Pietrabissa, Antonio
2011-12-01
The admission control problem can be modelled as a Markov decision process (MDP) under the average cost criterion and formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. The LP formulation is attractive in the present and future communication networks, which support an increasing number of classes of service, since it can be used to explicitly control class-level requirements, such as class blocking probabilities. On the other hand, the LP formulation suffers from scalability problems as the number C of classes increases. This article proposes a new LP formulation, which, even if it does not introduce any approximation, is much more scalable: the problem size reduction with respect to the standard LP formulation is O((C + 1)2/2 C ). Theoretical and numerical simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
A scalable admission control scheme based on time label
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨松岸; 杨华; 杨宇航
2004-01-01
Resource reservation protocols allow communicating hosts to reserve resources such as bandwidth to offer guaranteed service. However, current resource reservation architectures do not scale well for a large number of flows. In this paper, we present a simple reservation protocol and a scalable admission control algorithm, which can provide QoS guarantees to individual flows without per-flow management in the network core. By mapping each flow to a definite time, this scheme addresses the problems that limit the effectiveness of current endpoint admission control schemes. The overall admission control process is described. Analysis is used to explain the reasonability of our scheme and simulation validates its performance.
Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks
Ghosh, Sanchita
2013-01-01
Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently. CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators. The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...
Parallel Data Transfer with Voice Calls for Energy-Efficient Mobile Services
Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nöyränen, Janne
Battery consumption is one challenge for mobile applications and services. In this paper we explore the scenario where mobile phones delay the transfer of non-urgent data and perform the communication while a voice call is active. Our measurements show that data transfer during voice call requires only slightly over 10% additional power and that simultaneous voice call slows down the file transfer by 3%-14%. As a result we can save over 80% of energy in data transfer if we can delay the communication to a time when user is speaking at the mobile phone. For a user speaking 26 minutes a day this would allow 50MB of low energy data communication. A large class of applications can delay their data transfer without major effect to the user experience. The power saving mechanism can be implemented either in an application specific fashion or, preferably, at the middleware layer.
A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control
Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo
2016-02-01
This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.
A scalable admission control scheme based on time label
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨松岸; 杨华; 杨宇航
2004-01-01
Resource reservation protocols allow communicating hosts to reserve resources such as bandwidth to offer guaranteed service. However,current resource reservation architectures do not scale well for a large number of flows. In this paper,we present a simple reservation protocol and a scalable admission control algorithm,which can provide QoS guarantees to individual flows without per-flow management in the network core. By mapping each flow to a definite time,this scheme addresses the problems that limit the effectiveness of current endpoint admission control schemes. The overall admission control process is described. Analysis is used to explain the reasonability of our scheme and simulation validates its performance.
Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control
Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong
Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.
Call Admission Control performance model for Beyond 3G Wireless Networks
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Ramesh Babu H.S
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN will be heterogeneous in nature where the different Radio Access Technologies (RATs operate together .The mobile terminals operating in this heterogeneous environment will have different QoS requirements to be handled by the system. These QoS requirements are determined by a set of QoS parameters. The radio resource management is one of the key challenges in NGWN.Call admission control is one of the radio resource management technique plays instrumental role in ensure the desired QoS to the users working on different applications which have diversified QoS requirements from the wireless networks . The call blocking probability is one such QoS parameter for the wireless network. For better QoS it is desirable to reduce the call blocking probability. In this customary scenario it is highly desirable to obtain analytic Performance model. In this paper we propose a higher order Markov chain based performance model for call admission control in a heterogeneous wireless network environment. In the proposed algorithm we have considered three classes of traffic having different QoS requirements and we have considered the heterogeneous network environment which includes the RATs that can effectively handle applications like voice calls, Web browsing and file transfer applications which are with varied QoS parameters. The paper presents the call blocking probabilities for all the three types of traffic both for fixed and varied traffic scenario.Keywords: Radio Access Technologies; Call admission control; Call blocking probability; Markov model; Heterogeneous wireless Networks.
Effective Voice Calls Admission for Authorized User in Inter VOIP Network
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Subashri T
2010-10-01
Full Text Available IP based voice transmission technology is a flexible, simpler and a cost effective implementation of voicetransmission. It provides a real convergence of various networks. This voice transmission technology doesnot support a quality that is equivalent to digitized voice, which is available in the existing PSTN networks.In addition to this, data network vulnerabilities affect the VOIP service causing a drop in the utilization ofvoice communication. In this paper, the quality of service for voice calls is ensured with the integration ofCAC mechanism with the bandwidth link utilization which makes an estimation of the demandedbandwidth. In terms of security, prevention of ARP cache poisoning attack is achieved by use of the signedMAC address response in local area networks. It makes the network confident that the admitted user is anauthorized user and also it verifies that only the authorized users’ information is exchanged over the localarea network. Also an approach that makes it difficult for the hacker’s to hack the data exchanged over thequality channel has been proposed.
Optimizing Voip Using A Cross Layer Call Admission Control Scheme
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Mumtaz AL-Mukhtar
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Deployingwireless campus network becomes popular in many world universities for the services that areprovided.However, it suffers from different issues such as low VoIP network capacity, network congestioneffect on VoIP QoS and WLAN multi rate issue due to linkadaptation technique. In this paper a cross layercall admission control (CCAC scheme is proposed to reduce the effects of these problems on VoWLANbased on monitoring RTCPRR(RealTime Control Protocol ReceiverReportthat provides the QoS levelfor VoIP and monitoring the MAC layer for any change in the data rate. If the QoS level degrades due toone of the aforementioned reasons, a considerable change in the packet size or the codec type will be thesolution. A wireless campus network issimulatedusing OPNET 14.5 modeler and many scenarios aremodeled to improve this proposed scheme.
A NEW ADMISSION CONTROL APPROACH BASED ON PREDICTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Kaining; Jin Zhigang; Zou Jun
2002-01-01
Admission control plays an important role in providing QoS to network users. Motivated by the measurement-based admission control algorithm, this letter proposed a new admission control approach for integrated service packet network based on traffic prediction. In the letter, FARIMA(p, d, q) models in the admission control algorithm is deployed. A method to simplify the FARIMA model fitting procedure and hence to reduce the time of traffic modeling and prediction is suggested. The feasibility-study experiments show that FARIMA models which have less number of parameters can be used to model and predict actual traffic on quite a large time scale. Simulation results validate the promising approach.
Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks
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Abdulqader M. Mohsen
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN by the initial access network selection or the vertical handover module can be admitted and allocated the suitable resources. In this paper, a decision support system is developed to address the JAC problem in the modern HWN networks. This system combines fuzzy logic and the PROMETHEE II multiple criteria decision making system algorithm, to the problem of JAC. This combination decreases the influence of the dissimilar, imprecise, and contradictory measurements for the JAC criteria coming from different sources. A performance analysis is done and the results are compared with traditional algorithms for JAC. These results demonstrate a significant improvement with our developed algorithm.
Advanced Fuzzy Logic Based Admission Control for UMTS System
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P. Kejik
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The capacity of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access systems is interference limited. Therefore radio resources management (RRM functions are used. They are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources, and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper deals with admission control techniques for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. A UMTS system model and four fuzzy logic based admission control algorithms are presented in this paper. Two new versions of fuzzy logic based admission control algorithms are presented there. All algorithms are mutually compared via simulations. Simulations show that the novel advanced fuzzy algorithm outperforms the other simulated algorithms (in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability and the number of active UEs in cell.
An Intelligent Call Admission Control Decision Mechanism for Wireless Networks
S., Ramesh Babu H; S, Satyanarayana P
2010-01-01
The Call admission control (CAC) is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) techniques plays instrumental role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS) to the users working on different applications which have diversified nature of QoS requirements. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for call admission control in a multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN). The proposed Fuzzy Neural Call Admission Control (FNCAC) scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks .The model is based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function Networks (RRBFN) which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop the intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in the heterogeneous network environment. The proposed FNCAC can achieve reduced call blocking probability keeping the resource utilisation at an optimal level. In the proposed algorithm we have c...
Admission Control Algorithm for Guaranteeing Real-Time Anycast Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weijia Jia; Zhang Chuanlin
2002-01-01
In this paper, we study admission control algorithm for anycast flow with real-time constraints. With the given time requirement, when the result of this algorithm give succeed information, we find route for the anycast flow requesting. Therefore, what we need to do is testing if the corresponding path rj has enough bandwidth for coming anycast flow requirement at source S with end-to-end deadline D. This admission control is scalable in terms of the number of flows can be admitted through local information of the routes.
Phan, V. V. (Vinh V.)
2005-01-01
Abstract Efficient management of rather limited resources, including radio spectrum and mobile-terminal battery power, has been the fundamental design challenge of wireless networks and one of the most widespread research problems over the years. MAC (Medium Access Control) for packet access and CAC (Call Admission Control) for connection-oriented service domains are commonly used as effective tools to manage radio resources, capacity and performance of wireless networks while providing ad...
Power Admission Control with Predictive Thermal Management in Smart Buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Jianguo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan
2015-01-01
This paper presents a control scheme for thermal management in smart buildings based on predictive power admission control. This approach combines model predictive control with budget-schedulability analysis in order to reduce peak power consumption as well as ensure thermal comfort. First...
SERVICE-AWARE BASED FUZZY ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME IN MULTI-SERVICE NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiu Gongan; Zhang Shunyi; Liu Shidong
2007-01-01
Multi-service aggregated transmission is the direction of IP network. Providing different Quality of Service (QoS) assurance for different services has become a crucial problem in future network.Admission control is a vital function for multi-service IP network. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy admission control scheme based on coarse granularity service-aware technique. Different service has discriminative sensitivity to the same QoS characteristic parameter in general. The traffic class can be perceived by the service request parameter and the proposed QoS function. And requirements of different applications can be met by maintaining the life parameter. From simulation results, the proposed scheme shows a better QoS provisioning than those traditional fuzzy logic based methods under the same admission probability.
A structural comparison of measurement-based admission control algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Yi-ran; WANG Suo-ping; WU Hai-ya
2006-01-01
Measurement-based admission control (MBAC)algorithm is designed for the relaxed real-time service. In contrast to traditional connection admission control mechanisms,the most attractive feature of MBAC algorithm is that it does not require a prior traffic model and that is very difficult for the user to come up with a tight traffic model before establishing a flow.Other advantages of MBAC include that it can achieve higher network utilization and offer quality service to users. In this article, the study of the equations in the MBAC shows that they can all be expressed in the same form. Based on the same form,some MBAC algorithms can achieve same performance only if they satisfy some conditions.
Admission Control of VL in AFDX Under HRT Constraints
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Qiang; QU Zhenliang; LIN Hengqing
2011-01-01
Avionics full duplex switched ethernet (AFDX) is a switched interconnection technology developed to provide reliable data exchange with strong data transmission time guarantees in internal communication of the spacecraft or aircraft. Virtual link (VL) is an important concept of AFDX to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements in terms of end-to-end message deadlines. A VL admission control algorithm in AFDX network under hard real-time (HRT) constraints is studied. Based on the scheduling principle of AFDX protocol, a packet scheduling scheme under HRT constraints is proposed, and after that an efficient VL admission control algorithm is presented. Analytical proof that the algorithm can effectively determine whether VL should be admitted is given. Finally simulative examples are presented to promote the conclusion.
A Novel Admission Control Algorithm Based on Negotiation and Price
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Deng-yin; ZHANG Li; TANG Zhi-yun
2005-01-01
Admission control algorithm is a key component of a media server which supports Quality of Service(QoS).In this paper we present an admission control algorithm that exploits the elastic properties of the user requirements and the changing properties of system conditions.The characteristic of the algorithm can be expounded from these aspects:First,it provides multiple services to satisfy the different users' requirements regarding QoS and price.Second,it uses a worth function to select from media services with different QoS characteristics in the negotiation process.Finally,it employs a novel price policy to compute the charge for the service,which has a great effect on restricting the greediness of the users and therefore increase the overall user benefit.In the end of the paper,we compare the user benefit attained by our algorithm with that of other method.
Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks
Mohsen, Abdulqader M.; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohammed M. Alkhawlani
2012-01-01
The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN) integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC) handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN) by the initia...
Admission control with long-range dependence traffic input
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
RAO Yun-hua; ZOU Xue-cheng
2005-01-01
The admission control scheme is investigated for a FIFO self-similar queuing system with Quality of Service (QoS) performance guarantees. Since the self-similar queuing system performance analysis is often carried out under the condition of infinite buffer, it is difficult to deduce the upper boundary of buffer overflow probability. To overcome this shortcoming, a simple overflow condition is proposed, which defines a buffer overflow occurrence whenever the arrival rate exceeds the service rate. The analytic formula for the buffer overflow probability upper boundary is easily obtained under this condition. The required bandwidth upper boundary with long-range dependence input and determined overflow probability is then derived from this formula. Based on the above analytic formulas, the upper boundaries of the admission control regions for homogeneous and heterogeneous long-range dependence traffic sources are separately obtained. Finally, an effective admission control scheme for long-range dependence input is proposed. Simulation studies with real traffic have confirmed the validity of these results.
New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai
2006-01-01
Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.
TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Theodoridis
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.
Admission Control and Interference Management in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks
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Jorge Martinez-Bauset
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We study two important aspects to make dynamic spectrum access work in practice: the admission policy of secondary users (SUs to achieve a certain degree of quality of service and the management of the interference caused by SUs to primary users (PUs. In order to limit the forced termination probability of SUs, we evaluate the Fractional Guard Channel reservation scheme to give priority to spectrum handovers over new arrivals. We show that, contrary to what has been proposed, the throughput of SUs cannot be maximized by configuring the reservation parameter. We also study the interference caused by SUs to PUs. We propose and evaluate different mechanisms to reduce the interference, which are based on simple spectrum access algorithms for both PUs and SUs and channel repacking algorithms for SUs. Numerical results show that the reduction can be of one order of magnitude or more with respect to the random access case. Finally, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme that is able to limit simultaneously the forced termination probability of SUs and what we define as the probability of interference. Our scheme does not require any configuration parameters beyond the probability objectives. Besides, it is simple to implement and it can operate with any arrival process and distribution of the session duration.
Combined Admission Control and Scheduling for QoS Differentiation in LTE Uplink
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anas, Mohmmad; Rosa, Claudio; Calabrese, Francesco Davide
2008-01-01
Long term evolution (LTE) architecture shall support end-to-end quality of service (QoS). For the QoS support and service differentiation it is important that the admission control and packet scheduling functionalities are QoS-aware. In this paper a combined admission control and a decoupled time...
Joint Resource Allocation and Admission Control Mechanism for an OFDMA-Based System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meucci, Filippo; Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu;
2008-01-01
This paper describes a Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism that adapts the type of admitted users based on a proposed resource allocation strategy that responds to changes in the channel conditions. The admission control decides to admit new services according to the load of the cell and based...
Algorithms for Deterministic Call Admission Control of Pre-stored VBR Video Streams
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Christos Tryfonas
2009-08-01
Full Text Available We examine the problem of accepting a new request for a pre-stored VBR video stream that has been smoothed using any of the smoothing algorithms found in the literature. The output of these algorithms is a piecewise constant-rate schedule for a Variable Bit-Rate (VBR stream. The schedule guarantees that the decoder buffer does not overflow or underflow. The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of the minimal time displacement of each new requested VBR stream so that it can be accommodated by the network and/or the video server without overbooking the committed traffic. We prove that this call-admission control problem for multiple requested VBR streams is NP-complete and inapproximable within a constant factor, by reducing it from the VERTEX COLOR problem. We also present a deterministic morphology-sensitive algorithm that calculates the minimal time displacement of a VBR stream request. The complexity of the proposed algorithm along with the experimental results we provide indicate that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real-time determination of the time displacement parameter during the call admission phase.
Call Admission Control Algorithm for pre-stored VBR video streams
Tryfonas, Christos; Mehler, Andrew; Skiena, Steven
2008-01-01
We examine the problem of accepting a new request for a pre-stored VBR video stream that has been smoothed using any of the smoothing algorithms found in the literature. The output of these algorithms is a piecewise constant-rate schedule for a Variable Bit-Rate (VBR) stream. The schedule guarantees that the decoder buffer does not overflow or underflow. The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of the minimal time displacement of each new requested VBR stream so that it can be accomodated by the network and/or the video server without overbooking the committed traffic. We prove that this call-admission control problem for multiple requested VBR streams is NP-complete and inapproximable within a constant factor, by reducing it from the VERTEX COLOR problem. We also present a deterministic morphology-sensitive algorithm that calculates the minimal time displacement of a VBR stream request. The complexity of the proposed algorithm make it suitable for real-time determination of the time displacem...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Pan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Virtualization technologies make it possible for cloud providers to consolidate multiple IaaS provisions into a single server in the form of virtual machines (VMs. Additionally, in order to fulfill the divergent service requirements from multiple users, a cloud provider needs to offer several types of VM instances, which are associated with varying configurations and performance, as well as different prices. In such a heterogeneous virtual machine placement process, one significant problem faced by a cloud provider is how to optimally accept and place multiple VM service requests into its cloud data centers to achieve revenue maximization. To address this issue, in this paper, we first formulate such a revenue maximization problem during VM admission control as a multiple-dimensional knapsack problem, which is known to be NP-hard to solve. Then, we propose to use a cross-entropy-based optimization approach to address this revenue maximization problem, by obtaining a near-optimal eligible set for the provider to accept into its data centers, from the waiting VM service requests in the system. Finally, through extensive experiments and measurements in a simulated environment with the settings of VM instance classes derived from real-world cloud systems, we show that our proposed cross-entropy-based admission control optimization algorithm is efficient and effective in maximizing cloud providers’ revenue in a public cloud computing environment.
Location-based admission control for differentiated services in 3G cellular networks
Núñez-Queija, R.; Tan, H.-P.
2006-01-01
Third generation wireless systems can simultaneously accommodate flow transmissions of users with widely heterogeneous applications. As resources are limited (particularly in the air interface), admission control is necessary to ensure that all active users are accommodated with sufficient capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim;
2011-01-01
dimensioning and planning. This paper investigates the computationally efficient loss performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks. A speed-sensitive call admission control (CAC) scheme is considered in our model to assign overflowed calls to appropriate tiers...
Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique
Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James
2016-06-01
Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.
