; Petit, Lauren; Dréno, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Post-acne atrophic scarring is a major concern for which standardized outcome measures are needed. Traditionally, this type of scar has been classified based on shape; but survey of practicing dermatologists has shown that atrophic scar morphology has not been well enough defined to allow good agreement in clinical classification. Reliance on clinical assessment is still needed at the current time, since objective tools are not yet available in routine practice. Evaluate classification for atrophic acne scars by shape, size, and facial location and establish reliability in assessments. We conducted a non-interventional study with dermatologists performing live clinical assessments of atrophic acne scars. To objectively compare identification of lesions, individual lesions were marked on a high-resolution photo of the patient that was displayed on a computer during the clinical evaluation. The Jacob clinical classification system was used to define three primary shapes of scars 1) icepick, 2) boxcar, and 3) rolling. To determine agreement for classification by size, independent technicians assessed the investigators' markings on digital images. Identical localization of scars was denoted if the maximal distance between their centers was ≤ 60 pixels (approximately 3 mm). Raters assessed scars on the same patients twice (morning/afternoon). Aggregate models of rater assessments were created and analyzed for agreement. Raters counted a mean scar count per subject ranging from 15.75 to 40.25 scars. Approximately 50% of scars were identified by all raters and ~75% of scars were identified by at least 2 of 3 raters (weak agreement, Kappa pairwise agreement 0.30). Agreement between consecutive counts was moderate, with Kappa index ranging from 0.26 to 0.47 (after exclusion of one outlier investigator who had significantly higher counts than all others). Shape classifications of icepick, boxcar, and rolling differed significantly between raters and even for same raters at

  8. The rapid size- and shape-controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter W.; Starkey, Chris L.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Lester, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control.Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, refinement procedure, fluorescence spectra of ZnS samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05749f

  9. Influence of size, shape, and flexibility on bacterial passage through micropore membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik; Düggelin, Marcel; Egli, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Sterilization of fluids by means of microfiltration is commonly applied in research laboratories as well as in pharmaceutical and industrial processes. Sterile micropore filters are subject to microbiological validation, where Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a standard test organism. However, several recent reports on the ubiquitous presence of filterable bacteria in aquatic environments have cast doubt on the accuracy and validity of the standard filter-testing method. Six different bacterial species of various sizes and shapes (Hylemonella gracilis, Escherichia coli, Sphingopyxis alaskensis, Vibrio cholerae, Legionella pneumophila, and B. diminuta) were tested for their filterability through sterile micropore filters. In all cases, the slender spirillum-shaped Hylemonella gracilis cells showed a superior ability to pass through sterile membrane filters. Our results provide solid evidence that the overall shape (including flexibility), instead of biovolume, is the determining factor for the filterability of bacteria, whereas cultivation conditions also play a crucial role. Furthermore, the filtration volume has a more important effect on the passage percentage in comparison with other technical variables tested (including flux and filter material). Based on our findings, we recommend a re-evaluation of the grading system for sterile filters, and suggest that the species Hylemonella should be considered as an alternative filter-testing organism for the quality assessment of micropore filters.

  10. Shape and size transformation of gold nanorods (GNRs) via oxidation process: A reverse growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekar, Govindasamy; Mougin, Karine; Haidara, Hamidou; Vidal, Loic; Gnecco, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The anisotropic shape transformation of gold nanorods (GNRs) with H 2 O 2 was observed in the presence of 'cethyl trimethylammonium bromide' (CTAB). The adequate oxidative dissolution of GNR is provided by the following autocatalytic scheme with H 2 O 2 : Au 0 → Au + , Au 0 + Au n+ → 2Au 3+ , n = 1 and 3. The shape transformation of the GNRs was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As-synthesised GNRs exhibit transverse plasmon band (TPB) at 523 nm and longitudinal plasmon band (LPB) at 731 nm. Upon H 2 O 2 oxidation, the LPB showed a systematic hypsochromic (blue) shift, while TPB stays at ca. 523 nm. In addition, a new emerging peak observed at ca. 390 nm due to Au(III)-CTAB complex formation during the oxidation. TEM analysis of as-synthesised GNRs with H 2 O 2 confirmed the shape transformation to spherical particles with 10 nm size in 2 h, whereas centrifuged nanorod solution showed no changes in the aspect ratio under the same condition. Au 3+ ions produced from oxidation, complex with excess free CTAB and approach the nanorods preferentially at the end, leading to spatially directed oxidation. This work provides some information to the crystal stability and the growth mechanism of GNRs, as both growth and shortening reactions occur preferentially at the edge of single-crystalline GNRs, all directed by Br - ions.

  11. The effect of alumina nanofillers size and shape on mechanical behavior of PMMA matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hasan Somaya Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites with the addition of alumina nanofillers show improvement in mechanical properties. The PMMA polymer was used as a matrix and two different types of nanofillers, having extremely different shapes were added in the matrix to form the composite. Reinforcements were based on alumina nanoparticles having either spherical shape or whiskers having the length to diameter ratio of 100. The influence of alumina fillers size, shape and fillers loading on mechanical properties of prepared composite were studied using the nanoindentation measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis. It was observed that both alumina whiskers and alumina spherical nanoparticles added in the PMMA matrix improved the mechanical properties of the composite but the improvement was significantly higher with alumina whisker reinforcement. The concentration of the reinforcing alumina spherical nanoparticles and alumina whiskers in PMMA matrix varied up to 5 wt. %. The best performance was obtained by the addition of 3 wt. % of alumina whiskers in the PMMA matrix with regard to mechanical properties of the obtained composite.

  12. Biosynthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: A Fresh Look at the Control of Shape, Size and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Amar Dahoumane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies have been devised for the design of nanomaterials. The “Holy Grail” for materials scientists is the cost-effective, eco-friendly synthesis of nanomaterials with controlled sizes, shapes and compositions, as these features confer to the as-produced nanocrystals unique properties making them appropriate candidates for valuable bio-applications. The present review summarizes published data regarding the production of nanomaterials with special features via sustainable methodologies based on the utilization of natural bioresources. The richness of the latter, the diversity of the routes adopted and the tuned experimental parameters have led to the fabrication of nanomaterials belonging to different chemical families with appropriate compositions and displaying interesting sizes and shapes. It is expected that these outstanding findings will encourage researchers and attract newcomers to continue and extend the exploration of possibilities offered by nature and the design of innovative and safer methodologies towards the synthesis of unique nanomaterials, possessing desired features and exhibiting valuable properties that can be exploited in a profusion of fields.

  13. Size and shape dependent deprotonation potential and proton affinity of nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, Amanda S; Per, Manolo C

    2014-01-01

    Many important reactions in biology and medicine involve proton abstraction and transfer, and it is integral to applications such as drug delivery. Unlike electrons, which are quantum mechanically delocalized, protons are instantaneously localized on specific residues in these reactions, which can be a distinct advantage. However, the introduction of nanoparticles, such as non-toxic nanodiamonds, to this field complicates matters, as the number of possible sites increases as the inverse radius of the particle. In this paper we present >10 4 simulations that map the size- and shape-dependence of the deprotonation potential and proton affinity of nanodiamonds in the range 1.8–2.7 nm in average diameter. We find that while the average deprotonation potential and proton affinities decrease with size, the site-specific values are inhomogeneous over the surface of the particles, exhibiting strong shape-dependence. The proton affinity is strongly facet-dependent, whereas the deprotonation potential is edge/corner-dependent, which creates a type of spatial hysteresis in the transfer of protons to and from the nanodiamond, and provides new opportunities for selective functionalization. (paper)

  14. Size and shape dependent deprotonation potential and proton affinity of nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Per, Manolo C.

    2014-11-01

    Many important reactions in biology and medicine involve proton abstraction and transfer, and it is integral to applications such as drug delivery. Unlike electrons, which are quantum mechanically delocalized, protons are instantaneously localized on specific residues in these reactions, which can be a distinct advantage. However, the introduction of nanoparticles, such as non-toxic nanodiamonds, to this field complicates matters, as the number of possible sites increases as the inverse radius of the particle. In this paper we present \\gt {{10}4} simulations that map the size- and shape-dependence of the deprotonation potential and proton affinity of nanodiamonds in the range 1.8-2.7 nm in average diameter. We find that while the average deprotonation potential and proton affinities decrease with size, the site-specific values are inhomogeneous over the surface of the particles, exhibiting strong shape-dependence. The proton affinity is strongly facet-dependent, whereas the deprotonation potential is edge/corner-dependent, which creates a type of spatial hysteresis in the transfer of protons to and from the nanodiamond, and provides new opportunities for selective functionalization.

  15. Effect of Specimen Shape and Size on the Compressive Strength of Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin M.A.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight concrete, in the form of foamed concrete, is a versatile material that primarily consists of a cement based mortar, mixed with at least 20% volume of air. Its dry density is typically below 1600 kg/m3 with a maximum compressive strength of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strength of between 14 and 42Mpa, in order to compensate for a reduced strength, when the aspect height-to-diameter ratio of a specimen is less than 2.0. However, the CEB-FIP provision specifically mentions a ratio of 150mm dia. × 300mm cylinder strength to 150 mm cube strength; though, both provision requirements do not specifically clarify the applicability and/or modification of the correction factors for the compressive strength to lightweight concrete (in this case, foamed concrete. The focus of this work is to study the effect of specimen size and shape on the axial compressive strength of concrete. Specimens of various sizes and shapes were cast with square and circular cross-sections i.e., cubes, prisms, and cylinders. Their compression strength behaviours at 7 and 28 days were investigated. The results indicate that, as the CEB-FIP provision specified, even for foamed concrete, 100mm cubes (l/d = 1.0 produce a comparable compressive strength with 100mm dia. × 200mm cylinders (l/d = 2.0.

  16. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  17. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  18. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  19. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  20. Void effects on BWR Doppler and void reactivity feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang-Shou Cheng; Diamond, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of steam voids and control rods on the Doppler feedback in a gadolinia shimmed BWR is demonstrated. The importance of bypass voids when determining void feedback is also shown. Calculations were done using a point model, i.e., feedback was expressed in terms of reactivity coefficients which were determined for individual four-bundle configurations and then appropriately combined to yield reactor results. For overpower transients the inclusion of the void effect of control rods is to reduce Doppler feedback. For overpressurization transients the inclusion of the effect of bypass void wil increase the reactivity due to void collapse. (author)

  1. Size and shape of soil humic acids estimated by viscosity and molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Sumida, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2005-04-15

    Ultrafiltration fractions of three soil humic acids were characterized by viscometry and high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) in order to estimate shapes and hydrodynamic sizes. Intrinsic viscosities under given solute/solvent/temperature conditions were obtained by extrapolating the concentration dependence of reduced viscosities to zero concentration. Molecular mass (weight average molecular weight (M (w)) and number average molecular weight (M (n))) and hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) were determined by HPSEC using pullulan as calibrant. Values of M (w) and M (n) ranged from 15 to 118 x 10(3) and from 9 to 50 x 10(3) (g mol(-1)), respectively. Polydispersity, as indicated by M (w)/M (n), increased with increasing filter size from 1.5 to 2.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R(H)) ranged between 2.2 and 6.4 nm. For each humic acid, M (w) and [eta] were related. Mark-Houwink coefficients calculated on the basis of the M (w)-[eta] relationships suggested restricted flexible chains for two of the humic acids and a branched structure for the third humic acid. Those structures probably behave as hydrated sphere colloids in a good solvent. Hydrodynamic radii of fractions calculated from [eta] using Einstein's equation, which is applicable to hydrated sphere colloids, ranged from 2.2 to 7.1 nm. These dimensions are fit to the size of nanospaces on and between clay minerals and micropores in soil particle aggregates. On the other hand, the good agreement of R(H) values obtained by applying Einstein's equation with those directly determined by HPSEC suggests that pullulan is a suitable calibrant for estimation of molecular mass and size of humic acids by HPSEC.

  2. Three-dimensional simulations of void collapse in energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    The collapse of voids in porous energetic materials leads to hot-spot formation and reaction initiation. This work advances the current knowledge of the dynamics of void collapse and hot-spot formation using 3D reactive void collapse simulations in HMX. Four different void shapes, i.e., sphere, cylinder, plate, and ellipsoid, are studied. For all four shapes, collapse generates complex three-dimensional (3D) baroclinic vortical structures. The hot spots are collocated with regions of intense vorticity. The differences in the vortical structures for the different void shapes are shown to significantly impact the relative sensitivity of the voids. Voids of high surface area generate hot spots of greater intensity; intricate, highly contorted vortical structures lead to hot spots of corresponding tortuosity and therefore enhanced growth rates of reaction fronts. In addition, all 3D voids are shown to be more sensitive than their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. The results provide physical insights into hot-spot formation and growth and point to the limitations of 2D analyses of hot-spot formation.

  3. Effects of Particle Size and Shape on U-Mo/Al Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tae-Won; Sohn, Dong-Seong [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The thermal conductivity of atomized U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels was measured only by Lee et al. by laser-flash and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. For the U-Mo particles, they are deformed during manufacturing process such as hot rolling and during irradiation by the creep deformation. Fricke developed a model for the effective thermal conductivity of a dilute suspension of randomly oriented spheroidal particles. In general, the thermal conductivity of composite increase when the particle shape is not sphere. This model is also based on continuum theory which assumes both temperature and heat flux are continuous across the interface. Kapitza, however, showed that there is a discontinuity in temperature across the interface at metal/liquid helium interface. In general, the discontinuity is from the thermal resistance at the interface. If the thermal resistance has a significant impact on the thermal conductivity, particle size is one of the essential parameter for determining the effective thermal conductivity of composite materials. Every, et al modified Bruggeman model to consider the interfacial thermal resistance. The U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel thermal conductivity calculation can be improved by considering the anisotropic effects and interface thermal resistances. There have been various works to analyze the thermal conductivity through Finite Element Method (FEM). Coulson developed a realistic FEM model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the fuel meat. This FEM model does not consider the anisotropic effects and interface thermal resistances. Therefore, these effects can be evaluated by comparing the FEM calculated effective thermal conductivity with measured data. In this work, the FEM analysis was done and the anisotropic effects and interface thermal resistances was estimated. From this results, the particle shape and size effects will be discussed. Many thermal conductivity models for the particle dispersed composites have been

  4. In vitro toxicity analysis of nanoscale aluminum: Particle size and shape effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos Jorganes, Maria

    2007-12-01

    Nanostructured materials promise to revolutionize many key areas of science and technology. As our ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale increases, there is a need to assess the effects of these materials on human health and the environment. Materials at the nanoscale are interesting and useful because they possess properties that are different from the equivalent bulk or molecular scale. These same properties can make toxicological profiles very different from those of the same materials on a different scale. There is a rising consensus that toxicity analysis of nanomaterials should start from a thorough physicochemical characterization of the materials under investigation in order to be able to establish a proper correlation between the nanoparticles characteristics and their effects and behavior in physiological environments. This research is a clear example of the necessity of comprehensive studies when investigating the toxicity of nanomaterials. Aluminum nanoparticles are being extensively used for their very unique energetic properties. These materials offer a very promising market that is fostering many startup companies which are expected to consolidate on strong technological positions. Aluminum is generally recognized as a non-toxic material to humans and it is widely used for applications which imply direct human contact. The effect of aluminum nanoparticles in human health is still an unknown. My research consisted of an in vitro toxicity screening of aluminum materials from nano to micron size, including spherical irregularly shaped particles. Several issues relating to size, shape, detection and characterization of nanoparticles in the different environments relevant to in vitro toxicity analysis were addressed and suitable protocols were developed. Lung human epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of these materials and the effects were analyzed by means of various toxicity tests. Some of the materials investigated caused

  5. Effects of Particle Size and Shape on U-Mo/Al Thermal Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Tae-Won; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of atomized U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels was measured only by Lee et al. by laser-flash and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. For the U-Mo particles, they are deformed during manufacturing process such as hot rolling and during irradiation by the creep deformation. Fricke developed a model for the effective thermal conductivity of a dilute suspension of randomly oriented spheroidal particles. In general, the thermal conductivity of composite increase when the particle shape is not sphere. This model is also based on continuum theory which assumes both temperature and heat flux are continuous across the interface. Kapitza, however, showed that there is a discontinuity in temperature across the interface at metal/liquid helium interface. In general, the discontinuity is from the thermal resistance at the interface. If the thermal resistance has a significant impact on the thermal conductivity, particle size is one of the essential parameter for determining the effective thermal conductivity of composite materials. Every, et al modified Bruggeman model to consider the interfacial thermal resistance. The U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel thermal conductivity calculation can be improved by considering the anisotropic effects and interface thermal resistances. There have been various works to analyze the thermal conductivity through Finite Element Method (FEM). Coulson developed a realistic FEM model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the fuel meat. This FEM model does not consider the anisotropic effects and interface thermal resistances. Therefore, these effects can be evaluated by comparing the FEM calculated effective thermal conductivity with measured data. In this work, the FEM analysis was done and the anisotropic effects and interface thermal resistances was estimated. From this results, the particle shape and size effects will be discussed. Many thermal conductivity models for the particle dispersed composites have been

  6. Fourier-based quantification of renal glomeruli size using Hough transform and shape descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Sohrab; Beigzadeh, Borhan; Riahi, Mohammad; Khadir Chamazkoti, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of glomeruli geometry is important in histopathological evaluation of renal microscopic images. Due to the shape and size disparity of even glomeruli of same kidney, automatic detection of these renal objects is not an easy task. Although manual measurements are time consuming and at times are not very accurate, it is commonly used in medical centers. In this paper, a new method based on Fourier transform following usage of some shape descriptors is proposed to detect these objects and their geometrical parameters. Reaching the goal, a database of 400 regions are selected randomly. 200 regions of which are part of glomeruli and the other 200 regions are not belong to renal corpuscles. ROC curve is used to decide which descriptor could classify two groups better. f_measure, which is a combination of both tpr (true positive rate) and fpr (false positive rate), is also proposed to select optimal threshold for descriptors. Combination of three parameters (solidity, eccentricity, and also mean squared error of fitted ellipse) provided better result in terms of f_measure to distinguish desired regions. Then, Fourier transform of outer edges is calculated to form a complete curve out of separated region(s). The generality of proposed model is verified by use of cross validation method, which resulted tpr of 94%, and fpr of 5%. Calculation of glomerulus' and Bowman's space with use of the algorithm are also compared with a non-automatic measurement done by a renal pathologist, and errors of 5.9%, 5.4%, and 6.26% are resulted in calculation of Capsule area, Bowman space, and glomeruli area, respectively. Having tested different glomeruli with various shapes, the experimental consequences show robustness and reliability of our method. Therefore, it could be used to illustrate renal diseases and glomerular disorders by measuring the morphological changes accurately and expeditiously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The size, shape, density and ring of the dwarf planet Haumea from a stellar occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J L; Santos-Sanz, P; Sicardy, B; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Bérard, D; Morales, N; Duffard, R; Braga-Ribas, F; Hopp, U; Ries, C; Nascimbeni, V; Marzari, F; Granata, V; Pál, A; Kiss, C; Pribulla, T; Komžík, R; Hornoch, K; Pravec, P; Bacci, P; Maestripieri, M; Nerli, L; Mazzei, L; Bachini, M; Martinelli, F; Succi, G; Ciabattari, F; Mikuz, H; Carbognani, A; Gaehrken, B; Mottola, S; Hellmich, S; Rommel, F L; Fernández-Valenzuela, E; Bagatin, A Campo; Cikota, S; Cikota, A; Lecacheux, J; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Assafin, M; Colas, F; Behrend, R; Desmars, J; Meza, E; Alvarez-Candal, A; Beisker, W; Gomes-Junior, A R; Morgado, B E; Roques, F; Vachier, F; Berthier, J; Mueller, T G; Madiedo, J M; Unsalan, O; Sonbas, E; Karaman, N; Erece, O; Koseoglu, D T; Ozisik, T; Kalkan, S; Guney, Y; Niaei, M S; Satir, O; Yesilyaprak, C; Puskullu, C; Kabas, A; Demircan, O; Alikakos, J; Charmandaris, V; Leto, G; Ohlert, J; Christille, J M; Szakáts, R; Farkas, A Takácsné; Varga-Verebélyi, E; Marton, G; Marciniak, A; Bartczak, P; Santana-Ros, T; Butkiewicz-Bąk, M; Dudziński, G; Alí-Lagoa, V; Gazeas, K; Tzouganatos, L; Paschalis, N; Tsamis, V; Sánchez-Lavega, A; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Hueso, R; Guirado, J C; Peris, V; Iglesias-Marzoa, R

    2017-10-11

    Haumea-one of the four known trans-Neptunian dwarf planets-is a very elongated and rapidly rotating body. In contrast to other dwarf planets, its size, shape, albedo and density are not well constrained. The Centaur Chariklo was the first body other than a giant planet known to have a ring system, and the Centaur Chiron was later found to possess something similar to Chariklo's rings. Here we report observations from multiple Earth-based observatories of Haumea passing in front of a distant star (a multi-chord stellar occultation). Secondary events observed around the main body of Haumea are consistent with the presence of a ring with an opacity of 0.5, width of 70 kilometres and radius of about 2,287 kilometres. The ring is coplanar with both Haumea's equator and the orbit of its satellite Hi'iaka. The radius of the ring places it close to the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Haumea's spin period-that is, Haumea rotates three times on its axis in the time that a ring particle completes one revolution. The occultation by the main body provides an instantaneous elliptical projected shape with axes of about 1,704 kilometres and 1,138 kilometres. Combined with rotational light curves, the occultation constrains the three-dimensional orientation of Haumea and its triaxial shape, which is inconsistent with a homogeneous body in hydrostatic equilibrium. Haumea's largest axis is at least 2,322 kilometres, larger than previously thought, implying an upper limit for its density of 1,885 kilograms per cubic metre and a geometric albedo of 0.51, both smaller than previous estimates. In addition, this estimate of the density of Haumea is closer to that of Pluto than are previous estimates, in line with expectations. No global nitrogen- or methane-dominated atmosphere was detected.

  8. Paramagnetic Nanocrystals: Remarkable Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles with Varied Shape, Size, and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca J; Aharen, Tomoko; Murugesu, Muralee

    2012-12-20

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been developed in recent years with applications in unique and crucial areas such as biomedicine, data storage, environmental remediation, catalysis, and so forth. NaYF4 nanoparticles were synthesized and isolated with lanthanide dopant percentages, confirmed by ICP-OES measurements, of Er, Yb, Tb, Gd, and Dy that were in agreement with the targeted ratios. SEM images showed a distinct variation in particle size and shape with dopant type and percentage. HRTEM and XRD studies confirmed the particles to be crystalline, possessing both α and β phases. Magnetic measurements determined that all of the nanoparticles were paramagnetic and did not exhibit a blocking temperature from 2 to 300 K. The multifunctional properties of these nanoparticles make them suitable for many applications, such as multimodal imaging probes, up-conversion fluorescent markers, as well as MRI contrast agents.

  9. Water-assisted size and shape control of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bai, Xue; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Xiangtong; Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Weitao; Yu, William W.; Rogach, Andrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Lead-halide perovskites are well known to decompose rapidly when exposed to polar solvents, such as water. Contrary to this common-place observation, we have found that through introducing a suitable minor amount of water into the reaction mixture, we can synthesize stable CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals. The size and the crystallinity, and as a result the band gap tunability of the strongly emitting CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals correlate with the water content. Suitable amounts of water change the crystallization environment, inducing the formation of differently shaped perovskites, namely spherical NCs, rectangular nanoplatelets, or nanowires. Bright CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with the photoluminescence quantum yield reaching 90 % were employed for fabrication of inverted hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting devices, with the peak luminance of 4428 cd m -2 and external quantum yield of 1.7 %. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Scalable shape- and size-controlled synthesis of metal nano-alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-01-21

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a continuous-flow reactor, methods of making metal nano-alloys, and metal nano-alloys. An embodiment of the continuous-flow reactor includes a first tubular component having a tubular inlet and a tubular outlet, and a heated tube-in-tube gas reactor fluidly connected to the first tubular component, wherein the heated tube-in-tube gas reactor comprises an inner tube having a gas permeable surface and an outer tube. An embodiment of the method of producing metal nano-alloys, includes contacting a reducible metal precursor and a reducing fluid in a continuous-flow reactor to form a mixed solution; and flowing the mixed solution through the continuous-flow reactor for a residence time to form the metal nano-alloys. An embodiment of the composition includes a plurality of metal nano-alloys having a monodisperse size distribution and a uniform shape distribution.

  11. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Taizo; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.Graphical abstract

  12. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Taizo, E-mail: MORI.Taizo@nims.go.jp; Hegmann, Torsten, E-mail: thegmann@kent.edu [Kent State University, Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Liquid Crystal Institute (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.Graphical abstract.

  13. Particle shape accounts for instrumental discrepancy in ice core dust size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folden Simonsen, Marius; Cremonesi, Llorenç; Baccolo, Giovanni; Bosch, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Erhardt, Tobias; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Potenza, Marco; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The Klotz Abakus laser sensor and the Coulter counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores. While the Coulter counter measures particle volume accurately, the equivalent Abakus instrument measurement deviates substantially from the Coulter counter. We show that the difference between the Abakus and the Coulter counter measurements is mainly caused by the irregular shape of dust particles in ice core samples. The irregular shape means that a new calibration routine based on standard spheres is necessary for obtaining fully comparable data. This new calibration routine gives an increased accuracy to Abakus measurements, which may improve future ice core record intercomparisons. We derived an analytical model for extracting the aspect ratio of dust particles from the difference between Abakus and Coulter counter data. For verification, we measured the aspect ratio of the same samples directly using a single-particle extinction and scattering instrument. The results demonstrate that the model is accurate enough to discern between samples of aspect ratio 0.3 and 0.4 using only the comparison of Abakus and Coulter counter data.

  14. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Oliver

    Full Text Available Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  15. Size and shape variability in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae from two geographic areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bornholdt

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.

  16. Engineering cartilage substitute with a specific size and shape using porous high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as internal support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yujia; Zhu, Lie; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Cao, Yilin; Zhou, Guangdong

    2010-04-01

    Despite the great advances in cartilage engineering, constructing cartilage of large sizes and appropriate shapes remains a great challenge, owing to limits in thickness of regenerated cartilage and to inferior mechanical properties of scaffolds. This study introduces a pre-shaped polyglycolic acid (PGA)-coated porous high-density polyethylene (HDPE) scaffold to overcome these challenges. HDPE was carved into cylindrical rods and wrapped around by PGA fibres to form PGA-HDPE scaffolds. Porcine chondrocytes were seeded into the scaffolds and the constructs were cultured in vitro for 2 weeks before subcutaneous implantation into nude mice. Scaffolds made purely of PGA with the same size and shape were used as a control. After 8 weeks of implantation, the construct formed cartilage-like tissue and retained its pre-designed shape and size. In addition, the regenerated cartilage grew and completely surrounded the HDPE core, which made the entire cartilage substitute biocompatible to its implanted environment as native cartilage similarly does. By contrast, the shape and size of the constructs in the control group seriously deformed and obvious hollow cavity and necrotic tissue were observed in the inner region. These results demonstrate that the use of HDPE as the internal support of a biodegradable scaffold has the potential to circumvent the problems of limitations in size and shape, with promising implications for the development of engineered cartilage appropriate for clinical applications. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PATERNAL GENOTYPE INFLUENCES INCUBATION PERIOD, OFFSPRING SIZE, AND OFFSPRING SHAPE IN AN OVIPAROUS REPTILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Gullberg, Annica; Shine, Richard; Madsen, Thomas; Tegelström, Håkan

    1996-06-01

    Theoretical models for the evolution of life-history traits assume a genetic basis for a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance observed in characteristics such as hatching date and offspring size. However, recent experimental work has shown that much of the phenotypic variance in hatchling reptiles is induced by nongenetic factors, such as maternal nutrition and thermoregulation, and the physical conditions experienced during embryogenesis. Thus, there is no unambiguous evidence for strictly genetic (intraspecific) influences on the phenotypes of hatchling reptiles. We report results from a technique that uses a genetic marker trait and DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity of offspring from multiply sired clutches of European sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. By focusing on paternal rather than maternal effects, we show that hatchling genotypes exert a direct influence on the duration of incubation, the size (mass, snout-vent length) and shape (relative tail length) of the hatchling, and subsequent growth rates of the lizard during the first 3 mo of life. Embryos with genes that code for a few days' delay in hatching are thereby larger when they hatch, having undergone further differentiation (and hence, have changed in bodily proportions), and are able to grow faster after hatching. Our data thus provide empirical support for a crucial but rarely tested assumption of life-history theory, and illuminate some of the proximate mechanisms that produce intraspecific variation in offspring phenotypes. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Plastic superconductor bearings any size-any shape: 77 K and up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reick, Franklin G.

    1991-01-01

    'Friction free' bearings at 77 K or higher are possible using the high T(sub c) copper oxide ceramic superconductors. The conventional method for making such bearings is to use a sintered ceramic monolith. This puts great restraints on size, shape, and postforming machining. The material is hard and abrasive. It is possible to grind up ceramic superconductors and suspend the granules in a suitable matrix. Mechanical properties improve and are largely dependent on the binder. The Meissner effect is confined to individual grains containing electron vortices. Tracks, rails, levitation areas, and bearings can be made this way with conventional plastic molding and extruding machines or by painting. The parts are easily machined. The sacrifice is in bulk electrical conductivity. A percolating wick feed for LN2 is used to cool remote superconductors and large areas quite effectively. A hollow spheroid or cylinder of superconductor material is molded with the internal surfaces shielded by the Meissner effect. It can be thought of as the DC magnetic analog of the Faraday cage and the inside is the 'Meissner space'. It is selective. The AC fields are transmitted with minor attenuation. Particle size and distribution have a profound effect on final magnetic and electrical characteristics.

  19. Plastic superconductor bearings any size-any shape: 77 K and up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reick, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    'Friction free' bearings at 77 K or higher are possible using the high T(sub c) copper oxide ceramic superconductors. The conventional method for making such bearings is to use a sintered ceramic monolith. This puts great restraints on size, shape, and postforming machining. The material is hard and abrasive. It is possible to grind up ceramic superconductors and suspend the granules in a suitable matrix. Mechanical properties improve and are largely dependent on the binder. The Meissner effect is confined to individual grains containing electron vortices. Tracks, rails, levitation areas, and bearings can be made this way with conventional plastic molding and extruding machines or by painting. The parts are easily machined. The sacrifice is in bulk electrical conductivity. A percolating wick feed for LN2 is used to cool remote superconductors and large areas quite effectively. A hollow spheroid or cylinder of superconductor material is molded with the internal surfaces shielded by the Meissner effect. It can be thought of as the DC magnetic analog of the Faraday cage and the inside is the 'Meissner space'. It is selective. The AC fields are transmitted with minor attenuation. Particle size and distribution have a profound effect on final magnetic and electrical characteristics

  20. Void growth to coalescence in a non-local material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    of different material length parameters in a multi-parameter theory is studied, and it is shown that the important length parameter is the same as under purely hydrostatic loading. It is quantified how micron scale voids grow less rapidly than larger voids, and the implications of this in the overall strength...... of the material is emphasized. It is concluded that for cracked specimens not only the void volume fraction, but also the typical void size is of importance to the fracture strength of ductile materials....

  1. Shape-and size-controlled Ag nanoparticles stabilized by in situ generated secondary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Meneses, E., E-mail: esther.ramirez@ibero.mx [Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, Distrito Federal C.P. 01219 (Mexico); Montiel-Palma, V. [Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001 Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62209 (Mexico); Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Izaguirre-López, M.G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada-IPN, Unidad Altamira. Km 14.5 Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Palacios-Gonzalez, E. [Laboratorio de Microscopia de Ultra alta Resolución, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas No. 152, C.P. 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Dorantes-Rosales, H. [Departamento de Metalurgia, E.S.I.Q.I.E.-I.P.N., Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, Delegación. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were generated from Ag amido complexes AgN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} and AgN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. • Ag nanoparticles were stabilized by in situ generated HN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} or HN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. • 1 or 5 equiv. of ethylenediamine as additional capping agent decreases the average size of the particles. • Ethylenediamine favor the formation of spherical particles. - Abstract: Silver amides such as AgN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} and AgN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2} have been employed successfully as precursors for the yield synthesis of silver nanoparticles under mild conditions of dihydrogen gas reduction (2 atm) in organic media. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with FCC structure, variously sized from 26 to 35 nm for AgN{sup i}Pr{sub 2} and from 14 to 86 nm for AgN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, the synthesis could take place in absence of added stabilizers due to the in situ formation of secondary amines from the reaction of dihydrogen gas with the amide ligands of the silver precursor. Indeed, the presence of HNR{sub 2} (R = iPr{sub 2}, N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}) on the surface of the nanoparticle was confirmed by spectroscopic means. Finally, the addition of ethylenediamine as additional capping agent allowed not only the control of the structural characteristics of the resulting Ag nanoparticles (well-dispersed with spherical shape), but that regarding the nanoparticle size as it inhibited overgrowth, limiting it to ca. 25 nm.

  2. Experimental investigation and numerical simulations of void profile development in a vertical cylindrical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, Claudie

    1995-01-01

    We present here an experimental investigation and some numerical simulations of void profile development in a vertical cylindrical pipe. This study is motivated by the lack of information dealing with the influence of entrance effects and bubble size evolution upon the multidimensional development of upward bubbly flow in pipe. The axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly and bubbly-to-slug transition flows in a vertical pipe is investigated experimentally first. Profiles of liquid mean velocity, liquid axial turbulent intensity, void fraction, bubble frequency, bubble velocity, mean equivalent bubble diameter and volumetric interfacial area are determined along the same test section at three axial locations. It is found that the bubbly-to-slug transition can be deduced from the simultaneous analysis of the different measured profiles. Local analysis of the studied bubbly flows shows that their development does not depend on the shape of the void distribution at the inlet. However, it is found that the bubble size evolution strongly affects the void distribution. Secondly, multidimensional numerical simulations of bubbly flows with very different gas injection modes are made with the help of the tri dimensional two-fluid ASTRID code. It is shown that the classical models used to close the transverse momentum equations of the two-fluid model (lift and dispersion forces) do not capture the physical phenomena of bubble migration in pipe flows. (author) [fr

  3. Experimental investigation and numerical simulations of void profile development in a vertical cylindrical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, C.

    1995-12-01

    We present here an experimental investigation and some numerical simulations of void profile development in a vertical cylindrical pipe. This study is motivated by the lack of information dealing with the influence of entrance effects and bubble size evolution upon the multidimensional development of upward bubbly flow in pipe. The axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly and bubbly-to-slug transition flows in a vertical pipe is investigated experimentally first. Profiles of liquid mean velocity, liquid axial turbulent intensity, void fraction, bubble frequency, bubble velocity, mean equivalent bubble diameter and volumetric interfacial area are determined along the same test section at three axial locations. It is found that the bubbly-to-slug transition can be deduced from the simultaneous analysis of the different measured profiles. Local analysis of the studied bubbly flows shows that their development does not depend on the shape of the void distribution at the inlet. However, it is found that the bubble size evolution strongly affects the void distribution. Secondly, multidimensional numerical simulations of bubbly flows with very different gas injection modes are made with the help of the tridimensional two-fluid ASTRID code. It is shown that the classical models used to close the transverse momentum equations of the two-fluid model (lift and dispersion forces) do not capture the physical phenomena of bubble migration in pipe flows

  4. Body size and allometric shape variation in the molly Poecilia vivipara along a gradient of salinity and predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Márcio S; Perez, S Ivan; Magazoni, Maria Julia C; Petry, Ana C

    2014-12-04

    Phenotypic diversity among populations may result from divergent natural selection acting directly on traits or via correlated responses to changes in other traits. One of the most frequent patterns of correlated response is the proportional change in the dimensions of anatomical traits associated with changes in growth or absolute size, known as allometry. Livebearing fishes subject to predation gradients have been shown to repeatedly evolve larger caudal peduncles and smaller cranial regions under high predation regimes. Poecilia vivipara is a livebearing fish commonly found in coastal lagoons in the north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Similar to what is observed in other predation gradients, lagoons inhabited by P. vivipara vary in the presence of piscivorous fishes; contrary to other poeciliid systems, populations of P. vivipara vary greatly in body size, which opens the possibility of strong allometric effects on shape variation. Here we investigated body shape diversification among six populations of P. vivipara along a predation gradient and its relationship with allometric trajectories within and among populations. We found substantial body size variation and correlated shape changes among populations. Multivariate regression analysis showed that size variation among populations accounted for 66% of shape variation in females and 38% in males, suggesting that size is the most important dimension underlying shape variation among populations of P. vivipara in this system. Changes in the relative sizes of the caudal peduncle and cranial regions were only partly in line with predictions from divergent natural selection associated with predation regime. Our results suggest the possibility that adaptive shape variation among populations has been partly constrained by allometry in P. vivipara. Processes governing body size changes are therefore important in the diversification of this species. We conclude that in species characterized by substantial

  5. Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of

  6. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Improvement of Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin; Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Shaojun

    2011-07-04

    We propose and demonstrate the improvement of conventional Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Based on the detailed study of the refractive beam shaping system, we found that the conventional Galilean beam shaper can only work well for the magnifying beam shaping. Taking the transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with high order Fermi-Dirac flattop profile as an example, the shaper can only work well at the condition that the size of input and target beam meets R(0) ≥ 1.3 w(0). For the improvement, the shaper is regarded as the combination of magnifying and demagnifying beam shaping system. The surface and phase distributions of the improved Galilean beam shaping system are derived based on Geometric and Fourier Optics. By using the improved Galilean beam shaper, the accurate transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with flattop irradiance distribution is realized. The irradiance distribution of the output beam is coincident with that of the target beam and the corresponding phase distribution is maintained. The propagation performance of the output beam is greatly improved. Studies of the influences of beam size and beam order on the improved Galilean beam shaping system show that restriction of beam size has been greatly reduced. This improvement can also be used to redistribute the input beam with complicated irradiance distribution into output beam with complicated irradiance distribution.

  8. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  9. Size, shape, and diffusivity of a single Debye-Hückel polyelectrolyte chain in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, W. Chamath; Dünweg, B.; Prakash, J. Ravi

    2015-08-01

    Brownian dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead-spring chain model, with Debye-Hückel electrostatic interactions between the beads, are used to determine the root-mean-square end-to-end vector, the radius of gyration, and various shape functions (defined in terms of eigenvalues of the radius of gyration tensor) of a weakly charged polyelectrolyte chain in solution, in the limit of low polymer concentration. The long-time diffusivity is calculated from the mean square displacement of the centre of mass of the chain, with hydrodynamic interactions taken into account through the incorporation of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor. Simulation results are interpreted in the light of the Odjik, Skolnick, Fixman, Khokhlov, and Khachaturian blob scaling theory (Everaers et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 8, 3 (2002)) which predicts that all solution properties are determined by just two scaling variables—the number of electrostatic blobs X and the reduced Debye screening length, Y. We identify three broad regimes, the ideal chain regime at small values of Y, the blob-pole regime at large values of Y, and the crossover regime at intermediate values of Y, within which the mean size, shape, and diffusivity exhibit characteristic behaviours. In particular, when simulation results are recast in terms of blob scaling variables, universal behaviour independent of the choice of bead-spring chain parameters, and the number of blobs X, is observed in the ideal chain regime and in much of the crossover regime, while the existence of logarithmic corrections to scaling in the blob-pole regime leads to non-universal behaviour.

  10. Archaeology of Void Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Cory

    The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of pXRF for the identification of ancient activity areas at Pre-Columbian sites in Antigua that range across time periods, geographic regions, site types with a variety of features, and various states of preservation. These findings have important implications for identifying and reconstructing places full of human activity but void of material remains. A synthesis for an archaeology of void spaces requires the construction of new ways of testing anthrosols, and identifying elemental patterns that can be used to connect people with their places and objects. This research begins with an exploration of rich middens in order to study void spaces. Midden archaeology has been a central focus in Caribbean research, and consists of an accumulation of discarded remnants from past human activities that can be tested against anthrosols. The archaeological collections visited for this research project involved creating new databases to generate a comprehensive inventory of sites, materials excavated, and assemblages available for study. Of the more than 129 Pre-Columbian sites documented in Antigua, few sites have been thoroughly surveyed or excavated. Twelve Pre-Columbian sites, consisting of thirty-six excavated units were selected for study; all of which contained complete assemblages for comparison and soil samples for testing. These excavations consisted almost entirely of midden excavations, requiring new archaeological investigations to be carried out in spaces primarily void of material remains but within the village context. Over the course of three seasons excavations, shovel test pits, and soil augers were used to obtain a variety of anthrosols and archaeological assemblages in order to generate new datasets to study Pre-Columbian activity areas. The selection of two primary case study sites were used for comparison: Indian Creek and Doigs. Findings from this research indicate that accounting for the

  11. Selective axonal growth of embryonic hippocampal neurons according to topographic features of various sizes and shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Schmidt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available David Y Fozdar1*, Jae Y Lee2*, Christine E Schmidt2–6, Shaochen Chen1,3–5,7,1Departments of Mechanical Engineering, 2Chemical Engineering, 3Biomedical Engineering; 4Center for Nano Molecular Science and Technology; 5Texas Materials Institute; 6Institute of Neuroscience; 7Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA *Contributed equally to this workPurpose: Understanding how surface features influence the establishment and outgrowth of the axon of developing neurons at the single cell level may aid in designing implantable scaffolds for the regeneration of damaged nerves. Past studies have shown that micropatterned ridge-groove structures not only instigate axon polarization, alignment, and extension, but are also preferred over smooth surfaces and even neurotrophic ligands.Methods: Here, we performed axonal-outgrowth competition assays using a proprietary four-quadrant topography grid to determine the capacity of various micropatterned topographies to act as stimuli sequestering axon extension. Each topography in the grid consisted of an array of microscale (approximately 2 µm or submicroscale (approximately 300 nm holes or lines with variable dimensions. Individual rat embryonic hippocampal cells were positioned either between two juxtaposing topographies or at the borders of individual topographies juxtaposing unpatterned smooth surface, cultured for 24 hours, and analyzed with respect to axonal selection using conventional imaging techniques.Results: Topography was found to influence axon formation and extension relative to smooth surface, and the distance of neurons relative to topography was found to impact whether the topography could serve as an effective cue. Neurons were also found to prefer submicroscale over microscale features and holes over lines for a given feature size.Conclusion: The results suggest that implementing physical cues of various shapes and sizes on nerve guidance conduits

  12. A Review on Anatomical Variations of Mental Foramen (Number, Location, Shape, Symmetry, Direction and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental foramen is located on the anterior aspect of the mandible that permits the terminal branch of the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels to exit. The anatomical variations of mental foramen are of considerable importance in local anesthesia, treatment of the fractures in the parasymphysis area, orthognatic surgeries, implant placement, etc. Regarding the importance of mental foramen in dentistry (from local anesthesia to invasive surgical procedures, this study intends to review the anatomical variations of mental foramen in this study. Absence of mental foramen is rare. On the other hand, prevalence of accessory mental foramen has been estimated lower than 15% in the most studies. The position of mental foramen is normally between first and second premolar teeth or under second premolar tooth in different ethnic groups and bilateral symmetry exists in regard with location in most cases. In most studies, the ratio of distance from mental foramen to symphysis to distance from symphysis to posterior border of ramus has been reported about 1/3.5 to 1/3. Mental foramen is oval or circular in shape and its most common direction is usually posterosuperior. Its size in different studies has been estimated about 2 to 5 millimeters and asymmetry in size is possible on both sides of mandible. Due to variations of mental foramen between various ethnic groups and even different individuals in the same ethnic group, using advanced imaging techniques such as CBCT is recommended in order to gain detailed knowledge of anatomy and morphology of mental foramen before applying invasive surgeries.

  13. Grain size and shape analysis of the AD 1226 tephra layer, Reykjanes volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Guðrún; Tumi Guðmunsson, Magnús; Sigurgeirsson, Magnús Á.

    2014-05-01

    Recent explosive eruptions in Iceland have drawn attention to long range tephra transport in the atmosphere. In Iceland tephra forming explosion eruptions are frequent, due to abundance of water. However, the volcanism on the island is principally basaltic. Volcanism along the Reykjanes Peninsula is divided into five distinct volcanic systems. Volcano-tectonic activity within these systems is periodic, with recurrence intervals in the range of 1 ka. Last volcano-tectonic sequence began around AD 940, shortly after settlement of Iceland, and lasted through AD 1340. During this period activity was characterized by basaltic fissure eruptions. Furthermore, this activity period on the Reykjanes peninsula began within the eastern most volcanic system and gradually moved towards the west across the peninsula. The 1226 eruption was a basaltic fissure eruption with in the Reykjanes volcanic system. The eruption began on land and gradually progressed towards the SW until the volcanic fissure extended into the sea. Water-magma interaction changed the eruption from effusive into explosive forming the largest tephra layer on the peninsula. Due to its close proximity to the Keflavik international airport and that of the capital of Iceland it is important to get an insight into, the characteristics, generation and distribution of such tephra deposits. In this eruption the tephra produced had an approximate volume of 0.1 km3 and covered an area of some 3500 km2 within the 0.5 cm isopach. Total grain size distribution of this tephra layer will be presented along with analysis of principal grain shapes of the finer portion of the tephra layer as a function of distance from the source. The tephra grain size is dominated by particles finer than 1 millimeter with an almost complete absence of large grains independent of distance from the source. Comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of tephra generated in this eruption can help us to understand hazards posed by future

  14. Costs of storing colour and complex shape in visual working memory: Insights from pupil size and slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Michael A; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the impact of perceptual processing demands on visual working memory of coloured complex random polygons during change detection. Processing load was assessed by pupil size (Exp. 1) and additionally slow wave potentials (Exp. 2). Task difficulty was manipulated by presenting different set sizes (1, 2, 4 items) and by making different features (colour, shape, or both) task-relevant. Memory performance in the colour condition was better than in the shape and both condition which did not differ. Pupil dilation and the posterior N1 increased with set size independent of type of feature. In contrast, slow waves and a posterior P2 component showed set size effects but only if shape was task-relevant. In the colour condition slow waves did not vary with set size. We suggest that pupil size and N1 indicates different states of attentional effort corresponding to the number of presented items. In contrast, slow waves reflect processes related to encoding and maintenance strategies. The observation that their potentials vary with the type of feature (simple colour versus complex shape) indicates that perceptual complexity already influences encoding and storage and not only comparison of targets with memory entries at the moment of testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: Global patterns and paleoclimatic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppe, D.J.; Royer, D.L.; Cariglino, B.; Oliver, S.Y.; Newman, S.; Leight, E.; Enikolopov, G.; Fernandez-Burgos, M.; Herrera, F.; Adams, J.M.; Correa, E.; Currano, E.D.; Erickson, J.M.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Hoganson, J.W.; Iglesias, A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Johnson, K.R.; Jordan, G.J.; Kraft, N.J.B.; Lovelock, E.C.; Lusk, C.H.; Niinemets, U.; Penuelas, J.; Rapson, G.; Wing, S.L.; Wright, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Paleobotanists have long used models based on leaf size and shape to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, most models incorporate a single variable or use traits that are not physiologically or functionally linked to climate, limiting their predictive power. Further, they often underestimate paleotemperature relative to other proxies. Here we quantify leaf-climate correlations from 92 globally distributed, climatically diverse sites, and explore potential confounding factors. Multiple linear regression models for mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) are developed and applied to nine well-studied fossil floras. We find that leaves in cold climates typically have larger, more numerous teeth, and are more highly dissected. Leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen), local water availability, and phylogenetic history all affect these relationships. Leaves in wet climates are larger and have fewer, smaller teeth. Our multivariate MAT and MAP models offer moderate improvements in precision over univariate approaches (??4.0 vs 4.8??C for MAT) and strong improvements in accuracy. For example, our provisional MAT estimates for most North American fossil floras are considerably warmer and in better agreement with independent paleoclimate evidence. Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional leaf traits that are functionally linked to climate improves paleoclimate reconstructions. This work also illustrates the need for better understanding of the impact of phylogeny and leaf habit on leaf-climate relationships. ?? 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist ?? 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Hippocampal neurons respond uniquely to topographies of various sizes and shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fozdar, David Y; Chen Shaochen; Lee, Jae Young; Schmidt, Christine E

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the behavior of neurons on microfabricated topography for the purpose of developing interfaces for use in neural engineering applications. However, there have been few studies simultaneously exploring the effects of topographies having various feature sizes and shapes on axon growth and polarization in the first 24 h. Accordingly, here we investigated the effects of arrays of lines (ridge grooves) and holes of microscale (∼2 μm) and nanoscale (∼300 nm) dimensions, patterned in quartz (SiO 2 ), on the (1) adhesion, (2) axon establishment (polarization), (3) axon length, (4) axon alignment and (5) cell morphology of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons, to study the response of the neurons to feature dimension and geometry. Neurons were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The topographies were found to have a negligible effect on cell attachment but to cause a marked increase in axon polarization, occurring more frequently on sub-microscale features than on microscale features. Neurons were observed to form longer axons on lines than on holes and smooth surfaces; axons were either aligned parallel or perpendicular to the line features. An analysis of cell morphology indicated that the surface features impacted the morphologies of the soma, axon and growth cone. The results suggest that incorporating microscale and sub-microscale topographies on biomaterial surfaces may enhance the biomaterials' ability to modulate nerve development and regeneration.

  17. Shape and size of jatropha beans (Jatropha curcas L. during drying at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the physical properties of the jatropha beans over the drying under six air conditions, based on measurements of roundness, sphericity, volume, superficial area, projected area and surface/volume ratio. Jatropha beans with moisture content around 0.61 (decimal d.b. were subjected to thin-layer drying in oven with forced-air circulation under six temperature conditions (36, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 °C and relative humidity of 31.7; 19.6; 9.4; 4.8; 2.6 and 1.5% respectively, until reaching the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d. b.. The results showed that the necessary time for jatropha beans to reach the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d.b. were 1.5; 2.25; 3.0; 4.75; 6.75 and 12.0 h for the drying temperatures of 105, 90, 75, 60, 45 and 36 °C, respectively; and the reduction in the moisture content as well as the drying conditions promoted changes in the shape and reduced the size of the jatropha beans.

  18. Particle size and shape modification of hydroxyapatite nanostructures synthesized via a complexing agent-assisted route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HAP), Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , nanostructures including nanorods, nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared via a simple precipitation method. In the present method, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were used as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. Besides, the Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and different diamines were used as complexing agents for the in situ formation of Ca 2+ complexes. The formation mechanism of 0-D and 1-D nanostructures of HAP was also considered. When the complexing agents could coordinate to the Ca 2+ ions through N and O atoms to form the [CaN 2 O 2 ] 2+ complexes, HAP nanoparticles were generated. On the other hand, nanorods and nanobundles of HAP were obtained by forming the [CaN 2 ] 2+ as well as [CaO 2 ] 2+ complexes in the reaction solution. This work is the first successful synthesis of pure HAP nanostructures in the presence of Schiff bases instead of using the common surfactants. - Highlights: • HAP nanostructures have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. • To control shape and particle size of HAP, different Schiff bases were employed. • 0-D and 1-D HAP nanostructures have been formed by this method

  19. Tuning of size and shape of Au–Pt nanocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Torres, Ricardo D.; Heroux, Katie J.; Fox, Elise B.; Thompson, Lucas B.; Haasch, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the precise control of the size, shape, and surface morphology of Au–Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons, and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold “seeds” of different aspect ratios (1–4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au–Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 °C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV–Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was employed to evaluate the Au–Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au–Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au–Pt dogbones and Pt-black; however, its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

  20. Water-Assisted Size and Shape Control of CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bai, Xue; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Xiangtong; Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Weitao; Yu, William W; Rogach, Andrey L

    2018-03-19

    Lead-halide perovskites are well known to decompose rapidly when exposed to polar solvents, such as water. Contrary to this common-place observation, we have found that through introducing a suitable minor amount of water into the reaction mixture, we can synthesize stable CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals. The size and the crystallinity, and as a result the band gap tunability of the strongly emitting CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals correlate with the water content. Suitable amounts of water change the crystallization environment, inducing the formation of differently shaped perovskites, namely spherical NCs, rectangular nanoplatelets, or nanowires. Bright CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with the photoluminescence quantum yield reaching 90 % were employed for fabrication of inverted hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting devices, with the peak luminance of 4428 cd m -2 and external quantum yield of 1.7 %. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Size, shape, and topology optimization of planar and space trusses using mutation-based improved metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam G. Tejani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simultaneous size, shape, and topology optimization of planar and space trusses are investigated. Moreover, the trusses are subjected to constraints for element stresses, nodal displacements, and kinematic stability conditions. Truss Topology Optimization (TTO removes the superfluous elements and nodes from the ground structure. In this method, the difficulties arise due to unacceptable and singular topologies; therefore, the Grubler’s criterion and the positive definiteness are used to handle such issue. Moreover, the TTO is challenging due to its search space, which is implicit, non-convex, non-linear, and often leading to divergence. Therefore, mutation-based metaheuristics are proposed to investigate them. This study compares the performance of four improved metaheuristics (viz. Improved Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization (ITLBO, Improved Heat Transfer Search (IHTS, Improved Water Wave Optimization (IWWO, and Improved Passing Vehicle Search (IPVS and four basic metaheuristics (viz. TLBO, HTS, WWO, and PVS in order to solve structural optimization problems. Keywords: Structural optimization, Mutation operator, Improved metaheuristics, Modified algorithms, Truss topology optimization

  2. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  3. TUNING OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF AU-PT NANOCATALYST FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this paper, we report the precise control of the size, shape and surface morphology of Au-Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold 'seeds' of different aspect ratios (1 to 4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au-Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was used to evaluate the Au-Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au-Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au-Pt dogbones and Pt-black, however its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

  4. Water-assisted size and shape control of CsPbBr{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials MOE, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Bai, Xue; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Xiangtong; Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Weitao [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials MOE, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Yu, William W. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA (United States); Rogach, Andrey L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Centre for Functional Photonics (CFP), City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China)

    2018-03-19

    Lead-halide perovskites are well known to decompose rapidly when exposed to polar solvents, such as water. Contrary to this common-place observation, we have found that through introducing a suitable minor amount of water into the reaction mixture, we can synthesize stable CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystals. The size and the crystallinity, and as a result the band gap tunability of the strongly emitting CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystals correlate with the water content. Suitable amounts of water change the crystallization environment, inducing the formation of differently shaped perovskites, namely spherical NCs, rectangular nanoplatelets, or nanowires. Bright CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystals with the photoluminescence quantum yield reaching 90 % were employed for fabrication of inverted hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting devices, with the peak luminance of 4428 cd m{sup -2} and external quantum yield of 1.7 %. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Relationship between chromosome configurations/associations and nuclear size/shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostashevsky, J.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Chromosome configurations (linear,folded,loop,etc.,which are defined through a pattern of centromere and/or telomere anchoring to the nuclear membrane) and chromosome associations (homologous pairing, number of centromere or telomere clusters per nucleus, number of chromosome arms per cluster, etc.) are critical for the formation of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and DSB repair. However, the rules of nuclear architecture are poorly understood. A polymer approach for chromosome configurations, associations, and attachments was developed, based on the coil-like behavior of chromosomal fibers and the tight packing of discrete chromatin domains in a nucleus. The model considers chromatin anchoring to nuclear structures and shows that confinement of chromatin diffusion in a nucleus can be related to its anchoring and higher-order chromatin structure. The model was applied to nuclei of budding and fission yeast, Drosophila, worm, newt, mammals (human, Indian and Chinese muntjac, mouse) and plants (Arabidopsis, maize, barley, wheat). Quantitative agreement between results calculated from the model and observed data was obtained in all considered (∼25) cases. This supports the model and means that permitted chromosome configurations and associations can be predicted from the geometrical constraints imposed on chromosomes by nuclear size and shape

  6. The study of shape and size of normal sella turcica in cephalometric radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wook Jin; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyung Hee Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To investigate the shape and size of normal sella turcica on cephalometric radiograms. Cephalometric radiograms of 200 orthodontic patients of age ranging 6-42 years were examined. All subjects were divided into 5 groups by age, the dimensional change of sella turcica was examined according to age, and the configurations of sella turcica floor, tuberculum sella, and anterior and posterior clinoid process were also observed. The contours of sella turcica floor were flat type in 54% and concave type in 46%. The contours of tuberculum sella were right angle type in 55% and obtuse angle type in 44%; Acute angle type and plane type were very rare comprising 0.5%, 0.5% each. The configurations of anterior clinoid process were point type in 80% and round type in 20% of cases, and those of posterior clinoid processes were point type in 60% and round type in 40% of cases. The dimensional change of sella turcica according to age range had significantly positive linear trend to sella turcica length, height, and width until 25 years. After 26 years, no significant increase was found in sella turcica dimension. Especially, the sella turcica length had more proportional increase than that of sella turcica height and width. The results of this study revealed that the configuration of normal sella turcia was variable and the dimensional change of normal sella turcica had a linear tendency with age until 26 years.

  7. Survival of alpha particle irradiated cells as a function of the shape and size of the sensitive volume (nucleus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microdosimetry is the study of the stochastic variation of energy deposited within sub-cellular targets. As such, the size and shape of the critical target (i.e. cell nucleus) are essential when considering microdosimetric quantities. In this work, a microdosimetric analysis examines the expected cell survival as a function of the size and shape of the cell nucleus under conditions of irradiation emitting alpha particles. The results indicate that, in general, cell survival is relatively insensitive to changes in the shape of the cell nucleus when the volume is held constant. However, cell survival is a strong function of the variation in the size of the target. These results are useful when analysing the results of cell survival experiments for alpha particle emitters. (Author)

  8. Influence of the particle size on phase transformation temperatures of Ni-49at.%Ti shape memory alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmo, George Carlos. S.; Castro, Walman B. de; Araujo, Carlos Jose de

    2009-01-01

    It is important to control the martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) of Ti-Ni alloys because it determines the temperature range over which the shape memory effect and superelasticity appear. Powder metallurgy (PM) is known to provide the possibility of material saving and automated fabrication of at least semi-finished products as well as net-shape components for NiTi alloys. In this study powder with different particle sizes was subjected by gas atomization. The evolution of the control the martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of the particle size of powders on the transformation temperatures behaviors was discussed. (author)

  9. Nucleation of voids in materials supersaturated with mobile interstitials, vacancies and divacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.; Si-Ahmed, A.

    1982-01-01

    In previous void nucleation theories, the void size has been allowed to change only by one atomic volume through vacancy or interstitial absorption or through vacancy emission. To include the absorption of divacancies, the classical nucleation theory is here extended to include double-step transitions between clusters. The new nucleation theory is applied to study the effect of divacancies on void formation. It is found that the steady-state void nucleation rate is enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared to results with previous void nucleation theories. However, to obtain void nucleation rates comparable to measured ones, the effect of impurities, segregation and insoluble gases must still be invoked. (author)

  10. Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation

  11. Size and Shape of Chariklo from Multi-epoch Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, R.; Sicardy, B.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Ortiz, J.-L.; Desmars, J.; Bérard, D.; Lellouch, E.; Meza, E.; Kervella, P.; Snodgrass, C.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Assafin, M.; Morgado, B. E.; Colas, F.; De Witt, C.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Breytenbach, H.; Dauvergne, J.-L.; Schoenau, P.; Maquet, L.; Bath, K.-L.; Bode, H.-J.; Cool, A.; Lade, B.; Kerr, S.; Herald, D.