Novel Stochastic Model for Call Admission Control in Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIUGan; ZHUGuangxi; RUANYoulin; HUZhenping; WUWeimin; WANGDesheng
2005-01-01
As the increasing demand of the capacity of cellular networks, the cell sizes have become smaller than ever, which increases the probability of handoff one may experience during a service. To ensure the calls， QoS and high channel utilization, an effective call admission control is needed urgently. The well-known Guard channel method (GCM) which works with static fashion cannotadapt to the changes in traffic pattern, whereas, SDCA mechanism proposed by S. Wu can overcome that shortcoming due to its dynamic nature. Unfortunately, it is only suitable for single-service. In this paper, we establish a novel stochastic model to study the actual system so as to avoid coping with the complex multiple dimensions stochastic problem. Two wonderful features of the model make it competent for this role. On one hand, it can turnthe multiple steps of state transition into single step ofstate transition, which is a necessary condition for ideal birth-death processes. On the other hand, it can providea simple method to compute the approximation of the call dropping probabilities for multiple services， which facilitate our estimation for the acceptance ratio vector subject to QoS requirement. As a result, we get a multi-services dynamic call admission scheme to adapt for multiple types of services in mobile wireless networks. Numerical results show that our scheme steadily satisfies the constraint on call dropping probability of multi-services while maintaining a high channel throughput.
A self-learning call admission control scheme for CDMA cellular networks.
Liu, Derong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huaguang
2005-09-01
In the present paper, a call admission control scheme that can learn from the network environment and user behavior is developed for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks that handle both voice and data services. The idea is built upon a novel learning control architecture with only a single module instead of two or three modules in adaptive critic designs (ACDs). The use of adaptive critic approach for call admission control in wireless cellular networks is new. The call admission controller can perform learning in real-time as well as in offline environments and the controller improves its performance as it gains more experience. Another important contribution in the present work is the choice of utility function for the present self-learning control approach which makes the present learning process much more efficient than existing learning control methods. The performance of our algorithm will be shown through computer simulation and compared with existing algorithms.
Output Feedback Based Admissible Control of Switched Linear Singular Systems%切换线性奇异系统输出反馈容许控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟斌; 张纪峰
2006-01-01
The admissibility analysis and robust admissible control problem of the uncertain discretetime switched linear singular (SLS) systems for arbitrary switching laws are investigated. Based on linear matrix inequalities, some sufficient conditions are given for: A) the existence of generalized common Lyapunov solution and the admissibility of the SLS systems for arbitrary switching laws,B) the existence of static output feedback control laws ensuring the admissibility of the closed-loop SLS systems for arbitrary switching laws and norm-bounded uncertainties.
Power Control Technique for Efficient Call Admission Control in Advanced Wirless Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch. Sreenivasa Rao
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In 4G networks, call admission control techniques have been proposed to provide Quality of Service (QoS in a network by restricting the access to network resources. Power control is essential in call admission control in order to provide fair access to all users, improve battery lifetime and system performance. But the existing call admission control algorithms rarely consider the power controlling techniques in the handoff process for different traffic classes. In this paper, we propose to develop a power controlled call admission control scheme for handoff in the advanced wireless networks. The incoming call measures the initial interference on it and then the base station starts transmitting the packets to the new call. The new call is rejected when the interference reaches a threshold value.Whenever an existing call meets the power constraint, the transmit power is decremented based on thetraffic class and incoming call obtains this information by monitoring the interference received on it. Theconvergence of the power control algorithm is checked and the power levels of all incoming calls areadjusted. From our simulation results we prove that this power control technique provides efficienthandoff in the 4G networks by increasing the throughput and reducing the delay of the existing users.
A Survey of PCN-Based Admission Control and Flow Termination
Menth, Michael; Lehrieder, Frank; Briscoe, Bob; Eardley, Philip; Moncaster, Tony; Babiarz, Jozef; Charny, Anna; Zhang, Xinyang (Joy); Taylor, Tom; Chan, Kwok-Ho; Satoh, Daisuke; Geib, Ruediger; Karagiannis, Georgios
2010-01-01
Pre-congestion notification (PCN) provides feedback about load conditions in a network to its boundary nodes. The PCN working group of the IETF discusses the use of PCN to implement admission control (AC) and flow termination (FT) for prioritized realtime traffic in a DiffServ domain. Admission cont
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salman Ali AlQahtani
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the user’s privileges and traffic maximum delay tolerance as additional dimensions in the call admission control processes to efficiently control the utilization of LTE-A network resources. Based on this idea, we propose an efficient call admission control scheme named “delay aware and user categorizing-based CAC with adaptive resource reservation (DA–UC-ARR”, where the user priority is adjusted dynamically based on the current network conditions and the users’ categorizations and traffic delay tolerances, to increase the network’s resource utilization and at the same time to maximize the operators’ revenue. In this proposed scheme, the users are classified into Golden users and Silver users, and the type of service per user is classified as real time (RT and non-real time (NRT services. We compare the performance of the proposed scheme with the corresponding results of previous schemes, referred to as the adaptive resource reservation-based call admission control (ARR-CAC (Andrews et al., 2010; AlQahtani, 2014, where user categorization and delay were not taken into consideration in the call admission control process. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed scheme because it is able to achieve a better balance between system utilization, users’ privileges provided by network operators and QoS provisioning compared to the ARR-CAC scheme.
A Survey of PCN-Based Admission Control and Flow Termination
Menth, Michael; Lehrieder, Frank; Briscoe, Bob; Eardley, Philip; Moncaster, Tony; Babiarz, Jozef; Charny, Anna; Zhang, Xinyang (Joy); Taylor, Tom; Chan, Kwok-Ho; Satoh, Daisuke; Geib, Ruediger; Karagiannis, Georgios
2010-01-01
Pre-congestion notification (PCN) provides feedback about load conditions in a network to its boundary nodes. The PCN working group of the IETF discusses the use of PCN to implement admission control (AC) and flow termination (FT) for prioritized realtime traffic in a DiffServ domain. Admission cont
Self-optimisation of admission control and handover parameters in LTE
Sas, B.; Spaey, K.; Balan, I.; Zetterberg, K.; Litjens, R.
2011-01-01
In mobile cellular networks the handover (HO) algorithm is responsible for determining when calls of users that are moving from one cell to another are handed over from the former to the latter. The admission control (AC) algorithm, which is the algorithm that decides whether new (fresh or HO) calls
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUEGuangtao; SHIHua; YOUJinyuan; YAOWensheng
2003-01-01
Mobile peer-to-peer media streaming systems are expected to become as popular as the peer-to-peer file sharing systems. In this paper, we study two key problems arising from mobile peer-to-peer media streaming: the stability of interconnection between supplying peers and requesting peers in mobile peer-to-peer streaming system; and fast capacity amplification of the entire mobile peer-to-peer streaming system. We use the Stable group algorithm to characterize user mobility in mobile ad hoc networks. Based on the stable group, we then propose a distributed Stable-group differentiated admission control algorithm (SGDACp2p), which leads to fast amplifying the system's total streaming capacity using its self-growing. At last, the extensive simulation results are presented to compare between the SGDACp2p and traditional methods to prove the superiority of the algorithm.
Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network
Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini
2016-11-01
The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.
Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun;
2008-01-01
This paper describes a load-dependent multi-stage admission control suitable for next generation systems. The concept uses decision polling in entities located at different levels of the architecture hierarchy and based on the load to activate a sequence of actions related to the admission...... of a user to the network, i.e., the ranking of the intermediate decisions is dynamic. The decision is controlled by passing a token between the base station (BS) and the gateway (GW), thereby considering the load status of the BS and the backhaul network. A token is assigned to the entity with the highest...... load. Each admission request will issue a flag whose colour will reflect the load level in this entity and will determine the correct sequence of the required admission control actions....
A COMBINED ADMISSION CONTROL ALGORITHM WITH DA PROTOCOL FOR SATELLITE ATM NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang
2006-01-01
Admission control is an important strategy for Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. Based on a control-theory model of resources on-Demand Allocation (DA) protocol, the paper studies the effect of the protocol on the statistical characteristics of network traffic,and proposes a combined connection admission control algorithm with the DA protocol to achieve full utilization of link resources in satellite communication systems. The proposed algorithm is based on the cross-layer-design approach. Theoretical analysis and system simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can admit more connections within certain admission thresholds than one that does not take into account the DA protocol. Thus, the proposed algorithm can increase admission ratio of traffic sources for satellite ATM networks and improve satellite link utilization.
A NOVEL CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME IN CELLULAR/WLAN INTEGRATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia Weiwei; Shen Lianfeng
2009-01-01
In order to achieve the Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning and efficient resource utilization in cellular network and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) integration, an Integrated Service-Based Call Admission Control (ISB-CAC) scheme is proposed in this paper. The integrated network is modeled by using multi-dimensional Markov chains. The numerical analysis is presented to evaluate the important performance measures such as the blocking probability of originating calls, the dropping probability, and the average transfer time, etc. The steady-state probabilities of the multi-dimensional Markov chains are obtained by using an iterative approach, and the CAC parameters are optimally designed. The analytical model is validated by the computer simulation. It is shown that compared with the conventional WLAN-First Call Admission Control (WF-CAC) scheme, the proposed ISB-CAC scheme not only provides better QoS for mobile users but also utilizes the bandwidth resources more efficiently.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madhu Jain
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless/mobile communication systems are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. As the wireless resources are scarce, it is important to allocate resources efficiently and carefully, in order to achieve maximum output. The call admission control schemes play a significant role in providing the desired quality of service (QoS by judiciously assigning the radio channels that are available in a micro cell. In this paper, we present two call admission control (CAC schemes for wireless mobile network, (i Prioritized call admission control (PCAC scheme (S1 and (ii Prioritized call admission control scheme with releasing function (S2. Both schemes support integrated traffic i.e. data and voice for both new and handoff attempts. Guard channel concept is used to give the priority to the handoff attempts. To admit more handoff attempts in the cellular system, buffering process is used for the handoff attempts. The concept of balking and reneging is also incorporated for both the schemes. The calls arrive in poisson fashion whereas channel holding time and cell residence times are exponentially distributed. The arrival rate of handoff attempts is computed by using iterative algorithm. Various performance metrics such as blocking probability of new call, blocking probability of handoff data/voice attempts, time out probability of handoff data/voice attempts, force termination probability of handoff data/voice attempts, waiting time of handoff data/voice attempts, carried load, etc. are determined. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to facilitate the insights of controllable parameters for real time systems
A Novel Effective Bandwidth Based Call Admission Control for Multimedia CDMA Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Su; FENG Guang-zheng; ZHU Qi
2004-01-01
A novel Call Admission Control (CAC) scheme is proposed for multimedia CDMA systems. The effective bandwidth of real time calls is reserved in the CAC with the consideration of active factors. The admission of non-real time calls is controlled by the system according to the residual effective bandwidth left from real time calls. Simulation results have shown that the novel CAC has greatly enlarged the admission region for real time calls and make the transmission delay of non-real time calls under an acceptable level.
Adaptive Call Admission Control Based on Reward-Penalty Model in Wireless/Mobile Network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-Hui Huang; De-Pei Qian; Sheng-Ling Wang
2007-01-01
A dynamic threshold-based Call Admission Control (CAC) scheme used in wireless/mobile network for multi- class services is proposed. In the scheme, each class's CAC thresholds are solved through establishing a reward-penalty model which strives to maximize network's revenue. In order to lower Handoff Dropping Probability (HDP), the scheme joints packet and connection levels Quality of Service constraints, designing a bandwidth degradation algorithm to accept handoff calls by degrading existing calls' bandwidth during network congestion. Analyses show that the CAC thresholds change adaptively with the average call arrival rate. The performance comparison shows that the proposed scheme outperforms the Mobile IP Reservation scheme.
Admission Control Scheme for Multi-class Services in QoS-based Mobile Cellular Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YINZhiming; XIEJianying
2004-01-01
Call admission control (CAC) is one of the key schemes to guarantee Quality of service (QoS) in mobile cellular networks. In this paper, we propose an optimal CAC scheme based on Semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP) theory to support multi-class services for QoS wireless networks. Linear programming formulation is used to find the optimal solution, which maximizes the channel utilization while meeting the requirements of QoS constraints. The numerical results show that the performance of our scheme outperforms DCAC scheme.
Decisive Routing and Admission Control According to Quality of Service Constraints
2009-03-01
in pn sn1 tn1 sn2 tn2 sny tny ⎞ ⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎠ Where the each row in the matrix corresponds to the following i1...n = input file size of...Preemptive Congestion Control Code Snippet The Decisive Routing and Admission Control According to Quality of Service Constraints code snippet of reaction to...simulation snippet of reaction to forecasted state of the network. The Kalman filter queue has reached a stated level of 45% of its capacity and
Routing and admission control in general topology networks with poisson arrivals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamath, A.; Palmon, O.; Plotkin, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Emerging high speed networks will carry traffic for services such as video-on-demand and video teleconferencing - that require resource reservation along the path on which the traffic is sent. High bandwidth-delay product of these networks prevents circuit rerouting, i.e. once it is routed on a certain path, the bandwidth a circuit taken by this circuit remains unavailable for the duration (holding time) of this circuit. As a result, such networks will need effective routing and admission control strategies. Recently developed online routing and admission control strategies have logarithmic competitive ratios with respect to the admission ratio (the fraction of admitted circuits). Such guarantees on performance are rather weak in the most interesting case where the rejection ratio of the optimum algorithm is very small or even 0. Unfortunately, these guarantees can not be improved in the context of the considered models, making it impossible to use these models to identify algorithms that are going to perform well in practice.
An Efficient Admission Control Algorithm for Load Balancing In Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks
Harini, Prof P
2009-01-01
In hierarchical Mobile IPv6 networks, Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) may become a single point of bottleneck as it handles more and more mobile nodes (MNs). A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve load balancing among different MAPs. However, signaling reduction is still imperfect because these schemes also avoid the effect of the number of CNs. Also only the balancing of MN is performed, but not the balancing of the actual traffic load, since CN of each MN may be different. This paper proposes an efficient admission control algorithm along with a replacement mechanism for HMIPv6 networks. The admission control algorithm is based on the number of serving CNs and achieves actual load balancing among MAPs. Moreover, a replacement mechanism is introduced to decrease the new MN blocking probability and the handoff MN dropping probability. By simulation results, we show that, the handoff delay and packet loss are reduced in our scheme, when compared with the standard HMIPv6 based handoff.
Call Admission Control performance model for Beyond 3G Wireless Networks
Babu, H S Ramesh; Satyanarayana, P S
2010-01-01
The Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN) will be heterogeneous in nature where the different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) operate together .The mobile terminals operating in this heterogeneous environment will have different QoS requirements to be handled by the system. These QoS requirements are determined by a set of QoS parameters. The radio resource management is one of the key challenges in NGWN. Call admission control is one of the radio resource management technique plays instrumental role in ensure the desired QoS to the users working on different applications which have diversified QoS requirements from the wireless networks . The call blocking probability is one such QoS parameter for the wireless network. For better QoS it is desirable to reduce the call blocking probability. In this customary scenario it is highly desirable to obtain analytic Performance model. In this paper we propose a higher order Markov chain based performance model for call admission control in a heterogeneous wireles...
Vertical Handoff and Admission Control Strategy in 4G Wireless Network Using Centrality Graph Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ferdinand Christopher
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Vertical Handoff (VHO is a crucial mechanism for the architecture of the Fourth Generation (4G Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (HWN, because the users of 4G-HWN are capable of switching to any network in a seamless manner. These algorithms need to be practical and true to a wide range of applications hence utilization of an application layer parameter is important to decide the handoff and admission control. As a noticeable number of OSN users increased among smart phones, this study proposes a deployment of social context incorporated with vertical handoff and admission control algorithms called VHO-AC for the 4G-HWN environment. Admission of a node is decided based on the Graph Centrality Theory, which is contributing their measures to design an application layer parameter called Social Centrality Measure (SCM. The simulation results show that social network traffic flowing out of 2G and 3G base stations is much reduced than the existing SCVH method.
Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abraham O. Fapojuwo
2007-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.
Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fapojuwo Abraham O
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAIXuping; BIGuangguo; XUPingping
2005-01-01
In high-rate short-range wireless networks,CAC (Call admission control) scheme plays an important role in quality of service provisioning for adaptive multimedia services. Three functions, namely bandwidth satisfaction function, revenue rate function and bandwidth reallocation cost function, are firstly introduced. Based on these functions, an efficient CAC scheme, the Rev-RT-BRA (Reservation-based and Revenue test with Bandwidth reallocation) CAC scheme is proposed. The main idea is that it reserves some bandwidth for service classes with higher admission priority. The performance of the Rev-RT-BRA CAC scheme is analyzed by solving a multidimension Markov process. Both the numerical and simulation results are given. The advantages of the proposedRev-RT-BRA CAC scheme are as follows. (1) It maximizes the overall bandwidth satisfaction function at any system state. (2) It solves the unfairness problem in admitting multiple classes of services with different bandwidth requirenlents. (3) The required admission priority level can be guaranteed for various classes of services.
An Interference-Aware Admission Control Design for Wireless Mesh Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manikantan Shila Devu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present IAC, an interference aware admission control algorithm for use in wireless mesh networks. The core concept of IAC is to use a low overhead dual threshold based approach to share the bandwidth information with its neighbors in the interfering range. As a result, IAC guarantees that the shared wireless bandwidth is not overutilized and the quality of all existing flows are preserved. Moreover, IAC takes into account the intraflow interference effect to estimate the bandwidth consumption of the flow in a multihop path. We have further proposed two approaches of bandwidth allocation, FCFS and MCU, and demonstrated that proper tuning of thresholds can lead to high performance of both schemes. Simulation results illustrate that IAC effectively limits the overutilization of channel resources which in turn results in high throughput, low delay and low packet loss rate for all admitted flows.
A Priority and SDB based Admission Control in IEEE 802.16 Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiu-ying Sun
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In IEEE 802.16 systems, the algorithm of admission control (AC is very important in guaranteeing the Quality of Service (QoS and managing service flows. However, the IEEE 802.16 standards do not specify any related strategies or algorithms on AC. In order to improve the system performance and satisfy the QoS of stations to the max, we propose a new AC strategy, which includes a weighted blocking rate based priority strategy and a satisfaction-degree based bandwidth-borrowing strategy named SDB in this paper. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy improves the overall performance of system in terms of weighted blocking rate. Furthermore, our strategy enhances the QoS in comparison with the strategy adopting conventional bandwidth-borrowing algorithm.
AN Enhanced SINR-Based Call Admission Control in 3G Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moses Ekpenyong
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR-based call admission control (CAC as an effective technique that guarantees signal quality for admitted users. We propose a CAC model that admits users as long as the SINR exceeds a threshold (th SINR . To reduce blocking, we ensure that the threshold level is maintained at a lower bound (lb thSINR −, convenient to keep the blocking probability ( Pb below a maximum value ( Pb−max. We simulate the CAC model with the Java programming language and evaluate the performance of the model. Simulation results show that our CAC scheme produce the expected performance that improves the network quality.
FUZZY-LOGIC BASED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR A HETEROGENEOUS RADIO ENVIRONMENT
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramkumar, Venkata; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.;
Dette dokument foreslår et nyt opkald Admission Control (CAC) algoritme, der finder forskellige typer af applikationer med forskellige QoS parametre, som en bruger og giver de nødvendige QoS til nyankomne brugere uden en forringelse af de QoS at der allerede er optaget dem. Den foreslåede CAC er...... evalueret for en heterogen radio access-teknologier (rotter) scenario. Den QoS parametre varierer afhængigt af den type af ansøgninger, og aftalen mellem udbyderen og brugeren. Den foreslåede CAC er baseret på en fuzzy logik mekanisme, der består af to etaper, i første omgang den bedste celle i hver RAT er...