    2017-10-01

    We use data from five stellar occultations observed between 2013 and 2016 to constrain Chariklo’s size and shape, and the ring reflectivity. We consider four possible models for Chariklo (sphere, Maclaurin spheroid, triaxial ellipsoid, and Jacobi ellipsoid), and we use a Bayesian approach to estimate the corresponding parameters. The spherical model has a radius R = 129 ± 3 km. The Maclaurin model has equatorial and polar radii a=b={143}-6+3 {km} and c={96}-4+14 {km}, respectively, with density {970}-180+300 {kg} {{{m}}}-3. The ellipsoidal model has semiaxes a={148}-4+6 {km}, b={132}-5+6 {km}, and c={102}-8+10 {km}. Finally, the Jacobi model has semiaxes a = 157 ± 4 km, b = 139 ± 4 km, and c = 86 ± 1 km, and density {796}-4+2 {kg} {{{m}}}-3. Depending on the model, we obtain topographic features of 6-11 km, typical of Saturn icy satellites with similar size and density. We constrain Chariklo’s geometric albedo between 3.1% (sphere) and 4.9% (ellipsoid), while the ring I/F reflectivity is less constrained between 0.6% (Jacobi) and 8.9% (sphere). The ellipsoid model explains both the optical light curve and the long-term photometry variation of the system, giving a plausible value for the geometric albedo of the ring particles of 10%-15%. The derived mass of Chariklo of 6-8 × 1018 kg places the rings close to 3:1 resonance between the ring mean motion and Chariklo’s rotation period. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. Decoupling of size and shape fluctuations in heteropolymeric sequences reconciles discrepancies in SAXS vs. FRET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Gustavo; Banterle, Niccolò; Ruff, Kiersten M; Chowdhury, Aritra; Mercadante, Davide; Koehler, Christine; Kachala, Michael; Estrada Girona, Gemma; Milles, Sigrid; Mishra, Ankur; Onck, Patrick R; Gräter, Frauke; Esteban-Martín, Santiago; Pappu, Rohit V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Lemke, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Unfolded states of proteins and native states of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) populate heterogeneous conformational ensembles in solution. The average sizes of these heterogeneous systems, quantified by the radius of gyration ( R G ), can be measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Another parameter, the mean dye-to-dye distance ( R E ) for proteins with fluorescently labeled termini, can be estimated using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). A number of studies have reported inconsistencies in inferences drawn from the two sets of measurements for the dimensions of unfolded proteins and IDPs in the absence of chemical denaturants. These differences are typically attributed to the influence of fluorescent labels used in smFRET and to the impact of high concentrations and averaging features of SAXS. By measuring the dimensions of a collection of labeled and unlabeled polypeptides using smFRET and SAXS, we directly assessed the contributions of dyes to the experimental values R G and R E For chemically denatured proteins we obtain mutual consistency in our inferences based on R G and R E , whereas for IDPs under native conditions, we find substantial deviations. Using computations, we show that discrepant inferences are neither due to methodological shortcomings of specific measurements nor due to artifacts of dyes. Instead, our analysis suggests that chemical heterogeneity in heteropolymeric systems leads to a decoupling between R E and R G that is amplified in the absence of denaturants. Therefore, joint assessments of R G and R E combined with measurements of polymer shapes should provide a consistent and complete picture of the underlying ensembles.

  13. Effect of Dark Energy Perturbation on Cosmic Voids Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takao; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present the effects of dark energy perturbation on the formation and abundance of cosmic voids. We consider dark energy to be a fluid with a negative pressure characterised by a constant equation of state w and speed of sound c_s^2. By solving fluid equations for two components, namely, dark matter and dark energy fluids, we quantify the effects of dark energy perturbation on the sizes of top-hat voids. We also explore the effects on the size distribution of voids based on the excursion set theory. We confirm that dark energy perturbation negligibly affects the size evolution of voids; c_s^2=0 varies the size only by 0.1% as compared to the homogeneous dark energy model. We also confirm that dark energy perturbation suppresses the void size when w -1 (Basse et al. 2011). In contrast to the negligible impact on the size, we find that the size distribution function on scales larger than 10 Mpc/h highly depends on dark energy perturbation; compared to the homogeneous dark energy model, the number of large voids of radius 30Mpc is 25% larger for the model with w = -0.9 and c_s^2=0 while they are 20% less abundant for the model with w = -1.3 and c_s^2=0.

  14. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glé, Philippe; Gourdon, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Laurent; Horoshenkov, Kirill-V; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. It has a very low environmental impact, and it is characterized by high thermal insulation. Hemp aggregate particles are parallelepiped in shape and can be organized in a plurality of ways to create a considerable proportion of open pores with a complex connectivity pattern, the acoustical properties of which have never been examined systematically. Therefore this paper is focused on the fundamental understanding of the relations between the particle shape and size distribution, pore size distribution, and the acoustical properties of the resultant porous material mixture. The sound absorption and the transmission loss of various hemp aggregates is characterized using laboratory experiments and three theoretical models. These models are used to relate the particle size distribution to the pore size distribution. It is shown that the shape of particles and particle size control the pore size distribution and tortuosity in shiv. These properties in turn relate directly to the observed acoustical behavior.

  15. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  16. Effects of shape and size of inclusions on the sintering of ZnO-ZrO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Yohsuke; Kimura, Toshio

    1997-01-01

    The densification behavior and microstructure development of ZnO matrices containing rigid ZrO 2 inclusions were studied, with special emphasis on the effect of inclusion shape and size. The inclusions retarded the densification of the matrix, regardless of the inclusion shape and size. For large inclusions with diameter of > 10 microm, dense regions developed between inclusion particles. The inclusion particles and dense regions formed a continuous network, which constrained the densification of the composites. The inclusion shape had a small effect on the development of dense regions. Severe retardation in densification was observed for compacts containing inclusions with diameters of < 10 microm. In these cases, dense regions between inclusion particles did not develop. The formation of the continuous network cannot be applicable to small inclusions as an origin of retardation of densification

  17. Geographic body size and shape variation in a mainland anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from northwestern South America (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Espinosa, Martha L; Barragan Contreras, Leidy Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape) defines structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: Conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test these predictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.

  18. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.

    1981-02-01

    The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory

  19. Assessment of tricuspid valve annulus size, shape and function using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Anwar (Ashraf); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTricuspid annulus (TA) evaluation continues to be a major problem in the surgical decision-making process. Obviously, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE) is limited in TA visualization due to its complex 3D shape. The study aimed to determine TA morphology, size and

  20. Mechanism of Void Prediction in Flip Chip Packages with Molded Underfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang

    2017-08-01

    Voids have always been present using the molded underfill (MUF) package process, which is a problem that needs further investigation. In this study, the process was studied using the Moldex3D numerical analysis software. The effects of gas (air vent effect) on the overall melt front were also considered. In this isothermal process containing two fluids, the gas and melt colloid interact in the mold cavity. Simulation enabled an appropriate understanding of the actual situation to be gained, and, through analysis, the void region and exact location of voids were predicted. First, the global flow end area was observed to predict the void movement trend, and then the local flow ends were observed to predict the location and size of voids. In the MUF 518 case study, simulations predicted the void region as well as the location and size of the voids. The void phenomenon in a flip chip ball grid array underfill is discussed as part of the study.

  1. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  2. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Glenn; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu_3Sn and Cu_6Sn_5 intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu_3Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu_3Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu_3Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu_6Sn_5. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu_3Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu_3Sn to be consumed by Cu_6Sn_5.

  3. Nonlocal superelastic model of size-dependent hardening and dissipation in single crystal Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Rimoli, Julian J; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A; Radovitzky, Raul

    2011-02-25

    We propose a nonlocal continuum model to describe the size-dependent superelastic effect observed in recent experiments of single crystal Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys. The model introduces two length scales, one in the free energy and one in the dissipation, which account for the size-dependent hardening and dissipation in the loading and unloading response of micro- and nanopillars subject to compression tests. The information provided by the model suggests that the size dependence observed in the dissipation is likely to be associated with a nonuniform evolution of the distribution of the austenitic and martensitic phases during the loading cycle. © 2011 American Physical Society

  4. Hydrodynamic discrimination of wakes caused by objects of different size or shape in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieskotten, S.; Mauck, B.; Miersch, L.

    2011-01-01

    Harbour seals can use their mystacial vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic wakes. We investigated the ability of a harbour seal to discriminate objects of different size or shape by their hydrodynamic signature and used particle image velocimetry to identify the hydrodynamic parameters...... that a seal may be using to do so. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by different sized or shaped paddles that were moved in the calm water of an experimental box to produce a characteristic signal. In a two-alternative forced-choice procedure the blindfolded subject was able to discriminate size differences...... of down to 3.6. cm (Weber fraction 0.6) when paddles were moved at the same speed. Furthermore the subject distinguished hydrodynamic signals generated by flat, cylindrical, triangular or undulated paddles of the same width. Particle image velocimetry measurements demonstrated that the seal could have...

  5. On nonlinear excitation of voids in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebbat, E.; Annou, R.; Bharuthram, R.

    2007-01-01

    The void, which is a dust-free region inside the dust cloud in the plasma, results from a balance of the electrostatic force and the ion-drag force on a dust particulate that has numerous forms, some of which are based on models whereas others are driven from first principles. To explain the generation of voids, K. Avinash, A. Bhattacharjee, and S. Hu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075001 (2003)] proposed a time-dependent nonlinear model that describes the void as a result of an instability. We augment this model by incorporating the grain drift and reintroducing the velocity convective term as well as by replacing the modeled ion-drag force by a more accurate one. The analysis is conducted in a spherical configuration. It is revealed that the void formation is a threshold phenomenon, i.e., it depends on the grain size. Furthermore, the void possesses a sharp boundary beyond which the dust density decreases and may present a corrugated aspect. For big size grains, the use of both ion-drag forces leads to voids of the same dimension, though for grains of small sizes, the Avinash force drives voids of a higher dimension. The model shows good agreement with the experiment

  6. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  7. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  8. Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Ng, Felix S. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice sheets flowing across a sedimentary bed usually produce a landscape of blister-like landforms streamlined in the direction of the ice flow and with each bump of the order of 10 2 to 10 3 m in length and 10 1 m in relief. Such landforms, known as drumlins, have mystified investigators for over a hundred years. A satisfactory explanation for their formation, and thus an appreciation of their glaciological significance, has remained elusive. A recent advance has been in numerical modelling of the land-forming process. In anticipation of future modelling endeavours, this paper is motivated by the requirement for robust data on drumlin size and shape for model testing. From a systematic programme of drumlin mapping from digital elevation models and satellite images of Britain and Ireland, we used a geographic information system to compile a range of statistics on length L, width W, and elongation ratio E (where E = L/ W) for a large sample. Mean L, is found to be 629 m ( n = 58,983), mean W is 209 m and mean E is 2.9 ( n = 37,043). Most drumlins are between 250 and 1000 metres in length; between 120 and 300 metres in width; and between 1.7 and 4.1 times as long as they are wide. Analysis of such data and plots of drumlin width against length reveals some new insights. All frequency distributions are unimodal from which we infer that the geomorphological label of 'drumlin' is fair in that this is a true single population of landforms, rather than an amalgam of different landform types. Drumlin size shows a clear minimum bound of around 100 m (horizontal). Maybe drumlins are generated at many scales and this is the minimum, or this value may be an indication of the fundamental scale of bump generation ('proto-drumlins') prior to them growing and elongating. A relationship between drumlin width and length is found (with r2 = 0.48) and that is approximately W = 7 L 1/2 when measured in metres. A surprising and sharply-defined line bounds the data cloud plotted in E- W

  9. Shape Modification and Size Classification of Microcrystalline Graphite Powder as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Gai, Guosheng; Yang, Yufen

    2018-03-01

    Natural microcrystalline graphite (MCG) composed of many crystallites is a promising new anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) and has received considerable attention from researchers. MCG with narrow particle size distribution and high sphericity exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. A nonaddition process to prepare natural MCG as a high-performance LiB anode material is described. First, raw MCG was broken into smaller particles using a pulverization system. Then, the particles were modified into near-spherical shape using a particle shape modification system. Finally, the particle size distribution was narrowed using a centrifugal rotor classification system. The products with uniform hemispherical shape and narrow size distribution had mean particle size of approximately 9 μm, 10 μm, 15 μm, and 20 μm. Additionally, the innovative pilot experimental process increased the product yield of the raw material. Finally, the electrochemical performance of the prepared MCG was tested, revealing high reversible capacity and good cyclability.

  10. Matching Ge detector element geometry to sample size and shape: One does not fit all exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, R.M.; Twomey, T.R.; Sangsingkeow, P.

    1998-01-01

    For 25 yr, coaxial germanium detector performance has been specified using the methods and values specified in Ref. 1. These specifications are the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), FW.1M, FW.02M, peak-to-Compton ratio, and relative efficiency. All of these measurements are made with a 60 Co source 25 cm from the cryostat endcap and centered on the axis of the detector. These measurements are easy to reproduce, both because they are simple to set up and use a common source. These standard tests have been useful in guiding the user to an appropriate detector choice for the intended measurement. Most users of germanium gamma-ray detectors do not make measurements in this simple geometry. Germanium detector manufacturers have worked over the years to make detectors with better resolution, better peak-to-Compton ratios, and higher efficiency--but all based on measurements using the IEEE standard. Advances in germanium crystal growth techniques have made it relatively easy to provide detector elements of different shapes and sizes. Many of these different shapes and sizes can give better results for a specific application than other shapes and sizes. But, the detector specifications must be changed to correspond to the actual application. Both the expected values and the actual parameters to be specified should be changed. In many cases, detection efficiency, peak shape, and minimum detectable limit for a particular detector/sample combination are valuable specifications of detector performance. For other situations, other parameters are important, such as peak shape as a function of count rate. In this work, different sample geometries were considered. The results show the variation in efficiency with energy for all of these sample and detector geometries. The point source at 25 cm from the endcap measurement allows the results to be compared with the currently given IEEE criteria. The best sample/detector configuration for a specific measurement requires more and

  11. Complex calculation and improvement of beam shaping and accelerating system of the ''Sokol'' small-size electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonenko, A.V.; Pistryak, V.M.; Zats, A.V.; Levchenko, Yu.Z.; Kuz'menko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Features of charged particle accelerated beam shaping in the electrostatic part of the ''Sokol'' small-size accelerator are considered in complex taking into account the electrode real geometry. Effect of the extracting, accelerating electorde potential and accelerator total voltage on beam behaviour is investigated. A modified variation of the beam shaping system, allowing to decrease 2 times the required interval of accelerating electrode potential adjustment and to decrease the beam size in the starting acceleration region, is presented. It permits to simplify the construction and to improve accelerator operation. Comparison of experimental and calculational data on the beam in the improved accelerator variation is carried out. Effect of peripheral parts of accelerating tube electrodes on the beam is investigated

  12. Effect of the shape and size of dosimeters on the response of solid state/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Fabisiak, Slawomir; Lagunov, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the shape and size of dosimeters used in solid state-EPR (SS/EPR) dosimetry on their response is reported. It is shown that for commonly used cylindrical (rod) shaped dosimeters of equal height, prepared of low (ε=<3) dielectric constant materials, linearity between their volume and the EPR response is observed when their diameter varies between 3 and 5mm. Further increase of the dosimeter's diameter is not recommended since the increased penetration of the dosimeter material into the electric component of the microwave field in the EPR cavity increases the dielectric losses and decreases the EPR response. In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the SS/EPR dosimetry we have prepared and tested new, flat-shaped, dosimeters of low (ε∼2) dielectric constant materials which were found to exhibit: (i) linear EPR response within 1-5mm thickness; (ii) higher sensitivity than cylindrical dosimeters at equal sample volume; (iii) increased by ca. 270% EPR sensitivity at 5mm thickness compared to the cylindrical dosimeters with the same diameter (ca. 1.7 times increased sample volume). Using flat shape dosimeters of suitable size provides 2.7 times higher EPR sensitivity of single estimation

  13. Generalization of Wilemski-Fixman-Weiss decoupling approximation to the case involving multiple sinks of different sizes, shapes, and reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jesik; Lee, Jinuk; Eun, Changsun; Lee, Sangyoub

    2006-08-07

    We generalize the Wilemski-Fixman-Weiss decoupling approximation to calculate the transient rate of absorption of point particles into multiple sinks of different sizes, shapes, and reactivities. As an application we consider the case involving two spherical sinks. We obtain a Laplace-transform expression for the transient rate that is in excellent agreement with computer simulations. The long-time steady-state rate has a relatively simple expression, which clearly shows the dependence on the diffusion constant of the particles and on the sizes and reactivities of sinks, and its numerical result is in good agreement with the known exact result that is given in terms of recursion relations.

  14. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  15. Effect of kibble size, shape and additives on plaque in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, D.E.; Servet, E.; Hendriks, W.H.; Thomas, D.G.; Weidgraaf, K.; Biourge, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    Forty mixed-breed cats completed a parallel-group, clinical study to compare supragingival plaque accumulation using a triangular or rectangular shaped dry-expanded diet, with or without an anti-calculus agent (sodium tripolyphosphate) or an anti-plaque agent (plaquereducing nutrient). The cats were

  16. Mechanisms shaping size structure and functional diversity of phytoplankton communities in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Brandt, Gunnar; Bruggeman, Jorn; Merico, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    The factors regulating phytoplankton community composition play a crucial role in structuring aquatic food webs. However, consensus is still lacking about the mechanisms underlying the observed biogeographical differences in cell size composition of phytoplankton communities. Here we use a trait-based model to disentangle these mechanisms in two contrasting regions of the Atlantic Ocean. In our model, the phytoplankton community can self-assemble based on a trade-off emerging from relationships between cell size and (1) nutrient uptake, (2) zooplankton grazing, and (3) phytoplankton sinking. Grazing ‘pushes’ the community towards larger cell sizes, whereas nutrient uptake and sinking ‘pull’ the community towards smaller cell sizes. We find that the stable environmental conditions of the tropics strongly balance these forces leading to persistently small cell sizes and reduced size diversity. In contrast, the seasonality of the temperate region causes the community to regularly reorganize via shifts in species composition and to exhibit, on average, bigger cell sizes and higher size diversity than in the tropics. Our results raise the importance of environmental variability as a key structuring mechanism of plankton communities in the ocean and call for a reassessment of the current understanding of phytoplankton diversity patterns across latitudinal gradients. PMID:25747280

  17. Weber's Illusion and Body Shape: Anisotropy of Tactile Size Perception on the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on a single skin surface is larger on regions of high tactile sensitivity than those with lower acuity, an effect known as "Weber's illusion". This illusion suggests that tactile size perception involves a representation of the perceived size of body parts preserving characteristics of the somatosensory…

  18. Void consolidation during open-die forging for ultralarge rotor shafts. (1. Formulation of void-closing behavior)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shin-ichi; Minami, Katsuyuki; Ochiai, Tomoyuki; Iwadate, Tadao; Nakata, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Open-die forging experiments using different die geometries under hot isothermal conditions and three-dimensional simulations using rigid-plastic finite-element method were performed to formulate a void-closing behavior using only two factors; the integral of hydrostatic stress and the equivalent strain. First, upsetting, side-upsetting and V-shape die cogging of several cylinders with a spherical void at the center are carried out and the information on the void volume reduction is obtained. Seconds, the same forgings, but without voids is treated numerically and the development of stress and strain at the location of voids is investigated. Then, by combining these results, and using regression analysis, it is found that the void volume reduction is expressed as a polynomial function of the two factors. When the polynomial function is used, various forging methods can be evaluated quantitatively in terms of void-closing behavior. Therefore it is beneficial to optimize the forging process for a large rotor shaft. (author)

  19. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H{sub 2}S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanh, Le Thi [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Hoa, Tran Thai, E-mail: trthaihoa@yahoo.com [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Cuong, Nguyen Duc [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Hue University, 22 Lam Hoang, Hue City (Viet Nam); Khieu, Dinh Quang [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Quang, Duong Tuan [College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi, Hue City (Viet Nam); Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Van Hieu, Nguyen, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H{sub 2}S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H{sub 2}S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine.

  20. Sub-10 nm Platinum Nanocrystals with Size and Shape Control: Catalytic Study for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Aliaga, Cesar; Hung, Ling-I; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-03-02

    Platinum nanocubes and nanopolyhedra with tunable size from 5 to 9 nm were synthesized by controlling the reducing rate of metal precursor ions in a one-pot polyol synthesis. A two-stage process is proposed for the simultaneous control of size and shape. In the first stage, the oxidation state of the metal ion precursors determined the nucleation rate and consequently the number of nuclei. The reaction temperature controlled the shape in the second stage by regulation of the growth kinetics. These well-defined nanocrystals were loaded into MCF-17 mesoporous silica for examination of catalytic properties. Pt loadings and dispersions of the supported catalysts were determined by elemental analysis (ICP-MS) and H2 chemisorption isotherms, respectively. Ethylene hydrogenation rates over the Pt nanocrystals were independent of both size and shape and comparable to Pt single crystals. For pyrrole hydrogenation, the nanocubes enhanced ring-opening ability and thus showed a higher selectivity to n-butylamine as compared to nanopolyhedra.

  1. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H2S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanh, Le Thi; Hoa, Tran Thai; Cuong, Nguyen Duc; Khieu, Dinh Quang; Quang, Duong Tuan; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H 2 S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H 2 S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine

  2. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  3. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S.; Luisiri, A.; Garibaldi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  4. Optimization of the size and shape of the set-in nozzle for a PWR reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtaza, Usman Tariq, E-mail: maniiut@yahoo.com; Javed Hyder, M., E-mail: hyder@pieas.edu.pk

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The size and shape of the set-in nozzle of the RPV have been optimized. • The optimized nozzle ensure the reduction of the mass around 198 kg per nozzle. • The mass of the RPV should be minimized for better fracture toughness. - Abstract: The objective of this research work is to optimize the size and shape of the set-in nozzle for a typical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of a 300 MW pressurized water reactor. The analysis was performed by optimizing the four design variables which control the size and shape of the nozzle. These variables are inner radius of the nozzle, thickness of the nozzle, taper angle at the nozzle-cylinder intersection, and the point where taper of the nozzle starts from. It is concluded that the optimum design of the nozzle is the one that minimizes the two conflicting state variables, i.e., the stress intensity (Tresca yield criterion) and the mass of the RPV.

  5. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang, E-mail: wei@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering.

  6. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering

  7. How Rural Market Imperfections Shape the Relation Between Farm Size and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    The subject of this article is the alleged inverse relationship between farm size and productivity in developing countries. The recent controversy is reviewed, and a framework is provided to explain the inverse relationship based on plausible assumptions about imperfections in the markets for labor......, credit and land. On this basis testable hypotheses are derived. Using fram.level panel data from Pakistan, the framework is assessed by regressing output on operational fram size, size of owned holding, family size, tenurial status and irrigation status of the land. Household fixed effects are used...... to account for remaining unobserved heterogenity. It is concluded that an inverse relationship is present in Pakistan, and that the market imperfections framework performs well with the data...

  8. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2002-01-01

    surface models are built by using the anatomical landmarks to warp a template mesh onto all shapes in the training set. Testing the gender related differences is done by initially reducing the dimensionality using principal component analysis of the vertices of the warped meshes. The number of components...... to retain is chosen using Horn's parallel analysis. Finally a multivariate analysis of variance is performed on these components....

  9. Protein structure and ionic selectivity in calcium channels: selectivity filter size, not shape, matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasics, Attila; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Henderson, Douglas; Eisenberg, Bob; Boda, Dezso

    2009-12-01

    Calcium channels have highly charged selectivity filters (4 COO(-) groups) that attract cations in to balance this charge and minimize free energy, forcing the cations (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) to compete for space in the filter. A reduced model was developed to better understand the mechanism of ion selectivity in calcium channels. The charge/space competition (CSC) mechanism implies that Ca(2+) is more efficient in balancing the charge of the filter because it provides twice the charge as Na(+) while occupying the same space. The CSC mechanism further implies that the main determinant of Ca(2+) versus Na(+) selectivity is the density of charged particles in the selectivity filter, i.e., the volume of the filter (after fixing the number of charged groups in the filter). In this paper we test this hypothesis by changing filter length and/or radius (shape) of the cylindrical selectivity filter of our reduced model. We show that varying volume and shape together has substantially stronger effects than varying shape alone with volume fixed. Our simulations show the importance of depletion zones of ions in determining channel conductance calculated with the integrated Nernst-Planck equation. We show that confining the protein side chains with soft or hard walls does not influence selectivity.

  10. The role of size constancy for the integration of local elements into a global shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception depends on the visual context and is likely to be influenced by size constancy, which predicts a size and distance invariant perception of objects. However, size constancy can also result in optical illusions that allow the manipulation of the perceived size. We thus asked whether the integration of local elements into a global object can be influenced by manipulations of the visual context and size constancy? A set of stimuli was applied in healthy individuals that took advantage of the ‘Kanizsa’ illusion, in which three circles with open wedges oriented towards a center point are placed to form an illusionary perception of a triangle. In addition, a 3D-perspective view was implemented in which the global target (‘Kanizsa’ triangle was placed in combination with several distractor circles either in a close or a distant position. Subjects were engaged in a global recognition task on the location of the ‘Kanizsa’ triangle. Global recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles improved with a decreasing length of the illusory contour. Interestingly, recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles decreased when they were perceived as if they were located further away. We conclude that the integration of local elements into a global object is dependent on the visual context and dominated by size constancy.

  11. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.E. Justice (Anne); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); Barata, L. (Llilda); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Chu, S. (Su); J. Czajkowski (Jacek); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Y. Lu (Yingchang); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rüeger, S. (Sina); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J. Karjalainen (Juha); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Neinast, M.D. (Michael D.); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Simino (Jeannette); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); R. Jansen; H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); C.C. White (Charles); D. Absher (Devin); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S. Ahmad (Shafqat); E. Albrecht (Eva); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); G. Cadby (Gemma); Y.-C. Cheng (Yu-Ching); Chiang, C.W. (Charleston W K); G. Delgado; A. Demirkan (Ayşe); N. Dueker (Nicole); N. Eklund (Niina); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); J. Eriksson (Joel); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Frau (Francesca); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); F. Geller (Frank); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lehne, B. (Benjamin); Liu, Y. (Youfang); K.S. Lo; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); J. Luan (Jian'An); P.A. Madden (Pamela); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); Rizzi, F. (Federica); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); P. Salo (Perttu); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stancáková (Alena); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S. Trompet (Stella); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); L. Waite (Lindsay); S.R. Wang (Sophie); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); S.H. Wild (Sarah); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Wong (Andrew); Yang, J. (Jian); L. Yengo (Loic); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Yu, L. (Lei); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); E.A. Andersson (Ehm Astrid); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); Banasik, K. (Karina); Barcella, M. (Matteo); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); C. Bellis (Claire); P. Benaglio (Paola); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); Bonnet, F. (Fabrice); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); H.A. Boyd (Heather); M. Bruinenberg (M.); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.D. Chen (Y.); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); J.W. Cole (John W.); F.S. Collins (Francis); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); M. Dimitriou (Maria); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Eury (Elodie); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); B. Gigante (Bruna); N. Glorioso (Nicola); A. Go (Attie); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); Gu, Y.-M. (Yu-Mei); L. Broer (Linda); A.C. Ham (Annelies); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.A. Hartman (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A.K. Henders (Anjali); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J. Hui (Jennie); Husemoen, L.L. (Lise L.); Hutri-Kähönen, N. (Nina); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); T. Illig (Thomas); P.L. de Jager (Philip); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); T. Jorgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Juonala, M. (Markus); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); K.T. Khaw; L. Kinnunen (Leena); T. Kittner (Thomas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kovacs (Peter); Krarup, N.T. (Nikolaj T.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krüger, J. (Janine); Kuh, D. (Diana); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Lannfelt (Lars); C. Lanzani (Chiara); V. Lotay (Vaneet); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K. Leander (Karin); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, Y.-P. (Yan-Ping); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K. Ong (Ken); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); A. Pouta (Anneli); Rheinberger, M. (Myriam); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Richards, M. (Marcus); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); C. Rivolta (Carlo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); W.R. Scott (William R.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); S. Sengupta (Sebanti); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); A. Silveira (Angela); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.H. Smit (Jan); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Swertz, M.A. (Morris A.); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); B. Thorand (Barbara); A. Tönjes (Anke); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); R. Wennauer (Roman); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); C.A. Böger (Carsten); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); K. Hagen (Knut); D. Evans; U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Farrall (Martin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); I. Ford (Ian); L. Franke (Lude); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); P. Hall (Per); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); M. Heliovaara (Markku); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. James (Alan); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); W. Maerz (Winfried); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M.L. Lokki; Mäntyselkä, P. (Pekka); M. Melbye (Mads); A. Metspalu (Andres); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Pankow (James); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); Psaty, B.M. (Bruce M.); Qi, L. (Lu); T. Quertermous (Thomas); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Rudan (Igor); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); J. Saltevo (Juha); N. Sattar (Naveed); Schunkert, H. (Heribert); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); Stefania, B. (Bandinelli); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A.L.M. Verbeek; S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Walker (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Clegg, D.J. (Deborah J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P. Gordon-Larsen (Penny); C.E. Jaquish (Cashell); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Abecasis, G.R. (Goncalo R.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); I.M. Heid (Iris); K.E. North (Kari); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ

  12. Air void clustering : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been : identified as a potential source of low strengths in concrete mixes by : several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research : was carried out to (1) develop a quantita...

  13. The grain size dependency of vesicular particle shapes strongly affects the drag of particles. First results from microtomography investigations of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.