基于接纳控制的智能电网需求响应%Demand response based on admission control in smart grid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马锴; 姚婷; 关新平
2015-01-01
Utility functions are used to denote the satisfaction of consumers and formulate demand response as a convex optimization problem. For the case that the power supply can not meet the minimum power consumption of the consumers, two admission control algorithms are designed, combining with distributed power consumption scheduling and real-time pricing. Simulation results show that the admission control makes the consumers meet the minimum power consumption, ensure the power quality of the consumers, and balance the supply and the demand in smart grid.%采用效用函数刻画用户的用电满意度，将需求响应问题建模为一类凸优化问题。针对电力供应商的供电量不能满足用户最小用电需求的问题，结合分布式用电量调度和实时定价，设计两类接纳控制算法。仿真结果表明，通过接纳控制，满足了购电用户的最小用电需求，保证了用户的用电质量，能够实现电网的供需平衡。
A QoS Provisioning Recurrent Neural Network based Call Admission Control for beyond 3G Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramesh Babu H. S.
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The Call admission control (CAC is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM techniques that plays influential role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS to the users and applications in next generation networks. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for making the call admission control decision in multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN. The proposed Fuzzy Neural call admission control (FNCAC scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks. The model is based on recurrent radial basis function networks which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in an heterogeneous network environment. The simulation results are optimistic and indicates that the proposed FNCAC algorithm performs better than the other two methods and the call blocking probability is minimal when compared to other two methods.
A QoS Provisioning Recurrent Neural Network based Call Admission Control for beyond 3G Networks
S., Ramesh Babu H; S, Satyanarayana P
2010-01-01
The Call admission control (CAC) is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) techniques that plays influential role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS) to the users and applications in next generation networks. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for making the call admission control decision in multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN). The proposed Fuzzy Neural call admission control (FNCAC) scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks. The model is based on recurrent radial basis function networks which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in an heterogeneous network environment. The simulation results are optimistic and indicates that the proposed FNCAC algorithm performs better than the other two methods and the call blocking probability is minimal when compa...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAOYanbo; ZHOUBin; LIChengshu
2004-01-01
In this paper, we research an admission control scheme of integrated voice and data CDMA/TDD (Code division multiple access/Time division duplex) system considering asymmetric traffic and power limit. A new user can access the system only if the outage probabilities it experiences on the uplink and downlink time slots are below a threshold value. Based on the power limit the results show the voice and data blocking probabilities under different cell coverage~ arrival rates and various uplink/downlink time slot allocation patterns. Furthermore, multicode and multislot schemes are also evaluated under the presented admission control scheme.
Briscoe, B.; Eardley, P.; Songhurst, D.; Le Faucheur, F.; Charny, A.; Liatsos, V.; Babiarz, J.; Chan, K.; Dudley, S.; Karagiannis, G.; Bader, A.; Westberg, L.; Briscoe, B.; Eardley, P.; Songhurst, D.; Le Faucheur, F.; Charny, A.; Liatsos, V.; Babiarz, J.; Chan, K.; Dudley, S.; Karagiannis, G.; Bader, A.; Westberg, L.
2006-01-01
This document describes a deployment model for pre-congestion notification (PCN) operating in a large DiffServ-based region of the Internet. PCN-based admission control protects the quality of service of existing flows in normal circumstances, whilst if necessary (eg after a large failure) pre-empti
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shunfu Jin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, if all the secondary user (SU packets join the system without any restrictions, the average latency of the SU packets will be greater, especially when the traffic load of the system is higher. For this, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme with a system access probability for the SU packets in this paper. We suppose the system access probability is inversely proportional to the total number of packets in the system and introduce an Adaptive Factor to adjust the system access probability. Accordingly, we build a discrete-time preemptive queueing model with adjustable joining rate. In order to obtain the steady-state distribution of the queueing model exactly, we construct a two-dimensional Markov chain. Moreover, we derive the formulas for the blocking rate, the throughput, and the average latency of the SU packets. Afterwards, we provide numerical results to investigate the influence of the Adaptive Factor on different performance measures. We also give the individually optimal strategy and the socially optimal strategy from the standpoints of the SU packets. Finally, we provide a pricing mechanism to coordinate the two optimal strategies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Shyr Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.
Lin, Di; Labeau, Fabrice; Yao, Yuanzhe; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Tang, Yu
2016-07-01
Wireless technologies and vehicle-mounted or wearable medical sensors are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, a critical issue of using wireless communications under a healthcare scenario rests at the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency transmission. A high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors, and in such a scenario, a few users who are not transmitting emergency data could be required to reduce their transmit power or even temporarily disconnect from the network in order to guarantee the normal operation of medical sensors as well as the transmission of emergency data. In this paper, we propose a joint power and admission control algorithm to schedule the users' transmission of medical data. The objective of this algorithm is to minimize the number of users who are forced to disconnect from the network while keeping the EMI on medical sensors at an acceptable level. We show that a fixed point of proposed algorithm always exists, and at the fixed point, our proposed algorithm can minimize the number of low-priority users who are required to disconnect from the network. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.
MODELING MULTI-TRAFFIC ADMISSION CONTROL IN OFDMA SYSTEM USING COLORED PETRI NET
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yao Yuanyuan; Lu Yanhui; Yang Shouyi
2012-01-01
Call Admission Control (CAC) is one of the key traffic management mechanisms that must be deployed in order to meet the strict requirements for dependability imposed on the services provided by modern wireless networks.In this paper,we develop an executable top-down hierarchical Colored Petri Net (CPN) model for multi-traffic CAC in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) system.By theoretic analysis and CPN simulation,it is demonstrated that the CPN model is isomorphic to Markov Chain (MC) assuming that each data stream follows Poisson distribution and the corresponding arrival time interval is an exponential random variable,and it breaks through MC's explicit limitation,which includes MC's memoryless property and proneness to state space explosion in evaluating CAC process.Moreover,we present four CAC schemes based on CPN model taking into account call-level and packet-level Quality of Service (QoS).The simulation results show that CPN offers significant advantages over MC in modeling CAC strategies and evaluating their performance with less computational complexity in addition to its flexibility and adaptability to different scenarios.
Study on the Class-Based Admission Control Scheme for DiffServ in MPLS Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李震宇; 张中兆
2003-01-01
Differentiated services (DiffServ) and MPLS are two major building blocks for providing multi-class services over IP networks. In order to respond to the need for relatively simple, coarse methods of providing different levels of service for Internet traffic, to support various types of applications and specific business requirements, the MPLS network infrastructure and the DiffServ traffic model will work together. Meanwhile, in today's environment of multiple service networks, it is necessary for the node in the networks to perform the control mechanism to guarantee various QoS. In this paper, we propose a class-based admission control scheme that is suitable for DiffServ in MPLS networks. This scheme can achieve twofold objects: reliable QoS provisioning and high resource utilization. We evaluate the proposed scheme by numerical analysis of its performance in terms of throughput, delay, and reject probability. By performing simulation, we can ensure that the proposed scheme can work efficiently to provide strict QoS guarantees.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUIZhibo; ZHOULichao
2005-01-01
The advantage of Measurement-based admission control algorithms (MBACs) is that they are able to improve network utilization for the controlled-load service. Most researchers have focused primarily on designs of the Admission control equations (ACEs) of MBACs using a variety of principled and ad hoc motivations. In this paper, six typical MBACs, namely MS, HB, TP, TO, TE and MC algorithms, are discussed. First, we have proven analytically that the ACEs of TE and MC have the same structural form as the ACEs of the other four MBACs above. Second, through formal analysis we have theoretically proven that the ACEs of TE and MC, even though they are derived and motivated in quite different ways, are equivalent to the other four MBACs by tuning the adjustable parameters of MBACs. Finally, we have used also simulations to confirm our work.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Naixing; Liao Jianxin; Zhu Xiaomin
2006-01-01
Based on the demand of the admission control of softswitch-based clustered media server, this paper proposed a new dynamic quota-based admission control algorithm that has a sub-negotiation process. The strongpoint of quota-based algorithm had been inherited in the algorithm and at the same time some new ideas had also been introduced into it. Simulations of the algorithm had been conducted on the Petri net model and the results show that this algorithm has excellent performance. In order to find the optimal resource quota setting in real time, the paper proposed two approximation analysis methods. It can be seen from analysis results that these two methods can be used to get sub-optimal quota values quickly and effectively. These two approximation analysis methods will play important roles in implementation of the algorithm in system.
QoS awared power and admission controls based on non-cooperative game theory in wireless networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In order to better accommodate heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks, an algorithm called QeS-aware power and admission controls (QAPAC) is proposed. The system is modeled as u non- cooperative game where the users adjust their transmit powers to maximize the utility, thus restraining the interferences. By using adaptive utility functions and tunable pricing parameters according to QoS levels, this algorithm can well meet different QoS reqniremcnts and improve system capacity compared with those that ignore the QoS differ- ences.
QoS awared power and admission controls based on non-cooperative game theory in wireless networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In order to better accommodate heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks, an algorithm called QoS-aware power and admission controls (QAPAC) is proposed. The system is modeled as a non-cooperative game where the users adjust their transmit powers to maximize the utility, thus restraining the interferences. By using adaptive utility functions and tunable pricing parameters according to QoS levels, this algorithm can well meet different QoS requirements and improve system capacity compared w...
Two-Level Cross-Talked Admission Control Mechanism for QoS Guarantee in 802.11e EDCA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NIU Zhisheng; LIU Jing
2008-01-01
This paper describes a two-level cross-talked admission control mechanism that guarantees qual-ity of service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications over wireless local area networks (WLANs). An enhanced distributed channel access analytical model is used to compute the maximum number of admitted users according to the QoS requirements and the packet arrival characters. Then, some channel resources are reserved for handoff calls based on the maximum number of admitted users and the call-level traffic model. The channel utilization ratio is also measured to reflect the current system traffic load. The maximum number of admitted users and the channel utilization ratio are used for admission control for applications with QoS requirements in the call level and for rate control of best effort applications in the packet level using the p-nonacknowledgement scheme. Thus, the QoS requirements are statistically guaranteed while the system is efficiently utilized. Simulations validate the effectiveness of this mechanism to guarantee the QoS and bandwidth utilization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李波; 杨从有; 武浩; 裴以建
2012-01-01
SaaS是一种基于网络的软件应用模式,是服务提供商将应用软件统一部署在自己的服务器上,用户根据自己的实际需要,通过互联网向服务提供商订购并支付自己所需的服务.在未来,SaaS模式是占主导地位的云服务模型.文中阐 述SaaS的基本概念,介绍了SaaS的参考结构以及服务流程,分析概括了不同类型的服务要求的接入控制策略,总结了不同性能要求作业的调度策略,最后结合已有的云计算环境下的SaaS接人控制和调度策略研究成果,展望了未来的研究方向和亟待解决的关键问题.%SaaS is a kind of network-based software application paradigm that service providers deploy their application software on their servers. Users order and pay for their actual services via the internet. In the future, the SaaS model will be the dominant cloud service model. It introduces the concept of SaaS , its architecture and its service processes, and analyzes the types of admission control and scheduling algorithms for different service and performance requirements. It also presents a summary of the current state-of-the-art of the admission control and scheduling algorithms for SaaS in cloud computing environments, a discussion on the future work and some crucial problems should be solved pressingly.
Bouchti, Abdelali El; Kafhali, Said El
2012-01-01
In this paper, we consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, two Connection Admission Control (CAC) mechanisms, namely, threshold-based and queue-aware CAC mechanisms are considered at a subscriber station. A queuing analytical framework for these admission control mechanisms is presented considering Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queuing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP). We determine analytically and numerically different QoS per...
The admission control algorithm based on the heterogeneous network environment%基于异构网络环境中的接纳控制算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄存东; 王胜
2012-01-01
Admission control system which can effectively deal with network congestion can provide dependable Qos for VoIP application. Taking the advantages and universality of Random Early Detection （RED） in implementing fair queue management for VolP application, we proposed a delay analyzing and computing method of RED queues in this paper and achieved a RED--based admission control algorithm whose effectiveness is proved through simulation.%接纳控制机制可以有效控制网络拥塞程度,为VoIP应用提供服务质量保证。RED算法可以为VoIP应用提供公平的队列管理机制,鉴于RED队列的优越性和普遍性,提出了RED队列的延迟分析计算方法,并基于该计算方法设计实现了基于RED的接纳控制算法,仿真结果表明该算法是有效的。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
POUDYAL, N.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper a novel schedulability criteria is developed to provide Quality of Service (QoS guarantees in terms of both minimum available bandwidth and maximum tolerated packet delay as required by the real-time traffic class. The contribution makes use of a measurement based admission control scheme at the base station of the 802.16m based 4G IMT�advanced network by considering the effects of various kinds of delays including the channel access delay, queuing delay and MAC layer transmission delay on the system's end to end delay. The paper also provides a way for the mobile station to proactively increase the chances of success of bandwidth grants by predicting in advance whether its bandwidth request will be approved by the base station, and then modifying or suspending its bandwidth request in case the chances of success is not favorable at that instant.
LTE-A中基于准入控制的切换决策算法%Handoff Decision Algorithm Based on Admission Control in LTE-A
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王华; 李鲁群; 王力
2011-01-01
在E-UTRAN架构下,提出一种基于目标小区准入控制的切换决策算法.通过eNB之间的X2接口来交互网络的负载信息、资源信息和服务速率等,以此获得对目标小区准入控制的预测.构建曼哈顿模型场景,仿真结果证明,该切换算法有较高的切换成功率和较小的切换时延;并可将用户终端切换到负载比较轻的小区,使相邻小区的负载得到均衡,提高了无线资源的利用率.%This paper provides a handoff decision algorithm based on admission control of target cell in the E-UTRAN architecture.In order to predict the admission control of target cell, it uses the X2 interface between eNBs to exchange the load information load network, resource information, and services rate of network.It constructs the Manhattan model.Simulation results indicate that the algorithm has higher successful handoff rate and smaller delay of handoff.It can switch the user terminal to the cell with lighter load, to make sure balancing the neighboring load and improving utilization of wireless resources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. S. Mohana
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Software as a Service (SaaS offers reliable access to software applications to the end users over the Internet without direct investment in infrastructure and software. SaaS providers utilize resources of internal data centres or rent resources from a public Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS provider in order to serve their customers. Internal hosting can ample cost of administration and maintenance whereas hiring from an IaaS provider can impact the service quality due to its variable performance. To surmount these drawbacks, we propose pioneering admission control and scheduling algorithms for SaaS providers to effectively utilize public Cloud resources to maximize profit by minimizing cost and improving customer satisfaction level. There is a drawback in this method is strength of the algorithms by handling errors in dynamic scenario of cloud environment, also there is a need of machine learning method to predict the strategies and produce the according resources. The admission control provided by trust model that is based on SLA uses different strategies to decide upon accepting user requests so that there is minimal performance impact, avoiding SLA penalties that are giving higher profit. Machine learning method aims at building a distributed system for cloud resource monitoring and prediction that includes learning-based methodologies for modelling and optimization of resource prediction models. The learning methods are Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM are two typical machine learning strategies in the category of regression computation. These two methods can be employed for modelling resource state prediction. In addition, we conduct a widespread evaluation study to analyze which solution matches best in which scenario to maximize SaaS providerâs profit. Results obtained through our extensive simulation shows that our proposed algorithms provide significant improvement (up to 40% cost saving over
高速网中最小阻塞率的接入控制研究%Call Admission Control with Optimal Block Probability in High-Speed Network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵尔敦; 石冰心; 郭喻茹; 黄川
2001-01-01
A call admission control scheme with optimal block probability in high-speed network is given. Under the environment of multi-class calls ,the acceptance area with minimum call block probability is obtained. Numerical results show that the maximum call number decreases with the stay-time of the call and increases with the load of the call.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yekini Shehu
2010-01-01
real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.
Technology of Endpoint Admission Control in Computer Networks%计算机网络终端准入控制技术
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周超; 周城; 丁晨路
2011-01-01
终端准入控制根据预定安全策略,对接入网络的终端进行身份认证和安全性检查,确保可信、安全的终端访问网络,拒绝或限制不安全终端的接入,体现了终端安全与准入控制的结合,可以有效提高网络对安全威胁的主动防御能力.现行部署的解决方案在身份认证、安全状态检查中存在缺陷,容易受到中间人攻击、会话劫持攻击等,并且对虚拟化应用适应性不足.可考虑通过完善认证过程、改善交互机制等方法加以改进.%Endpoint Admission Control technology takes authentication and security state checking on endpoints accessing to network on the basis of pre-determinate security policies. It makes sure that only the trustworthy and secure endpoints could access to networks while rejects or limits the accessing of insecure endpoints. It' s exemplification of the combination of Endpoint Security and Access Control, which can efficiently improve the active defense ability against security threaten of networks. However, the existing solution has shortages in authentication and security state checking that it could easily attacked by Man-in-the-Middle Attack and Session Hijack. What's more, it also has limitation in Virtualization appliance as well. It's considerable to consummate the mechanism of authentication and communication processes for improvement.
TD-LTE网络基于AoA+TA功能的接入控制应用%Admission control application based on the AoA+TA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
秦嗣仲
2015-01-01
This article discusses the new problems encountered in the TD-LTE network, ie the boundary optimization problem. The TD-LTE network site of China Mobile is built nearby Yalu River in Dandong. The reference Dandong border GSM network, combined with TD-LTE network's own characteristics, and TD-LTE network are coverage of the macro station district reached Sinuiju, North Korea along the region, using the location to accept control algorithm (such as the AOA+TA method, etc.), through the UE distance macro station district the proximity of the site limit the Korean users access the TD-LTE network to conduct business.%本文论述了在TD-LTE网络中遇见的新问题，即边境优化问题。中国移动TD-LTE网络建设与朝鲜隔江而建，参考丹东边境GSM网络的方法，结合TD-LTE网络自身特点，TD-LTE网络采用宏站小区覆盖朝鲜新义州沿江区域，令宏站小区采用基于位置的接纳控制算法（如AoA+TA方法等），通过UE距离站点的远近限制朝鲜用户接入TD-LTE网络进行业务。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周亚平; 奚宏生; 殷保群; 唐昊
2001-01-01
应用Markov决策过程与性能势相结合的方法,给出了呼叫接入控制的策略优化算法.所得到的最优策略是状态相关的策略,与基于节点已占用带宽决定行动的策略相比,状态相关策略具有更好的性能值,而且该算法具有很快的收敛速度.
一种基于信任的P2P接纳控制方法%An Admission Control Method for P2P Network Based on Trust
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张志丽
2014-01-01
当前P2P系统的研究集中在P2P内部节点的信誉排名问题上，从节点如何进入系统的角度提出了一种P2P节点的接纳控制方法。该方法基于节点自身经验及好友节点的推荐对申请加入节点进行判断，模拟实验表明该方法对新节点加入系统进行了有效控制，而且系统扩展性很好，同时也阻止了部分恶意节点进入系统。%In P2P network area, the current studies focus on the reputation rankings for internal nodes of P2P.However, this paper proposes an admission control method for those nodes who apply to join the P2P system. This method judge nodes who apply to join based on experience and friend nodes’s recommended of nodes who have been applied. Simulation experiments show that, with our method, it can not only effectively control the nodes who new added, but also possess very good scalability, on the other hand, it also protect the system from malicious peers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐晓希; 朱新宁; 徐春秀
2009-01-01
针对IEEE 802.16 OFDMA系统,提出了一种考虑运营收益并且动态调整预留信道的呼叫接纳控制算法.该算法将一个连接申请潜在的运营收益值作为接入优先级函数的因子,从而提高系统的运营收益;其次,算法根据系统内资源的使用情况动态调整预留信道,在降低系统掉话率的同时,也尽可能地将呼叫阻塞率保持在较低水平.将所提算法与传统接纳控制方法进行了仿真比较,结果表明该算法能够有效控制系统掉话率和阻塞率,达到用户使用满意度要求,同时增大系统运营收益.%This paper proposed a call admission control algorithm in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems, which took the revenue of the service providers into consideration and adjusted the threshold of reserved guard channel dynamically. First, introduced the revenue generated by accepting a connection in the admission priority function to produce high revenue of the system. Se-cond, the proposed algorithm adjusted the reserved channel according to the state of system dynamically so as to reduce the call dropping probability (CDP) and the call blocking probability (CBP) simultaneously. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can decrease CDP and CBP effectively to achieve high users' satisfaction degree, while increase the revenue of the network at the same time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄国盛; 陈志刚; 陈炳权; 赵明; 颜琳
2016-01-01
在介绍DT−CAC和RBDO−CAC这2种呼叫接入控制优化策略的基础上，通过NS−2工具对这2种策略在不同呼叫流量强度下的性能进行仿真测试，并与传统的 NCB 策略进行对比。研究结果表明：DT−CAC 和RBDO−CAC优化策略的性能均比NCB方案的性能好，从整体上看，RBDO−CAC策略的切换呼叫掉线率和新呼叫阻塞率比DT−CAC的低，且其系统资源利用率比DT−CAC的高；在网络呼叫流量较高的情况下，RBDO−CAC策略资源利用率比DT−CAC策略高2%~5%。%After two optimized call admission control schemes known as DT−CAC and RBDO−CAC were presented,the performances of these two schemesatdifferent call traffic intensitieswere tested using NS−2, and compared with traditional NCB scheme.Theresults show that both DT−CAC and RBDO−CAC can achieve better performancesthan NCB. On the whole,when compared with DT−CAC,RBDO−CAChas lowerhandoff call dropping probability and new call blocking probability, and higher system resource utilization rate. The system resource utilization rate under high call traffic load of RBDO−CAC can be 2%−5%higher thanDT−CAC.
Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allaberen Ashyralyev
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.
On the hierarchical risk-averse control problems for diffusion processes
Befekadu, Getachew K.; Veremyev, Alexander; Pasiliao, Eduardo L.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider a risk-averse control problem for diffusion processes, in which there is a partition of the admissible control strategy into two decision-making groups (namely, the {\\it leader} and {\\it follower}) with different cost functionals and risk-averse satisfactions. Our approach, based on a hierarchical optimization framework, requires that a certain level of risk-averse satisfaction be achieved for the {\\it leader} as a priority over that of the {\\it follower's} risk-ave...
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
2015-09-01
luxury of examining the entire stream of packets, no “sliding window” logic is required to successfully reassemble the session, as the next arriving...entirely consumed . If SIPpy cannot produce a packet from the byte stream, the first “N” bytes are popped off the stream and the process is retried
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Т. Horsin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem associated to Dirichlet boundary valueproblem for linear elliptic equations on a bounded domain Ω. We take the matrixvalued coecients A(x of such system as a control in L1(Ω;RN RN. One of the important features of the admissible controls is the fact that the coecient matrices A(x are non-symmetric, unbounded on Ω, and eigenvalues of the symmetric part Asym = (A + At=2 may vanish in Ω.
Kinsella, John J.
1970-01-01
Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)
SHAPE STABILITY OF OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS IN COEFFICIENTS FOR COUPLED SYSTEM OF HAMMERSTEIN TYPE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. I. Kogut
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider an optimal control problem (OCP for the coupledsystem of a nonlinear monotone Dirichlet problem with matrix-valued L∞(Ω;RN×N-controls in coecients and a nonlinear equation of Hammerstein type, where solution nonlinearly depends on L∞ -control. Since problems of this type have no solutions in general, we make a special assumption on the coecients of the state equations and introduce the class of so-called solenoidal admissible controls. Using the direct method in calculus of variations, we prove the existence of an optimal control. We also study the stability of the optimal control problem with respect to the domain perturbation. In particular, we derive the sucient conditions of the Mosco-stability for the given class of OCPs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2009-01-01
The paper is concerned with a stochastic optimal control problem in which the controlled system is described by a fully coupled nonlinear forward-backward stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion.It is required that all admissible control processes are adapted to a given subfiltration of the filtration generated by the underlying Brownian motion.For this type of partial information control,one sufficient(a verification theorem) and one necessary conditions of optimality are proved.The control domain need to be convex and the forward diffusion coefficient of the system can contain the control variable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MENG QingXin
2009-01-01
The paper is concerned with a stochastic optimal control problem in which the controlled system is described by a fully coupled nonlinear forward-backward stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion. It is required that all admissible control processes are adapted to a given subfiltration of the filtration generated by the underlying Brownian motion. For this type of partial information control, one sufficient (a verification theorem) and one necessary conditions of optimality are proved. The control domain need to be convex and the forward diffusion coefficient of the system can contain the control variable.
Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control
Mahmood, Nurul Huda
2012-10-01
One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences, it is therefore necessary to effectively control the secondary interference at the primary receivers. In this paper, a generalized framework for the interference analysis of a cognitive radio network where the different secondary transmitters may transmit with different powers and transmission probabilities, is presented and various applications of this interference model are demonstrated. The findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.
Efficient Admission Control for Next Generation Cellular Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramkumar, Venkata; Stefan, Andrei Lucian; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth
2012-01-01
in the MAC layer is done by considering the effects of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) in the physical layer. Using the Markov model, the number of resources required by the new user is predicted by taking the QoS requirements of the user application and channel parameters into consideration...
... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...
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Muhammad Aslam Noor
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning Problems KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning Problems Print A ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...
... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner
Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terent'eva Elena Olegovna
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.
Terent'eva Elena Olegovna
2013-01-01
Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.
... BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Knee ProblemsPain, swelling, stiffness and "water" on the knee are common symptoms. Follow this chart for more ...
Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie
2017-01-01
This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…
Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie
2017-01-01
This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arakelyan Sh. Kh.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We suggest to apply the Bubnov–Galerkin procedure to solve scanning control problems for systems with distributed parameters. The algorithm is described in details for three-dimensional linear heat equation It allows to reduce the solution of control problem to finite-dimensional nonlinear moments problem. The procedure of derivation of moments problem is illustrated in details on the example of one-dimensional equation of thermal conductivity. The solution of obtained moments problem is found in a particular case. Based on obtained results a computer simulation is done using COMSOL Multiphysics platform in one-dimensional case for a rod. The main dependences of control function against input data of the problem are revealed. The state of the rod for several (constant values of the source intensity is expressed in terms of graphs and illustrations. Corresponding illustrations are brought in case of control absence (null-power source for comparison. An effective numerical scheme for solving the obtained system of nonlinear constraints is suggested in the case of extended class of admissible controls. Calculation of control parameters is reduced to the simplest problem of nonlinear programming.
... do to help diagnose your prostate problem. Physical Exam A physical exam may help diagnose the cause ... sleep avoid or drink fewer liquids that have caffeine or alcohol in them avoid medicines that may ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie
2016-01-01
This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...
... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory ...
... monitoring to test how strong your erection is Psychological tests to check for depression and other emotional problems ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...
... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...
... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... an irregular shape (astigmatism), it will threaten normal vision development and must be corrected as early as ...
Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David
2004-01-01
Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...
Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene
2016-01-01
This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...
Gouzouasis, Peter; Bakan, Danny; Ryu, Jee Yeon; Ballam, Helen; Murphy, David; Ihnatovych, Diana; Virag, Zoltan; Yanko, Matthew
2014-01-01
We offer a multi-voiced performance autoethnography where contemporary music education practices are informed and imbued with the voices of teachers and learners. By dialogically and musically engaging with the very people who live, make music, and engage with learners in music classrooms, we promote contemporary qualitative forms of research and…
... have cold or flu symptoms?YesNoDo you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear pain ... or 2 days, see your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA tooth problem can radiate pain to the ear on the same side.Self ...
1987-06-01
and f. Let us consider the problem of finding the minimal constant C. We are thus interested in 2~ IVA u dx (1.24) C = sup . u2u (0 (F =0 (u dx"<u(O...fournir des bornes superieures ou inferieures, C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris 235, 995-997. .V Prodi, G. (1962]: Theoremi di tipo locale per il sistema de Navier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaping Hu
2015-01-01
the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin-He Miao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the Lipschitz continuity of the solution mapping of symmetric cone (linear or nonlinear complementarity problems (SCLCP or SCCP, resp. over Euclidean Jordan algebras. We show that if the transformation has uniform Cartesian P-property, then the solution mapping of the SCCP is Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, we establish that the monotonicity of mapping and the Lipschitz continuity of solutions of the SCLCP imply ultra P-property, which is a concept recently developed for linear transformations on Euclidean Jordan algebra. For a Lyapunov transformation, we prove that the strong monotonicity property, the ultra P-property, the Cartesian P-property, and the Lipschitz continuity of the solutions are all equivalent to each other.
Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than ...
... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...
Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems
Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard
2011-01-01
Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…
Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems
Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard
2011-01-01
Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…
Reeves, Charles A.
2000-01-01
Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)
Problems in differential equations
Brenner, J L
2013-01-01
More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.
Constipation and Defecation Problems
... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Constipation and Defecation Problems Constipation and Defecation Problems Basics Resources Overview Constipation is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal complaints ...
A BATCH ARRIVAL RETRIAL QUEUE WITH STARTING FAILURES, FEEDBACK AND ADMISSION CONTROL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinting WANG; Peng-Feng ZHOU
2010-01-01
This paper is concerned with the analysis of a feedback M[X]/G/1 retrial queue with starting failures and general retrial times.In a batch,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon arrival.If the server is idle,one of the customers admitted to the system may start its service and the rest joins the retrial group,whereas all the admitted customers go to the retrial group when the server is unavailable upon arrival.An arriving customer(primary or retrial)must turn-on the server,which takes negligible time.If the server is started successfully(with a certain probability),the customer gets service immediately.Otherwise,the repair for the server commences immediately and the customer must leave for the orbit and make a retrial at a later time.It is assumed that the customers who find the server unavailable are queued in the orbit in accordance with an FCFS discipline and only the customer at the head of the queue is allowed for access to the server.The Markov chain underlying the considered queueing system is studied and the necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented.Explicit formulae for the stationary distribution and some performance measures of the system in steady-state are obtained.Finally,some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics.
Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lu Dongning
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H∞ optimal control is designed by optimizing the H∞ norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.
Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array
Lu Dongning; Liu Yiwu
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft w...
Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Dongning; Liu Yiwu
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identi-ties about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a space-craft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H1 optimal control is designed by optimizing the H1 norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.
QoS-Guaranteed Admission Control for OFDMA-based Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramkumar, Venkata; Anggorojati, Bayu; Lucian, Stefan P. Andrei;
2010-01-01
, the satisfaction index (SI) and priority is calculated for every user, which is used as key input for the scheduler. Further, the resource allocation in time and frequency for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDMA) systems is also discussed based on user satisfaction and number of slots required...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Ke-Ke
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Full three-dimensional unsteady numerical investigation on an axial air turbine in 50% partial admission is conducted. The partial admission turbines are under different unsteady loading and unloading process, as well as flow parameters, respectively. The loss coefficient and static pressure distributions at the key position are presented in detail to analyze the nonuniformity originated from partial admission. The results show that the nonuniformity decreases along flow direction and the efficiency of control stage also decreases but with the uniformity improved downstream of the rotors with increasing admitting numbers in equal partial admission degree. The reasons for efficiency decreasing are reasonably explained with windage and sector end losses presented by static entropy distributions. The periodic changes of unsteady forces in amplitude and direction are also compared and transformed in the frequency domain by FFT method. The largest circumferential exciting force factor which is remarkably larger than the corresponding axial exciting force factor decreases by 13.2% with the increase of admitting arc number. Compared with the common distribution of two symmetric admitting arcs, the maximum exciting force factor of triangle admitting arc distribution drops 11.3% with the mere efficiency decrease of 1.32%. The multiple admitting arc turbines are more conducive to be applied to submarines which concerns more about exciting force other than efficiency. Efficiency and unsteady forces are both worth being taken into consideration in the practical applications.
Fuzzy logic-based call admission control in 5G cloud radio access networks with preemption
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sigwele, Tshiamo; Pillai, Prashant; Alam, Atm S; Hu, Yim F
2017-01-01
...) with a plethora of applications generating requests to the network. The 5G cellular networks need to cope with such sky-rocketing traffic requests from these devices to avoid network congestion...
WALLS, FOREST
PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…
Cheryl A. Smith
2008-01-01
Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...
Quadratic eigenvalue problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot
2007-04-01
In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.
Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa
1997-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.
Differential equations problem solver
Arterburn, David R
2012-01-01
REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and
Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. ... pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect ...
... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Menstrual Cycle ProblemsFrom missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow ...
Challenging problems in algebra
Posamentier, Alfred S
1996-01-01
Over 300 unusual problems, ranging from easy to difficult, involving equations and inequalities, Diophantine equations, number theory, quadratic equations, logarithms, more. Detailed solutions, as well as brief answers, for all problems are provided.
... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... important distinction is that this is not a vision problem ; rather, the brain is reversing, inverting or ...
Problem Solving and Reasoning.
1984-02-01
6 here Acquisition of Problem - Solving Skill . An imporrant qLestinn is how the knowledge required For solving problems in a domain such as geometry is...Neves, 0. 4. (1981). Acquisition of problem - solving skill . In J. R. Anderson (Eds), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum...NJ: Erlbaum. Voss, J. F., Greene, T. R., Post, T. A., & Penner, B. C. (1983). Problem solving skill in the social sciences. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The
Classifying IS Project Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munk-Madsen, Andreas
2006-01-01
The literature contains many lists of IS project problems, often in the form of risk factors. The problems sometimes appear unordered and overlapping, which reduces their usefulness to practitioners as well as theoreticians. This paper proposes a list of criteria for formulating project problems...
Vehicle Routing Problem Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonči Carić
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.
Optimal obstacle control problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Li; LI Xiu-hua; GUO Xing-ming
2008-01-01
In the paper we discuss some properties of the state operators of the optimal obstacle control problem for elliptic variational inequality. Existence, uniqueness and regularity of the optimal control problem are established. In addition, the approximation of the optimal obstacle problem is also studied.
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
Pelleau, Marie; Truchet, Charlotte
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new method and a constraint-based objective function to solve two problems related to the design of optical telecommunication networks, namely the Synchronous Optical Network Ring Assignment Problem (SRAP) and the Intra-ring Synchronous Optical Network Design Problem (IDP). These network topology problems can be represented as a graph partitioning with capacity constraints as shown in previous works. We present here a new objective function and a new local search algorithm to solve these problems. Experiments conducted in Comet allow us to compare our method to previous ones and show that we obtain better results.
Baras, John
2010-01-01
The algebraic path problem is a generalization of the shortest path problem in graphs. Various instances of this abstract problem have appeared in the literature, and similar solutions have been independently discovered and rediscovered. The repeated appearance of a problem is evidence of its relevance. This book aims to help current and future researchers add this powerful tool to their arsenal, so that they can easily identify and use it in their own work. Path problems in networks can be conceptually divided into two parts: A distillation of the extensive theory behind the algebraic path pr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Pelleau
2009-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new method and a constraint-based objective function to solve two problems related to the design of optical telecommunication networks, namely the Synchronous Optical Network Ring Assignment Problem (SRAP and the Intra-ring Synchronous Optical Network Design Problem (IDP. These network topology problems can be represented as a graph partitioning with capacity constraints as shown in previous works. We present here a new objective function and a new local search algorithm to solve these problems. Experiments conducted in Comet allow us to compare our method to previous ones and show that we obtain better results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.
The Accelerated Kepler Problem
Namouni, Fathi
2007-01-01
The accelerated Kepler problem is obtained by adding a constant acceleration to the classical two-body Kepler problem. This setting models the dynamics of a jet-sustaining accretion disk and its content of forming planets as the disk loses linear momentum through the asymmetric jet-counterjet system it powers. The dynamics of the accelerated Kepler problem is analyzed using physical as well as parabolic coordinates. The latter naturally separate the problem's Hamiltonian into two unidimensional Hamiltonians. In particular, we identify the origin of the secular resonance in the accelerated Kepler problem and determine analytically the radius of stability boundary of initially circular orbits that are of particular interest to the problem of radial migration in binary systems as well as to the truncation of accretion disks through stellar jet acceleration.
Rǎdulescu, Teodora-Liliana T.; Andreescu, Titu; Rǎdulescu, Vicenţiu
2015-01-01
This book ontains a collection of challenging problems in elementary mathematical analysis, uses competition-inspired problems as a platform for training typical inventive skills, develops basic valuable techniques for solving problems in mathematical analysis on the real axis, assumes only a basic knowledge of the topic but opens the path to competitive research in the field, includes interesting and valuable historical accounts of ideas and methods in analysis, presents a connection between...
Laughlin, Patrick R
2011-01-01
Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical
Creativity for Problem Solvers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2009-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radovanović Saša Ž.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.
Known TCP Implementation Problems
Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.
1999-01-01
This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.
Singh, Devraj
2015-01-01
Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept
Specific Pronunciation Problems.
Avery, Peter; And Others
1987-01-01
Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laporte, G.
1987-01-01
Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.
Combinatorial problems and exercises
Lovász, László
2007-01-01
The main purpose of this book is to provide help in learning existing techniques in combinatorics. The most effective way of learning such techniques is to solve exercises and problems. This book presents all the material in the form of problems and series of problems (apart from some general comments at the beginning of each chapter). In the second part, a hint is given for each exercise, which contains the main idea necessary for the solution, but allows the reader to practice the techniques by completing the proof. In the third part, a full solution is provided for each problem. This book w
PROBLEMS OF TURKISH LEXICOGRAPHY.