  14. Size dependence of magnetization reversal of ring shaped magnetic tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Chang, Y.C.; Chang, C.C.; Horng, Lance; Wu, Teho; Chern, G.; Huang, C.Y.; Tsunoda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Wu, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The size dependence of magnetization reversal of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) rings has been investigated. The MTJ rings, with outer diameter of 4, 2 and 1 μm and inner diameter of 1.5, 1 and 0.5 μm were fabricated by a top-down technique. The magnetoresistance curves manifest all of the magnetic domain configurations during magnetization reversal in different sized rings. Various transition processes were observed, such as four transition, three transition and two transition in the largest, middle and smallest MTJ ring, respectively. Furthermore, the biasing fields observed from major loops decrease with decreasing size, which may result from edge roughness produced in the ion-milling process

  15. Morphological and morphometric analysis of the shape, position, number and size of mental foramen on human mandibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Voljevica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide anatomical information on the position, morphological variations and incidence of mental foramen (MF and accessorymental foramen (AMF as they are important for dental surgeons, anesthetists in nerve block and surgical procedures, to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle in the mental foramen area. Methods. Our study was conducted on 150 adult dry human mandibles from the osteological collection of the Department of Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. The location and shape of the MF and the presence of the AMF were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the MF were measured using a digital vernier caliper. SPSS, version 17 software was used for the statistical analysis. Results. Bilateral mental foramina were presented in all 150 mandibles. In the majority of mandibles, the MF was located between the first and second premolar (20.3% or on the level of the root of the second premolar (60.3%, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape (83.3%. An AMF was present in four mandibles (2.7% on the right side. Conclusion. This study may be a very useful new supplement to data on variations in the incidence, position, shape and size of mental and accessory mental foramina, which may help surgeons, anaesthetists, neurosurgeons and dentists in carrying out surgical procedures successfully.

  16. Shape- and Size-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe vera Plant Extract and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaranjan, Kaliyaperumal; Raiza, Anasdass Jaculin; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Pandian, Kannaiyan

    2016-11-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was performed at room temperature using Aloe vera plant extract in the presence of ammoniacal silver nitrate as a metal salt precursor. The formation of AgNP was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy at different time intervals. The shape and size of the synthesized particle were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and further supported by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/Raman scattering (SERS) study. UV-visible spectrum has shown a sharp peak at 420 nm and further evidenced by FTIR peak profile (at 1587.6, 1386.4, and 1076 cm-1 with corresponding compounds). The main band position with SERS was noticed at 1594 cm-1 (C-C stretching vibration). When samples were heated under microwave radiation, AgNP with octahedron shapes with 5-50 nm were found and this method can be one of the easier ways to synthesis anisotropic AgNP, in which the plant extract plays a vital role to regulate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Enhanced antibacterial effects (two- to fourfold) were observed in the case of Aloe vera plant protected AgNP than the routinely synthesized antibiotic drugs.

  17. A New Kind of Void Soap-free P(MMA-EA-MAA) Latex Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai KANG; Cheng You KAN; Yi DU; Yu Zhong LI; De Shan LIU

    2005-01-01

    Soap-free P(MMA-EA-MAA) particles with narrow size distribution were synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl acrylate (EA) and methacrylic acid (MAA), and large voids inside the particles were generated by alkali posttreatment in the presence of 2-butanone. Results indicated that the size of void and the particle volume were related with the amount of 2-butanone. The generation mechanism of voids was proposed.

  18. Biofilter media gas pressure loss as related to media particle size and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Røjgaard Andreasen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Pressure loss (ΔP) is a key parameter for estimating biofilter energy consumption. Accurate predictions of ΔP as a function of air velocity (V) are therefore essential, to assess energy consumption and minimize operation costs. This paper investigates the combined impact of medium particle size...

  19. Analysis on the stress corrosion crack inception based on pit shape and size of the FV520B tensile specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Longhao; Pan, Juyi; Chen, Songying

    2018-06-01

    The influence of pit shape and size on local stress concentration in the tensile specimen and the stress corrosion cracks inception was studied by employing the element remove technique. The maximum stress located in the bottom of pit on FV520B tensile specimen. The location of maximum strain was near the mouth of the pit or the shoulder and plastic strain existed in this region. Stress concentration factor and plastic deformation on four different geometrical shape pits of hemisphere, semi-ellipsoid, bullet and butterfly were numerically investigated, respectively. The simulation results showed that butterfly pit got the biggest stress concentration factor. The plastic strain rate during pit growth was in the sensitivity range of stress corrosion cracks inception, indicating that stress corrosion cracks were more likely to nucleate near the pit tip or the shoulder.

  20. WIDE AND THICK GRAIN 1, which encodes an otubain-like protease with deubiquitination activity, influences grain size and shape in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Wang, Dekai; Duan, Penggen; Zhang, Baolan; Xu, Ran; Li, Na; Li, Yunhai

    2017-09-01

    Grain size and shape are two crucial traits that influence grain yield and grain appearance in rice. Although several factors that affect grain size have been described in rice, the molecular mechanisms underlying the determination of grain size and shape are still elusive. In this study we report that WIDE AND THICK GRAIN 1 (WTG1) functions as an important factor determining grain size and shape in rice. The wtg1-1 mutant exhibits wide, thick, short and heavy grains and also shows an increased number of grains per panicle. WTG1 determines grain size and shape mainly by influencing cell expansion. WTG1 encodes an otubain-like protease, which shares similarity with human OTUB1. Biochemical analyses indicate that WTG1 is a functional deubiquitinating enzyme, and the mutant protein (wtg1-1) loses this deubiquitinating activity. WTG1 is expressed in developing grains and panicles, and the GFP-WTG1 fusion protein is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of WTG1 results in narrow, thin, long grains due to narrow and long cells, further supporting the role of WTG1 in determining grain size and shape. Thus, our findings identify the otubain-like protease WTG1 to be an important factor that determines grain size and shape, suggesting that WTG1 has the potential to improve grain size and shape in rice. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes in droplet microreactors separated by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2013-12-17

    Silver nanocrystals with uniform sizes were synthesized in droplet microreactors through seed-mediated growth. The key to the success of this synthesis is the use of air as a carrier phase to generate the droplets. The air not only separates the reaction solution into droplets but also provides O2 for the generation of reducing agent (glycolaldehyde). It also serves as a buffer space for the diffusion of NO, which is formed in situ due to the oxidative etching of Ag nanocrystals with twin defects. For the first time, we were able to generate Ag nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes in continuous production by using droplet microreactors. For Ag nanocubes, their edge lengths could be readily controlled in the range of 30-100 nm by varying the reaction time, the amount of seeds, and the concentration of AgNO3 in the droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrated the synthesis of Ag octahedra in the droplet microreactors. We believe that the air-driven droplet generation device can be extended to other noble metals for the production of nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes.

  2. Size effect and scaling power-law for superelasticity in shape-memory alloys at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, Jose F; Nó, Maria L; López-Ferreño, Iñaki; Hernández-Saz, Jesús; Molina, Sergio I; Chuvilin, Andrey; San Juan, Jose M

    2017-08-01

    Shape-memory alloys capable of a superelastic stress-induced phase transformation and a high displacement actuation have promise for applications in micro-electromechanical systems for wearable healthcare and flexible electronic technologies. However, some of the fundamental aspects of their nanoscale behaviour remain unclear, including the question of whether the critical stress for the stress-induced martensitic transformation exhibits a size effect similar to that observed in confined plasticity. Here we provide evidence of a strong size effect on the critical stress that induces such a transformation with a threefold increase in the trigger stress in pillars milled on [001] L2 1 single crystals from a Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy from 2 μm to 260 nm in diameter. A power-law size dependence of n = -2 is observed for the nanoscale superelasticity. Our observation is supported by the atomic lattice shearing and an elastic model for homogeneous martensite nucleation.

  3. Round-shape gold nanoparticles: effect of particle size and concentration on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siegel, J.; Záruba, K.; Švorčík, V.; Kroumanová, Kristýna; Burketová, Lenka; Martinec, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, APR 10 (2018), č. článku 95. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-10907S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Concentration * Gold nanoparticles * Root growth * Size Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  4. Grain size effects on stability of nonlinear vibration with nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-10-01

    Grain size effects on stability of thermomechanical responses for a nonlinear torsional vibration system with nanocrystalline superelastic NiTi bar are investigated in the frequency and amplitude domains. NiTi bars with average grain size from 10 nm to 100 nm are fabricated through cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. Thermomechanical responses of the NiTi bar as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are obtained by synchronised acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external sinusoidal excitation. It is shown that nonlinearity and damping capacity of the NiTi bar decrease as average grain size of the material is reduced below 100 nm. Therefore jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses become less significant or even vanish and the vibration system becomes more stable. The work in this paper provides a solid experimental base for manipulating the undesired jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses and stabilising the mechanical vibration system through grain refinement of NiTi SMA.

  5. Coevolving parasites and population size shape the evolution of mating behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstes Niels AG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coevolution with parasites and population size are both expected to influence the evolution of mating rates. To gain insights into the interaction between these dual selective factors, we used populations from a coevolution experiment with the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei. We maintained each experimental population at two different population sizes. We assayed the mating behaviour of both males and females from coevolved and paired non-coevolved control populations after 24 generations of coevolution with parasites. Results Males from large, coevolved populations (i.e. ancestors were exposed to parasites showed a reduced eagerness to mate compared to males from large, non-coevolved populations. But in small populations, coevolution did not lead to decreased male mating rates. Coevolved females from both large and small populations appeared to be more willing to accept mating than non-coevolved females. Conclusions This study provides unique, experimental insights into the combined roles of coevolving parasites and population size on the evolution of mating rate. Furthermore, we find that males and females respond differently to the same environmental conditions. Our results show that parasites can be key determinants of the sexual behaviour of their hosts.

  6. Systematic Study on the Self-Assembled Hexagonal Au Voids, Nano-Clusters and Nanoparticles on GaN (0001.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puran Pandey

    Full Text Available Au nano-clusters and nanoparticles (NPs have been widely utilized in various electronic, optoelectronic, and bio-medical applications due to their great potentials. The size, density and configuration of Au NPs play a vital role in the performance of these devices. In this paper, we present a systematic study on the self-assembled hexagonal Au voids, nano-clusters and NPs fabricated on GaN (0001 by the variation of annealing temperature and deposition amount. At relatively low annealing temperatures between 400 and 600°C, the fabrication of hexagonal shaped Au voids and Au nano-clusters are observed and discussed based on the diffusion limited aggregation model. The size and density of voids and nano-clusters can systematically be controlled. The self-assembled Au NPs are fabricated at comparatively high temperatures from 650 to 800°C based on the Volmer-Weber growth model and also the size and density can be tuned accordingly. The results are symmetrically analyzed and discussed in conjunction with the diffusion theory and thermodynamics by utilizing AFM and SEM images, EDS maps and spectra, FFT power spectra, cross-sectional line-profiles and size and density plots.

  7. Neuronal density, size and shape in the human anterior cingulate cortex: a comparison of Nissl and NeuN staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittins, Rebecca; Harrison, Paul J

    2004-03-15

    There are an increasing number of quantitative morphometric studies of the human cerebral cortex, especially as part of comparative investigations of major psychiatric disorders. In this context, the present study had two aims. First, to provide quantitative data regarding key neuronal morphometric parameters in the anterior cingulate cortex. Second, to compare the results of conventional Nissl staining with those observed after immunostaining with NeuN, an antibody becoming widely used as a selective neuronal marker. We stained adjacent sections of area 24b from 16 adult brains with cresyl violet or NeuN. We measured the density of pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons, and the size and shape of pyramidal neurons, in laminae II, III, Va, Vb and VI, using two-dimensional counting methods. Strong correlations between the two modes of staining were seen for all variables. However, NeuN gave slightly higher estimates of neuronal density and size, and a more circular perikaryal shape. Brain pH was correlated with neuronal size, measured with both methods, and with neuronal shape. Age and post-mortem interval showed no correlations with any parameter. These data confirm the value of NeuN as a tool for quantitative neuronal morphometric studies in routinely processed human brain tissue. Absolute values are highly correlated between NeuN and cresyl violet stains, but cannot be interchanged. NeuN may be particularly useful when it is important to distinguish small neurons from glia, such as in cytoarchitectural studies of the cerebral cortex in depression and schizophrenia.

  8. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of nanometre ZnO from a simple solution route at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H L; Qian, X F; Gong, Q; Du, W M; Ma, X D; Zhu, Z K

    2006-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with a diameter of about 5 nm were synthesized without the presence of any surfactants in ethanol solvent at room temperature. Nanodots and nanorods with different size and shape could be observed by TEM via simply altering NaOH concentration and reaction time. The polar ZnO nanorod growth mechanism was discussed by the 'Ostwald ripening' mechanism. Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods have been characterized. The UV absorption spectrum revealed a clear blue-shift with a single absorption peak centred at 350 nm

  9. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  10. Computer simulation of high-energy recoils in FCC metals: cascade shapes and sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Displacement cascades in copper generated by primary knock-on atoms with energies from 1 keV to 500 keV were produced with the computer code MARLOWE. The sizes and other features of the point defect distributions were measured as a function of energy. In the energy range from 30 keV to 50 keV there is a transition from compact single damage regions to chains of generally closely-spaced, but distinct multiple damage regions. The average spacing between multiple damage regions remains constant with energy. Only a small fraction of the recoils from fusion neutrons is expected to produce widely separated subcascades

  11. Role of Acid–Base Equilibria in the Size, Shape, and Phase Control of Cesium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A binary ligand system composed of aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary amines of various chain lengths is commonly employed in diverse synthesis methods for CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, we have carried out a systematic study examining how the concentration of ligands (oleylamine and oleic acid) and the resulting acidity (or basicity) affects the hot-injection synthesis of CsPbBr3 NCs. We devise a general synthesis scheme for cesium lead bromide NCs which allows control over size, size distribution, shape, and phase (CsPbBr3 or Cs4PbBr6) by combining key insights on the acid–base interactions that rule this ligand system. Furthermore, our findings shed light upon the solubility of PbBr2 in this binary ligand system, and plausible mechanisms are suggested in order to understand the ligand-mediated phase control and structural stability of CsPbBr3 NCs. PMID:29381326

  12. The size and shape of the attentional "spotlight" varies with differences in sports expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Focused attention enhances processing of some aspects of the world at the expense of unattended items. Although focused attention has been studied for decades, few studies have measured individual and group differences in how people distribute attention. In three studies, we explored differences in the breadth and distribution of attention as a function of athletic expertise. Study 1 found 25% greater attention breadth in expert athletes than in novices. Study 2 found that the distribution of focused attention for experts varied as a function of the type of athletic expertise: Experts in sports that demand greater horizontal distribution of attention (e.g., soccer) showed greater horizontal breadth of attention than did those whose sports demand more vertical attention (e.g., volleyball), and vice versa. Study 3 used a slightly modified design to replicate the results of Studies 1 and 2. Overall, the findings reveal a systematic association between the measured "shape" of focused attention in a laboratory task and expertise in a real-world skill. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Computational and experimental studies of microvascular void features for passive-adaptation of structural panel dynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas C.; Harne, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    The performance, integrity, and safety of built-up structural systems are critical to their effective employment in diverse engineering applications. In conflict with these goals, harmonic or random excitations of structural panels may promote large amplitude oscillations that are particularly harmful when excitation energies are concentrated around natural frequencies. This contributes to fatigue concerns, performance degradation, and failure. While studies have considered active or passive damping treatments that adapt material characteristics and configurations for structural control, it remains to be understood how vibration properties of structural panels may be tailored via internal material transitions. Motivated to fill this knowledge gap, this research explores an idea of adapting the static and dynamic material distribution of panels through embedded microvascular channels and strategically placed voids that permit the internal movement of fluids within the panels for structural dynamic control. Finite element model and experimental investigations probe how redistributing material in the form of microscale voids influences the global vibration modes and natural frequencies of structural panels. Through parameter studies, the relationships among void shape, number, size, and location are quantified towards their contribution to the changing structural dynamics. For the panel composition and boundary conditions considered in this report, the findings reveal that transferring material between strategically placed voids may result in eigenfrequency changes as great as 10.0, 5.0, and 7.4% for the first, second, and third modes, respectively.

  14. Assessment of optimum threshold and particle shape parameter for the image analysis of aggregate size distribution of concrete sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Murat; Guler, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Aggregate gradation is one of the key design parameters affecting the workability and strength properties of concrete mixtures. Estimating aggregate gradation from hardened concrete samples can offer valuable insights into the quality of mixtures in terms of the degree of segregation and the amount of deviation from the specified gradation limits. In this study, a methodology is introduced to determine the particle size distribution of aggregates from 2D cross sectional images of concrete samples. The samples used in the study were fabricated from six mix designs by varying the aggregate gradation, aggregate source and maximum aggregate size with five replicates of each design combination. Each sample was cut into three pieces using a diamond saw and then scanned to obtain the cross sectional images using a desktop flatbed scanner. An algorithm is proposed to determine the optimum threshold for the image analysis of the cross sections. A procedure was also suggested to determine a suitable particle shape parameter to be used in the analysis of aggregate size distribution within each cross section. Results of analyses indicated that the optimum threshold hence the pixel distribution functions may be different even for the cross sections of an identical concrete sample. Besides, the maximum ferret diameter is the most suitable shape parameter to estimate the size distribution of aggregates when computed based on the diagonal sieve opening. The outcome of this study can be of practical value for the practitioners to evaluate concrete in terms of the degree of segregation and the bounds of mixture's gradation achieved during manufacturing.

  15. Detecting space-time disease clusters with arbitrary shapes and sizes using a co-clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ability to detect potential space-time clusters in spatio-temporal data on disease occurrences is necessary for conducting surveillance and implementing disease prevention policies. Most existing techniques use geometrically shaped (circular, elliptical or square scanning windows to discover disease clusters. In certain situations, where the disease occurrences tend to cluster in very irregularly shaped areas, these algorithms are not feasible in practise for the detection of space-time clusters. To address this problem, a new algorithm is proposed, which uses a co-clustering strategy to detect prospective and retrospective space-time disease clusters with no restriction on shape and size. The proposed method detects space-time disease clusters by tracking the changes in space–time occurrence structure instead of an in-depth search over space. This method was utilised to detect potential clusters in the annual and monthly malaria data in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan from 2012 to 2016 visualising the results on a heat map. The results of the annual data analysis showed that the most likely hotspot emerged in three sub-regions in the years 2013-2014. The most likely hotspots in monthly data appeared in the month of July to October in each year and showed a strong periodic trend.

  16. Technological shape and size: A disaggregated perspective on sectoral innovation systems in renewable electrification pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Gregersen, Cecilia; Lema, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    important analytical implications because the disaggregated perspective allows us to identify trajectories that cut across conventionally defined core technologies. This is important for ongoing discussions of electrification pathways in developing countries. We conclude the paper by distilling......The sectoral innovation system perspective has been developed as an analytical framework to analyse and understand innovation dynamics within and across various sectors. Most of the research conducted on sectoral innovation systems has focused on an aggregate-level analysis of entire sectors....... This paper argues that a disaggregated (sub-sectoral) focus is more suited to policy-oriented work on the development and diffusion of renewable energy, particularly in countries with rapidly developing energy systems and open technology choices. It focuses on size, distinguishing between small-scale (mini...

  17. Phase diagrams of magnetic state transformations in multiferroic composites controlled by size, shape and interfacial coupling strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to give a comprehensive view of magnetic state stability and transformations in PZT-film/FeGa-dot multiferroic composite systems due to the combining effects of size, shape and interfacial coupling strain. It is found that the stable magnetic state of the FeGa nanodots is not only a function of the size and shape of the nanodot but also strongly sensitive to the interfacial coupling strain modified by the polarization state of PZT film. In particular, due to the large magnetostriction of FeGa, the phase boundaries between different magnetic states (i.e., in-plane/out-of-plane polar states, and single-/multi-vortex states of FeGa nanodots can be effectively tuned by the polarization-mediated strain. Fruitful strain-mediated transformation paths of magnetic states including those between states with different orderings (i.e., one is polar and the other is vortex, as well as those between states with the same ordering (i.e., both are polar or both are vortex have been revealed in a comprehensive view. Our result sheds light on the potential of utilizing electric field to induce fruitful magnetic state transformation paths in multiferroic film-dot systems towards a development of novel magnetic random access memories.

  18. Characteristics of dust voids in a strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailung, Yoshiko; Deka, T.; Boruah, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Pal, A. R.; Chutia, Joyanti; Bailung, H.

    2018-05-01

    A void is produced in a strongly coupled dusty plasma by inserting a cylindrical pin (˜0.1 mm diameter) into a radiofrequency discharge argon plasma. The pin is biased externally below the plasma potential to generate the dust void. The Debye sheath model is used to obtain the sheath potential profile and hence to estimate the electric field around the pin. The electric field force and the ion drag force on the dust particles are estimated and their balance accounts well for the maintenance of the size of the void. The effects of neutral density as well as dust density on the void size are studied.

  19. An instrument for the simultaneous acquisition of size, shape, and spectral fluorescence data from single aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Edwin; Kaye, Paul H.; Foot, Virginia E.; Clark, James M.; Withers, Philip B.

    2004-12-01

    We describe the construction of a bio-aerosol monitor designed to capture and record intrinsic fluorescence spectra from individual aerosol particles carried in a sample airflow and to simultaneously capture data relating to the spatial distribution of elastically scattered light from each particle. The spectral fluorescence data recorded by this PFAS (Particle Fluorescence and Shape) monitor contains information relating to the particle material content and specifically to possible biological fluorophores. The spatial scattering data from PFAS yields information relating to particle size and shape. The combination of these data can provide a means of aiding the discrimination of bio-aerosols from background or interferent aerosol particles which may have similar fluorescence properties but exhibit shapes and/or sizes not normally associated with biological particles. The radiation used both to excite particle fluorescence and generate the necessary spatially scattered light flux is provided by a novel compact UV fiber laser operating at 266nm wavelength. Particles drawn from the ambient environment traverse the laser beam in single file. Intrinsic particle fluorescence in the range 300-570nm is collected via an ellipsoidal concentrator into a concave grating spectrometer, the spectral data being recorded using a 16-anode linear array photomultiplier detector. Simultaneously, the spatial radiation pattern scattered by the particle over 5°-30° scattering angle and 360° of azimuth is recorded using a custom designed 31-pixel radial hybrid photodiode array. Data from up to ~5,000 particles per second may be acquired for analysis, usually performed by artificial neural network classification.

  20. Impact of Spot Size and Beam-Shaping Devices on the Treatment Plan Quality for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moteabbed, Maryam, E-mail: mmoteabbed@partners.org; Yock, Torunn I.; Depauw, Nicolas; Madden, Thomas M.; Kooy, Hanne M.; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the clinical impact of spot size and the addition of apertures and range compensators on the treatment quality of pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and to define when PBS could improve on passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: The patient cohort included 14 pediatric patients treated with PSPT. Six PBS plans were created and optimized for each patient using 3 spot sizes (∼12-, 5.4-, and 2.5-mm median sigma at isocenter for 90- to 230-MeV range) and adding apertures and compensators to plans with the 2 larger spots. Conformity and homogeneity indices, dose-volume histogram parameters, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and integral dose were quantified and compared with the respective PSPT plans. Results: The results clearly indicated that PBS with the largest spots does not necessarily offer a dosimetric or clinical advantage over PSPT. With comparable target coverage, the mean dose (D{sub mean}) to healthy organs was on average 6.3% larger than PSPT when using this spot size. However, adding apertures to plans with large spots improved the treatment quality by decreasing the average D{sub mean} and EUD by up to 8.6% and 3.2% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Decreasing the spot size further improved all plans, lowering the average D{sub mean} and EUD by up to 11.6% and 10.9% compared with PSPT, respectively, and eliminated the need for beam-shaping devices. The NTCP decreased with spot size and addition of apertures, with maximum reduction of 5.4% relative to PSPT. Conclusions: The added benefit of using PBS strongly depends on the delivery configurations. Facilities limited to large spot sizes (>∼8 mm median sigma at isocenter) are recommended to use apertures to reduce treatment-related toxicities, at least for complex and/or small tumors.

  1. Genetics of human body size and shape: body proportions and indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, Gregory; Roset, A; Yakovenko, K; Trofimov, S; Kobyliansky, E

    2002-01-01

    environmental effects were also detectable. Genetic factors substantially influence inter-individual differences in body shape and configuration in two studied samples. However, further studies are needed to clarify the extent of pleiotropy and epigenetic effects on various facets of the human physique.

  2. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Shahbeig, Shahrzad; Mohseni, Sudeh; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III) is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive decision for treatment plan. The present study was designed to investigate this relationship in patients referred to a dental school in Iran. In this descriptive-analytical study, cephalometric radiographies of 90 candidates for orthodontic treatment (44 females and 46 males) with an age range of 14 - 26 years and equal distribution in terms of class I, class II, and class III facial skeletal classification were selected. The shape, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were determined on the radiographs. Linear dimensions were assessed by one-way analysis of variance while the correlation between the dimensions and age was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Sella turcica had normal morphology in 24.4% of the patients while irregularity (notching) in the posterior part of the dorsum sella was observed in 15.6%, double contour of sellar floor in 5.6%, sella turcica bridge in 23.3%, oblique anterior wall in 20% and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella in 11.1% of the subjects. In total, 46.7% of class I patients had a normal shape of sella turcica, 23.3% of class II patients had an oblique anterior wall and a pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella, and 43.3% of class III individuals had sella turcica bridge (the greatest values). Sella turcica length was significantly greater in class III patients compared to class II and class I (P < 0.0001). However, depth and diameter of sella turcica were similar in class I, class II, and class III patients. Furthermore, age was significantly

  3. Hypothesis: brain size and skull shape as criteria for a new hominin family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardin, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Today, gorillas and chimpanzees live in tropical forests, where acid soils do not favor fossilization. It is thus widely believed that there are no fossils of chimpanzees or gorillas. However, four teeth of a 0.5-million-year (Ma)-old chimpanzee were discovered in the rift valley of Kenya (McBrearty and Jablonski, 2005), and a handful of teeth of a 10-Ma-old gorilla-like creature were found in Ethiopia (Suwa et al., 2007), close to the major sites of Homo discoveries. These discoveries indicate that chimpanzees and gorillas once shared their range with early Homo. However, the thousands of hominin fossils discovered in the past century have all been attributed to the Homo line. Thus far, our family tree looks like a bush with many dead-branches. If one admits the possibility that the australopithecines can also be the ancestors of African great apes, one can place Paranthropus on the side of gorilla ancestors and divide the remaining Australopithecus based on the brain size into the two main lines of humans and chimpanzees, thereby resulting in a coherent family tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Shape-persistent two-component 2D networks with atomic-size tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian; Stang, Peter J; Wan, Li-Jun

    2011-09-05

    Over the past few years, two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous networks have attracted great interest as templates for the precise localization and confinement of guest building blocks, such as functional molecules or clusters on the solid surfaces. Herein, a series of two-component molecular networks with a 3-fold symmetry are constructed on graphite using a truxenone derivative and trimesic acid homologues with carboxylic-acid-terminated alkyl chains. The hydrogen-bonding partner-recognition-induced 2D crystallization of alkyl chains makes the flexible alkyl chains act as rigid spacers in the networks to continuously tune the pore size with an accuracy of one carbon atom per step. The two-component networks were found to accommodate and regulate the distribution and aggregation of guest molecules, such as COR and CuPc. This procedure provides a new pathway for the design and fabrication of molecular nanostructures on solid surfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone-size distribution of immune repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desponds, Jonathan; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2016-01-12

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B- and T cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power-law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regard for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments, we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth signals in different tissues and organisms. Our results generalize to any evolving population in a fluctuating environment.

  6. Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test

  7. Closure behavior of spherical void in slab during hot rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rong; Zhang, Jiongming; Wang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of steels are heavily deteriorated by voids. The influence of voids on the product quality should be eliminated through rolling processes. The study on the void closure during hot rolling processes is necessary. In present work, the closure behavior of voids at the center of a slab at 800 °C during hot rolling processes has been simulated with a 3D finite element model. The shape of the void and the plastic strain distribution of the slab are obtained by this model. The void decreases along the slab thickness direction and spreads along the rolling direction but hardly changes along the strip width direction. The relationship between closure behavior of voids and the plastic strain at the center of the slab is analyzed. The effects of rolling reduction, slab thickness and roller diameter on the closure behavior of voids are discussed. The larger reduction, thinner slab and larger roller diameter all improve the closure of voids during hot rolling processes. Experimental results of the closure behavior of a void in the slab during hot rolling process mostly agree with the simulation results..

  8. The part and the whole: voids, supervoids, and their ISW imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, András

    2018-04-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) imprint of extreme structures in the cosmic web probes the dynamical nature of dark energy. Looking through typical cosmic voids, no anomalous signal has been reported. On the contrary, supervoids, associated with large-scale fluctuations in the gravitational potential, have shown potentially disturbing excess signals. In this study, we used the Jubilee ISW simulation to demonstrate how the stacked signal depends on the void definition. We found that large underdensities, with at least ≈5 merged sub-voids, show a peculiar ISW imprint shape with central cold spots and surrounding hot rings, offering a natural way to define supervoids in the cosmic web. We then inspected the real-world Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey data release 12 (BOSS DR12) data using the simulated imprints as templates. The imprinted profile of BOSS supervoids appears to be more compact than in simulations, requiring an extra α ≈ 0.7 re-scaling of filter sizes. The data reveal an excess ISW-like signal with AISW ≈ 9 amplitude at the ≈2.5σ significance level, unlike previous studies that used isolated voids and reported good consistency with AISW = 1. The tension with the Jubilee-based Λ cold dark matter predictions is ≳2σ, in consistency with independent analyses of supervoids in Dark Energy Survey data. We show that such a very large enhancement of the AISW parameter hints at a possible causal relation between the cosmic microwave background Cold Spot and the Eridanus supervoid. The origin of these findings remains unclear.

  9. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    ). This observation is interesting as the parameter of total surface area of air voids normally is not included in air void analysis. The following reason for the finding is suggested: In the air voids conditions are favourable for ice nucleation. When a capillary pore is connected to an air void, ice formation...... on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor.......This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test...

  10. The Influence of Particle Shape and Size on the Activity of Platinum Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Reaction: A Density Functional Theory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present first principle investigation of the influence of platinum nanoparticle shape and size on the oxygen reduction reaction activity. We compare the activities of nanoparticles with specific shapes (tetrahedron, octahedron, cube and truncated octahedron) with that of equilibrium particle s...

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic Effects of Stud Shape and Size on the Safety Margin of Core Catcher System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyusang; Son, Hong Hyun; Jeong, Uiju; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    With the ERVC strategy, an additional system (core catcher system) to catch molten core penetrating the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was proposed for advanced light water reactor. The newly engineered corium cooling system, that is, an ex-vessel core catcher system has been designed and adapted in some nuclear power plants such as VVER-1000, EPR, ESBWR, EU-APR1400 to mention a few. For example, Russia adopted a crucible-type core catcher for VVER-1000. On the other hand, a way to catch melt spreading is adopted by several countries, such as EPR in France, ESBWR in USA, ABWR in japan, and EU-APR1400 in Korea In Korea, the core catcher system has been designed and implemented for the European Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (EU-APR1400) to acquire a European license certificate. It is to confine molten materials in the reactor cavity while maintaining a coolable geometry in case that RPV failure occurs. The core catcher system consists of a carbon steel body, sacrificial material, protection material and engineered cooling channel. While installation of the studs is unavoidable, the studs tend to interfere in the smooth streamline of the core catcher channel. The distorted streamline could affect the overall thermal-hydraulic performance including two-phase heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) of the system. Thus, it is of importance to investigate the thermal-hydraulic effects of studs on the coolability, especially the CHF of the core catcher system. With aforementioned importance, pool boiling experiments were carried out with stud shape of, rectangular, cylinder, and elliptic and for stud sizes of 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm under the condition of atmospheric saturated water. A particular attention was focused on observing local vapor behavior around the studs and finding any hot spots, where the vapors are accumulated. The occurrence of the CHF is anticipated at the back side of the studs. The visual observation and CHF measurements indicate that the

  12. Thermal-Hydraulic Effects of Stud Shape and Size on the Safety Margin of Core Catcher System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyusang; Son, Hong Hyun; Jeong, Uiju; Kim, Sung Joong

    2015-01-01

    With the ERVC strategy, an additional system (core catcher system) to catch molten core penetrating the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was proposed for advanced light water reactor. The newly engineered corium cooling system, that is, an ex-vessel core catcher system has been designed and adapted in some nuclear power plants such as VVER-1000, EPR, ESBWR, EU-APR1400 to mention a few. For example, Russia adopted a crucible-type core catcher for VVER-1000. On the other hand, a way to catch melt spreading is adopted by several countries, such as EPR in France, ESBWR in USA, ABWR in japan, and EU-APR1400 in Korea In Korea, the core catcher system has been designed and implemented for the European Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (EU-APR1400) to acquire a European license certificate. It is to confine molten materials in the reactor cavity while maintaining a coolable geometry in case that RPV failure occurs. The core catcher system consists of a carbon steel body, sacrificial material, protection material and engineered cooling channel. While installation of the studs is unavoidable, the studs tend to interfere in the smooth streamline of the core catcher channel. The distorted streamline could affect the overall thermal-hydraulic performance including two-phase heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) of the system. Thus, it is of importance to investigate the thermal-hydraulic effects of studs on the coolability, especially the CHF of the core catcher system. With aforementioned importance, pool boiling experiments were carried out with stud shape of, rectangular, cylinder, and elliptic and for stud sizes of 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm under the condition of atmospheric saturated water. A particular attention was focused on observing local vapor behavior around the studs and finding any hot spots, where the vapors are accumulated. The occurrence of the CHF is anticipated at the back side of the studs. The visual observation and CHF measurements indicate that the

  13. SU-D-201-04: Study On the Impact of Tumor Shape and Size On Drug Delivery to Pancreatic Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, M; Bazmara, H; Sefidgar, M; Subramaniam, R; Rahmim, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Drug delivery to solid tumors can be expressed physically using transport phenomena such as convection and diffusion for the drug of interest within extracellular matrices. We aimed to carefully model these phenomena, and to investigate the effect of tumor shape and size on drug delivery to solid tumors in the pancreas. Methods: In this study, multiple tumor geometries as obtained from clinical PET/CT images were considered. An advanced numerical method was used to simultaneously solve fluid flow and solute transport equations. Data from n=45 pancreatic cancer patients with non-resectable locoregional disease were analyzed, and geometrical information from the tumors including size, shape, and aspect ratios were classified. To investigate effect of tumor shape, tumors with similar size but different shapes were selected and analyzed. Moreover, to investigate effect of tumor size, tumors with similar shapes but different sizes, ranging from 1 to 77 cm 3 , were selected and analyzed. A hypothetical tumor similar to one of the analyzed tumors, but scaled to reduce its size below 0.2 cm 3 , was also analyzed. Results: The results showed relatively similar average drug concentration profiles in tumors with different sizes. Generally, smaller tumors had higher absolute drug concentration. In the hypothetical tumor, with volume less than 0.2 cm 3 , the average drug concentration was 20% higher in comparison to its counterparts. For the various real tumor geometries, however, the maximum difference between average drug concentrations was 10% for the smallest and largest tumors. Moreover, the results demonstrated that for pancreatic tumors the shape is not significant. The negligible difference of drug concentration in different tumor shapes was due to the minimum effect of convection in pancreatic tumors. Conclusion: In tumors with different sizes, smaller tumors have higher drug delivery; however, the impact of tumor shape in the case of pancreatic tumors is not

  14. SU-D-201-04: Study On the Impact of Tumor Shape and Size On Drug Delivery to Pancreatic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, M [ohns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, and KNT university, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazmara, H [KNT university, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sefidgar, M [IKI University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Subramaniam, R; Rahmim, A [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Drug delivery to solid tumors can be expressed physically using transport phenomena such as convection and diffusion for the drug of interest within extracellular matrices. We aimed to carefully model these phenomena, and to investigate the effect of tumor shape and size on drug delivery to solid tumors in the pancreas. Methods: In this study, multiple tumor geometries as obtained from clinical PET/CT images were considered. An advanced numerical method was used to simultaneously solve fluid flow and solute transport equations. Data from n=45 pancreatic cancer patients with non-resectable locoregional disease were analyzed, and geometrical information from the tumors including size, shape, and aspect ratios were classified. To investigate effect of tumor shape, tumors with similar size but different shapes were selected and analyzed. Moreover, to investigate effect of tumor size, tumors with similar shapes but different sizes, ranging from 1 to 77 cm{sup 3}, were selected and analyzed. A hypothetical tumor similar to one of the analyzed tumors, but scaled to reduce its size below 0.2 cm{sup 3}, was also analyzed. Results: The results showed relatively similar average drug concentration profiles in tumors with different sizes. Generally, smaller tumors had higher absolute drug concentration. In the hypothetical tumor, with volume less than 0.2 cm{sup 3}, the average drug concentration was 20% higher in comparison to its counterparts. For the various real tumor geometries, however, the maximum difference between average drug concentrations was 10% for the smallest and largest tumors. Moreover, the results demonstrated that for pancreatic tumors the shape is not significant. The negligible difference of drug concentration in different tumor shapes was due to the minimum effect of convection in pancreatic tumors. Conclusion: In tumors with different sizes, smaller tumors have higher drug delivery; however, the impact of tumor shape in the case of pancreatic

  15. Direct observation of enhanced magnetism in individual size- and shape-selected 3 d transition metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibert, Armin; Balan, Ana; Yanes, Rocio; Derlet, Peter M.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Timm, Martin; Fraile Rodríguez, Arantxa; Béché, Armand; Verbeeck, Jo; Dhaka, R. S.; Radovic, Milan; Nowak, Ulrich; Nolting, Frithjof

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are critical building blocks for future technologies ranging from nanomedicine to spintronics. Many related applications require nanoparticles with tailored magnetic properties. However, despite significant efforts undertaken towards this goal, a broad and poorly understood dispersion of magnetic properties is reported, even within monodisperse samples of the canonical ferromagnetic 3 d transition metals. We address this issue by investigating the magnetism of a large number of size- and shape-selected, individual nanoparticles of Fe, Co, and Ni using a unique set of complementary characterization techniques. At room temperature, only superparamagnetic behavior is observed in our experiments for all Ni nanoparticles within the investigated sizes, which range from 8 to 20 nm. However, Fe and Co nanoparticles can exist in two distinct magnetic states at any size in this range: (i) a superparamagnetic state, as expected from the bulk and surface anisotropies known for the respective materials and as observed for Ni, and (ii) a state with unexpected stable magnetization at room temperature. This striking state is assigned to significant modifications of the magnetic properties arising from metastable lattice defects in the core of the nanoparticles, as concluded by calculations and atomic structural characterization. Also related with the structural defects, we find that the magnetic state of Fe and Co nanoparticles can be tuned by thermal treatment enabling one to tailor their magnetic properties for applications. This paper demonstrates the importance of complementary single particle investigations for a better understanding of nanoparticle magnetism and for full exploration of their potential for applications.

  16. Collapse and coalescence of spherical voids subject to intense shearing: studied in full 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Dahl, Jonas; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    the numerical analysis, which is also reflected in published literature. Rather than moving towards very low triaxiality shearing, work has focused on extracting wide-ranging results for moderate stress triaxiality (T ~ 1), in order to achieve sufficient understanding of the influence of initial porosity, void...... significant straining of the matrix material located on the axis of rotation. In particular, the void surface material is severely deformed during shearing and void surface contact is established early in the deformation process. This 3D effect intensifies with decreasing stress triaxiality and complicates...... shape, void orientation etc. The objective of this work is to expand the range of stress triaxiality usually faced in 3D cell model studies, such that intense shearing is covered, and to bring forward details on the porosity and void shape evolution. The overall material response is presented...

  17. Finding Brazing Voids by Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, R.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration-induced interference fringes reveal locations of defects. Holographic apparatus used to view object while vibrated ultrasonically. Interference fringes in hologram reveal brazing defects. Holographic technique locates small voids in large brazed joints. Identifies unbrazed regions 1 in. to second power (6 cm to the second power) or less in area.

  18. Noninvasive Medical Tools for Evaluating Voiding Pattern in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwonsoo Chun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction is a common disease that contributes to a lower quality of life and has an increased prevalence in the elderly population. Noninvasive and objective methods such as uroflowmetry (UFM and voiding diaries (VDs are essential for exact diagnosis and effective treatment of this condition because patients with different causes of voiding dysfunction can complain of the same lower urinary tract symptoms. Further, different treatment options can be determined based on the diagnosis made from these symptoms. In order to improve the quality of UFM and VDs and to provide a convenient testing environment, several advances have been made by previous investigators. In this study, we investigate the history and technological mechanisms of UFM and VDs. We also aim to review UFM from the viewpoint of clinical and at-home uses, including the recently proposed toilet-shaped UFM and electronic VDs.

  19. Reliability Impact of Stockpile Aging: Stress Voiding; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBINSON, DAVID G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to statistically characterize the aging of integrated circuit interconnects. This report supersedes the stress void aging characterization presented in SAND99-0975, ''Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging,'' by the same author. The physics of the stress voiding, before and after wafer processing have been recently characterized by F. G. Yost in SAND99-0601, ''Stress Voiding during Wafer Processing''. The current effort extends this research to account for uncertainties in grain size, storage temperature, void spacing and initial residual stress and their impact on interconnect failure after wafer processing. The sensitivity of the life estimates to these uncertainties is also investigated. Various methods for characterizing the probability of failure of a conductor line were investigated including: Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), quasi-Monte Carlo sampling (qMC), as well as various analytical methods such as the advanced mean value (Ah/IV) method. The comparison was aided by the use of the Cassandra uncertainty analysis library. It was found that the only viable uncertainty analysis methods were those based on either LHS or quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Analytical methods such as AMV could not be applied due to the nature of the stress voiding problem. The qMC method was chosen since it provided smaller estimation error for a given number of samples. The preliminary results indicate that the reliability of integrated circuits due to stress voiding is very sensitive to the underlying uncertainties associated with grain size and void spacing. In particular, accurate characterization of IC reliability depends heavily on not only the frost and second moments of the uncertainty distribution, but more specifically the unique form of the underlying distribution

  20. Automated Method for Fractographic Analysis of Shape and Size of Dimples on Fracture Surface of High-Strength Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Konovalenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated method for analyzing the shape and size of dimples of ductile tearing formed during static and impact fracture of titanium alloys VT23 and VT23M is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the image topology. The method contains the operations of smoothing the initial fractographic image; its convolution with a filter to identify the topological ridges; thresholding with subsequent skeletonization to identify boundaries between dimples; clustering to isolate the connected areas that represent the sought objects—dimples. For each dimple, the following quantitative characteristics were calculated: area, coefficient of roundness and visual depth in units of image intensity. The surface of ductile tearing was studied by analyzing the peculiarities of parameter distribution of the found dimples. The proposed method is applied to fractograms of fracture surfaces of titanium alloys VT23 and VT23M.

  1. Direct synthesis of nano-sized glass powders with spherical shape by RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Ju, W.T.; Nam, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new route for obtaining very small, spheroid glass powders is demonstrated using an RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma system. During the process, four kinds of chemicals, here SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , BaCO 3 , and K 2 CO 3 , were mixed at pre-set weight ratios, spray-dried, calcined at 250 deg. C for 3 h, and crushed into fragments. Then, they were successfully reformed into nano-sized amorphous powders (< 200 nm) with spherical shape by injecting them along the centerline of an RF thermal plasma reactor at ∼ 24 kW. The as-synthesized powders show negligible (< 1%) composition changes when compared with the injected precursors of raw material compounds.

  2. Control of minimum member size in parameter-free structural shape optimization by a medial axis approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Steinmann, Paul

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a manufacturing constraint for controlling the minimum member size in structural shape optimization problems, which is for example of interest for components fabricated in a molding process. In a parameter-free approach, whereby the coordinates of the FE boundary nodes are used as design variables, the challenging task is to find a generally valid definition for the thickness of non-parametric geometries in terms of their boundary nodes. Therefore we use the medial axis, which is the union of all points with at least two closest points on the boundary of the domain. Since the effort for the exact computation of the medial axis of geometries given by their FE discretization highly increases with the number of surface elements we use the distance function instead to approximate the medial axis by a cloud of points. The approximation is demonstrated on three 2D examples. Moreover, the formulation of a minimum thickness constraint is applied to a sensitivity-based shape optimization problem of one 2D and one 3D model.

  3. Plasmonic Titania Photo catalysts Active under UV and Visible-Light Irradiation: Influence of Gold Amount, Size, and Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, E.; Rau, S.; Kowalska, E.; Kowalska, E.; Ohtani, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic titania photo catalysts were prepared by titania modification with gold by photo deposition. It was found that for smaller amount of deposited gold (≤ 0.1 wt%), anatase presence and large surface area were beneficial for efficient hydrogen evolution during methanol dehydrogenation. After testing twelve amounts of deposited gold on large rutile titania, the existence of three optima for 0.5, 2 and >6 wt% of gold was found during acetic acid degradation. Under visible light irradiation, in the case of small gold NPs deposited on fine anatase titania, the dependence of photo activity on gold amount was parabolic, and large gold amount (2 wt%), observable as an intensively coloured powder, caused photo activity decrease. While for large gold NPs deposited on large rutile titania, the dependence represented cascade increase, due to change of size and shape of deposited gold with its amount increase. It has been thought that spherical/hemispherical shape of gold NPs, in comparison with rod-like ones, is beneficial for higher level of photo activity under visible light irradiation. For all tested systems and regardless of deposited amount of gold, each rutile Au/TiO 2 photo catalyst of large gold and titania NPs exhibited much higher photo activity than anatase Au/TiO 2 of small gold and titania NPs

  4. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10 %. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5 % at the TOA over ocean/land and 15 % at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20 %. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported. They strongly enhance the absorbing properties and forward scattering in the solar and increase predominantly, e.g., the total TOA forcing of the dust over land.

  5. Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)

  6. Impact of Spot Size and Beam-Shaping Devices on the Treatment Plan Quality for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Yock, Torunn I.; Depauw, Nicolas; Madden, Thomas M.; Kooy, Hanne M.; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the clinical impact of spot size and the addition of apertures and range compensators on the treatment quality of pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and to define when PBS could improve on passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: The patient cohort included 14 pediatric patients treated with PSPT. Six PBS plans were created and optimized for each patient using 3 spot sizes (∼12-, 5.4-, and 2.5-mm median sigma at isocenter for 90- to 230-MeV range) and adding apertures and compensators to plans with the 2 larger spots. Conformity and homogeneity indices, dose-volume histogram parameters, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and integral dose were quantified and compared with the respective PSPT plans. Results: The results clearly indicated that PBS with the largest spots does not necessarily offer a dosimetric or clinical advantage over PSPT. With comparable target coverage, the mean dose (D_m_e_a_n) to healthy organs was on average 6.3% larger than PSPT when using this spot size. However, adding apertures to plans with large spots improved the treatment quality by decreasing the average D_m_e_a_n and EUD by up to 8.6% and 3.2% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Decreasing the spot size further improved all plans, lowering the average D_m_e_a_n and EUD by up to 11.6% and 10.9% compared with PSPT, respectively, and eliminated the need for beam-shaping devices. The NTCP decreased with spot size and addition of apertures, with maximum reduction of 5.4% relative to PSPT. Conclusions: The added benefit of using PBS strongly depends on the delivery configurations. Facilities limited to large spot sizes (>∼8 mm median sigma at isocenter) are recommended to use apertures to reduce treatment-related toxicities, at least for complex and/or small tumors.

  7. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Glenn, E-mail: Glenn.Ross@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-08-25

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu{sub 3}Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu{sub 3}Sn to be consumed by Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}.

  8. Effects of Void Uncertainties on Pin Power Distributions and the Void Reactivity Coefficient for a 10X10 BWR Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatuff, F.; Krouthen, J.; Helmersson, S.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    A significant source of uncertainty in Boiling Water Reactor physics is associated with the precise characterisation of the axially-dependent neutron moderation properties of the coolant inside the fuel assembly channel, and the corresponding effects on reactor physics parameters such as the lattice neutron multiplication, the neutron migration length, and the pin-by-pin power distribution. In this paper, the effects of particularly relevant void fraction uncertainties on reactor physics parameters have been studied for a BWR assembly of type Westinghouse SVEA-96 using the CASMO-4, HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and MCNP4C codes. The SVEA-96 geometry is characterised by the sub-division of the assembly into four different sub-bundles by means of an inner bypass with a cruciform shape. The study has covered the following issues: (a) the effects of different cross-section data libraries on the void coefficient of reactivity, for a wide range of void fractions; (b) the effects due to a heterogeneous vs. homogeneous void distribution inside the sub-bundles; and (c) the consequences of partly inserted absorber blades producing different void fractions in different sub-bundles. (author)

  9. Size and Shape of the Pituitary Gland with MR Imaging from Newborn to 30 Years: A Study at Siriraj Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keanninsiri, C.; Cheiwvit, P.; Tritrakarn, S.; Thepamongkhol, K.; Santiprabhop, J.

    2012-01-01

    MRI can provide the best visualization of structures in cranio - spinal region, especially the anatomy of the pituitary gland.This study was a retrospective with the purpose to determine the size and shape of the pituitary gland in normal puberty groups of both genders at age 1-30 years at Siriraj Hospital.Two planar views of the MRI, sagittal and coronal views for measurement the height, width and the shape of pituitary gland. The sample size (299 cases, 149 male and 150 female) were included the patients in both in-patient and out-patient groups at Siriraj Hospital, during age 1-30 years old and divided into six groups. All cases have Medical Record and MRI brain scan, without pathology history related to the pituitary gland or hormonal disorders, surgery and treated by hormone therapy. The mean and standard deviation of the height of pituitary gland in group 1 (1-10 years) were 5.4 ± 1.2mm in male, n = 50, 5.1 ± 1.3mm in female, n = 50, group 2 (11-20 years) were 6.8 ± 1.7mm in male, n = 50, 5.8 ± 1.3 mm. in female, n 50 and group 3 (21-30 years) were 5.4 ± 1.3mm in male, n = 50, 5.9 ± 1.5mm in female, n = 50 and significantly different in female (p<0.001) but no significantly different in male (p = 0.181). The mean and standard deviation of the width of pituitary gland of group1 (1-10 years) were10.8 ± 1.9mm in male, n = 50, 10.2 ± 2.2mm.in female, n = 50, group 2 (11-20 years) were12.9 ± 2.0mm in male, n = 50, 13.5 ± 1.5mm in female, n 50 and group 3 (21-30 years) were 13.4 ± 1.7mm in male, n = 49 and 13.8 ± 1.7mm in female, n = 50 and significant different for both sexes (p<0.001). The most frequency grade shape of ''flatwas'' shown in all groups except female groups 2(11-20 years) higher frequency of ''convex'' for both sagittal and coronal views.The study was analyzed by two experienced neuroradiologists. This aim to the demonstrated of database in Thai people with age range newborns to 30 years which an

  10. Analysis on void reactivity of DCA lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Noh, K. H.; Choi, H. B.; Yang, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    In case of loss of coolant accident, the void reactivity of CANDU fuel provides the positive reactivity and increases the reactor power rapidly. Therefore, it is required to secure credibility of the void reactivity for the design and analysis of reactor, which motivated a study to assess the measurement data of void reactivity. The assessment of lattice code was performed with the experimental data of void reactivity at 30, 70, 87 and 100% of void fractions. The infinite multiplication factors increased in four types of fuels as the void fractions of them grow. The infinite multiplication factors of uranium fuels are almost within 1%, but those of Pu fuels are over 10% by the results of WIMS-AECL and MCNP-4B codes. Moreover, coolant void reactivity of the core loaded with plutonium fuel is more negative compared with that with uranium fuel because of spectrum hardening resulting from large void fraction

  11. Determination of size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic powders; Odredjivanje raspodele velicina, specificne povrsine i oblika metalnih i keramickih prahova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, DI [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za termotehniku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    For testing the size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic uranium oxide powders the following method for analysing the grain size of powders were developed and implemented: microscopic analysis and sedimentation method. A gravimetry absorption device was constructed for determining the specific surfaces of powders.

  12. Eccentric Protons? Sensitivity of Flow to System Size and Shape in p +p, p +Pb, and Pb +Pb Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Björn; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-09-01

    We determine the transverse system size of the initial nonequilibrium Glasma state and of the hydrodynamically evolving fireball as a function of produced charged particles in p +p, p +Pb, and Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Our results show features similar to those of recent measurements of Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii by the ALICE Collaboration. Azimuthal anisotropy coefficients vn generated by combining the early time Glasma dynamics with viscous fluid dynamics in Pb +Pb collisions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for a wide range of centralities. In particular, event-by-event distributions of the vn values agree with the experimental data out to fairly peripheral centrality bins. In striking contrast, our results for p +Pb collisions significantly underestimate the magnitude and do not reproduce the centrality dependence of data for v2 and v3 coefficients. We argue that the measured vn data and HBT radii strongly constrain the shapes of initial parton distributions across system sizes that would be compatible with a flow interpretation in p +Pb collisions. Alternately, additional sources of correlations may be required to describe the systematics of long-range rapidity correlations in p +p and p +Pb collisions.

  13. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip; Tan, Hua; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2013-11-25

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Void initiation from interfacial debonding of spherical silicon particles inside a silicon-copper nanocomposite: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Chen, Zengtao

    2017-02-01

    Silicon particles with diameters from 1.9 nm to 30 nm are embedded in a face-centered-cubic copper matrix to form nanocomposite specimens for simulation. The interfacial debonding of silicon particles from the copper matrix and the subsequent growth of nucleated voids are studied via molecular dynamics (MD). The MD results are examined from several different perspectives. The overall mechanical performance is monitored by the average stress-strain response and the accumulated porosity. The ‘relatively farthest-traveled’ atoms are identified to characterize the onset of interfacial debonding. The relative displacement field is plotted to illustrate both subsequent interfacial debonding and the growth of a nucleated void facilitated by a dislocation network. Our results indicate that the initiation of interfacial debonding is due to the accumulated surface stress if the matrix is initially dislocation-free. However, pre-existing dislocations can make a considerable difference. In either case, the dislocation emission also contributes to the subsequent debonding process. As for the size effect, the debonding of relatively larger particles causes a drop in the stress-strain curve. The volume fraction of second-phase particles is found to be more influential than the size of the simulation box on the onset of interfacial debonding. The volume fraction of second-phase particles also affects the shape of the nucleated void and, therefore, influences the stress response of the composite.

  16. Biological responses according to the shape and size of carbon nanotubes in BEAS-2B and MESO-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniu H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hisao Haniu,1,2 Naoto Saito,2,3 Yoshikazu Matsuda,4 Tamotsu Tsukahara,5 Yuki Usui,1,6,7 Kayo Maruyama,2,3 Seiji Takanashi,1 Kaoru Aoki,1 Shinsuke Kobayashi,1 Hiroki Nomura,1 Manabu Tanaka,1 Masanori Okamoto,1 Hiroyuki Kato1 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano, Japan; 2Insutitute for Biomedical Sciences, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan; 3Department of Applied Physical Therapy, Shinshu University School of Health Sciences, Nagano, Japan; 4Clinical Pharmacology Educational Center, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Saitama, Japan; 5Department of Hematology and Immunology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan; 6Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan; 7Aizawa Hospital, Sports Medicine Center, Nagano, Japan Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the influence of the shape and size of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and cup-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs on biological responses in vitro. Three types of MWCNTs – VGCF®-X, VGCF®-S, and VGCF® (vapor grown carbon fibers; with diameters of 15, 80, and 150 nm, respectively – and three CSCNTs of different lengths (CS-L, 20–80 µm; CS-S, 0.5–20 µm; and CS-M, of intermediate length were tested. Human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells were exposed to the CNTs (1–50 µg/mL, and cell viability, permeability, uptake, total reactive oxygen species/superoxide production, and intracellular acidity were measured. CSCNTs were less toxic than MWCNTs in both cell types over a 24-hour exposure period. The cytotoxicity of endocytosed MWCNTs varied according to cell type/size, while that of CSCNTs depended on tube length irrespective of cell type. CNT diameter and length influenced cell aggregation and injury extent. Intracellular acidity increased independently of lysosomal activity along with the number of vacuoles in BEAS-2B cells exposed for 24 hours to either CNT

  17. Influence of ageing, inclusions and voids on ductile fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The strain hardening capacity has a marked effect on void size, and is an indicator of fracture .... a model of ductile failure based on the concept that the critical step in the .... Ashby M F, Gandhi C and Taplin D M R 1979 Acta Metal. 27. 699.

  18. Identification of different shapes, colors and sizes of standard oral dosage forms in diabetes type 2 patients-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Sven; Riedl, Regina; Sourij, Harald

    2017-01-30

    The clear identification of drug products by the patients is essential for a safe and effective medication management. In order to understand the impact of shape, size and color on medication identification a study was performed in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Ten model drugs differentiated by shape, size and color were evaluated using a mixed method of medication schedule preparation by the participants followed by a semi-structured interview. Detection times were fastest for the large round tablet shape and the bi-chromatic forms. Larger size was easier to identify than the smaller sizes except for the bi-chromatic forms. The shape was the major source of errors, followed by the size and the color dimension. The results from this study suggests that color as a single dimension are perceived more effectively by subjects with T2D compared to shape and size, which requires a more demanding processing of three dimension and is dependent on the perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of simulating spherical voids for use as a radiographic standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of simulating small spherical voids in metal is provided. The method entails drilling or etching a hemispherical depression of the desired diameter in each of two sections of metal, the sections being flat plates or different diameter cylinders. A carbon bead is placed in one of the hemispherical voids and is used as a guide to align the second hemispherical void with that in the other plate. The plates are then bonded together with epoxy, tape or similar material and the two aligned hemispheres form a sphere within the material; thus a void of a known size has been created. This type of void can be used to simulate a pore in the development of radiographic techniques of actual voids (porosity) in welds and serve as a radiographic standard

  20. Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr

    2012-01-01

    by mechanical deformation. The aim of this paper is to analyze numerically if and to what degree the voids areclosed by the forging. Using the commercial simulation software ABAQUS, both simplified model ingots and physically manufactured ingots containing prescribed void distributions are deformed and analyzed....... The analysis concernsboth the void density change and the location of the voids in the part after deformation. The latter can be important for the subsequent reliability of the parts, for instance regarding fatigue properties. The analysis incorporates the Gurson yield criterion for metals containing voids...... and focuses on how the voids deform depending on their size and distribution in the ingot as well ashow the forging forces are applied....

  1. Void migration in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron irradiation in a fusion power plant will cause helium bubbles and voids to form in the armour and blanket structural materials. If sufficiently large densities of such defects accumulate on the grain boundaries of the materials, the strength and the lifetimes of the metals will be reduced by helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure. This Letter discusses void migration in metals, both by random Brownian motion and by biassed flow in temperature gradients. In the assumed five-year blanket replacement time of a fusion power plant, approximate calculations show that the metals most resilient to failure are tungsten and molybdenum, and marginally vanadium. Helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure is expected to be more severe in steel and beryllium

  2. Void migration in fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, G. A.

    2002-04-01

    Neutron irradiation in a fusion power plant will cause helium bubbles and voids to form in the armour and blanket structural materials. If sufficiently large densities of such defects accumulate on the grain boundaries of the materials, the strength and the lifetimes of the metals will be reduced by helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure. This Letter discusses void migration in metals, both by random Brownian motion and by biassed flow in temperature gradients. In the assumed five-year blanket replacement time of a fusion power plant, approximate calculations show that the metals most resilient to failure are tungsten and molybdenum, and marginally vanadium. Helium embrittlement and grain boundary failure is expected to be more severe in steel and beryllium.

  3. Molecular dynamics modeling and simulation of void growth in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.-J.; Segurado, J.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; Pabón, B. M.; LLorca, J.

    2013-10-01

    The mechanisms of growth of a circular void by plastic deformation were studied by means of molecular dynamics in two dimensions (2D). While previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in three dimensions (3D) have been limited to small voids (up to ≈10 nm in radius), this strategy allows us to study the behavior of voids of up to 100 nm in radius. MD simulations showed that plastic deformation was triggered by the nucleation of dislocations at the atomic steps of the void surface in the whole range of void sizes studied. The yield stress, defined as stress necessary to nucleate stable dislocations, decreased with temperature, but the void growth rate was not very sensitive to this parameter. Simulations under uniaxial tension, uniaxial deformation and biaxial deformation showed that the void growth rate increased very rapidly with multiaxiality but it did not depend on the initial void radius. These results were compared with previous 3D MD and 2D dislocation dynamics simulations to establish a map of mechanisms and size effects for plastic void growth in crystalline solids.