TIETZE, ANDREAS
THE LEXICOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS IN THE TURKISH LANGUAGE WERE DISCUSSED. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE LANGUAGE WAS PRESENTED WITH PROBLEMS OF LEXICOGRAPHY THAT EXISTED IN THE PAST COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE PRESENT. DISCUSSION TOPICS OF THE REPORT INCLUDED (1) NAME OF THE LANGUAGE, (2) DELIMITATION COMPARED WITH RELATED LANGUAGES, (3) DELIMINATION…
A Stochastic Employment Problem
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
Problems in baryon spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capstick, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
1994-04-01
Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.
Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ovesen, Nis
2015-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) is becoming increasingly popular in design educations, but how is it taught and practiced? This paper presents a case study of a three-day workshop that has the purpose of introducing PBL to design students. A theoretical background on PBL and problems in design is es...
Gladwell, Graham ML
2011-01-01
The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.
Barrell, Arthur Rex
1970-01-01
The study of semantics, the study of meaning, promises more complete communicative thought transfer if several problem areas can be solved or at least generally agreed upon. The problem of exact definition of words arises from the fact that no one work is the exact equivalent of another. However, the study of many languages forces the mind to…
STONE, EDWARD
THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…
Wicked Problems: Inescapable Wickedity
Jordan, Michelle E.; Kleinsasser, Robert C.; Roe, Mary F.
2014-01-01
The article explores the concept of wicked problems and proposes a reinvigorated application of this concept for wider educational use. This recommendation stems from the contributions of a number of scholars who frame some of the most contentious and recalcitrant educational issues as wicked problems. The present authors build upon these previous…
... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...
Goldman, Iosif Ilich; Geilikman, B T
2006-01-01
This challenging book contains a comprehensive collection of problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of varying degrees of difficulty. It features answers and completely worked-out solutions to each problem. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it provides an ideal adjunct to any textbook in quantum mechanics.
Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, H.
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure
Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure
Current Social Problem Novels.
Kenney, Donald J.
This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…
Harper, Kathleen A.; Etkina, Eugenia
2002-10-01
As part of weekly reports,1 structured journals in which students answer three standard questions each week, they respond to the prompt, If I were the instructor, what questions would I ask or problems assign to determine if my students understood the material? An initial analysis of the results shows that some student-generated problems indicate fundamental misunderstandings of basic physical concepts. A further investigation explores the relevance of the problems to the week's material, whether the problems are solvable, and the type of problems (conceptual or calculation-based) written. Also, possible links between various characteristics of the problems and conceptual achievement are being explored. The results of this study spark many more questions for further work. A summary of current findings will be presented, along with its relationship to previous work concerning problem posing.2 1Etkina, E. Weekly Reports;A Two-Way Feedback Tool, Science Education, 84, 594-605 (2000). 2Mestre, J.P., Probing Adults Conceptual Understanding and Transfer of Learning Via Problem Posing, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 9-50 (2002).
Problems in equilibrium theory
Aliprantis, Charalambos D
1996-01-01
In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.
Trahtman, A N
2007-01-01
The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.
The Guderley problem revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsey, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolstad, John H [NON LANL
2009-01-01
The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Ophir
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The process of making complex and controversial decisions, that is, dealing with moral or ethical dilemmas, have intrigued people and inspired writers from time immemorial. Dilemmas give both color and depth to characters in good literary works. But beyond literary fiction, dilemmas occupy society in every day issues such as in introducing legislation or solving current political problems. One example of a current political dilemma is how to deal with Iran’s quest for nuclear weapons. If it were possible to assess and quantify each of the alternative solutions for a given problem, the process of decision making would be much easier. If a problem involves only two optional solutions, game theory techniques can be used. However, real life problems are usually multi-unit, multi-optional problems, as in Iran
Wadsworth, A R
2017-01-01
This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.
Boots, Byron
2011-01-01
Recently, there has been much interest in spectral approaches to learning manifolds---so-called kernel eigenmap methods. These methods have had some successes, but their applicability is limited because they are not robust to noise. To address this limitation, we look at two-manifold problems, in which we simultaneously reconstruct two related manifolds, each representing a different view of the same data. By solving these interconnected learning problems together and allowing information to flow between them, two-manifold algorithms are able to succeed where a non-integrated approach would fail: each view allows us to suppress noise in the other, reducing bias in the same way that an instrumental variable allows us to remove bias in a {linear} dimensionality reduction problem. We propose a class of algorithms for two-manifold problems, based on spectral decomposition of cross-covariance operators in Hilbert space. Finally, we discuss situations where two-manifold problems are useful, and demonstrate that sol...
Dürr, Christoph; Spieksma, Frits C R; Nobibon, Fabrice Talla; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
For a given set of intervals on the real line, we consider the problem of ordering the intervals with the goal of minimizing an objective function that depends on the exposed interval pieces (that is, the pieces that are not covered by earlier intervals in the ordering). This problem is motivated by an application in molecular biology that concerns the determination of the structure of the backbone of a protein. We present polynomial-time algorithms for several natural special cases of the problem that cover the situation where the interval boundaries are agreeably ordered and the situation where the interval set is laminar. Also the bottleneck variant of the problem is shown to be solvable in polynomial time. Finally we prove that the general problem is NP-hard, and that the existence of a constant-factor-approximation algorithm is unlikely.
Structural Identification Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvorov Aleksei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.
The Interaction Programming Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Rong-sheng; CHENG Ying
2001-01-01
Based upon the research to the economic equilibrium problems, we present a kind of new mathematical programming problem-interaction programming problem (abbreviated by IPP). The IPP is composed of two or multiple parametric programming problems which is interrelated with each other. The IPP reflects the equality and mutual benefit relationship between two (or among multiple) economic planners in an economic system. In essence, the IPP is similar to the generalized Nash equilibria (GNE) game which has been given several names in the literature: social equilibria games, pseudo-Nash equilibria games, and equilibrium programming problems. In this paper, we establish the mathematical model and some basic concepts to the IPP. We investigate the structure and the properties of the IPP. We also give a necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the equilibrium points to a kind of linear IPP.
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Problems of energy supply. Probleme der Energieversorgung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frank, W.
1983-01-01
Political education is to enable judgement of present-day questions. This requires knowledge of the essential facts in the field of energy supply. The brochure on hand is meant to make it easier for the reader to put forward his own arguments. The reader is to see that it is due to the many motives determining energy policy which aggravate an understanding about ways of solving problems of energy supply. This brochure is designed to enhance political education by giving a survey of tasks in energy policy to be solved on an international level and in Austria.
Generalized emissivity inverse problem.
Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E
2002-04-01
Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.
Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems
Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...
Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D
1973-01-01
This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.
The Congruence Subgroup Problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M S Raghunathan
2004-11-01
This is a short survey of the progress on the congruence subgroup problem since the sixties when the first major results on the integral unimodular groups appeared. It is aimed at the non-specialists and avoids technical details.
Overcoming breastfeeding problems
Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... no clear cause of nipple soreness. A simple change in your baby's position while feeding may ease ...
Menstruation and Menstrual Problems
... and Menstrual Problems: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is menstruation? What is the menstrual cycle? When happens when a pregnancy occurs? What is menstruation? Menstruation (pronounced men-stroo- ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
岳科来
2016-01-01
There have considerable number of design philosophies and design methods in this world,but today I’d like to intorduce a new design problem solving system which comes from Chinese traditonal religion Dao.
Nash, Jr, John Forbes
2016-01-01
The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...
Problems Digesting Dairy Products?
... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...
Problems, Prospects And Challenges.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006: Problems, Prospects And Challenges. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The paper suggested the construction of more motor-able roads within cities ...
... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...
... part of an infected walking barefoot, such as swimming pools, nail or the use of over-the-counter ... a chronic problem, your podiatrist may be a history of athlete's foot and can perform a procedure ...
McDonald, James E.
1978-01-01
Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yen Hung Chen
2012-01-01
minimum cost spanning tree T in G such that the total weight in T is at most a given bound B. In this paper, we present two polynomial time approximation schemes (PTASs for the constrained minimum spanning tree problem.
Wilson, James Q.; And Others
1972-01-01
Argues that most of the underlying assumptions of presently recommended solutions to the problem of heroin addiction are unreasonable, unwarranted, or at least open to more than one interpretation. (DM)
Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J
2005-05-01
Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances.
Heggie, D C
2000-01-01
This didactic paper is motivated by the problem of understanding how stars escape from globular star clusters. One formulation of this problem is known, in dynamical astronomy, as Hill's problem. Originally intended as a model for the motion of the moon around the earth with perturbations by the sun, with simple modifications it also serves as a model for the motion of a star in a star cluster with perturbations by the galaxy. The paper includes introductory sections on the derivation of the equations of motion of Hill's problem, their elementary properties, and extensions to deal with non-point masses and non-circular orbits. We then show how the rate of escape may be calculated numerically and estimated theoretically, and discuss how this simple picture is modified if the stars in a cluster are also undergoing two-body relaxation. Finally we introduce some established ideas for obtaining the distribution of escape times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paola Cappola
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this current work, I am proposing a general close examination of Problem Based Learning as a student centered educational method in which a problem constitutes the starting point of the learning process. Such a method provides students with the suitable knowledge for problem solving and presents numerous and significant differences compared to traditional education.In particular, I analyze the theoretic aspects of problem learning by tracing a history and presenting its structure, clarifying the role of the tutor in the various phases of the learning process. The method has found a wide diffusion since the beginning of the 70s and numerous studies have confirmed the advantages. The effectiveness of PBL is construable and is based on principles of constructivism and cognitivism.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud
2016-01-01
In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr Jane Gregory
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Framing ‘science and society’ as a conflict has diverted us from more important problems. Our economic environment urges the commercialisation and social acceptance of new technologies, and science communicators and their publics contribute work to these ends. These activities neglect existing, uncontroversial technologies that, in a collaboration between responsible scientists and their publics, could be deployed to address global problems.
Dubois, Swan; Zhu, Nini
2012-01-01
We investigate the hardness of establishing as many stable marriages (that is, marriages that last forever) in a population whose memory is placed in some arbitrary state with respect to the considered problem, and where traitors try to jeopardize the whole process by behaving in a harmful manner. On the negative side, we demonstrate that no solution that is completely insensitive to traitors can exist, and we propose a protocol for the problem that is optimal with respect to the traitor containment radius.
Schröer, H.
In basketball there is the problem of hitting a basket at a determined distance and a determined height. The quantities that can be changed during the inclined throw are the initial velocity and the angle of throw. At first we neglect the air resistance. Then we treat the same problem in a medium (liquid, gas) with constant density. We obtain two differential equations. Then we view special cases of the retarding force. There is an english and a german edition.
Distributed Storage Allocation Problems
Leong, Derek; Dimakis, Alexandros G.; Ho, Tracey
2009-01-01
We investigate the problem of using several storage nodes to store a data object, subject to an aggregate storage budget or redundancy constraint. It is challenging to find the optimal allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery by the data collector because of the large space of possible symmetric and nonsymmetric allocations, and the nonconvexity of the problem. For the special case of probability-l recovery, we show that the optimal allocatio...
2017-03-01
the "SAS+-level Changes" section. Many modern heuristics use a technique called "delete- relaxation ". Delete relaxation does not handle counts and...use the same algorithm, representation, and use the same technique to generate their heuristics. The drawback of this is that there is almost never...one problem solving technique , one representation, or one way to create heuristics that works well on all problems/domains. There is a tradeoff
Analysis of a stochastic lot scheduling problem with strict due-dates
van Foreest, Nicolaas; Wijngaard, Jacob; Boucherie, Richard; van Dijk, Nico M.
2017-01-01
This chapter considers admission control and scheduling rules for a single machine production environment. Orders arrive at a single machine and can be grouped into serveral product families. Each order has a family dependent due-date, production duration, and reward. When an order cannot be served
Hwang, FK; Winter, P
1992-01-01
The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...
Bicriteria network design problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sundaram, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Hunt, H.B. III [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science
1997-11-20
The authors study a general class of bicriteria network design problems. A generic problem in this class is as follows: Given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives (under different cost functions), with a budget specified on the first, find a subgraph from a given subgraph class that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. They consider three different criteria -- the total edge cost, the diameter and the maximum degree of the network. Here, they present the first polynomial-time approximation algorithms for a large class of bicriteria network design problems for the above mentioned criteria. The following general types of results are presented. First, they develop a framework for bicriteria problems and their approximations. Second, when the two criteria are the same they present a black box parametric search technique. This black box takes in as input an (approximation) algorithm for the criterion situation and generates an approximation algorithm for the bicriteria case with only a constant factor loss in the performance guarantee. Third, when the two criteria are the diameter and the total edge costs they use a cluster based approach to devise approximation algorithms. The solutions violate both the criteria by a logarithmic factor. Finally, for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs, they provide pseudopolynomial-time algorithms for a number of bicriteria problems using dynamic programming. The authors show how these pseudopolynomial-time algorithms can be converted to fully polynomial-time approximation schemes using a scaling technique.
Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.
Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong
2015-11-01
The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.
Chou, Kai-Seng
2001-01-01
Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.
[Halitosis. A common problem].
Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M
2011-12-01
Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis.
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sivertsen, B.
1995-09-01
This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table
Computational problems in engineering
Mladenov, Valeri
2014-01-01
This book provides readers with modern computational techniques for solving variety of problems from electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering. Mathematical methods are presented in a unified manner, so they can be applied consistently to problems in applied electromagnetics, strength of materials, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, signal processing, automatic control and more. • Features contributions from distinguished researchers on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics; • Presents actual results and innovative methods that provide numerical solutions, while minimizing computing times; • Includes new and advanced methods and modern variations of known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
Revisiting the Lambert's Problem
Izzo, Dario
2014-01-01
The orbital boundary value problem, also known as Lambert Problem, is revisited. Building upon Lancaster and Blanchard approach, new relations are revealed and a new variable representing all problem classes, under L-similarity, is used to express the time of flight equation. In the new variable, the time of flight curves have two oblique asymptotes and they mostly appear to be conveniently approximated by piecewise continuous lines. We use and invert such a simple approximation to provide an efficient initial guess to an Householder iterative method that is then able to converge, for the single revoltuion case, in only two iterations. The resulting algorithm is compared to Gooding's procedure revealing to be numerically as accurate, while having a smaller computational complexity.
A Survey of Transportation Problems
2014-01-01
This paper aims at being a guide to understand the different types of transportation problems by presenting a survey of mathematical models and algorithms used to solve different types of transportation modes (ship, plane, train, bus, truck, Motorcycle, Cars, and others) by air, water, space, cables, tubes, and road. Some problems are as follows: bus scheduling problem, delivery problem, combining truck trip problem, open vehicle routing problem, helicopter routing problem, truck loading p...
Electric circuits problem solver
REA, Editors of
2012-01-01
Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av
Matrices in Engineering Problems
Tobias, Marvin
2011-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator's contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff's laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm.
Calculus problems and solutions
Ginzburg, A
2011-01-01
Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif
Advanced calculus problem solver
REA, Editors of
2012-01-01
Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of advanced calculus currently av
Problems in classical mechanics
Katkar, L N
2014-01-01
Problems in classical mechanics presents a lucid treatment of the formulations of Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and the Principles of Calculus of Variations etc. important for the study of modern physics. The study of classical mechanics prepares students to apply the principles and the mathematical tools to solve real life problems. The book also incorporates and discusses in detail topics such as Central Force Motion, Rigid Body Motion and Canonical Transformations. KEY FEATURES: Around 200 solved examples with complete mathematical theory Around 70 examples given as an exercise to test and develop students understanding The physical interpretation of the Hamiltonian is highlighted
Problems over Information Systems
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
The problems of estimation of the minimum average time complexity of decision trees and design of efficient algorithms are complex in general case. The upper bounds described in Chap. 2.4.3 can not be applied directly due to large computational complexity of the parameter M(z). Under reasonable assumptions about the relation of P and NP, there are no polynomial time algorithms with good approximation ratio [12, 32]. One of the possible solutions is to consider particular classes of problems and improve the existing results using characteristics of the considered classes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Kogan, VI; Gersch, Harold
2011-01-01
Written by a pair of distinguished Soviet mathematicians, this compilation presents 160 lucidly expressed problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics plus completely worked-out solutions. Some were drawn from the authors' courses at the Moscow Institute of Engineering, but most were prepared especially for this book. A high-level supplement rather than a primary text, it constitutes a masterful complement to advanced undergraduate and graduate texts and courses in quantum mechanics.The mathematics employed in the proofs of the problems-asymptotic expansions of functions, Green's functions, u
Minimal Controllability Problems
Olshevsky, Alex
2013-01-01
Given a linear system, we consider the problem of finding a small set of variables to affect with an input so that the resulting system is controllable. We show that this problem is NP-hard; indeed, we show that even approximating the minimum number of variables that need to be affected within a multiplicative factor of $c \\log n$ is NP-hard for some positive $c$. On the positive side, we show it is possible to find sets of variables matching this inapproximability barrier in polynomial time....
Classic Problems of Probability
Gorroochurn, Prakash
2012-01-01
"A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
2011-01-01
At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ovesen, Nis
2015-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) is becoming increasingly popular in design educations, but how is it taught and practiced? This paper presents a case study of a three-day workshop that has the purpose of introducing PBL to design students. A theoretical background on PBL and problems in design...... is established and is backing up the case study. The study shows that design engineering and architectural students without experience in PBL in general finds the approach to be beneficial when working on a design challenge in a student team....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
2011-01-01
At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games....
Pratelli, Aldo
2016-01-01
This book presents a series of lectures on three of the best known examples of free discontinuity problems: the Mumford-Shah model for image segmentation, a variational model for the epitaxial growth of thin films, and the sharp interface limit of the Ohta-Kawasaki model for pattern formation in dyblock copolymers.
Aeroelastic problems in turbomachines
Bendiksen, Oddvar O.
1993-01-01
An overview is given of aeroelastic problems in turbomachines, emphasizing recent research. Unsteady flow in cascade and turbomachinery rotors is discussed, including supersonic and transonic linearized potential flow and nonlinear flow models. Computational and modeling aspects of the flutter of fan and compressor blades are examined. The correlation of the findings with experimental data is considered. Future directions in turbomachinery aeroelasticity are addressed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj
. In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...
Problem Solving Using Microcomputers.
Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert
1987-01-01
It is argued that microcomputer technology has evolved to the stage that it should be routinely used by mathematics students at all levels. It is shown how the use of microcomputers can change the way problems are solved. Computer-generated graphics are highlighted. (PK)
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Managing soil remediation problems.
Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A
1996-12-01
Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Olson, Alton T.
1993-01-01
Presents a series of solution methods to the Eight Queens Problem of placing eight queens on a chess board so that no one queen can capture another. Solution methods progress from empirical approaches to the use of computer algorithms. Geometric transformations are used to find other solutions. (MDH)
Environmental Health Problems.
Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud
2016-01-01
projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...
The Vehicle Rescheduling Problem
R. Spliet (Remy); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); R. Dekker (Rommert)
2009-01-01
textabstractThe capacitated vehicle routing problem is to find a routing schedule describing the order in which geographically dispersed customers are visited to satisfy demand by supplying goods stored at the depot, such that the traveling costs are minimized. In many practical applications, a long
Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.
1970-01-01
Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…
Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.
1970-01-01
Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…
Universal Design Problem Solving
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
Postoperative upper airway problems
African Journals Online (AJOL)
QuickSilver
2003-06-09
Jun 9, 2003 ... REVIEW ARTICLE. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - May 2003. 12. Postoperative upper airway problems way. A number of factors, some avoidable, influence the incidence ... debilitating pain, inability to swallow and temporary voice changes, and are a ..... decrease airway resistance.
The information recovery problem
Baccetti, Valentina; Terno, Daniel R
2016-01-01
The problem of rescuing unitary matter evolution on a black hole spacetime remains unresolved. We argue that some prominent cures are more troubling than the disease, demonstrate that their central element --- forming of the event horizon before the evaporation begins --- is not necessarily true, and describe a fully coupled matter-gravity system which is manifestly unitary.
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘香情; 钱丹
2002-01-01
With the population growing, a lot of problems have come out, Nowadays a lot of tall buildings have been built, but the houses are still very short; A lot of cars and buses have increased, but they are still crowded with people; A lot of schools have been built,
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
A review on CP violation in the B and K mesons systems is given, which, we hope may familiarize new Belle members in the basic ingredients of this topic, which is one of the most challenging problems of experimental high energy physics.
Currier, Sarah Cox
2015-01-01
In this article, Sarah Currier, a math specialist at Elizabeth Hall International School in Minnesota, describes how she used origami in a deliberate manner to teach content. She shares how she uses paper folding to teach mathematical concepts, reinforce vocabulary, and as a problem-solving model. She also offers ideas for using origami in other…
Team Learning on Messy Problems
Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.
2007-01-01
Concentrates on procedures used to foster group learning for a particular type of problem, the so-called messy problem. The distinctive feature of messy problems is that the people involved have different ideas on what the problem is or whether there even is a problem. Nevertheless, those involved
Team Learning on Messy Problems
Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.
2007-01-01
Concentrates on procedures used to foster group learning for a particular type of problem, the so-called messy problem. The distinctive feature of messy problems is that the people involved have different ideas on what the problem is or whether there even is a problem. Nevertheless, those involved i
A model for routing problem in quay management problem
Zirour, Mourad; Oughalime, Ahmed; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Omar, Khairuddin
2014-06-01
Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), like Vehicle Routing Problem, is one of those optimization problems that interests many researchers in the last decades. The Quay Management Problem is a specific problem which could be presented as a QAP which involves a double assignment of customers and products toward loading positions using lifting trucks. This study focuses on the routing problem while delivering the customers' demands. In this problem, lifting trucks will route around the storage sections to collect the products then deliver to the customers who are assigned to specific loading positions. The objective of minimizing the residence time for each customer is sought. This paper presents the problem and the proposed model.
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egeblad, Jens
In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra...... methods. Two important problem variants are the knapsack packing problem and the strip-packing problem. In the knapsack packing problem, each item is given a profit value, and the problem asks for the subset with maximal profit that can be placed within one container. The strip-packing problem asks...
No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Ornelas Marques
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.
No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Ornelas Marques
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.
Scattering problems in elastodynamics
Diatta, Andre; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien
2016-09-01
In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasistatic regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.
Scattering problems in elastodynamics
Diatta, Andre; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien
2016-01-01
In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasi-static regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Graaff, Erik; Guerra, Aida
, the key principles remain the same everywhere. Graaff & Kolmos (2003) identify the main PBL principles as follows: 1. Problem orientation 2. Project organization through teams or group work 3. Participant-directed 4. Experiental learning 5. Activity-based learning 6. Interdisciplinary learning and 7......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative method to organize the learning process in such a way that the students actively engage in finding answers by themselves. During the past 40 years PBL has evolved and diversified resulting in a multitude in variations in models and practices. However....... Exemplary practice. The University of Aalborg in Denmark started with PBL right from the start when the school was founded merging several educational institutes in Northern Denmark in 1974. The Aalborg PBL model is recognized around the world as an example or a source of inspiration, in particular...
The Boolean Isomorphism problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agrawal, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Thierauf, T. [Universitaet Ulm (Germany)
1996-12-31
We investigate the computational complexity of the Boolean Isomorphism problem (BI): on input of two Boolean formulas F and G decide whether there exists a permutation of the variables of G such that F and G become equivalent. Our main result is a one-round interactive proof for BI, where the verifier has access to an NP oracle. To obtain this, we use a recent result from learning theory by Bshouty et.al. that Boolean formulas can be learned probabilistically with equivalence queries and access to an NP oracle. As a consequence, BI cannot be {sigma}{sup p}{sub 2} complete unless the Polynomial Hierarchy collapses. This solves an open problem posed in [BRS95]. Further properties of BI are shown: BI has And- and Or-functions, the counting version, No. BI, can be computed in polynomial time relative to BI, and BI is self-reducible.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王锡凡; 王秀丽
2000-01-01
The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator’s contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff’s laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm .
Medical problems in pregnancy.
Narayan, Bhaskar; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine
2016-12-01
The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy. This includes prepregnancy measures such as counselling and optimisation of medical therapy, as well as multidisciplinary management throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute and chronic illness is of clear benefit, and most drugs and many radiological investigations may be used in pregnancy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pešić Jelena M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with various reasons for treating the problematisation of textbook discourse as an important aspect of its educational design. These reasons are derived from: the nature of learning process, the nature of scientific knowledge and both motivational and cognitive saint achieved through a problematisation of learning material. Implications drawn from these considerations, along with textbook genre possibilities and constrains, lead us to define some basic strategies of textbook discourse problematisation. They refer to: way of presenting knowledge (problem structuring of text, presenting the history of knowledge and different perspectives; use of specific questions and tasks; metacognitive support of the learning process and specific type of textbook language (dialogical problem focused, language of thinking.
Problems in Cybersemiotic Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brier, Søren
2014-01-01
the Peircean theory of the observer as the phaneroscopic foundation. 4. Cobley points out that both models, as they are combined in Cybersemiotics lacks to integrate a theory of interest and power. They are too consensual in their view on communication. This is a general problem in both theories. Still Luhmann......Going from an empirical to an informational paradigm of cognition and communication, does not really help us to analyze, how the living systems manage to make a meaningful interpretation of environment that is useful for their survival and procreation. Other models are needed. 1. There is von...... Uexküll’s cybernetic-behavioral model, which has the problem of being placed in a Platonic, static worldview. The Umwelt of an animal is a construction limited of its functional realism of survival. It is connected to the species. 2. Ture von Uexküll and Søren Brier both realized that Maturana and Varela...
Enumula, Prabodh K
2008-01-01
This paper proposes the Potluck Problem as a model for the behavior of independent producers and consumers under standard economic assumptions. We model this by using resource allocation in a multi-agent system in which there is no explicit communication among the agents. The model proposed has many applications in modeling systems like electrical power grids with many consumers and producers, service-on-demand in grid computing and peer-to-peer computing environments, maintaining a good ratio between demand and inventory in supply chain management, etc. It is observed that a rational learning approach is unable to achieve equilibrium or near-equilibrium in the Potluck Problem. Instead, a weighted majority learning algorithm is applied, which does much better in maintaining parity of supply and demand in varying-demand situations.
1979-01-01
The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher......Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... and participants and was documented by qualitative methods. This paper presents an academic literature review on Appreciative Inquiry and problem solving for continuous improvements that did not reveal successful attempts in combining the two.Both the literature and the empirical study showed one of the main...
CHIH HSUN HSIEH
2011-01-01
The work presented in this paper has been motivated primarily by Zadeh's idea of linguistic variables intended to provide rigorous mathematical modeling of natural language and CWW, Computing With Words. This paper reports some modeling of the linguistic inventory problems where CWW have been implemented: linguistic production inventory, linguistic inventory models under linguistic demand and linguistic lead time, linguistic production inventory models based on the preference of a decision ma...
2016-07-22
techniques and the use of sphere packing results in analyzing the performance of the two approximation algorithms may also find other applications in...problem in 2-D networks. We then develop two polynomial-time approximation algorithms that offer and approximation ratios for general directed hypergraphs...eavesdropperswitharbitraryunknownloca- tions (the so-called1.5-Dnetworks).Weproposea linear-complexity algorithm based on nested backward induction that obtains the op- timal solution
Creativity and problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
Europeanisation: Solution or problem?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio M. Radaelli
2004-10-01
Full Text Available Is there something new in recent research on Europeanisation? Or should we go back to what we already know about political integration in Europe and avoid the term? This article reviews recent work in four steps: the identification of the specific domain of Europeanisation; the relationship between Europeanisation, on the one hand, and governance, institutions, and discourse, on the other; the methodological problems and the models emerging in this new field of research; and an assessment of the results arising out of theoretical and empirical research. One theme throughout the article is that, in order to develop a progressive agenda, Europeanisation should be seen as a problem, not as a solution. It is neither a new theory, nor an ad-hoc approach. Rather, it is a way of orchestrating existing concepts and to contribute to cumulative research in political science. Europeanisation does not provide any simple fix to theoretical or empirical problems. Quite the opposite, it can deliver if approached as a set of puzzles. A problem in search of explanation not the explanation itself (Gualini 2003. The conclusion is that Europeanisation has contributed to the emergence of new insights, original explanations, and interesting questions on three important issues: the understanding and analysis of 'impact', how to endogeneise international governance in models of domestic politics, and the relationship between agency and change. These three issues are prominent in the research agendas of international relations, theoretical policy analysis, and comparative politics. To contribute to major issues at the core of political science is a valuable result for a relatively new field of inquiry.
Martinez-Camara, Marta; Dokmanic, Ivan; Ranieri, Juri; Scheibler, Robin; Vetterli, Martin; STOHL Andreas
2013-01-01
Knowing what amount of radioactive material was released from Fukushima in March 2011 and at what time instants is crucial to assess the risk, the pollution, and to understand the scope of the consequences. Moreover, it could be used in forward simulations to obtain accurate maps of deposition. But these data are often not publicly available. We propose to estimate the emission waveforms by solving an inverse problem. Previous approaches have relied on a detailed expert guess of how the relea...
Localized Geometric Query Problems
Augustine, John; Maheshwari, Anil; Nandy, Subhas C; Roy, Sasanka; Sarvattomananda, Swami
2011-01-01
A new class of geometric query problems are studied in this paper. We are required to preprocess a set of geometric objects $P$ in the plane, so that for any arbitrary query point $q$, the largest circle that contains $q$ but does not contain any member of $P$, can be reported efficiently. The geometric sets that we consider are point sets and boundaries of simple polygons.
Gol'dman, I I
2010-01-01
A comprehensive collection of problems of varying degrees of difficulty in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, with answers and completely worked-out solutions. Among the topics: one-dimensional motion, transmission through a potential barrier, commutation relations, angular momentum and spin, and motion of a particle in a magnetic field. An ideal adjunct to any textbook in quantum mechanics, useful in courses in atomic and nuclear physics, mathematical methods in physics, quantum statistics and applied differential equations. 1961 edition.
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?”The r...
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mao-Che Wang
2005-08-01
Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.
Ruskey, Frank; Williams, Aaron
In the classic Josephus problem, elements 1, 2,...,n are placed in order around a circle and a skip value k is chosen. The problem proceeds in n rounds, where each round consists of traveling around the circle from the current position, and selecting the kth remaining element to be eliminated from the circle. After n rounds, every element is eliminated. Special attention is given to the last surviving element, denote it by j. We generalize this popular problem by introducing a uniform number of lives ℓ, so that elements are not eliminated until they have been selected for the ℓth time. We prove two main results: 1) When n and k are fixed, then j is constant for all values of ℓ larger than the nth Fibonacci number. In other words, the last surviving element stabilizes with respect to increasing the number of lives. 2) When n and j are fixed, then there exists a value of k that allows j to be the last survivor simultaneously for all values of ℓ. In other words, certain skip values ensure that a given position is the last survivor, regardless of the number of lives. For the first result we give an algorithm for determining j (and the entire sequence of selections) that uses O(n 2) arithmetic operations.
Quantum Counterfeit Coin Problems
Iwama, Kazuo; Raymond, Rudy; Teruyama, Junichi
2010-01-01
The counterfeit coin problem requires us to find all false coins from a given bunch of coins using a balance scale. We assume that the balance scale gives us only ``balanced'' or ``tilted'' information and that we know the number k of false coins in advance. The balance scale can be modeled by a certain type of oracle and its query complexity is a measure for the cost of weighing algorithms (the number of weighings). In this paper, we study the quantum query complexity for this problem. Let Q(k,N) be the quantum query complexity of finding all k false coins from the N given coins. We show that for any k and N such that k < N/2, Q(k,N)=O(k^{1/4}), contrasting with the classical query complexity, \\Omega(k\\log(N/k)), that depends on N. So our quantum algorithm achieves a quartic speed-up for this problem. We do not have a matching lower bound, but we show some evidence that the upper bound is tight: any algorithm, including our algorithm, that satisfies certain properties needs \\Omega(k^{1/4}) queries.
Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone
2005-08-01
Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.
Wang, Frédéric
2010-01-01
We give an overview of the Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP) as of July 2010, including new results discovered since the survey of arXiv:quant-ph/0411037v1. We recall how the problem provides a framework for efficient quantum algorithms and present the standard methods based on coset sampling. We study the Dihedral and Symmetric HSPs and how they relate to hard problems on lattices and graphs. Finally, we conclude with the known solutions and techniques, describe connections with efficient algorithms as well as miscellaneous variants of HSP. We also bring various contributions to the topic. We show that in theory, we can solve HSP over a given group inductively: the base case is solving HSP over its simple factor groups and the inductive step is building efficient oracles over a normal subgroup N and over the factor group G/N. We apply this analysis to the Dedekindian HSP to get an alternative abelian HSP algorithm based on a change of the underlying group. We also propose a quotient reduction by the normal group...
Random eigenvalue problems revisited
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Adhikari
2006-08-01
The description of real-life engineering structural systems is associated with some amount of uncertainty in specifying material properties, geometric parameters, boundary conditions and applied loads. In the context of structural dynamics it is necessary to consider random eigenvalue problems in order to account for these uncertainties. Within the engineering literature, current methods to deal with such problems are dominated by approximate perturbation methods. Some exact methods to obtain joint distribution of the natural frequencies are reviewed and their applicability in the context of real-life engineering problems is discussed. A new approach based on an asymptotic approximation of multi-dimensional integrals is proposed. A closed-form expression for general order joint moments of arbitrary numbers of natural frequencies of linear stochastic systems is derived. The proposed method does not employ the ‘small randomness’ assumption usually used in perturbation based methods. Joint distributions of the natural frequencies are investigated using numerical examples and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation.
Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems
Mairing, Jackson Pasini
2017-01-01
Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…
Characteristics of Problems in Problem-based Learning
N. Sockalingam (Nachamma)
2010-01-01
textabstractThis thesis focuses on characteristics of problems in Problem-based Learning (PBL). Problems initiate the students’ learning process in PBL. Several studies have shown that the quality of problems has a positive influence on students’ academic achievement and interest. In addition, the q
Characteristics of Problems in Problem-based Learning
N. Sockalingam (Nachamma)
2010-01-01
textabstractThis thesis focuses on characteristics of problems in Problem-based Learning (PBL). Problems initiate the students’ learning process in PBL. Several studies have shown that the quality of problems has a positive influence on students’ academic achievement and interest. In addition, the
Obstacle problems in mathematical physics
Rodrigues, J-F
1987-01-01
The aim of this research monograph is to present a general account of the applicability of elliptic variational inequalities to the important class of free boundary problems of obstacle type from a unifying point of view of classical Mathematical Physics.The first part of the volume introduces some obstacle type problems which can be reduced to variational inequalities. Part II presents some of the main aspects of the theory of elliptic variational inequalities, from the abstract hilbertian framework to the smoothness of the variational solution, discussing in general the properties of the free boundary and including some results on the obstacle Plateau problem. The last part examines the application to free boundary problems, namely the lubrication-cavitation problem, the elastoplastic problem, the Signorini (or the boundary obstacle) problem, the dam problem, the continuous casting problem, the electrochemical machining problem and the problem of the flow with wake in a channel past a profile.
Analysis of the tracing problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nanfeng Jie; Hui Wang; YunqingSun
2005-01-01
Here the tracing problems are researched from two thoroughly different approaches: calculus method and numerical analysis. Generally speaking, the calculus method give a universal qualitative way to deal with such kind of problem, but the numerical analysis method can offer more further quantitative result for such kind of problem. Our research shows the detail results of application of these two methods in tracing problem.
Creating Games from Mathematical Problems
Pinter, Klara
2011-01-01
The emphasis on problem solving and problem solving courses has become a standard staple of most teacher preparation programs in mathematics. While opinions differ on whether problem solving should be integrated throughout the preparatory courses or teachers should also have a dedicated course for it, everybody agrees that problem solving skills…
Dimensions of problem based learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch
2013-01-01
The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning...
Problem Order Implications for Learning
Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
2013-01-01
The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…
Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mijanur Rahaman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Balacheff, Nicolas; Bottino, Rosa Maria
2016-01-01
settings across Europe. However, to strengthen the various research practices and to develop a common scientific language on TEL research the Grand Challenge Problem is to establish a vivid network and a community of practice among the research labs. TELEARC (Technology Enhanced Learning European Advanced......Small and medium sized research labs (SMLs) are dominating European TEL research. This is justified by the great numbers of countries and regions in Europe needing to develop a research and innovation competence to facilitate the diverse educational systems contextualized in various institutional...... Research Consortium) has been established to realize such a network. The chapter presents the framework of TELEARC....
The Gilbert Arborescence Problem
Volz, M G; Ras, C J; Swanepoel, K J; Thomas, D A
2009-01-01
We investigate the problem of designing a minimum cost flow network interconnecting n sources and a single sink, each with known locations and flows. The network may contain other unprescribed nodes, known as Steiner points. For concave increasing cost functions, a minimum cost network of this sort has a tree topology, and hence can be called a Minimum Gilbert Arborescence (MGA). We characterise the local topological structure of Steiner points in MGAs, showing, in particular, that for a wide range of metrics and cost-functions the degree of each Steiner point is 3.
Elementary topology problem textbook
Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M
2008-01-01
This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr
Respiratory problems in acromegaly.