  4. Molecular dynamics modeling and simulation of void growth in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H-J; Segurado, J; LLorca, J; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O; Pabón, B M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of growth of a circular void by plastic deformation were studied by means of molecular dynamics in two dimensions (2D). While previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in three dimensions (3D) have been limited to small voids (up to ≈10 nm in radius), this strategy allows us to study the behavior of voids of up to 100 nm in radius. MD simulations showed that plastic deformation was triggered by the nucleation of dislocations at the atomic steps of the void surface in the whole range of void sizes studied. The yield stress, defined as stress necessary to nucleate stable dislocations, decreased with temperature, but the void growth rate was not very sensitive to this parameter. Simulations under uniaxial tension, uniaxial deformation and biaxial deformation showed that the void growth rate increased very rapidly with multiaxiality but it did not depend on the initial void radius. These results were compared with previous 3D MD and 2D dislocation dynamics simulations to establish a map of mechanisms and size effects for plastic void growth in crystalline solids. (paper)

  5. Void swelling behaviour of austenitic stainless steel during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhongqi; Xiao Hong; Peng Feng; Ti Zhongxin

    1994-04-01

    The irradiation swelling behaviour of 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) was investigated by means of high voltage electron microscope. Results showed that in solution annealed condition almost no swelling incubation period existed, and the swelling shifted from the transition period to the steady-state one when the displacement damage was around 40 dpa. In cold rolled condition there was evidently incubation period, and when the displacement damage was up to 84 dpa the swelling still remained in the transition period. The average size and density of voids in both conditions were measured, and the factors, which influenced the void swelling, were discussed. (3 figs.)

  6. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  7. Laboratory test on maximum and minimum void ratio of tropical sand matrix soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, B. A.; Marto, A.

    2018-04-01

    Sand is generally known as loose granular material which has a grain size finer than gravel and coarser than silt and can be very angular to well-rounded in shape. The present of various amount of fines which also influence the loosest and densest state of sand in natural condition have been well known to contribute to the deformation and loss of shear strength of soil. This paper presents the effect of various range of fines content on minimum void ratio e min and maximum void ratio e max of sand matrix soils. Laboratory tests to determine e min and e max of sand matrix soil were conducted using non-standard method introduced by previous researcher. Clean sand was obtained from natural mining site at Johor, Malaysia. A set of 3 different sizes of sand (fine sand, medium sand, and coarse sand) were mixed with 0% to 40% by weight of low plasticity fine (kaolin). Results showed that generally e min and e max decreased with the increase of fines content up to a minimal value of 0% to 30%, and then increased back thereafter.

  8. Controlling Interfacial Separation in Porous Structures by Void Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Ahmed; Elbanna, Ahmed

    Manipulating interfacial response for enhanced adhesion or fracture resistance is a problem of great interest to scientists and engineers. In many natural materials and engineering applications, an interface exists between a porous structure and a substrate. A question that arises is how the void distribution in the bulk may affect the interfacial response and whether it is possible to alter the interfacial toughness without changing the surface physical chemistry. In this paper, we address this question by studying the effect of patterning voids on the interfacial-to-the overall response of an elastic plate glued to a rigid substrate by bilinear cohesive material. Different patterning categories are investigated; uniform, graded, and binary voids. Each case is subjected to upward displacement at the upper edge of the plate. We show that the peak force and maximum elongation at failure depend on the voids design and by changing the void size, alignment or gradation we may control these performance measures. We relate these changes in the measured force displacement response to energy release rate as a measure of interfacial toughness. We discuss the implications of our results on design of bulk heterogeneities for enhanced interfacial behavior.

  9. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections: a multi-altitude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high-latitude. In terms of

  10. Release of carbon nanoparticles of different size and shape from nanocomposite poly(lactic) acid film into food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkova, Hristiana; Kotsilkov, Stanislav; Ivanov, Evgeni; Kotsilkova, Rumiana; Gyoshev, Stanislav; Stoimenov, Nikolay; Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2017-06-01

    Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) film with 2 wt% mixed carbon nanofillers of graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a weight ratio of 1:1 with impurities of fullerene and carbon black (CB) was produced by layer-to-layer deposition and hot pressing. The release of carbon nanoparticles from the film was studied at varying time-temperature conditions and simulants. Migrants in simulant solvents were examined with laser diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Film integrity and the presence of migrants on the film surfaces were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The partial dissolution of PLA polymer in the solvents was confirmed by swelling tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanoparticle migrants were not detected in the simulants (at the LOD 0.020 μm of the laser diffraction analysis) after migration testing at 40°C for 10 days. However, high-temperature migration testing at 90°C for 4 h provoked a release of GNPs from the film into ethanol, acetic acid and oil-based food simulants. Short carbon nanotubes were observed rarely to release in the most aggressive acetic acid solvent. Obviously, the enhanced molecular mobility at temperatures above the glass transition and partial dissolution of PLA polymer by the food simulant facilitate the diffusion processes. Moreover, shape, size and concentration of nanoparticles play a significant role. Flexible naked GNPs (lateral size 100-1000 nm) easily migrate when the polymer molecules exhibit enhanced mobility, while fibrous MWCNTs (> 1 μm length) formed entangled networks on the film surfaces as the PLA polymer is partly dissolved, preventing their release into food simulants. The impurities of fullerenes and CB (5-30 nm) were of minor concentration in the polymer, therefore their migration is low or undetectable. The total amount of released migrants is below overall migration limits.

  11. Grain size and temperature influence on the toughness of a CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C. de; Melo, Tadeu Antonio de A; Gomes, Rodinei M.; Lima, Severino Jackson G. de; Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This work evaluated the capacity of a CuAlBe alloy to absorb energy until rupture. → The V-notch Charpy test was adopted at -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. → Charpy tests were complemented by DSC, DSC with optical microscope and by SEM. → First work to analyze the toughness of a CuAlBe alloy based on the Charpy test. → The results are of relevant value to enhance the understanding of the CuAlBe alloy. - Abstract: This work is a study of the influence of grain size and temperature on the toughness of CuAlBe shape memory alloys with (CuAlBeNbNi) and without NbNi (CuAlBe) grain refiner elements. The toughness analysis was based on the V-notch Charpy impact test under temperatures of -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. A statistical analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the toughness of both alloys was influenced by temperature and grain size. The CuAlBeNbNi alloy absorbed higher impact energy than the CuAlBe alloy showing that the refining elements improved the toughness of the alloy. To confirm and complement these findings, the fracture surfaces were evaluated by stereomicroscopy. Smooth homogeneous surfaces and rough heterogonous surfaces were detected for the CuAlBeNbNi and CuAlBe alloys, respectively. Predominately brittle zones were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy in both alloys. Furthermore, to determine the phase transformation temperatures and the associated microstructures, the alloys were assessed by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and DSC with optical microscopy.

  12. Dynamics of soil biogeochemical gas emissions shaped by remolded aggregate sizes and carbon configurations under hydration cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani

    2018-01-01

    Changes in soil hydration status affect microbial community dynamics and shape key biogeochemical processes. Evidence suggests that local anoxic conditions may persist and support anaerobic microbial activity in soil aggregates (or in similar hot spots) long after the bulk soil becomes aerated. To facilitate systematic studies of interactions among environmental factors with biogeochemical emissions of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 from soil aggregates, we remolded silt soil aggregates to different sizes and incorporated carbon at different configurations (core, mixed, no addition). Assemblies of remolded soil aggregates of three sizes (18, 12, and 6 mm) and equal volumetric proportions were embedded in sand columns at four distinct layers. The water table level in each column varied periodically while obtaining measurements of soil GHG emissions for the different aggregate carbon configurations. Experimental results illustrate that methane production required prolonged inundation and highly anoxic conditions for inducing measurable fluxes. The onset of unsaturated conditions (lowering water table) resulted in a decrease in CH 4 emissions while temporarily increasing N 2 O fluxes. Interestingly, N 2 O fluxes were about 80% higher form aggregates with carbon placement in center (anoxic) core compared to mixed carbon within aggregates. The fluxes of CO 2 were comparable for both scenarios of carbon sources. These experimental results highlight the importance of hydration dynamics in activating different GHG production and affecting various transport mechanisms about 80% of total methane emissions during lowering water table level are attributed to physical storage (rather than production), whereas CO 2 emissions (~80%) are attributed to biological activity. A biophysical model for microbial activity within soil aggregates and profiles provides a means for results interpretation and prediction of trends within natural soils under a wide range of conditions. © 2017 John

  13. Grain size and temperature influence on the toughness of a CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C. de, E-mail: victor.albuquerque@fe.up.pt [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Melo, Tadeu Antonio de A, E-mail: tadeu@lsr.ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Gomes, Rodinei M., E-mail: gomes@lsr.ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lima, Severino Jackson G. de, E-mail: jackson@lsr.ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEMec)/Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial INEGI, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, S/N 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-11-25

    Research highlights: {yields} This work evaluated the capacity of a CuAlBe alloy to absorb energy until rupture. {yields} The V-notch Charpy test was adopted at -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. {yields} Charpy tests were complemented by DSC, DSC with optical microscope and by SEM. {yields} First work to analyze the toughness of a CuAlBe alloy based on the Charpy test. {yields} The results are of relevant value to enhance the understanding of the CuAlBe alloy. - Abstract: This work is a study of the influence of grain size and temperature on the toughness of CuAlBe shape memory alloys with (CuAlBeNbNi) and without NbNi (CuAlBe) grain refiner elements. The toughness analysis was based on the V-notch Charpy impact test under temperatures of -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. A statistical analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the toughness of both alloys was influenced by temperature and grain size. The CuAlBeNbNi alloy absorbed higher impact energy than the CuAlBe alloy showing that the refining elements improved the toughness of the alloy. To confirm and complement these findings, the fracture surfaces were evaluated by stereomicroscopy. Smooth homogeneous surfaces and rough heterogonous surfaces were detected for the CuAlBeNbNi and CuAlBe alloys, respectively. Predominately brittle zones were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy in both alloys. Furthermore, to determine the phase transformation temperatures and the associated microstructures, the alloys were assessed by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and DSC with optical microscopy.

  14. Size and shape information serve as labels in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs Cynomys gunnisoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. SLOBODCHIKOFF, William R. BRIGGS, Patricia A DENNIS, Anne-Marie C. HODGE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have the capacity to produce different alarm calls for terrestrial and aerial predators. However, it is not clear what cognitive processes are involved in generating these calls. One possibility is the position of the predator: Anything on the ground receives a terrestrial predator call, and anything in the air receives an aerial predator call. Another possibility is that animals are able to recognize the physical features of predators and incorporate those into their calls. As a way of elucidating which of these mechanisms plays a primary role in generating the structure of different calls, we performed two field experiments with Gunnison’s prairie dogs. First, we presented the prairie dogs with a circle, a triangle, and a square, each moving across the colony at the same height and speed. Second, we presented the prairie dogs with two squares of differing sizes. DFA statistics showed that 82.6 percent of calls for the circle and 79.2 percent of the calls for the triangle were correctly classified, and 73.3 percent of the calls for the square were classified as either square or circle. Also, 100 percent of the calls for the larger square and 90 percent of the calls for the smaller square were correctly classified. Because both squares and circles are features of terrestrial predators and triangles are features of aerial predators, our results suggest that prairie dogs might have a cognitive mechanism that labels the abstract shape and size of different predators, rather than the position of the predator [Current Zoology 58 (5: 741-748, 2012].

  15. Design of a size-efficient tunable metamaterial absorber based on leaf-shaped cell at near-infrared regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Xia, Hui; Xie, Wenke; Guo, Zhibo; Li, Hongjian

    2018-06-01

    A size-efficient tunable metamaterial absorber (MA) composed of metallic leaf-shaped cell, graphene layer, silicon substrate, and bottom metal film is investigated theoretically and numerically at near-infrared (NIR) regions. Simulation results reveal that the single-band high absorption of 91.9% is obtained at 1268.7 nm. Further results show that the single-band can be simply changed into dual-band high absorption by varying the geometric parameters of top metallic layer at same wavelength regions, yielding two high absorption coefficients of 96.6% and 95.3% at the wavelengths of 1158.7 nm and 1323.6 nm, respectively. And the effect of related geometric parameter on dual-band absorption intensities is also investigated to obtain the optimized one. The peak wavelength can be tuned via modifying the Fermi energy of the graphene layer through controlling the external gate voltage. The work shows that the proposed strategy can be applied to other design of the dual-band structure at infrared regions.

  16. An Investigation on Flame Shape and Size for a High-Pressure Turbulent Non-Premixed Swirl Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongya Xi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flame shape and size for a high-pressure turbulent non-premixed swirl combustion were experimentally investigated over a wide range of varying parameters including fuel mass flow rate, combustor pressure, primary-air mass flow rate, and nozzle exit velocity. A CFD simulation was conducted to predict the flame profile. Meanwhile, a theoretical calculation was also performed to estimate flame length. It was observed that flame length increased linearly with increasing fuel mass flow rate but decreased with the increment of combustor pressure in the power function. The flame diminished at a larger primary-air mass flow rate but remained unaffected by the increasing nozzle exit velocity. Considering the global effect of all parameters at a particular pressure, the flame length generally decreased as the primary-air to fuel ratio increased. This was attributed to the reduced air entrainment required to dilute the fuel to stoichiometric proportions. The CFD simulation offered a good prediction of the variation trends of flame length, although some deviations from experimental values were observed. The theoretical calculation estimated the trends of flame length variation particularly well. Nevertheless the difference between the theoretical and experimental results was found to be due to the swirl influence. Hence, a swirl factor was proposed to be added to the original equation for swirl flames.

  17. Reductively Responsive Hydrogel Nanoparticles with Uniform Size, Shape, and Tunable Composition for Systemic siRNA Delivery in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Da; Tian, Shaomin; Baryza, Jeremy; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-10-05

    To achieve the great potential of siRNA based gene therapy, safe and efficient systemic delivery in vivo is essential. Here we report reductively responsive hydrogel nanoparticles with highly uniform size and shape for systemic siRNA delivery in vivo. "Blank" hydrogel nanoparticles with high aspect ratio were prepared using continuous particle fabrication based on PRINT (particle replication in nonwetting templates). Subsequently, siRNA was conjugated to "blank" nanoparticles via a disulfide linker with a high loading ratio of up to 18 wt %, followed by surface modification to enhance transfection. This fabrication process could be easily scaled up to prepare large quantity of hydrogel nanoparticles. By controlling hydrogel composition, surface modification, and siRNA loading ratio, siRNA conjugated nanoparticles were highly tunable to achieve high transfection efficiency in vitro. FVII-siRNA conjugated nanoparticles were further stabilized with surface coating for in vivo siRNA delivery to liver hepatocytes, and successful gene silencing was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels.

  18. Modified two-step emulsion solvent evaporation technique for fabricating biodegradable rod-shaped particles in the submicron size range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Hanieh; Adili, Reheman; Holinstat, Michael; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2018-05-15

    Though the emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique has been previously modified to produce rod-shaped particles, it cannot generate small-sized rods for drug delivery applications due to the inherent coupling and contradicting requirements for the formation versus stretching of droplets. The separation of the droplet formation from the stretching step should enable the creation of submicron droplets that are then stretched in the second stage by manipulation of the system viscosity along with the surface-active molecule and oil-phase solvent. A two-step ESE protocol is evaluated where oil droplets are formed at low viscosity followed by a step increase in the aqueous phase viscosity to stretch droplets. Different surface-active molecules and oil phase solvents were evaluated to optimize the yield of biodegradable PLGA rods. Rods were assessed for drug loading via an imaging agent and vascular-targeted delivery application via blood flow adhesion assays. The two-step ESE method generated PLGA rods with major and minor axis down to 3.2 µm and 700 nm, respectively. Chloroform and sodium metaphosphate was the optimal solvent and surface-active molecule, respectively, for submicron rod fabrication. Rods demonstrated faster release of Nile Red compared to spheres and successfully targeted an inflamed endothelium under shear flow in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Methodology for Conducting Hall Thruster EMI Tests in Metal Vacuum Chambers of Arbitrary Shape and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    2000-01-01

    While the closed-drift Hall thruster (CDT) offers significant improvement in performance over conventional chemical rockets and other advanced propulsion systems such as the arcjet, its potential impact on spacecraft communication signals must be carefully assessed before widespread use of this device can take place. To this end, many of the potentially unique issues that are associated with these thrusters center on its plume plasma characteristics and the its interaction with electromagnetic waves. Although a great deal of experiments have been made in characterizing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) potential of these thrusters, the interpretation of the resulting data is difficult because most of these measurements have been made in vacuum chambers with metal walls which reflect radio waves emanating from the thruster. This project developed a means of assessing the impact of metal vacuum chambers of arbitrary size or shape on EMI experiments, thereby allowing for test results to be interpreted properly. Chamber calibration techniques were developed and initially tested at RIAME using their vacuum chamber. Calibration experiments were to have been made at Tank 5 of NASA GRC and the 6 m by 9 m vacuum chamber at the University of Michigan to test the new procedure, however the subcontract to RIAME was cancelled by NASA memorandum on Feb. 26. 1999.

  20. Template-directed nucleation and growth of CdS nanocrystal: the role of helical and nonhelical nanofibers on their shape and size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Partha Pratim; Banerjee, Arindam

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the use of chiral nature of synthetic self-assembled nanofibers for nucleation and growth of Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes in room temperature. The templates are built by immobilizing a peptide capping agent on the surface of synthetic self-assembled helical or nonhelical nanofibers and CdS nanocrystals were allowed to grow on them. It is observed that there are differences in shapes and sizes of the nanocrystals depending on the chiral nature of the nanofibers on which they were growing. Even the CdS nanocrystals grown on different chiral and achiral nanofibers differ markedly in their photoluminescence properties. Thus, here we introduce a new way of using chirality of nanofibers to nucleate and grow CdS nanocrystals of different shape, size, and optical property.

  1. Dissection of Genetic Factors underlying Wheat Kernel Shape and Size in an Elite × Nonadapted Cross using a High Density SNP Linkage Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat kernel shape and size has been under selection since early domestication. Kernel morphology is a major consideration in wheat breeding, as it impacts grain yield and quality. A population of 160 recombinant inbred lines (RIL, developed using an elite (ND 705 and a nonadapted genotype (PI 414566, was extensively phenotyped in replicated field trials and genotyped using Infinium iSelect 90K assay to gain insight into the genetic architecture of kernel shape and size. A high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, with an average marker density of 0.39 cM/marker, identified a total of 29 genomic regions associated with six grain shape and size traits; ∼80% of these regions were associated with multiple traits. The analyses showed that kernel length (KL and width (KW are genetically independent, while a large number (∼59% of the quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel shape traits were in common with genomic regions associated with kernel size traits. The most significant QTL was identified on chromosome 4B, and could be an ortholog of major rice grain size and shape gene or . Major and stable loci also were identified on the homeologous regions of Group 5 chromosomes, and in the regions of (6A and (7A genes. Both parental genotypes contributed equivalent positive QTL alleles, suggesting that the nonadapted germplasm has a great potential for enhancing the gene pool for grain shape and size. This study provides new knowledge on the genetic dissection of kernel morphology, with a much higher resolution, which may aid further improvement in wheat yield and quality using genomic tools.

  2. Dissection of Genetic Factors underlying Wheat Kernel Shape and Size in an Elite × Nonadapted Cross using a High Density SNP Linkage Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Mantovani, E E; Seetan, R; Soltani, A; Echeverry-Solarte, M; Jain, S; Simsek, S; Doehlert, D; Alamri, M S; Elias, E M; Kianian, S F; Mergoum, M

    2016-03-01

    Wheat kernel shape and size has been under selection since early domestication. Kernel morphology is a major consideration in wheat breeding, as it impacts grain yield and quality. A population of 160 recombinant inbred lines (RIL), developed using an elite (ND 705) and a nonadapted genotype (PI 414566), was extensively phenotyped in replicated field trials and genotyped using Infinium iSelect 90K assay to gain insight into the genetic architecture of kernel shape and size. A high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, with an average marker density of 0.39 cM/marker, identified a total of 29 genomic regions associated with six grain shape and size traits; ∼80% of these regions were associated with multiple traits. The analyses showed that kernel length (KL) and width (KW) are genetically independent, while a large number (∼59%) of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel shape traits were in common with genomic regions associated with kernel size traits. The most significant QTL was identified on chromosome 4B, and could be an ortholog of major rice grain size and shape gene or . Major and stable loci also were identified on the homeologous regions of Group 5 chromosomes, and in the regions of (6A) and (7A) genes. Both parental genotypes contributed equivalent positive QTL alleles, suggesting that the nonadapted germplasm has a great potential for enhancing the gene pool for grain shape and size. This study provides new knowledge on the genetic dissection of kernel morphology, with a much higher resolution, which may aid further improvement in wheat yield and quality using genomic tools. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  3. Fabrication of ordered arrays of micro- and nanoscale features with control over their shape and size via templated solid-state dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jongpil

    2015-05-08

    Templated solid-state dewetting of single-crystal films has been shown to be used to produce regular patterns of various shapes. However, the materials for which this patterning method is applicable, and the size range of the patterns produced are still limited. Here, it is shown that ordered arrays of micro- and nanoscale features can be produced with control over their shape and size via solid-state dewetting of patches patterned from single-crystal palladium and nickel films of different thicknesses and orientations. The shape and size characteristics of the patterns are found to be widely controllable with varying the shape, width, thickness, and orientation of the initial patches. The morphological evolution of the patches is also dependent on the film material, with different dewetting behaviors observed in palladium and nickel films. The mechanisms underlying the pattern formation are explained in terms of the influence on Rayleigh-like instability of the patch geometry and the surface energy anisotropy of the film material. This mechanistic understanding of pattern formation can be used to design patches for the precise fabrication of micro- and nanoscale structures with the desired shapes and feature sizes.

  4. Mixing state of regionally transported soot particles and the coating effect on their size and shape at a mountain site in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    Soot particles influence the global climate through interactions with sunlight. A coating on soot particles increases their light absorption by increasing their absorption cross section and cloud condensation nuclei activity when mixed with other hygroscopic aerosol components. Therefore, it is important to understand how soot internally mixes with other materials to accurately simulate its effects in climate models. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an auto particle analysis system, which enables more particles to be analyzed than a conventional TEM. Using the TEM, soot particle size and shape (shape factor) were determined with and without coating from samples collected at a remote mountain site in Japan. The results indicate that ~10% of aerosol particles between 60 and 350 nm in aerodynamic diameters contain or consist of soot particles and ~75% of soot particles were internally mixed with nonvolatile ammonium sulfate or other materials. In contrast to an assumption that coatings change soot shape, both internally and externally mixed soot particles had similar shape and size distributions. Larger aerosol particles had higher soot mixing ratios, i.e., more than 40% of aerosol particles with diameters >1 µm had soot inclusions, whereas <20% of aerosol particles with diameters <1 µm included soot. Our results suggest that climate models may use the same size distributions and shapes for both internally and externally mixed soot; however, changing the soot mixing ratios in the different aerosol size bins is necessary.

  5. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  6. Effect of crystal shape, size and reflector type on operation characteristics of gamma-radiation detectors based on CsI(Tl) and CsI(Na) scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globus, M.E.; Grinyov, B.V.; Ratner, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Operation characteristics of CsI(Tl) and CsI(Na) scintillation detectors, to a large degree connected with light collection in crystals, are calculated for various shapes, sizes and reflecting surface types. Allowance is made for the true light reflection indicatrix which is characterized by the effective mirror constituent of the reflected light, p. Its value , averaged over incidence angle, is used for the classification of reflecting surfaces. Operation characteristics (in particular, spectrometric ones) are found to be essentially dependent on . Tables of operation characteristics, given below, permit one to make inferential conclusions on an optimal combination of the shape, sizes an the reflecting surface version

  7. Nocturia: The circadian voiding disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturia is a prevalent condition of waking to void during the night. The concept of nocturia has evolved from being a symptomatic aspect of disease associated with the prostate or bladder to a form of lower urinary tract disorder. However, recent advances in circadian biology and sleep science suggest that it might be important to consider nocturia as a form of circadian dysfunction. In the current review, nocturia is reexamined with an introduction to sleep disorders and recent findings in circadian biology in an attempt to highlight the importance of rediscovering nocturia as a problem of chronobiology.

  8. Atomistic simulations of void migration under thermal gradient in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Tapan G.; Millett, Paul; Tonks, Michael; Wolf, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that within a few hours after startup of a nuclear reactor, the temperature gradient within a fuel element causes migration of voids/bubbles radially inwards to form a central hole. To understand the atomic processes that control this migration of voids, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on single crystal UO 2 with voids of diameter 2.2 nm. An external temperature gradient was applied across the simulation cell. At the end of the simulation run, it was observed that the voids had moved towards the hot end of the simulation cell. The void migration velocity obtained from the simulations was compared with the available phenomenological equations for void migration due to different transport mechanisms. Surface diffusion of the slowest moving specie, i.e. uranium, was found to be the dominant mechanism for void migration. The contribution from lattice diffusion and the thermal stress gradient to the void migration was analyzed and found to be negligible. By extrapolation, a crossover from the surface-diffusion-controlled mechanism to the lattice-diffusion-controlled mechanism was found to occur for voids with sizes in the μm range.

  9. The effect of voids on the hardening of body-centered cubic Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Ryosuke, E-mail: ryosuke.nakai@jupiter.qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8579 (Japan); Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro, E-mail: k-yabuuchi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8579 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei, E-mail: shuhei.nogami@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8579 (Japan); Hasegawa, Akira, E-mail: akira.hasegawa@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical properties of metals are affected by various types of defects. Hardening is usually described through the interaction between dislocations and obstacles, in the so-called line tension theory. The strength factor in the line tension theory represents the resistance of a defect against the dislocation motion. In order to understand hardening from the viewpoint of the microstructure, an accurate determination of the strength factor of different types of defects is essential. In the present study, the strength factor of voids in body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe was investigated by two different approaches: one based on the Orowan equation to link the measured hardness with the average size and density of voids, and the other involving direct observation of the interaction between dislocations and voids by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The strength factor of voids induced by ion irradiation estimated by the Orowan equation was 0.6, whereas the strength factor estimated by the direct TEM approach was 0.8. The difference in the strength factors measured by the two approaches is due to the positional relationship between dislocations and voids: the central region of a void is stronger than the tip. Moreover, the gliding plane and the direction of dislocation may also affect the strength factor of voids. This study determined the strength factor of voids in BCC Fe accurately, and suggested that the contribution of voids to the irradiation hardening is larger than that of dislocation loops and Cu-rich precipitates. - Highlights: • The strength factor of voids in BCC Fe was experimentally investigated. • The strength factor of voids estimated by the line tension theory was 0.6. • The strength factor of voids estimated by the bowing angle of dislocations was 0.8. • The different strength factors are due to the positional relationship.

  10. Application of geometric morphometrics to the study of postnatal size and shape changes in the skull of Calomys expulsus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hingst-Zaher

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed ontogenetic patterns of landmarks for 169 laboratory-raised specimens of Calomys expulsus, at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, and 300 days of age, using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. There is sexual dimorphism in size, with males smaller than females at earlier ages, but larger after 50 days. Differences in shape between sexes are strong only until 10 days of age, suggesting that shape is more constrained than size. Combining sexes, there is strong variation in size with age, reduced after 200 days, while most of the variation in shape occurs before 20 days. This dissociation is common for sigmodontine rodents, and might be the basis of heterochronic processes responsible for the morphological variation of this South American group. Centroid size does not show any reduction in the coefficient of variation over ages, while Procrustes distances within sucessive ages are reduced after 20 days. Uniform component and the more global partial warps explain most of the shape changes with age. Cranial and Facial parts of the skull increase in size at different rates with a relative lengthening of the snout and decrease in height of the braincase. We were unable to detect a clear pattern of integration for the rostrum and braincase, besides that shown by landmark displacements.

  11. Development of quick-response area-averaged void fraction meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hironori; Iguchi, Tadashi; Kimura, Mamoru; Anoda, Yoshinari

    2000-11-01

    Authors are performing experiments to investigate BWR thermal-hydraulic instability under coupling of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. To perform the experiment, it is necessary to measure instantaneously area-averaged void fraction in rod bundle under high temperature/high pressure gas-liquid two-phase flow condition. Since there were no void fraction meters suitable for these requirements, we newly developed a practical void fraction meter. The principle of the meter is based on the electrical conductance changing with void fraction in gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this meter, metal flow channel wall is used as one electrode and a L-shaped line electrode installed at the center of flow channel is used as the other electrode. This electrode arrangement makes possible instantaneous measurement of area-averaged void fraction even under the metal flow channel. We performed experiments with air/water two-phase flow to clarify the void fraction meter performance. Experimental results indicated that void fraction was approximated by α=1-I/I o , where α and I are void fraction and current (I o is current at α=0). This relation holds in the wide range of void fraction of 0∼70%. The difference between α and 1-I/I o was approximately 10% at maximum. The major reasons of the difference are a void distribution over measurement area and an electrical insulation of the center electrode by bubbles. The principle and structure of this void fraction meter are very basic and simple. Therefore, the meter can be applied to various fields on gas-liquid two-phase flow studies. (author)

  12. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001–2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zender

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Land clearing for crops, plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR since 2001. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of distinct fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001–2009. The local MISR overpass at 10:30 a.m. misses the afternoon peak of Borneo fire emissions, and may preferentially sample longer plumes from persistent fires burning overnight. Typically the smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3–4 m s−1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 km, 708 m, and 27% of the plume length, respectively. 50% of these plumes have length between 24 and 50 km, height between 523 and 993 m and width between 18% and 30% of plume length. Length and cross-plume width are lognormally distributed, while height follows a normal distribution. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are on average nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes. This could be due to sampling or to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 km2, with 25th and 75th percentiles at 99 km2 and 304 km2, respectively varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15–25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere reflectance peak about halfway down-plume, at

  13. The Beckoning Void in Moravagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Bellstrom

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chapter «Mascha,» lying at the heart of Cendrars's Moravagine , contains within it a variety of images and themes suggestive of emptiness. The philosophy of nihilism is exemplified in the motivations and actions of the group of terrorists seeking to plunge Russia into revolutionary chaos. Mascha's anatomical orifice, symbolizing both a biological and a psychological fault, and the abortion of her child, paralleled by the abortion of the revolutionary ideal among her comrades, are also emblematic of the chapter's central void. Moreover, Cendrars builds the theme of hollowness by describing Moravagine with images of omission, such as «empan» (space or span, «absent,» and «étranger.» Moravagine's presence, in fact, characteristically causes an undercurrent of doubt and uncertainty about the nature of reality to become overt. It is this parodoxical presence which seems to cause the narrator (and consequently the narrative to «lose» a day at the most critical moment of the story. By plunging the reader into the narrator's lapsus memoriae , Cendrars aims at creating a feeling of the kind of mental and cosmic disorder for which Moravagine is the strategist and apologist. This technique of insufficiency is an active technique, even though it relies on the passive idea of removing explanation and connecting details. The reader is invited, or lured, into the central void of the novel and, faced with unresolvable dilemmas, becomes involved in the same disorder that was initially produced.