Murrant, N J; Gatland, D J
1990-01-01
Death from respiratory causes in acromegaly is three times more common than in the general population and is most often the result of upper airways obstruction, although less commonly pulmonary dysfunction and disturbance of the central nervous system may occur. These factors may be found alone or in combination. Despite several reports of laryngeal involvement, upper airway obstruction in acromegaly is usually regarded as being due to macroglossia and pharyngeal soft tissue hypertrophy. We present four cases of acromegaly in which tracheostomy was required for laryngeal obstruction, with a review of the literature concerning the nature of respiratory problems in acromegaly.
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
Amiano, Mitch; Ethier, Kay; Thomas, Michael D
2006-01-01
Offering a unique approach to learning XML, this book walks readers through the process of building a complete, functional, end-to-end XML solutionFeatured case study is an online business product catalog that includes reports, data input/output, workflow, stylesheet formatting, RSS feeds, and integration with external services like Google, eBay, and AmazonThe format of presenting a problem and working through the design to come up with a solution enables readers to understand how XML markup allows a business to share data across applications internally or with partners or customers even thoug
Deser, S; Ong, Y C; Waldron, A
2014-01-01
The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed timelike/causal curves). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of massive gravity theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj
The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janstrup, Kira
2010-01-01
The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...
Double pendulum contact problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Špička J.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The work concerns contact problems focused on biomechanical systems modelled by a multibody approach. The example is modelling of impact between a body and an infrastructure. The paper firstly presents algorithm for minimum distance calculation. An analytical approach using a tangential plain perpendicular to an initial one is applied. Contact force generated during impact is compared by three different continuous force models, namely the Hertz’s model, the spring-dashpot model and the non-linear damping model. In order to identify contact parameters of these particular models, the method of numerical optimization is used. Purpose of this method is to find the most corresponding results of numerical simulation to the original experiment. Numerical optimization principle is put upon a bouncing ball example for the purpose of evaluation of desirable contact force parameters. The contact modelling is applied to a double pendulum problem. The equation of motion of the double pendulum system is derived using Lagrange equation of the second kind with multipliers, respecting the contact phenomena. Applications in biomechanical research are hinted at arm gravity motion and a double pendulum impact example.
Some Undecidable Problems on Approximability of NP Optimization Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄雄
1996-01-01
In this paper some undecidable problems on approximability of NP optimization problems are investigated.In particular,the following problems are all undecidable:(1) Given an NP optimization problem,is it approximable in polynomial time?(2)For any polynomial-time computable function r(n),given a polynomial time approximable NP optimization problem,has it a polynomial-time approximation algorithm with approximation performance ratio r(n) (r(n)-approximable)?(3)For any polynomial-time computable functions r(n),r'(n),where r'(n)
Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009
2009-01-01
Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…
Abstraction and Problem Reformulation
Giunchiglia, Fausto
1992-01-01
In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are
The supersymmetric flavor problem
Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, Savas; Sutter, Dave
1995-01-01
The supersymmetric SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1) theory with minimal particle content and general soft supersymmetry breaking terms has 110 physical parameters in its flavor sector: 30 masses, 39 real mixing angles and 41 phases. The absence of an experimental indication for the plethora of new parameters places severe constraints on theories posessing Planck or GUT-mass particles and suggests that theories of flavor conflict with naturalness. We illustrate the problem by studying the processes \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma and K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing which are very sensitive probes of Planckian physics: a single Planck mass particle coupled to the electron or the muon with a Yukawa coupling comparable to the gauge coupling typically leads to a rate for \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma exceeding the present experimental limits. A possible solution is that the messengers which transmit supersymmetry breaking to the ordinary particles are much lighter than M_{\\rm Planck}.
Routing and scheduling problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander
be that the objects routed have an availability time window and a delivery time window or that locations on the path have a service time window. When routing moving transportation objects such as vehicles and vessels schedules are made in connection with the routing. Such schedules represent the time for the presence...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...... of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...
Edmondson, Amy C
2016-06-01
Companies today increasingly rely on teams that span many industries for radical innovation, especially to solve "wicked problems." So leaders have to understand how to promote collaboration when roles are uncertain, goals are shifting, expertise and organizational cultures are varied, and participants have clashing or even antagonistic perspectives. HBS professor Amy Edmondson has studied more than a dozen cross-industry innovation projects, among them the creation of a new city, a mango supply-chain transformation, and the design and construction of leading-edge buildings. She has identified the leadership practices that make successful cross-industry teams work: fostering an adaptable vision, promoting psychological safety, enabling knowledge sharing, and encouraging collaborative innovation. Though these practices are broadly familiar, their application within cross-industry teams calls for unique leadership approaches that combine flexibility, open-mindedness, humility, and fierce resolve.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
G. Shanmugam
2015-01-01
The synonymous use of the general term“landslide”, with a built-in reference to a sliding motion, for all varieties of mass-transport deposits (MTD), which include slides, slumps, debrites, topples, creeps, debris avalanches etc. in subaerial, sublacustrine, sub-marine, and extraterrestrial environments has created a multitude of conceptual and nomen-clatural problems. In addition, concepts of triggers and long-runout mechanisms of mass movements are loosely applied without rigor. These problems have enormous implications for studies in process sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, palaeogeography, petroleum geol-ogy, and engineering geology. Therefore, the objective of this critical review is to identify key problems and to provide conceptual clarity and possible solutions. Speciifc issues are the fol-lowing:(1) According to“limit equilibrium analyses”in soil mechanics, sediment failure with a sliding motion is initiated over a shear surface when the factor of safety for slope stability (F) is less than 1. However, the term landslide is not meaningful for debris lfows with a lfowing mo-tion. (2) Sliding motion can be measured in oriented core and outcrop, but such measurement is not practical on seismic proifles or radar images. (3) Although 79 MTD types exist in the geological and engineering literature, only slides, slumps, and debrites are viable depositional facies for interpreting ancient stratigraphic records. (4) The use of the term landslide for high-velocity debris avalanches is inappropriate because velocities of mass-transport processes cannot be determined in the rock record. (5) Of the 21 potential triggering mechanisms of sediment failures, frequent short-term events that last for only a few minutes to several hours or days (e.g., earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, etc.) are more relevant in controlling deposition of deep-water sands than sporadic long-term events that last for thousands to millions of years (e
Instrumentation problems for physicians.
Turner, G O
1980-01-01
The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Margulies
2004-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study a specific stochastic differential equation depending on a parameter and obtain a representation of its probability density function in terms of Jacobi Functions. The equation arose in a control problem with a quadratic performance criteria. The quadratic performance is used to eliminate the control in the standard Hamilton-Jacobi variational technique. The resulting stochastic differential equation has a noise amplitude which complicates the solution. We then solve Kolmogorov's partial differential equation for the probability density function by using Jacobi Functions. A particular value of the parameter makes the solution a Martingale and in this case we prove that the solution goes to zero almost surely as time tends to infinity.
Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R
2013-10-01
Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walkup, Elizabeth [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
2016-06-01
Passwords are an ubiquitous, established part of the Internet today, but they are also a huge security headache. Single sign-on, OAuth, and password managers are some of the solutions to this problem. OAuth is a new, popular method that allows people to use large, common authentication providers for many web applications. However, it comes at the expense of some privacy: OAuth makes users easy to track across websites, applications, and devices. Password managers put the power in the hands of the users, but this vulnerability survey reveals that you have to be extremely careful which program you choose. All in all, password managers are the solution of choice for home users and small organizations, but large companies will probably want to invest in their own SSO solutions.
Benson, Brian
2007-01-01
In this paper we study the Three Hat Problem which appeared in Puzzle Corner of the Technology Review magazine. This puzzle gives a scenario in which three players wearing hats are sitting together and each hat can be seen by everyone except the player that is wearing that hat. Each player is told that all of the hats contain a positive integer and that two of the integers add to the third. In an ordered, turn-wise, modular fashion, each player truthfully states whether or not he knows his integer. We give a strategy which allows for one of the players to solve for his integer for all possible integer configurations of the puzzle and prove it is the optimal such strategy.
Gaussian quantum marginal problem
Eisert, J; Sanders, B C; Tyc, T
2007-01-01
The quantum marginal problem asks what local spectra are consistent with a given state of a composite quantum system. This setting, also referred to as the question of the compatibility of local spectra, has several applications in quantum information theory. Here, we introduce the analogue of this statement for Gaussian states for any number of modes, and solve it in generality, for pure and mixed states, both concerning necessary and sufficient conditions. Formally, our result can be viewed as an analogue of the Sing-Thompson Theorem (respectively Horn's Lemma), characterizing the relationship between main diagonal elements and singular values of a complex matrix: We find necessary and sufficient conditions for vectors (d1, ..., dn) and (c1, ..., cn) to be the symplectic eigenvalues and symplectic main diagonal elements of a strictly positive real matrix, respectively. More physically speaking, this result determines what local temperatures or entropies are consistent with a pure or mixed Gaussian state of ...
Muna, Demitri; Allen, Alice; Ashley, Richard; Asmus, Daniel; Azzollini, Ruyman; Bannister, Michele; Beaton, Rachael; Benson, Andrew; Berriman, G Bruce; Bilicki, Maciej; Boyce, Peter; Bridge, Joanna; Cami, Jan; Cangi, Eryn; Chen, Xian; Christiny, Nicholas; Clark, Christopher; Collins, Michelle; Comparat, Johan; Cook, Neil; Croton, Darren; Davids, Isak Delberth; Depagne, Éric; Donor, John; Santos, Leonardo A dos; Douglas, Stephanie; Du, Alan; Durbin, Meredith; Erb, Dawn; Faes, Daniel; Fernández-Trincado, J G; Foley, Anthony; Fotopoulou, Sotiria; Frimann, Søren; Frinchaboy, Peter; Garcia-Dias, Rafael; Gawryszczak, Artur; George, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Sebastian; Gordon, Karl; Gorgone, Nicholas; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Grasha, Katie; Greenfield, Perry; Grellmann, Rebekka; Guillochon, James; Gurwell, Mark; Haas, Marcel; Hagen, Alex; Haggard, Daryl; Haines, Tim; Hall, Patrick; Hellwing, Wojciech; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Hinton, Samuel; Hlozek, Renee; Hoffman, John; Holman, Derek; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Horton, Anthony; Hummels, Cameron; Jacobs, Daniel; Jensen, Jens Juel; Jones, David; Karick, Arna; Kelley, Luke; Kenworthy, Matthew; Kitchener, Ben; Klaes, Dominik; Kohn, Saul; Konorski, Piotr; Krawczyk, Coleman; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuutma, Teet; Lam, Michael T; Lane, Richard; Liske, Jochen; Lopez-Camara, Diego; Mack, Katherine; Mangham, Sam; Mao, Qingqing; Marsh, David J E; Mateu, Cecilia; Maurin, Loïc; McCormac, James; Momcheva, Ivelina; Monteiro, Hektor; Mueller, Michael; Munoz, Roberto; Naidu, Rohan; Nelson, Nicholas; Nitschelm, Christian; North, Chris; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Ogaz, Sara; Owen, Russell; Parejko, John; Patrício, Vera; Pepper, Joshua; Perrin, Marshall; Pickering, Timothy; Piscionere, Jennifer; Pogge, Richard; Poleski, Radek; Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Price-Whelan, Adrian M; Rawls, Meredith L; Read, Shaun; Rees, Glen; Rein, Hanno; Rice, Thomas; Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Rusomarov, Naum; Sanchez, Sebastian F; Santander-García, Miguel; Sarid, Gal; Schoenell, William; Scholz, Aleks; Schuhmann, Robert L; Schuster, William; Scicluna, Peter; Seidel, Marja; Shao, Lijing; Sharma, Pranav; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Shupe, David; Sifón, Cristóbal; Simmons, Brooke; Sinha, Manodeep; Skillen, Ian; Soergel, Bjoern; Spriggs, Thomas; Srinivasan, Sundar; Stevens, Abigail; Streicher, Ole; Suchyta, Eric; Tan, Joshua; Telford, O Grace; Thomas, Romain; Tonini, Chiara; Tremblay, Grant; Tuttle, Sarah; Urrutia, Tanya; Vaughan, Sam; Verdugo, Miguel; Wagner, Alexander; Walawender, Josh; Wetzel, Andrew; Willett, Kyle; Williams, Peter K G; Yang, Guang; Zhu, Guangtun; Zonca, Andrea
2016-01-01
The Astropy Project (http://astropy.org) is, in its own words, "a community effort to develop a single core package for Astronomy in Python and foster interoperability between Python astronomy packages." For five years this project has been managed, written, and operated as a grassroots, self-organized, almost entirely volunteer effort while the software is used by the majority of the astronomical community. Despite this, the project has always been and remains to this day effectively unfunded. Further, contributors receive little or no formal recognition for creating and supporting what is now critical software. This paper explores the problem in detail, outlines possible solutions to correct this, and presents a few suggestions on how to address the sustainability of general purpose astronomical software.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erik af Edholm
1975-01-01
Full Text Available The myth of the recurrence of the golden age after a period of accelerating miseries ("messianic woes" in the near future is of course not peculiar to the chiliasm of the European later middle ages. On the contrary, it belongs to the basic eschatological themes of millenarism in general. These themes are found also in Hindu tradition. To determine those general characteristics of traditional Hindu society which can contribute to an explanation of the relative unimportance of peasant rebellions and the lack of chiliastic mass movements, is not a problem to be solved within the field of the history of religions. For example, the egalitarian message of the bhakti saints, disputing the hierarchy, did not preclude that the salvationist sects did adapt to the caste system. The religious movements contributed to and gave ideological form to adjustments within the existing social structure. Obviously there was little need for millenarism in this process.
Mauroy, Alexandre; Taslakian, Perouz; Langerman, Stefan; Jungers, Raphaël
2016-09-01
A four-bar linkage is a mechanism consisting of four rigid bars which are joined by their endpoints in a polygonal chain and which can rotate freely at the joints (or vertices). We assume that the linkage lies in the 2-dimensional plane so that one of the bars is held horizontally fixed. In this paper we consider the problem of reconfiguring a four-bar linkage using an operation called a pop. Given a four-bar linkage, a pop reflects a vertex across the line defined by its two adjacent vertices along the polygonal chain. Our main result shows that for certain conditions on the lengths of the bars, the neighborhood of any configuration that can be reached by smooth motion can also be reached by pops. The proof relies on the fact that pops are described by a map on the circle with an irrational number of rotation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angelier, J.P.
1982-11-01
Ecuador used to be referred to as a typical ''banana republic'', but beginning in 1973, it became South America's second biggest oil exporter and during that same year it was admitted into the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Ecuador then established a nationalistic policy which succeeded in giving it a certain measure of control over its oil industry even if serious problems are still hindering the management of this industry. Today, Ecuador is facing an alternative: either it continues along the road it traced beginning in 1973, or else it takes a road which aims at relatively autonomous development of the national economy, or else it becomes a country which essentially lives from its oil revenues, produced and exploited by others.
Problem Teologis Ideologi Komunisme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhamad Yakub Mubaro
2017-05-01
Full Text Available It is known that the communism had affected the history of this world. This ideology had succeeded influencing a third of the world in less than one century after Karl Marx’s death and it had caused some revolutionary movements at some countries of the world. It is interesting to say that even what Marx had predicted about the history of human being in the future was not surely proven, but his ideas have been affecting people. But, the communism has serious problems related to the theological matter for sure. It could make people becoming atheist. Moreover, it could create the people hate their religion, but they could become religion’s antagonists. Marx’s hatred toward religions was expressed by the words: “Religion is the opium of the masses”. Then Lenin, another figure of the communism, did a discrimination to religious people, as well as, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong who prohibited all kinds of religious activities during their lifetime. Long time ago, thousands of Indonesian Moslems were becoming victims of a communist party in Indonesia (PKI. Nowadays, the communism doctrine begins to appear and affect some youths of Indonesia. Perhaps, it does because they have been frustrated and being disappointed by the socio-political condition which is controlled by modern capitalists. But, they have to be aware that the communism is not a solution. In fact, it is surely dangerous. It could ruin religions’ concepts. Hence, this article would try to explain some theological problems of the communism ideology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG; Jiwen(
2001-01-01
［1］Brauer, R., Representations of finite groups, in Lectures in Mathematics, Vol. 1, New York: Wiley, 1963, 133－175.［2］Feit, W. , The Representation Theory of Finite Groups, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1982.［3］Külshammer, B., Landau's theorem for p-blocks of p-solvable groups, J. Reine Angew. Math., 1990, 404: 189－191.［4］Külshammer B., Robinson, G. R., Alperin-Mckey implies Brauer's problem 21, J. Algebra, 1996, 180: 208－210.［5］Zeng Jiwen, An inequality of block invariants, J. Algebra, 1997, 193: 724－727.［6］Nagao, N., Tsushima, Y., Representations of Finite Groups, New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1989.［7］Robinson, G. R., On Brauer's k(B) problem, J. Algebra, 1992, 147: 450－455.［8］Zhang Jiping, p-regular orbits and p-blocks of defect zero, Comm. Algebra, 1993, 21(1): 299－307.［9］Xu Minyao, Huang ,Jianhua, An Introduction to Finite Groups (in Chinese), Vol. 2, Beijing: Science Press, 1999.［10］Alperin, ,J. L. , Weights for finite group, Proc. Sympos. Pure Math. , 1987, 47: 369－379.［11］Puig, L., Usami, Y., Perfect isometrics for blocks with Abelian defect groups and cyclic four inertial quotients, J. Algebra,1996.［12］Dade, E. C., Counting characters in blocks, I, Invent. Math., 1992, 109: 187－210.
Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.
Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.
Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics
Strelkov, S P
2013-01-01
Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of
An experimental study on load-peak shaving in smart homes by means of online admission control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Zhu, Guchuan
2012-01-01
This paper presents the design, implementation, and experimental results of an architecture for autonomous demand-side load management (ADSM) system for Smart Buildings in view of influencing the energy demand in the Smart Grid. In such an architecture, the management system has a layered structu...
IPTV Video Admission Control System%IPTV系统的视频接纳控制机制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
纪其进
2006-01-01
分析了IPTV系统的资源需求与网络架构,在此基础上提出了一种实现简单、易于部署的城域网视频接纳控制机制,为保证用户的视频业务体验质量提供了新的手段.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Muwonge, BK
2008-04-01
Full Text Available .K. Kalebaila, A.H. Chan, “Advanced Mobility Support in Next- Generation All-IP Wireless Networks: A Cross-Layer Approach - Part I”, Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2006 IEEE 17th International Symposium. [4] Theodor J Stewart “Decision...-Layer API for Unified Media Access). Information Society Technologies. [9] Christian James Rieser, “Biologically Inspired Cognitive Radio Engine Model Utilizing [10] N. Baldo, N. Baldo, and M. Zorzi, "Fuzzy Logic for Cross-layer Optimization...