  14. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an Andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.La diversificación fenotípica al interior de una especie en características de dimensiones corporales relacionadas con la locomoción de los lagartos, se ha estudiado poco en especies de Anolis. Los datos de algunas especies de isla revelan patrones distintos de variación geográfica y sugieren que la adaptación local, debida a la heterogeneidad del hábitat, ocurre a este nivel. Los estudios de especies de continente son particularmente escasos y sugieren patrones distintos: un lagarto altoandino altamente variable y poblaciones poco

  15. Automated air-void system characterization of hardened concrete: Helping computers to count air-voids like people count air-voids---Methods for flatbed scanner calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karl

    Since the discovery in the late 1930s that air entrainment can improve the durability of concrete, it has been important for people to know the quantity, spacial distribution, and size distribution of the air-voids in their concrete mixes in order to ensure a durable final product. The task of air-void system characterization has fallen on the microscopist, who, according to a standard test method laid forth by the American Society of Testing and Materials, must meticulously count or measure about a thousand air-voids per sample as exposed on a cut and polished cross-section of concrete. The equipment used to perform this task has traditionally included a stereomicroscope, a mechanical stage, and a tally counter. Over the past 30 years, with the availability of computers and digital imaging, automated methods have been introduced to perform the same task, but using the same basic equipment. The method described here replaces the microscope and mechanical stage with an ordinary flatbed desktop scanner, and replaces the microscopist and tally counter with a personal computer; two pieces of equipment much more readily available than a microscope with a mechanical stage, and certainly easier to find than a person willing to sit for extended periods of time counting air-voids. Most laboratories that perform air-void system characterization typically have cabinets full of prepared samples with corresponding results from manual operators. Proponents of automated methods often take advantage of this fact by analyzing the same samples and comparing the results. A similar iterative approach is described here where scanned images collected from a significant number of samples are analyzed, the results compared to those of the manual operator, and the settings optimized to best approximate the results of the manual operator. The results of this calibration procedure are compared to an alternative calibration procedure based on the more rigorous digital image accuracy

  16. Cosmology with void-galaxy correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Warren, Michael S

    2014-01-31

    Galaxy bias, the unknown relationship between the clustering of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is a major hurdle for cosmological inference from large-scale structure. While traditional analyses focus on the absolute clustering amplitude of high-density regions mapped out by galaxy surveys, we propose a relative measurement that compares those to the underdense regions, cosmic voids. On the basis of realistic mock catalogs we demonstrate that cross correlating galaxies and voids opens up the possibility to calibrate galaxy bias and to define a static ruler thanks to the observable geometric nature of voids. We illustrate how the clustering of voids is related to mass compensation and show that volume-exclusion significantly reduces the degree of stochasticity in their spatial distribution. Extracting the spherically averaged distribution of galaxies inside voids from their cross correlations reveals a remarkable concordance with the mass-density profile of voids.

  17. On the role of initial void geometry in plastic deformation of metallic thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yanqing [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340 (United States); Xu, Shuozhi, E-mail: shuozhixu@gatech.edu [GWW School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.

  18. On the role of initial void geometry in plastic deformation of metallic thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yanqing; Xu, Shuozhi

    2016-01-01

    Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.

  19. Preparation and thermodynamic stability of micron-sized, monodisperse composite polymer particles of disc-like shapes by seeded dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibayashi, Teruhisa; Okubo, Masayoshi

    2007-07-17

    Micron-sized, monodisperse composite polymer particles having "disc-like" and "polyhedral" shapes were prepared by seeded dispersion polymerization of 2-ethylhexylmethacrylate (EHMA) with 2.67-mum-sized polystyrene (PS) seed particles in methanol/water media in the presence of droplets of various saturated hydrocarbons and evaporation of the hydrocarbon after the polymerization. Such nonspherical shapes were based on the volume reduction due to the evaporation. The primary factors influencing the particle shape seemed to be the absorption rate of the hydrocarbon into the resulting PS/poly(EHMA)/hydrocarbon composite particles during the polymerization, which affected the viscosities and the volumes of the PS and poly(EHMA) phases. It was found that the morphological development during the polymerization was retarded at "hamburger-like" morphology, which is a precursor of the disc-like particle, although this morphology is a thermodynamically metastable state.

  20. Heritability of Wing Size and Shape of the Rice and Corn Strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas-Hoyos, N; Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2016-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) represents a pest of economic importance in all Western Hemisphere. This polyphagous species has diverged into two populations that have been mainly recognized with various mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers and named "the rice" and "the corn" strains. In Colombia, both strains have evolved prezygotic and postzygotic isolation. They differ in tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab endotoxins) and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl. In 2014, a wing morphometric analysis made in 159 individuals from a colony showed that both strains significantly differ in wing shape. The species also exhibits sexual dimorphism in the rice strain as in females wing size is larger than in males. Here, we continued this work with another wing morphometric approach in laboratory-reared strains to calculate wing size and shape heritabilities using a full-sib design and in wild populations to determine if this method distinguishes these strains. Our results show that male heritabilities of both traits were higher than female ones. Wild populations were significantly different in wing shape and size. These results suggest that wing morphometrics can be used as an alternative method to molecular markers to differentiate adults from laboratory-reared populations and wild populations of this pest, particularly in males of this species. Finally, Q ST values obtained for wing size and shape further demonstrated that both strains are genetically differentiated in nature.

  1. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes : the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Beulens, Joline W; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Coupé, Veerle M H; Heymans, Martijn W; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Mela, David J; Zock, Peter L; Olthof, Margreet R; Alssema, Marjan

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h

  2. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes : the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Beulens, Joline W.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Coupé, Veerle M.H.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Sijtsma, Femke P.C.; Mela, David J.; Zock, Peter L.; Olthof, Margreet R.; Alssema, Marjan

    Aims/hypothesis: Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h

  3. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Beulens, Joline W.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Coupé, Veerle M.H.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Sijtsma, Femke P.C.; Mela, David J.; Zock, Peter L.; Olthof, Margreet R.; Alssema, Marjan

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h

  4. Effect of metallurgical variables on void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.G.; Lauritzen, T.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Turkalo, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of void swelling is reviewed briefly and the anticipated effects of metallurgical variables are described. Experimental results showing the effects of metallurgical variables are reviewed, most of the work being done by simulation methods employing charged particle bombardments to simulate reactor damage. Although the early emphasis was on structural variables such as grain size, cold work and precipitates to control swelling, it now seems that the practical reduction of swelling will be achieved by modifying alloy composition. Void swelling is strongly influenced by the relative amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni in an alloy; the amount of swelling can be varied by three orders of magnitude by changing the relative amounts of the three elements in an austenitic ternary alloy. The effect of composition on swelling of a simple ferritic alloy will also be described. The swelling of a simple austenitic alloy of Fe, Cr, and Ni can be reduced by certain minor element additions. The most effective swelling inhibitors are Si, Ti, Zr, and Nb, and combinations of Si and Ti are synergetic. Swelling reductions of two orders of magnitude have been achieved with combined additions. Predictions of swelling in commercial solid solution alloys are made on the basis of the present knowledge of the effects of major composition and minor element additions. The predictions agree with experimental results. For more complex commercial alloys, predictions are made for the effects on swelling of heat treatments that cause changes in matrix composition. In some cases, heat treatment is expected to change the peak swelling by more than a factor of ten, and to shift the peak swelling temperature by almost 100 0 C. Sensitivity of swelling to detailed matrix composition places emphasis on the need for developing understanding of the stability of structure and local composition in an irradiation environment

  5. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  6. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  7. Influence investigation of a void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Ren, Shenghan; Qu, Xiaochao; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-20

    A void region exists in some biological tissues, and previous studies have shown that inaccurate images would be obtained if it were not processed. A hybrid radiosity-diffusion method (HRDM) that couples the radiosity theory and the diffusion equation has been proposed to deal with the void problem and has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) simple models. However, the extent of the impact of the void region on the accuracy of modeling light propagation has not been investigated. In this paper, we first implemented and verified the HRDM in 3D models, including both the regular geometries and a digital mouse model, and then investigated the influences of the void region on modeling light propagation in a heterogeneous medium. Our investigation results show that the influence of the region can be neglected when the size of the void is less than a certain range, and other cases must be taken into account.

  8. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  9. Sorting of cells of the same size, shape, and cell cycle stage for a single cell level assay without staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomo Tetsuya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell level studies are being used increasingly to measure cell properties not directly observable in a cell population. High-performance data acquisition systems for such studies have, by necessity, developed in synchrony. However, improvements in sample purification techniques are also required to reveal new phenomena. Here we assessed a cell sorter as a sample-pretreatment tool for a single-cell level assay. A cell sorter is routinely used for selecting one type of cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells using specific fluorescence labels. In this case, we wanted to select cells of exactly the same size, shape, and cell-cycle stage from a population, without using a specific fluorescence label. Results We used four light scatter parameters: the peak height and area of the forward scatter (FSheight and FSarea and side scatter (SSheight and SSarea. The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, a neuronal cell line, was used for all experiments. The living cells concentrated in the high FSarea and middle SSheight/SSarea fractions. Single cells without cell clumps were concentrated in the low SS and middle FS fractions, and in the higher FSheight/FSarea and SSheight/SSarea fractions. The cell populations from these viable, single-cell-rich fractions were divided into twelve subfractions based on their FSarea-SSarea profiles, for more detailed analysis. We found that SSarea was proportional to the cell volume and the FSarea correlated with cell roundness and elongation, as well as with the level of DNA in the cell. To test the method and to characterize the basic properties of the isolated single cells, sorted cells were cultured in separate wells. The cells in all subfractions survived, proliferated and differentiated normally, suggesting that there was no serious damage. The smallest, roundest, and smoothest cells had the highest viability. There was no correlation between proliferation and differentiation. NGF increases

  10. Evaluation of a possible association between a history of dentoalveolar injury and the shape and size of the nasopalatine canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Valerie G A; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Brücker, Marcia R; Furher, Alberto; Frank, Jim; von Arx, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    Maxillary incisors (MI) are often affected by dentoalveolar injury resulting in tooth devitalization and apical periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to analyze any association between a history of dentoalveolar injury and the shape and size of the nasopalatine canal (NC) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients were allocated to the trauma group if they had a history of dentoalveolar injury and a root filling in at least one MI and/or one missing MI. As controls, 100 matched-controlled (age and gender) patients were selected. NC dimensions including length, width at midway, and diameter of incisal and nasal foramen were measured in sagittal and axial CBCT planes. Furthermore, an evaluation of NC bulging signs, apical osteolysis of MI, and its fusion with NC was performed. In the trauma group (n = 96), 31.3 % had at least one missing MI, and 95.8 % had a root filling in a MI. The antero-posterior dimension of the incisive foramen (p = 0.02) and of the NC at midway (p = 0.04) was significantly larger in the trauma group. Significantly more cases with a bulging sign were found in the trauma (n = 19) than in the control group (n = 3, p = 0.001). An apical osteolysis was identified in 5.1 % of MI, and 12/38 did show a fusion with the NC. Wider dimensions of the NC and a bulging sign may suggest a former dentoalveolar injury to the anterior maxilla. Periapical osteolysis of central MI over 5 mm in diameter tends to fuse with the NC. In patients with a history of dentoalveolar injury and/or apical periodontitis, the NC should be evaluated on available CBCT images. Any inflammatory processes in the neighboring teeth should be recognized and eliminated as they may initiate bulging of the NC and/or the formation of a nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC). NC with bulging signs should be monitored clinically and radiographically to diagnose a NPDC in an early stage.

  11. Estimation of the Void Fraction in the moderator cell of the Cold Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jungwoon; Kim, Young-ki

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the average void fraction in the liquid hydrogen, the Kazimi and Chen correlation is used with its modified method suggested by R.E. Williams in NBSR. Since the multiplying number can be changed along the operation condition and working fluid, the different figure is applied to estimate the average void fraction in the different moderator cell shape. This approach is checked with the void fraction measurement results from the HANARO-CNS mock-up test. Owing to national research demands on cold neutron beam utilization, the Cold Neutron Research Facility had been and operated for neuron scientists all over the world. In HANARO, the CNS facility has been operated since 2009. The actual void fraction, which is the one of dominant factors affecting the cold neutron flux, is difficult to know without the real measurement performed at the cryogenic temperature using the same moderator medium. Accordingly, the two-phase mock-up test in the CNS-IPA (In-pool assembly) had been performed using the liquid hydrogen in terms of the fluidity check, void fraction measurement, operation procedure set-up, and so on for the development of the HANARO-CNS. This paper presents the estimated void fraction in the different operating conditions and geometrical shape in the comparison with the measurement data of the void fraction in the full-scale mockup test based on the Kazimi and Chen correlation. This approach is applied to estimate the average void fraction in the newly designed moderator cell using the liquid hydrogen as a working fluid in the two-phase thermosiphon. From this calculation result, the estimated average void fraction will be used to design the optimized cold neutron source to produce the maximum cold neutron flux within the desired wavelength

  12. Estimation of the Void Fraction in the moderator cell of the Cold Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jungwoon; Kim, Young-ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To estimate the average void fraction in the liquid hydrogen, the Kazimi and Chen correlation is used with its modified method suggested by R.E. Williams in NBSR. Since the multiplying number can be changed along the operation condition and working fluid, the different figure is applied to estimate the average void fraction in the different moderator cell shape. This approach is checked with the void fraction measurement results from the HANARO-CNS mock-up test. Owing to national research demands on cold neutron beam utilization, the Cold Neutron Research Facility had been and operated for neuron scientists all over the world. In HANARO, the CNS facility has been operated since 2009. The actual void fraction, which is the one of dominant factors affecting the cold neutron flux, is difficult to know without the real measurement performed at the cryogenic temperature using the same moderator medium. Accordingly, the two-phase mock-up test in the CNS-IPA (In-pool assembly) had been performed using the liquid hydrogen in terms of the fluidity check, void fraction measurement, operation procedure set-up, and so on for the development of the HANARO-CNS. This paper presents the estimated void fraction in the different operating conditions and geometrical shape in the comparison with the measurement data of the void fraction in the full-scale mockup test based on the Kazimi and Chen correlation. This approach is applied to estimate the average void fraction in the newly designed moderator cell using the liquid hydrogen as a working fluid in the two-phase thermosiphon. From this calculation result, the estimated average void fraction will be used to design the optimized cold neutron source to produce the maximum cold neutron flux within the desired wavelength.

  13. Nucleation of voids and other irradiation-produced defect aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.; Katz, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleation of defect clusters in crystalline solids from radiation-produced defects is different from the usual nucleation processes in one important aspect: the condensing defects, interstitial atoms and vacancies, can mutually annihilate and are thus similar to matter and antimatter. The nucleation process is described as the simultaneous reaction of vacancies and interstitials (and gas atoms if present) with embryos of all sizes. The reaction rates for acquisition of point defects (and gas atoms) are calculated from their respective jump frequencies and concentrations in the supersaturated system. The reaction rates for emission of point defects are derived from the free energies of the defect clusters in the thermodynamic equilibrium system, i.e., the system without excess point defects. This procedure differs from that used in conventional nucleation theory and permits the inclusion of the ''antimatter'' defect into the set of reaction-rate equations in a straightforward manner. The method is applied to steady-state nucleation, during irradiation, of both dislocation loops and voids in the absence and in the presence of immobile and mobile gas. The predictions of the nucleation theory are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations, e.g., void densities increase with increasing displacement rates; gases such as helium enhance void nucleation; at low displacement rates and at high temperatures the presence of gas is essential to void formation. For quantitative predictions, the theory must be extended to include the termination of nucleation

  14. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  15. Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality Better for Intracerebral Hematoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Yang, Fu-Chi; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Kao, Hung-Wen; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC) were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018), 0.715 (P = 0.0008) (by ABC/2) to 0.738 (P = 0.0002) (by CAVA), 0.877 (Phematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. PMID:25029592

  16. Study on the Size Effects of H-Shaped Fusion Zone of Fiber Laser Welded AZ31 Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Feng Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of typical cross-section profiles for the fusion zone (FZ of a laser welded thin section joint, i.e., a V-shaped cross-section and an H-shaped cross-section. Previous researches indicated that tensile strength of the V-shaped joint was lower than that of the H-shaped one due to the greater heterogeneity of strain distribution on the V-shaped joint during tensile process. In this work, impacts of the aspect ratio of FZ on the mechanical properties of laser welded thin section joints with an H-shaped cross-section profile were investigated. Welding conditions corresponding to two typical H-shaped joints (i.e., Wnarrower with a narrower FZ, and Wwider with a wider FZ were decided through a laser welding orthogonal experimental plan. Then, the microstructure and properties of both joints were examined and compared. The results show that the tensile strength of joint Wnarrower and joint Wwider was about 72% and 80.9% that of the base metal, respectively. Both joints fractured in the FZ during tensile processes. The low-cycle fatigue life of the base metal, the joint Wnarrower and the joint Wwider were 3377.5 cycles, 2825 cycles and 3155.3 cycles, respectively. By using high-speed imaging, it was found that the fatigue crack of joint Wnarrower initiated and propagated inside the fusion zone, while the fatigue crack of the joint Wwider initiated at the edge of the base metal and propagated for a distance within the base metal before entering into the fusion zone. This work promoted our understanding about the influence of the weld bead shape on the properties of laser welded thin section joints.

  17. Microscopic Void Detection for Predicting Remaining Life in Electric Cable Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, David A.; Avila, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    A reliable method of testing for remaining life in electric cable insulation has continued to elude the nuclear industry as it seeks to extend the life and license of its nuclear stations. Until recently, a trendable, measurable electrical property has not been found, and unexpected cable failures continue to be reported. Most reliable approaches to date rely on monitoring mechanical properties, which are assumed to degrade faster than the insulation's electrical properties. This paper introduces a promising technique based on void characterization, which is dependent on an electrical property related to dielectric strength. A relationship between insulation void characteristics (size and density) and the onset of partial discharge is known to exist. A similar relationship can be shown between void characteristics and unacceptable leakage currents (another typical cable failure criterion). For low-voltage cables, it is believed void content can be correlated to mechanical property degradation.This paper will report on an approach for using void information, research results showing the existence of trendable void characteristics in commonly used electric insulation materials, and techniques for detecting the voids (both laboratory- and field-based techniques). Acoustical microscopy was found to be potentially more suitable than conventional ultrasound for nondestructive in situ detection and monitoring of void characteristics in jacketed multiconductor insulation while ignoring the jacket. Also, optical and scanning electron microscope techniques will play an essential role in establishing the database necessary for continued development and implementation of this promising technique

  18. Radiation-induced segregation and void formation in C+ ion-irradiated vanadium-carbon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, T.; Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.; Sato, Y.; Mochizuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the effect of interstitial elements on radiation-induced segregation and void formation in V and V-C alloys irradiated by 200 keV C + ions to a dose of 48 dpa at 973 K, the microstructural observation and the measurement of C segregation to the surfaces were carried out by TEM and XPS. Voids, dislocations and precipitates were produced in all of the specimens during irradiation. The addition of C in V led to a reduction of void size and to increase in void number density, consequently the void swelling was suppressed strongly. Radiation-induced segregation of C was observed clearly on and near the irradiated surfaces of V-C alloys and as a result of the enrichment of C atoms, carbides precipitated on the surfaces. It is the first evidence of the radiation-induced segregation of interstitial elements on the surfaces. Also, quasi-carbides were observed on the (210) habit plaints near large voids and dislocations in V. The phenomena show that C atoms, which was insolved and/or implanted, interact strongly with vacancies rather than self-interstitial atoms and migrate with vacancies toward defect sinks, such as surfaces, voids, and dislocations. The segregated zones of C reduced the sink efficiency of the defects, and showed the effect of the suppression on void in V-C alloys. (author)

  19. Determination of the shapes and sizes of the regions in which in hadron-nucleus collisions reactions leading to the nucleon emission, particle production, and fragment evaporation occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Shapes and sizes of the regions in target-nuclei in which reactions leading to the nucleon emission, particle production and fragment evaporation occur are determined. The region of nucleon emission is of cylindrical shape, with the diameter as large as two nucleon diameters, centered on the incident hadron course. The reactions leading to the particle production happen predominantly along the incident hadron course in nuclear matter. The fragment evaporation goes from the surface layer of the part of the target-nucleus damaged in nucleon emission process

  20. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.; Levy, V.; Adda, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to a general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented [fr

  1. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O ampersand MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document

  2. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to our general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented

  3. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  4. Influence of size and shape of sub-micrometer light scattering centers in ZnO-assisted TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trang T. T.; Mathews, Nripan; Lam, Yeng-Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2018-03-01

    Sub-micrometer cavities have been incorporated in the TiO2 photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell to enhance its optical property with light scattering effect. These are large pores of several hundred nanometers in size and scatter incident light due to the difference refraction index between the scattering center and the surrounding materials, according to Mie theory. The pores are created using polystyrene (PS) or zinc oxide (ZnO) templates reported previously which resulted in ellipsoidal and spherical shapes, respectively. The effect of size and shape of scattering center was modeled using a numerical analysis finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). The scattering cross-section was not affected significantly with different shapes if the total displacement volume of the scattering center is comparable. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the optical property with varying size of ZnO templates. Photovoltaic effect of dye-sensitized solar cells made from these ZnO-assisted films were investigated with incident-photon-to-current efficiency to understand the effect of scattering center size on the enhancement of absorption. With 380 nm macropores incorporated, the power conversion efficiency has increased by 11% mostly thanks to the improved current density, while 170 nm and 500 nm macropores samples did not have increment in sufficiently wide range of absorbing wavelengths.

  5. Void Measurement by the ({gamma}, n) Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S Zia

    1962-09-15

    It is proposed to use the ({gamma}, n) reaction for the measurement of the integrated void volume fraction in two phase flow of D{sub 2}O inside a duct. This method is applicable to different channel geometries, and it is shown to be insensitive to the pattern of void distribution over the cross-sectional area of the channels The method has been tested on mock-ups of voids in a round duct of 6 mm inside diameter. About 40 m.c. {sup 24}Na was used as a source of gamma-rays. The test results show that the maximum measured error in this arrangement is less than 2.5 % (net void) for a range of 2.7 % to 44.44 % actual void volume fractions.

  6. Void Measurement by the (γ, n) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1962-09-01

    It is proposed to use the (γ, n) reaction for the measurement of the integrated void volume fraction in two phase flow of D 2 O inside a duct. This method is applicable to different channel geometries, and it is shown to be insensitive to the pattern of void distribution over the cross-sectional area of the channels The method has been tested on mock-ups of voids in a round duct of 6 mm inside diameter. About 40 m.c. 24 Na was used as a source of gamma-rays. The test results show that the maximum measured error in this arrangement is less than 2.5 % (net void) for a range of 2.7 % to 44.44 % actual void volume fractions

  7. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  8. On the abundance of extreme voids II: a survey of void mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongchitnan, Siri; Hunt, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of cosmic voids can be described by an analogue of halo mass functions for galaxy clusters. In this work, we explore a number of void mass functions: from those based on excursion-set theory to new mass functions obtained by modifying halo mass functions. We show how different void mass functions vary in their predictions for the largest void expected in an observational volume, and compare those predictions to observational data. Our extreme-value formalism is shown to be a new practical tool for testing void theories against simulation and observation.

  9. Effects of void anisotropy on the ignition and growth rates of energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Initiation of heterogeneous energetic materials is thought to occur at hot spots; reaction fronts propagate from sites of such hot spots into the surrounding material resulting in complete consumption of the material. Heterogeneous materials, such as plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) and pressed materials contain numerous voids, defects and interfaces at which hot spots can occur. Amongst the various mechanisms of hot spot formation, void collapse is considered to be the predominant one in the high strain rate loading conditions. It is established in the past the shape of the voids has a significant effect on the initiation behavior of energetic materials. In particular, void aspect ratio and orientations play an important role in this regard. This work aims to quantify the effects of void aspect ratio and orientation on the ignition and growth rates of chemical reaction from the hot spot. A wide range of aspect ratio and orientations is considered to establish a correlation between the ignition and growth rates and the void morphology. The ignition and growth rates are obtained from high fidelity reactive meso-scale simulations. The energetic material considered in this work is HMX and Tarver McGuire HMX decomposition model is considered to capture the reaction mechanism of HMX. The meso-scale simulations are performed using a Cartesian grid based Eulerian solver SCIMITAR3D. The void morphology is shown to have a significant effect on the ignition and growth rates of HMX.

  10. Kinetic aspects of the growth of platelets and voids in H implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, J.; Cristiano, F.; Ben Assayag, G.; Claverie, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a systematic and quantitative study of the extended defects formed after high-dose proton implantation in silicon. This study is based on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) experiments to 'follow' the thermal evolution of platelets and voids for a large variety of annealing conditions up to 900 deg. C. Up to about 500 deg. C, only platelets are observed and, as the anneal proceeds, they grow in size and reduce their density through the conservative exchange of hydrogen (H) atoms. On the contrary, above 500 deg. C, H starts to diffuse out of the defect-rich region and this out-diffusion can be completed after 700 deg. C anneals. Concurrently, platelets tend to disappear and voids appear. Above 700 deg. C anneals, hydrogen cannot be detected anymore in the layers and only voids remain. Upon time, they also grow in size and reduce their density. This is again attributed to the Ostwald ripening of voids which involves now vacancy diffusion from small voids to large ones. In summary, we have shown that platelets and voids both undergo quasi-conservative ripening upon annealing; at low-temperature (LT) platelets exchange the H atoms they are composed of while at high-temperature voids exchange vacancies

  11. Constraints on Cosmology and Gravity from the Dynamics of Voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Pisani, Alice; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Weller, Jochen

    2016-08-26

    The Universe is mostly composed of large and relatively empty domains known as cosmic voids, whereas its matter content is predominantly distributed along their boundaries. The remaining material inside them, either dark or luminous matter, is attracted to these boundaries and causes voids to expand faster and to grow emptier over time. Using the distribution of galaxies centered on voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and adopting minimal assumptions on the statistical motion of these galaxies, we constrain the average matter content Ω_{m}=0.281±0.031 in the Universe today, as well as the linear growth rate of structure f/b=0.417±0.089 at median redshift z[over ¯]=0.57, where b is the galaxy bias (68% C.L.). These values originate from a percent-level measurement of the anisotropic distortion in the void-galaxy cross-correlation function, ϵ=1.003±0.012, and are robust to consistency tests with bootstraps of the data and simulated mock catalogs within an additional systematic uncertainty of half that size. They surpass (and are complementary to) existing constraints by unlocking cosmological information on smaller scales through an accurate model of nonlinear clustering and dynamics in void environments. As such, our analysis furnishes a powerful probe of deviations from Einstein's general relativity in the low-density regime which has largely remained untested so far. We find no evidence for such deviations in the data at hand.

  12. Shape, transverse size, and charged hadron multiplicity of jets in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Passaseo, Marina; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Polujanskas, Mindaugas; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Gundacker, Stefan; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Milenovic, Predrag; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of jet characteristics from inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV are presented. The data sample was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC during 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The mean charged hadron multiplicity, the differential and integral jet shape distributions, and two independent moments of the shape distributions are measured as functions of the jet transverse momentum for jets reconstructed with the anti-kT algorithm. The measured observables are corrected to the particle level and compared with predictions from various QCD Monte Carlo generators.

  13. Shape, Transverse Size, and Charged Hadron Multiplicity of Jets in pp Collisions at 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of jet characteristics from inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV are presented. The data sample was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC during 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The mean charged hadron multiplicity, the differential and integral jet shape distributions, and two independent moments of the shape distributions are measured as functions of the jet transverse momentum for jets reconstructed with the anti-kT algorithm. The measured observables are corrected to the particle level and compared with predictions from various QCD Monte Carlo generators.

  14. On the Peculiar Molecular Shape and Size Dependence of the Dynamics of Fluids confined in a Small-Pore Metal-Organic Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Skarmoutsos, Ioannis

    2018-05-15

    Force field based-Molecular dynamics simulations were deployed to systematically explore the dynamics of confined molecules of different shapes and sizes, i.e. linear (CO2 and N2) and spherical (CH4) fluids, in a model small pore system, i.e. the Metal-Organic Framework SIFSIX-2-Cu-i. These computations unveil an unprecedented molecular symmetry dependence of the translational and rotational dynamics of fluids confined in channel-like nanoporous materials. In particular this peculiar behaviour is reflected by the extremely slow decay of the Legendre reorientational correlation functions of even-parity order for the linear fluids which is associated to jump-like orientation flips, while the spherical fluid shows a very fast decay taking place in a sub-picosecond time scale. Such a fundamental understanding is relevant to diverse disciplines such as in chemistry, physics, biology and materials science where diatomic or polyatomic molecules of different shapes/sizes diffuse through nanopores.

  15. Effect of shape and size of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent on the recovery of uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Kataki, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.; Katoh, S.; Sakane, K.; Sugasaka, K.; Itagaki, T.

    1987-01-01

    An amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from sea water was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polypropylene fiber of round and cross-shaped sections. The tensile strength and elongation of the synthesized adsorbent, both of which were one-half those of the raw material, were not affected by the shape of the fiber. The deterioration of the adsorption ability induced by immersing the adsorbent in HCl was negligible because of the short immersion time required for the desorption with HCl. The concentration factors for uranium and transition metals in 28 days were in the order of 10 5 , while those for alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were in the order 10 -1 -10 1 . The recovery of uranium with the cross-shaped adsorbent was superior to that of the round-shaped one. XMA line profiles show that the distribution of uranium is much restricted to the surface layer when compared with that of alkaline earth metals. Diminishing the diameter or increasing the surface area was effective for increasing the adsorption of uranium

  16. Positional dependence of scale size and shape in butterfly wings: wing-wide phenotypic coordination of color-pattern elements and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Kiseki; Otaki, Joji M

    2009-02-01

    Butterfly wing color-patterns are a phenotypically coordinated array of scales whose color is determined as cellular interpretation outputs for morphogenic signals. Here we investigated distribution patterns of scale shape and size in relation to position and coloration on the hindwings of a nymphalid butterfly Junonia orithya. Most scales had a smooth edge but scales at and near the natural and ectopic eyespot foci and in the postbasal area were jagged. Scale size decreased regularly from the postbasal to distal areas, and eyespots occasionally had larger scales than the background. Reasonable correlations were obtained between the eyespot size and focal scale size in females. Histological and real-time individual observations of the color-pattern developmental sequence showed that the background brown and blue colors expanded from the postbasal to distal areas independently from the color-pattern elements such as eyespots. These data suggest that morphogenic signals for coloration directly or indirectly influence the scale shape and size and that the blue "background" is organized by a long-range signal from an unidentified organizing center in J. orithya.

  17. Quantitative trait loci affecting the 3D skull shape and size in mouse and prioritization of candidate genes in-silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, A. Murat; Navarro, Nicolas; Cunningham, Michael L.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first application of high-resolution 3D micro-computed tomography, together with 3D landmarks and geometric morphometrics, to map QTL responsible for variation in skull shape and size using a backcross between C57BL/6J and A/J inbred strains. Using 433 animals, 53 3D landmarks, and 882 SNPs from autosomes, we identified seven QTL responsible for the skull size (SCS.qtl) and 30 QTL responsible for the skull shape (SSH.qtl). Size, sex, and direction-of-cross were all significant factors and included in the analysis as covariates. All autosomes harbored at least one SSH.qtl, sometimes up to three. Effect sizes of SSH.qtl appeared to be small, rarely exceeding 1% of the overall shape variation. However, they account for significant amount of variation in some specific directions of the shape space. Many QTL have stronger effect on the neurocranium than expected from a random vector that will parcellate uniformly across the four cranial regions. On the contrary, most of QTL have an effect on the palate weaker than expected. Combined interval length of 30 SSH.qtl was about 315 MB and contained 2476 known protein coding genes. We used a bioinformatics approach to filter these candidate genes and identified 16 high-priority candidates that are likely to play a role in the craniofacial development and disorders. Thus, coupling the QTL mapping approach in model organisms with candidate gene enrichment approaches appears to be a feasible way to identify high-priority candidates genes related to the structure or tissue of interest. PMID:25859222

  18. Quantitative trait loci affecting the 3D skull shape and size in mouse and prioritization of candidate genes in-silico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murat eMaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first application of high-resolution 3D micro-computed tomography, together with 3D landmarks and geometric morphometrics, to map QTL responsible for variation in skull shape and size using a backcross between C57BL/6J and A/J inbred strains. Using 433 animals, 53 3D landmarks, and 882 SNPs from autosomes, we identified seven QTL responsible for the skull size (SCS.qtl and 30 QTL responsible for the skull shape (SSH.qtl. Size, sex and direction-of-cross were all significant factors and included in the analysis as covariates. All autosomes harbored at least one SSH.qtl, sometimes up to three. Effect sizes of SSH.qtl appeared to be small, rarely exceeding 1% of the overall shape variation. However, they account for significant amount of variation in some specific directions of the shape space. Many QTL have stronger effect on the neurocranium than expected from a random vector that will parcellate uniformly across the four cranial regions. On the contrary, most of QTL have an effect on the palate weaker than expected. Combined interval length of 30 SSH.qtl was about 315MB and contained 2,476 known protein coding genes. We used a bioinformatics approach to filter these candidate genes and identified 16 high-priority candidates that are likely to play a role in the craniofacial development and disorders. Thus, coupling the QTL mapping approach in model organisms with candidate gene enrichment approaches appears to be a feasible way to identify high-priority candidates genes related to the structure or tissue of interest.

  19. VIDE: The Void IDentification and Examination toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, G.; Hamaus, N.; Pisani, A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Warren, M.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Zivick, P.; Mao, Q.; Thompson, B. B.

    2015-03-01

    We present VIDE, the Void IDentification and Examination toolkit, an open-source Python/C++ code for finding cosmic voids in galaxy redshift surveys and N-body simulations, characterizing their properties, and providing a platform for more detailed analysis. At its core, VIDE uses a substantially enhanced version of ZOBOV (Neyinck 2008) to calculate a Voronoi tessellation for estimating the density field and performing a watershed transform to construct voids. Additionally, VIDE provides significant functionality for both pre- and post-processing: for example, VIDE can work with volume- or magnitude-limited galaxy samples with arbitrary survey geometries, or dark matter particles or halo catalogs in a variety of common formats. It can also randomly subsample inputs and includes a Halo Occupation Distribution model for constructing mock galaxy populations. VIDE uses the watershed levels to place voids in a hierarchical tree, outputs a summary of void properties in plain ASCII, and provides a Python API to perform many analysis tasks, such as loading and manipulating void catalogs and particle members, filtering, plotting, computing clustering statistics, stacking, comparing catalogs, and fitting density profiles. While centered around ZOBOV, the toolkit is designed to be as modular as possible and accommodate other void finders. VIDE has been in development for several years and has already been used to produce a wealth of results, which we summarize in this work to highlight the capabilities of the toolkit. VIDE is publicly available at http://bitbucket.org/cosmicvoids/vide_public and http://www.cosmicvoids.net.

  20. Void swelling and segregation in dilute nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.I.; Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.; Wiedersich, H.

    1977-01-01

    Five binary alloys containing 1 at.% of Al, Ti, Mo, Si and Be in nickel were irradiated at temperatures from 525 to 675 0 C with 3.5-MeV 58 Ni + ions. The resultant microstructures were examined by TEM, and void diameters, number densities and swelling are presented for each alloy over the temperature interval investigated. A systematic relation between solute misfit (size factor) and void swelling is established for these alloys. Solute concentration profiles near the irradiated surface were determined and these also exhibited a systematic behavior--undersize solutes segregated to the surface, whereas oversize solutes were depleted. The results are consistent with calculations based on strong interstitial-solute trapping by undersize solutes and vacancy-solute trapping by oversize solutes that are weak interstitial traps

  1. Wire-Mesh Tomography Measurements of Void Fraction in Rectangular Bubble Columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Vanga, B.N.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.A.; Zaruba, A.; Prasser, H.M.; Krepper, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bubble Columns are widely used in the process industry and their scale-up from laboratory scale units to industrial units have been a subject of extensive study. The void fraction distribution in the bubble column is affected by the column size, superficial velocity of the dispersed phase, height of the liquid column, size of the gas bubbles, flow regime, sparger design and geometry of the bubble column. The void fraction distribution in turn affects the interfacial momentum transfer in the bubble column. The void fraction distribution in a rectangular bubble column 10 cm wide and 2 cm deep has been measured using Wire-Mesh Tomography. Experiments were performed in an air-water system with the column operating in the dispersed bubbly flow regime. The experiments also serve the purpose of studying the performance of wire-mesh sensors in batch flows. A 'wall peak' has been observed in the measured void fraction profiles, for the higher gas flow rates. This 'wall peak' seems to be unique, as this distribution has not been previously reported in bubble column literature. Low gas flow rates yielded the conventional 'center peak' void profile. The effect of column height and superficial gas velocity on the void distribution has been investigated. Wire-mesh Tomography also facilitates the measurement of bubble size distribution in the column. This paper presents the measurement principle and the experimental results for a wide range of superficial gas velocities. (authors)

  2. Bet hedging in a warming ocean: predictability of maternal environment shapes offspring size variation in marine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Lisa N S

    2015-12-01

    Bet hedging at reproduction is expected to evolve when mothers are exposed to unpredictable cues for future environmental conditions, whereas transgenerational plasticity (TGP) should be favoured when cues reliably predict the environment offspring will experience. Since climate predictions forecast an increase in both temperature and climate variability, both TGP and bet hedging are likely to become important strategies to mediate climate change effects. Here, the potential to produce variably sized offspring in both warming and unpredictable environments was tested by investigating whether stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) mothers adjusted mean offspring size and within-clutch variation in offspring size in response to experimental manipulation of maternal thermal environment and predictability (alternating between ambient and elevated water temperatures). Reproductive output traits of F1 females were influenced by both temperature and environmental predictability. Mothers that developed at ambient temperature (17 °C) produced larger, but fewer eggs than mothers that developed at elevated temperature (21 °C), implying selection for different-sized offspring in different environments. Mothers in unpredictable environments had smaller mean egg sizes and tended to have greater within-female egg size variability, especially at 21 °C, suggesting that mothers may have dynamically modified the variance in offspring size to spread the risk of incorrectly predicting future environmental conditions. Both TGP and diversification influenced F2 offspring body size. F2 offspring reared at 21 °C had larger mean body sizes if their mother developed at 21 °C, but this TGP benefit was not present for offspring of 17 °C mothers reared at 17 °C, indicating that maternal TGP will be highly relevant for ocean warming scenarios in this system. Offspring of variable environment mothers were smaller but more variable in size than offspring from constant environment

  3. submitter Thermal stability of interface voids in Cu grain boundaries with molecular dynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Xydou, A; Aicheler, M; Djurabekova, F

    2016-01-01

    By means of molecular dynamic simulations, the stability of cylindrical voids is examined with respect to the diffusion bonding procedure. To do this, the effect of grain boundaries between the grains of different crystallographic orientations on the void closing time was studied at high temperatures from 0.7 up to 0.94 of the bulk melting temperature $(T_m)$. The diameter of the voids varied from 3.5 to 6.5 nm. A thermal instability occurring at high temperatures at the surface of the void placed in a grain boundary triggered the eventual closure of the void at all examined temperatures. The closing time has an exponential dependence on the examined temperature values. A model based on the defect diffusion theory is developed to predict the closing time for voids of macroscopic size. The diffusion coefficient within the grain boundaries is found to be overall higher than the diffusion coefficient in the region around the void surface. The activation energy for the diffusion in the grain boundary is calculate...

  4. Evaluation of the Air Void Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    concrete using image analysis: Petrography of cementitious materials. ASTM STP 1215. S.M. DeHayes and D. Stark, eds. Philadelphia, PA: American...Administration (FHWA). 2006. Priority, market -ready technologies and innovations: Air Void Analyzer. Washington D.C. PDF file. Germann Instruments (GI). 2011...tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials. STP 169D. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Magura, D.D. 1996. Air void

  5. Critical Shape and Size for Dislocation Nucleation in Si1-xGex Islands on Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzegalli, A.; Zinovyev, V. A.; Montalenti, F.; Miglio, Leo; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Stoffel, M.; Merdzhanova, T.

    2007-01-01

    The critical volume for the onset of plastic strain relaxation in SiGe islands on Si(001) is computed for different Ge contents and realistic shapes by using a three-dimensional model, with position-dependent dislocation energy. It turns out that the critical bases for dome- and barnlike islands are different for any composition. By comparison to extensive atomic force microscopy measurements of the footprints left on the Si substrates by islands grown at different temperatures (and compositions), we conclude that, in contrast with planar films, dislocation nucleation in 3D islands is fully thermodynamic

  6. Using voids to unscreen modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Bridget; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Cautun, Marius

    2018-04-01

    The Vainshtein mechanism, present in many models of gravity, is very effective at screening dark matter haloes such that the fifth force is negligible and general relativity is recovered within their Vainshtein radii. Vainshtein screening is independent of halo mass and environment, in contrast to e.g. chameleon screening, making it difficult to test. However, our previous studies have found that the dark matter particles in filaments, walls, and voids are not screened by the Vainshtein mechanism. We therefore investigate whether cosmic voids, identified as local density minima using a watershed technique, can be used to test models of gravity that exhibit Vainshtein screening. We measure density, velocity, and screening profiles of stacked voids in cosmological N-body simulations using both dark matter particles and dark matter haloes as tracers of the density field. We find that the voids are completely unscreened, and the tangential velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of stacked voids show a clear deviation from Λ cold dark matter at all radii. Voids have the potential to provide a powerful test of gravity on cosmological scales.

  7. Simulation of dust voids in complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedheer, W. J.; Land, V.

    2008-12-01

    In dusty radio-frequency (RF) discharges under micro-gravity conditions often a void is observed, a dust free region in the discharge center. This void is generated by the drag of the positive ions pulled out of the discharge by the electric field. We have developed a hydrodynamic model for dusty RF discharges in argon to study the behaviour of the void and the interaction between the dust and the plasma background. The model is based on a recently developed theory for the ion drag force and the charging of the dust. With this model, we studied the plasma inside the void and obtained an understanding of the way it is sustained by heat generated in the surrounding dust cloud. When this heating mechanism is suppressed by lowering the RF power, the plasma density inside the void decreases, even below the level where the void collapses, as was recently shown in experiments on board the International Space Station. In this paper we present results of simulations of this collapse. At reduced power levels the collapsed central cloud behaves as an electronegative plasma with corresponding low time-averaged electric fields. This enables the creation of relatively homogeneous Yukawa balls, containing more than 100 000 particles. On earth, thermophoresis can be used to balance gravity and obtain similar dust distributions.

  8. Influence of zeolite shape and particle size on their capacity to adsorb uremic toxin as powders and as fillers in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Limin; Chen, Chen; Samarasekera, Champika; Yeow, John T W

    2017-08-01

    Membranes with zeolites are promising for performing blood dialysis because zeolites can eliminate uremic toxins through molecular sieving. Although the size and the shape of zeolite particles can potentially influence the performance of the membranes with respect of creatinine uptake level, it is not clear what sizes and shapes lead to better performance. In this paper, we carry out experiments to answer this question. Spherical microparticle 840, spherical nanoparticle P-87 and rod-like nanoparticle P-371 zeolites were chosen to be used in all the experiments. Their creatinine uptake levels were first measured as powders in creatinine solutions with different concentrations, volumes and adsorption times. Then, nanofibrous membranes with zeolites were electrospun and their ability to adsorb creatinine was measured and compared against their respective powders' creatinine uptake level. The experiment shows that the zeolites have similar creatinine uptake ability as powders. However, they have significantly different creatinine uptake ability after being incorporated inside the membranes. Spherical microparticle 840 in the membrane presented the best creatinine uptake ability, at 8957 µg g -1 , which was half of its powders'. On the other hand, P-87 presented largely decreased, while P-371 presented even lower creatinine uptake ability in membranes when compared to respective powders'. The results shows that microparticle and sphere shaped particles perform better inside the membranes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1594-1601, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape and Color on Stable Fly (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable fly management has been challenging. Insecticide-treated targets made from blue and black fabric, developed in Africa, were evaluated in Louisiana and Florida to determine if they would attract and kill stable flies. Untreated targets were used to answer questions about configuration, size an...

  10. The effect of the shape and size of gold seeds irradiated with ultrasound on the bio-heat transfer in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Austerlitz, Carlos; Haranas, Ioannis; Campos, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to propose a new methodology to treat prostate cancer with macro-rod-shaped gold seeds irradiated with ultrasound and develop a new computational method for temperature and thermal dose control of hyperthermia therapy induced by the proposed procedure. A computer code representation, based on the bio-heat diffusion equation, was developed to calculate the heat deposition and temperature elevation patterns in a gold rod and in the tissue surrounding it as a result of different therapy durations and ultrasound power simulations. The numerical results computed provide quantitative information on the interaction between high-energy ultrasound, gold seeds and biological tissues and can replicate the pattern observed in experimental studies. The effect of differences in shapes and sizes of gold rod targets irradiated with ultrasound is calculated and the heat enhancement and the bio-heat transfer in tissue are analyzed.

  11. Nebular metallicities in two isolated local void dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Basurah, Hassan, E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  12. Nebular Metallicities in Two Isolated Local Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A.; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Transverse Compressive Loads on Superconducting Nb3Sn Wires Containing Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hauthuille, Luc; Zhai, Yuhu; Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Collaboration; University of Geneva Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    High field superconductors play an important role in many large-scale physics experiments, particularly particle colliders and fusion devices such as the LHC and ITER. The two most common superconductors used are NbTi and Nb3Sn. Nb3Sn wires are favored because of their significantly higher Jc, allowing them to produce much higher magnetic fields. The main disadvantage is that the superconducting performance of Nb3Sn is highly strain-sensitive and it is very brittle. The strain-sensitivity is strongly influenced by two factors: plasticity and cracked filaments. Cracks are induced by large stress concentrators due to the presence of voids. We will attempt to understand the correlation between Nb3Sn's irreversible strain limit and the void-induced stress concentrations around the voids. We will develop accurate 2D and 3D finite element models containing detailed filaments and possible distributions of voids in a bronze-route Nb3Sn wire. We will apply a compressive transverse load for the various cases to simulate the stress response of a Nb3Sn wire from the Lorentz force. Doing this will further improve our understanding of the effect voids have on the wire's mechanical properties, and thus, the connection between the shape & distribution of voids and performance degradation.

  14. Evolution of Cometary Dust Particles to the Orbit of the Earth: Particle Size, Shape, and Mutual Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongu; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we numerically investigated the orbital evolution of cometary dust particles, with special consideration of the initial size–frequency distribution (SFD) and different evolutionary tracks according to the initial orbit and particle shape. We found that close encounters with planets (mostly Jupiter) are the dominating factor determining the orbital evolution of dust particles. Therefore, the lifetimes of cometary dust particles (∼250,000 yr) are shorter than the Poynting–Robertson lifetime, and only a small fraction of large cometary dust particles can be transferred into orbits with small semimajor axes. The exceptions are dust particles from 2P/Encke and, potentially, active asteroids that have little interaction with Jupiter. We also found that the effects of dust shape, mass density, and SFD were not critical in the total mass supply rate to the interplanetary dust particle (IDP) cloud complex when these quantities are confined by observations of zodiacal light brightness and SFD around the Earth’s orbit. When we incorporate a population of fluffy aggregates discovered in the Earth’s stratosphere and the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko within the initial ejection, the initial SFD measured at the comae of comets (67P and 81P/Wild 2) can produce the observed SFD around the Earth’s orbit. Considering the above effects, we derived the probability of mutual collisions among dust particles within the IDP cloud for the first time in a direct manner via numerical simulation and concluded that mutual collisions can mostly be ignored.

  15. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutics into monodisperse and tunable biodegradable polymers via electrified liquid jets: control of size, shape, and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Pouria; Borhan, Ali; Abidian, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-06

    This paper describes microencapsulation of antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, Carmustine) into biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) using an electrojetting technique. The resulting BCNU-loaded PLGA microcapsules have significantly higher drug encapsulation efficiency, more tunable drug loading capacity, and (3) narrower size distribution than those generated using other encapsulation methods. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Analysis of Void Growth and Coalescence in Porous Polymer Materials. Coalescence in Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Reffas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymeric materials in engineering applications is growing more and more all over the world. This issue requests new methodologies of analysis in order to assess the material’s capability to withstand complex loads. The use of polyacetal in engineering applications has increased rapidly in the last decade. In order to evaluate the behavior, the damage and coalescence of this type of polymer, a numerical method based on damage which occurs following several stages (nucleation of cavities, their growth and coalescence in more advanced stages of deformation is proposed in this work. A particular attention is given on the stress-strain and the volumetric strain evolution under different triaxiality and for three initial void shapes. Its application to polyacetal allows approving this approach for technical polymers. Finally, this method allow us to compare the obtained results of basic calculations at different triaxiality and to discuss their possible influence on the initial size and the geometrical shape of the porosity on the material failure.

  17. Beyond body size: muscle biochemistry and body shape explain ontogenetic variation of anti-predatory behaviour in the lizard Salvator merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Fábio Cury; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2016-06-01

    Anti-predatory behaviour evolves under the strong action of natural selection because the success of individuals avoiding predation essentially defines their fitness. Choice of anti-predatory strategies is defined by prey characteristics as well as environmental temperature. An additional dimension often relegated in this multilevel equation is the ontogenetic component. In the tegu Salvator merianae, adults run away from predators at high temperatures but prefer fighting when it is cold, whereas juveniles exhibit the same flight strategy within a wide thermal range. Here, we integrate physiology and morphology to understand ontogenetic variation in the temperature-dependent shift of anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards. We compiled data for body shape and size, and quantified enzyme activity in hindlimb and head muscles, testing the hypothesis that morphophysiological models explain ontogenetic variation in behavioural associations. Our prediction is that juveniles exhibit body shape and muscle biochemistry that enhance flight strategies. We identified biochemical differences between muscles mainly in the LDH:CS ratio, whereby hindlimb muscles were more glycolytic than the jaw musculature. Juveniles, which often use evasive strategies to avoid predation, have more glycolytic hindlimb muscles and are much smaller when compared with adults 1-2 years old. Ontogenetic differences in body shape were identified but marginally contributed to behavioural variation between juvenile and adult tegus, and variation in anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards resides mainly in associations between body size and muscle biochemistry. Our results are discussed in the ecological context of predator avoidance by individuals differing in body size living at temperature-variable environments, where restrictions imposed by the cold could be compensated by specific phenotypes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Self-similar voiding solutions for a single layered model of folding rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodwell, T.J.; Peletier, M.A.; Budd, C.J.; Hunt, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive an obstacle problem with a free boundary to describe the formation of voids at areas of intense geological folding. An elastic layer is forced by overburden pressure against a V-shaped rigid obstacle. Energy minimization leads to representation as a non-linear fourth-order

  19. Coolant Void Reactivity Analysis of CANDU Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Su; Lee, Hyun Suk; Tak, Tae Woo; Lee, Deok Jung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Models of CANDU-6 and ACR-700 fuel lattices were constructed for a single bundle and 2 by 2 checkerboard to understand the physics related to CVR. Also, a familiar four factor formula was used to predict the specific contributions to reactivity change in order to achieve an understanding of the physics issues related to the CVR. At the same time, because the situation of coolant voiding should bring about a change of neutron behavior, the spectral changes and neutron current were also analyzed. The models of the CANDU- 6 and ACR-700 fuel lattices were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 using the ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy cross section library based on the specification from AECL. The CANDU fuel lattice was searched through sensitivity studies of each design parameter such as fuel enrichment, fuel pitch, and types of burnable absorber for obtaining better behavior in terms of CVR. Unlike the single channel coolant voiding, the ACR-700 bundle has a positive reactivity change upon 2x2 checkerboard coolant voiding. Because of the new path for neutron moderation, the neutrons from the voided channel move to the no-void channel where they lose energy and come back to the voided channel as thermal neutrons. This phenomenon causes the positive CVR when checkerboard voiding occurs. The sensitivity study revealed the effects of the moderator to fuel volume ratio, fuel enrichment, and burnable absorber on the CVR. A fuel bundle with low moderator to fuel volume ratio and high fuel enrichment can help achieve negative CVR.

  20. 38 CFR 3.207 - Void or annulled marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled. A...

  1. Controlling the shapes and sizes of metallic nanoantennas for detection of biological molecules using hybridization phase of plasmon resonances and photonic lattice modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Rithvik R.; Sharp, Christina; Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical sensing based on Localized Surface Plasmonic Resonances (LSPR) and the ultra-sharp optical features of surface lattice resonances (SLR) of arrays of metallic nanoantennas have attracted much attention. Recently we studied biosensing based on the transition between LSPR and SLR (hybridization phase), demonstrating significantly higher refractive index sensitivity than each of these resonances individually. In this contribution we study the impact of size and shape of the metallic nanoantennas on the hybridization process and the way they influence application of this process for biosensing, wherein miniscule variation of the refractive index of the environment leads to dramatic changes in the spectral properties of the arrays.

  2. Study of pressure drop, void fraction and relative permeabilities of two phase flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Dhir, V.K.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two phase flow through porous layers formed of non-heated glass particles (nominal diameter 1 to 6 mm) has been made. Particulate bed depths of 30 cm and 70 cm were used. The effect of particle size, particle size distribution and bed porosity on void fraction and pressure drop through a particulate bed formed in a cylindrical test section has been investigated. The superficial velocity of liquid (water) is varied from 1.83 to 18.3 mm/s while the superficial velocity of gas (air) is varied from 0 to 68.4 mm/s. These superficial velocities were chosen so that pressure drop and void fraction measurement could be made for the porous layer in fixed and fluidized states. A model based on drift flux approach has been developed for the void fraction. Using the two phase friction pressure drop data, the relative permeabilities of the two phases have been concluded with void fraction. The void fraction and two phase friction pressure gradient in beds composed of mixtures of spherical particles as well as sharps of different nominal sizes have also been examined. It is found that the models for single size particles are also applicable to mixtures of particles if a mean particle diameter for the mixture is defined

  3. Testing the shape-similarity hypothesis between particle-size distribution and water retention for Sicilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Antinoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Arya and Paris (AP model to estimate the soil water retention curve requires a detailed description of the particlesize distribution (PSD but limited experimental PSD data are generally determined by the conventional sieve-hydrometer (SH method. Detailed PSDs can be obtained by fitting a continuous model to SH data or performing measurements by the laser diffraction (LD method. The AP model was applied to 40 Sicilian soils for which the PSD was measured by both the SH and LD methods. The scale factor was set equal to 1.38 (procedure AP1 or estimated by a logistical model with parameters gathered from literature (procedure AP2. For both SH and LD data, procedure AP2 allowed a more accurate prediction of the water retention than procedure AP1, confirming that it is not convenient to use a unique value of  for soils that are very different in texture. Despite the differences in PSDs obtained by the SH and LD methods, the water retention predicted by a given procedure (AP1 or AP2 using SH or LD data was characterized by the same level of accuracy. Discrepancies in the estimated water retention from the two PSD measurement methods were attributed to underestimation of the finest diameter frequency obtained by the LD method. Analysis also showed that the soil water retention estimated using the SH method was affected by an estimation bias that could be corrected by an optimization procedure (OPT. Comparison of a-distributions and water retention shape indices obtained by the two methods (SH or LD indicated that the shape-similarity hypothesis is better verified if the traditional sieve-hydrometer data are used to apply the AP model. The optimization procedure allowed more accurate predictions of the water retention curves than the traditional AP1 and AP2 procedures. Therefore, OPT can be considered a valid alternative to the more complex logistical model for estimating the water retention curve of Sicilian soils.

  4. Analysis of stress-strain relationship in materials containing voids by means of plastic finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Haruki; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    Applying the finite element method in two dimensions, an analysis is performed to derive the stress-strain relationship of material containing voids in matrix, and which is subjected to large deformation. The conditions assumed for the analysis are applicability of continuum body mechanics, Mises yield criterion, J2 flow theory, power work-hardening, plane stress in two-dimensional system and uniform cyclically recurring void distribution. Taking as example a case of material presenting 0.3 work-hardening, it is indicated from the analysis that: With voids arrayed in square lattice, total elongation would be little affected by change in void size; With a void spacing in lattice of 10 μ m, a uniform elongation 12-14% should be obtained in a wide range of void sizes from 0.01 to 8.0 μm; Tensile strength should start to lower at a void areal fraction of around 1%; A sharply lowered uniform elongation of a level far below 1% should be presented by material of low work-hardening exponent. The severe decline of ductility seen with 316 stainless steel upon neutron irradiation at temperatures around 600 K is interpreted as resulting from a combination of low work-hardening and the presence of voids in matrix. (author)

  5. Software quality assurance plan for void fraction instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimera, M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste Tank SY-101 has been the focus of extensive characterization work over the past few years. The waste continually generates gases, most notably hydrogen, which are periodically released from the waste. Gas can be trapped in tank waste in three forms: as void gas (bubbles), dissolved gas, or absorbed gas. Void fraction is the volume percentage of a given sample that is comprised of void gas. The void fraction instrument (VFI) acquires the data necessary to calculate void fraction. This document covers the product, Void Fraction Data Acquisition Software. The void fraction software being developed will have the ability to control the void fraction instrument hardware and acquire data necessary to calculate the void fraction in samples. This document provides the software quality assurance plan, verification and validation plan, and configuration management plan for developing the software for the instrumentation that will be used to obtain void fraction data from Tank SY-101

  6. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  7. Effect of grain size of parent phase on twinning modes of B19` martensite in an equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Itai, I. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Kitamura, K. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Chiba, A. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Yamauchi, K. [Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    The effect of grain size of B2 parent phase on the twinning modes of B19` martensite in a Ti-50.0 at% Ni shape memory alloy has been studied. The grain size of parent phase was controlled from submicrons to several ten microns by cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. (001) compound twins were dominantly observed in the grain less than 4 {mu}m in diameter, although the (001) compound twinning did not give a solution to the phenomenological crystallographic theory. The triangular self-accommodating morphology of the martensite variants consisting of left angle 011 right angle Type II twins which were theoretically and experimentally recognized as a lattice invariant shear of the present transformation appeared in the whole grain more than 4 {mu}m in diameter. The formation mechanism of the (001) compound twinning in the fine grain is also discussed. (orig.).

  8. A Com