Mandjes, M.R.H.; Uitert, M.J.G. van
2000-01-01
The first part of the paper is devoted to a transient analysis of traffic generated by bursty sources. These sources are governed by a modulating process, whose state determines the traffic rate at which the source transmits. The class of modulating processes contains e.g. on/off traffic sources wit
Problem effectiveness in a course using problem-based learning
D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); W.H. Gijselaers (Wim); H.G. Schmidt (Henk); S.B. van der Meer
1993-01-01
textabstractBackground. Problem-based learning (PBL) emphasizes active generation of learning issues by students. Both students and reachers, however, tend to worry that not all important knowledge will be acquired. To explore this question, problem effectiveness (i.e., for each problem, the degree
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Problem based learning: Cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis
W.S. de Grave; H.P.A. Boshuizen (Henny); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
1996-01-01
textabstractAn important phase of problem-based learning in a tutorial group is problem analysis. This article describes a study investigating the ongoing cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis, by analysing the verbal communication among group members, and their thinking proc
Problem effectiveness in a course using problem-based learning
D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); W.H. Gijselaers (Wim); H.G. Schmidt (Henk); S.B. van der Meer
1993-01-01
textabstractBackground. Problem-based learning (PBL) emphasizes active generation of learning issues by students. Both students and reachers, however, tend to worry that not all important knowledge will be acquired. To explore this question, problem effectiveness (i.e., for each problem, the degree
Problem based learning: Cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis
W.S. de Grave; H.P.A. Boshuizen (Henny); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
1996-01-01
textabstractAn important phase of problem-based learning in a tutorial group is problem analysis. This article describes a study investigating the ongoing cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis, by analysing the verbal communication among group members, and their thinking
Feder, Tomás
2009-06-01
Results on graph turnpike problem without distinctness, including its NP-completeness, and an O(m+n log n) algorithm, is presented. The usual turnpike problem has all pairwise distances given, but does not specify which pair of vertices w e corresponds to. There are two other problems that can be viewed as special cases of the graph turnpike problem, including the bandwidth problem and the low-distortion graph embedding problem. The aim for the turnpike problem in the NP-complete is to orient the edges with weights w i in either direction so that when the whole cycle is transversed in the real line, it returns to a chosen starting point for the cycle. An instance of the turnpike problem with or without distinctness is uniquely mappable if there exists at most one solution up to translation and choice of orientation.
ON VECTOR NETWORK EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guangya CHEN
2005-01-01
In this paper we define a concept of weak equilibrium for vector network equilibrium problems.We obtain sufficient conditions of weak equilibrium points and establish relation with vector network equilibrium problems and vector variational inequalities.
Duality in constrained location problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.
1987-01-01
The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....
Duality in constrained location problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.
1987-01-01
The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....
Sherlock Holmes, Master Problem Solver.
Ballew, Hunter
1994-01-01
Shows the connections between Sherlock Holmes's investigative methods and mathematical problem solving, including observations, characteristics of the problem solver, importance of data, questioning the obvious, learning from experience, learning from errors, and indirect proof. (MKR)
Dementia - behavior and sleep problems
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...
Sherlock Holmes, Master Problem Solver.
Ballew, Hunter
1994-01-01
Shows the connections between Sherlock Holmes's investigative methods and mathematical problem solving, including observations, characteristics of the problem solver, importance of data, questioning the obvious, learning from experience, learning from errors, and indirect proof. (MKR)
Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihailescu Marius Iulian
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and challenging branch in biometrics technologies.
Frames and extension problems II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young
2014-01-01
This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems.......This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems....
The Split Variational Inequality Problem
Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon
2010-01-01
We propose a new variational problem which we call the Split Variational Inequality Problem (SVIP). It entails finding a solution of one Variational Inequality Problem (VIP), the image of which under a given bounded linear transformation is a solution of another VIP. We construct iterative algorithms that solve such problems, under reasonable conditions, in Hilbert space and then discuss special cases, some of which are new even in Euclidean space.
Hull properties in location problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.
1983-01-01
Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances.......Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances....
Large Spectral Library Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.
2008-10-03
Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.
Bronchiectasis: still a problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zengli
2014-01-01
Objective The purpose of this descriptive review was to delineate the current knowledge of bronchiectasis in terms of prevalence,burden of disease,pathophysiology,and management.Data sources The National Library of Medicines MEDLINE and PubMed database (2005-2013) were used to conduct a search using the keyword term "bronchiectasis".The references for articles being considered for inclusion were searched from additional sources such as conference proceedings.Study selection Criteria for inclusion of articles included data outlining epidemiology,pathogenesis,diagnosis,and evidence-based guidelines for management of bronchiectasis.In assessing the quality of the articles,factors such as size of the population studied,clinical setting of the study,and whether or not the studies were prospective or retrospective were taken into consideration.Review articles were also included in our data collection.Results Despite many advances in modem medicine,bronchiectasis still remains a significant public health problem in developed countries and the developing world.It carries a significant burden worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality,as well as financially to the affected population.In addition,bronchiectasis may associate with chronic airflow obstruction,regardless of smoking status.Conclusions Bronchiectasis is a debilitating illness responsible for significant morbidity with a poor health-related quality of life.The condition has a substantial socioeconomic cost because both primary and secondary healthcare resources are frequently used and periods of sick leave are common.
Conceptual Problems in Cosmology
Vieira, F J Amaral
2011-01-01
In this essay a critical review of present conceptual problems in current cosmology is provided from a more philosophical point of view. In essence, a digression on how could philosophy help cosmologists in what is strictly their fundamental endeavor is presented. We start by recalling some examples of enduring confrontations among philosophers and physicists on what could be contributed by the formers to the day-time striving of the second ones. Then, a short review of the standard model Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walter (FLRW) of cosmology is given. It seems apparent that cosmology is living a golden age with the advent of observations of high precision. Nonetheless, a critical revisiting of the direction in which it should go on appears also needed, for misconcepts like "quantum backgrounds for cosmological classical settings" and "quantum gravity unification" have not been properly constructed up-to-date. Thus, knowledge-building in cosmology, more than in any other field, should begin with visions of...
Karpowicz, Anna
2011-01-01
The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...
Fibromyalgia and sexual problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Scarpellini
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.
Postdatism -- a perinatal problem?
Chhabra, S; Sood, S
1990-01-01
It has been traditionally accepted that maternal and fetal complications are at their lowest levels 37-42 weeks into gestation. 20% of pregnancies completed after 42 weeks gestation are thought to be affected by the postmaturity syndrome of uteroplacental insufficiency resulting in oligohydramnios, meconium passage, loss of fetal subcutaneous tissue, fetal asphyxia, and fetal death. Some workers, however, have also found that pregnancies completed between 40 and 42 weeks carry significant risk. The authors explored this question in a case-control study of 464 women seen at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences in Maharashtra, India. The cases of postdatism occurred in the absence of any other medical or obstetric problem. The operative delivery rate increased significantly among these patients compared to deliveries between 39 and 40 weeks. There was neither significant asphyxia nor perinatal loss in term completed normal patients. Asphyxia and perinatal mortality did, however, occur with postdatism. The authors note the likely role of oligohydramnios combined with placental dysfunction.
Fibromyalgia and sexual problems.
Bazzichi, L; Giacomelli, C; Rossi, A; Sernissi, F; Scarpellini, P; Consensi, A; Bombardieri, S
2012-09-28
The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012) and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM) and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients' life.
Wild, Walter J.
1980-01-01
Discusses the simplest three-body problem, known as Euler's problem. The article, intended for students in the undergraduate mathematics and physics curricula, shows how the complex equations for a specific three-body problem can be solved on a small calculator. (HM)
Problem children or harassed childhood?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Warming, Hanne
instition as stressed andnoisy, and thus it is the children they try to change (re-socialize) to solve the problems. The paper concludes that the discoruses tend to individualize structural problems with the result that a large group of children are identified as problem children rather than given better...
Parallel Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem Solvers
2015-05-01
Plemmons G. Golub and A. Sameh. High-speed computing : scientific appli- cations and algorithm design. University of Illinois Press, Champaign, Illinois , 1988...16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Sparse symmetric eigenvalue problems arise in many computational science and engineering applications such as...Eigenvalue Problem Solvers Report Title Sparse symmetric eigenvalue problems arise in many computational science and engineering applications such as
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...
Collaborative problem structuring using MARVEL
Veldhuis, G.A.; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van; Rouwette, E.; Logtens, T.W.A.
2015-01-01
When faced with wicked and messy problems, practitioners can rely on a variety of problem structuring methods (PSMs). Although previous efforts have been made to combine such methods with simulation, currently, few exist that integrate a simulation capability within problem structuring. Our
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Calvez V.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.
Depression and social problem solving.
Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C
1992-02-01
Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.
A taxonomy of inductive problems.
Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan
2014-02-01
Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.
Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egeblad, Jens
In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra......) and may be defined in any number of dimensions. Solution methods are based on theory from both computational geometry and operations research. The scientific contributions of this thesis are presented in the form of six papers and a section which introduces the many problem types and recent solution...
Yip, Vania T.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Mehrotra, Kala; Sung, Min; Lim, Choon Guan
2013-01-01
Background: The high prevalence of attention problems in children warrants concern, as it is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems. There lies a need to understand possible factors that may mediate this link so that interventions may be targeted to alleviate these mediators and interrupt the link between attention problems and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Shanmugam
2016-09-01
Full Text Available During a period of 82 years (1931–2013, 39 genetic terms were introduced for various deposits. Of the 39 terms, only ten are meaningful in understanding the true depositional origin (e.g., turbidites, the remaining 29 are just jargons (e.g., seismites, tsunamites, etc.. The genetic term “seismites”, introduced by Seilacher (1969 for recognizing palaeoearthquakes in the sedimentary record, is a misnomer. The term was introduced in haste, based on an examination of a single exposure of the Miocene Monterey Formation (10 m in California, without a rigorous scientific analysis. The fundamental problem is that earthquake is a triggering mechanism, not a depositional process. Type of triggers cannot be recognized in the ancient sedimentary record because evidence for triggers is not preserved by nature. Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS, commonly used as the criteria for interpreting seismites, are a product of liquefaction. However, liquefaction can be induced by any one of 21 triggers, which include earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, sediment loading, among others. Brecciated clasts, typically associated with earthquake-induced deposits in the Dead Sea Basin, are also common depositional products of debris flows (i.e., synsedimentary product unrelated to earthquakes. Also, various types of SSDS, such as duplex-like structures and clastic injections, can be explained by synsedimentary processes unrelated to earthquakes. Case studies of sandstone petroleum reservoirs worldwide, which include Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Bay of Bengal, reveal that there is compelling empirical evidence for sediment loading being the primary cause of SSDS. The Krishna–Godavari Basin, located on the eastern continental margin of India, is ideal for sediment failures by multiple triggering mechanisms where overpressure and liquefaction have led to multi-origin SSDS. Because tsunamis and meteorite
What is a problem?: On problem-oriented interdisciplinarity.
Schmidt, Jan C
2011-06-01
Among others, the term "problem" plays a major role in the various attempts to characterize interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity, as used synonymously in this paper. Interdisciplinarity (ID) is regarded as "problem solving among science, technology and society" and as "problem orientation beyond disciplinary constraints" (cf. Frodeman et al.: The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010). The point of departure of this paper is that the discourse and practice of ID have problems with the "problem". The objective here is to shed some light on the vague notion of "problem" in order to advocate a specific type of interdisciplinarity: problem-oriented interdisciplinarity. The outline is as follows: Taking an ex negativo approach, I will show what problem-oriented ID does not mean. Using references to well-established distinctions in philosophy of science, I will show three other types of ID that should not be placed under the umbrella term "problem-oriented ID": object-oriented ID ("ontology"), theory-oriented ID (epistemology), and method-oriented ID (methodology). Different philosophical thought traditions can be related to these distinguishable meanings. I will then clarify the notion of "problem" by looking at three systematic elements: an undesired (initial) state, a desired (goal) state, and the barriers in getting from the one to the other. These three elements include three related kinds of knowledge: systems, target, and transformation knowledge. This paper elaborates further methodological and epistemological elements of problem-oriented ID. It concludes by stressing that problem-oriented ID is the most needed as well as the most challenging type of ID.
The problem of time and the problem of quantum measurement
Singh, Tejinder P
2012-01-01
Quantum theory depends on an external classical time, and there ought to exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not depend on such a time. The demand for the existence of such a reformulation suggests that quantum theory is an approximation to a stochastic non-linear theory. The stochastic non-linearity provides a dynamical explanation for the collapse of the wave-function during a quantum measurement. Hence the problem of time and the measurement problem are related to each other: the search for a solution for the former problem naturally implies a solution for the latter problem.
Mathematical problem solving by analogy.
Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J
1991-05-01
We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.
Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems
... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes in ... of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with diabetes can ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Zelentsov
2015-01-01
shell case design SC is very high. But if the particle can penetrate the shell, then the opposite side is possible breakaway material of construction and the resulting fragments can cause serious damage to equipment and communications satellites.Height SD placed unevenly. The maximum amount of it is concentrated in the most exploited heights: geostationary orbits, sun-synchronous orbit and low orbit. Fragments of SD "live" in OKP different times. At low altitudes (200 ... 400 km - from a few weeks to a year, on the sun-synchronous orbit for decades and geostationary hundreds of years.At present, the space-facing two problems: first how to protect spacecraft from damage to the small debris and clean as the second TFC from the existing SD there and take measures to eliminate clogging OKP new launches of spacecraft.
Survey Based Reviewof Elicitation Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sidra Arshad
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Any software development process is the combination of multiple development activities and each activity has a vital role in the software development cycle. Requirement Engineering is the main and basic branch of Software Engineering, it has many phases but the most initial phase is Requirement Elicitation. In this phase requirements are gathered for system development. This paper provides a literature review of the requirements engineering processes performed in traditional and modern development processes and analyses the problems in the requirements elicitation phase. This problem analysis is based on a survey which was conducted in University. A questionnaire posing questions regarding the problems in requirement elicitation was given to final year computer science graduate students who are working on their final year project as a requirement for their degree. The theoretical analysis of the questionnaire further clarifies the problems. This problems analysis will help to find out the main problems which are faced by the perspective software developers.
Problem Solving and Complex Systems
Guinand, Frédéric
2008-01-01
The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.
Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches
Melnikova, Irina V
2001-01-01
Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...
Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems
2008-01-01
Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation
The bicriterion multimodal assignment problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan
2008-01-01
We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...... or an approximation. Extensive computational results are conducted on a large library of test instances to test the performance of the algorithm and to identify hard test instances. Also, test results of the algorithm applied to the bicriterion assignment problem are provided....
Mathematical problems for chemistry students
Pota, Gyorgy
2011-01-01
Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we
The underinvestment problem under conglomeration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacques A. Schnabel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This theoretical paper explores whether the underinvestment problem is aggravated or ameliorated by the formation of a pure conglomerate. It establishes that the answer depends critically on the volatility of corporate assets. If volatility is low, conglomeration ameliorates the underinvestment problem, whereas if volatility is high, conglomeration aggravates the underinvestment problem. These analytical results are then invoked as a potential explanation for the ambiguous conclusions of empirical studies that delve into the existence of a conglomerate discount.
The Dynamic Frequency Assignment Problem
Dupont, Audrey; Linhares, Andréa,; Artigues, Christian; Feillet, Dominique; Michelon, Philippe; Vasquez, Michel
2008-01-01
21 pages; International audience; In this paper, we consider a frequency assignment problem occurring in a military context. The main originality of the problem pertains to its dynamic dimension: new communications requiring frequency assignments need to be established throughout a deployment. The problem decomposes in three phases: assignment of an initial kernel of communications, dynamic assignment of new communication links and reparation when no assignment is possible. Different solution...
Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems
Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.
2012-01-01
This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…
Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.
Soltow, Willow
1984-01-01
Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…
Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.
Soltow, Willow
1984-01-01
Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…
Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems
Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.
2012-01-01
This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to ...... to both natural, other material and to cultural conditions. Hence, solving the discard problem requires not only technical and regulatory instruments, but also arenas and structures that allow and facilitate processes of cultural change....
Problem posing reflections and applications
Brown, Stephen I
2014-01-01
As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole
2014-01-01
We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role.......We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role....
2008+ solved problems in electromagnetics
Nasar, Syed
2007-01-01
SciTech Publishing is reissuing this extremely valuable learning resource, originally published in 1992 in the Schaum's Problem-Solving Series for students of electromagnetics and those who wish to refresh and solidify their understanding of its challenging applications. Problem-solving drill helps develop confidence, but few textbooks offer the answers, never mind the complete solutions, to their chapter exercises. Here noted author Professor Syed Nasar has divided the book's problems into topic areas similar to a textbook and presented a wide array of problems, followed immediately by their
Dynamics of Universe in Problems
Bolotin, Yu L; Ivashkevych, G I; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A
2009-01-01
We do not know books of problems on cosmology including its recent achievements. However we believe that such a book would be extremely useful for the youth poured in the last decade into that one of the most actively developing field of science. We suggest to cosmological community to create a joint collaboration "Dynamics of Universe in Problems". Now we propose first 500 problems as our contribution into that beginning. If our project will make an interest then it is needed to think how to organize technically the international collaboration in that direction. In any case we plan to update our "database" monthly, including 30-50 new problems every time.
Inverse problem in hydrogeology
Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.
2005-03-01
The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le
A Problem with Current Conceptions of Expert Problem Solving
Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2011-01-01
Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical understanding into mathematics, then performs mathematical/symbolic manipulations, then interprets the mathematical solution physically. However, other research suggests that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning during symbolic manipulations can reflect expertise. We explore the hypothesis that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning (i) indicates problem-solving expertise more than adherence to "expert" problem-solving steps and (ii) is something some undergraduates do spontaneously, suggesting it's a feasible instructional target. Interviewed students were asked to (1) explain a particular equation and (2) solve a problem using that equation. In-depth analysis of two students, Alex and Pat, revealed a pattern of behavior. All 11 interviews were coded to investigate the generalizability of this pattern. Alex describe...
Musculoskeletal problems of performing artists.
Greer, J M; Panush, R S
1994-02-01
We have reviewed the frequency and variety of rheumatic problems among performing artists. For instrumentalists, injuries are related to the type of instrument played, the technique used and the effort expended in the quest for excellence. For dancers, musculoskeletal problems too reflect technique and effort. We should not be surprised at the frequency of these problems. Rheumatologists, as well as orthopaedic surgeons, physiotherapists, neurologists and other physicians, encounter performing artists as patients. We should be familiar with their problems and be able to knowledgeably diagnose and manage them. This may include observing the artist during actual performances. How is the instrument being held? What is the posture of the artist? What are the comments of the coach or teacher. What type of shoes does the ballerina wear? What movements in particular cause discomfort? These and similar observations will have direct bearing on the musculoskeletal problems of these artists. Published studies have related the variety, frequency and disabling nature of performance-related musculoskeletal problems. Unfortunately few if any of these are controlled, blinded or prospective. We need more and better information. We will want clear information about prevalence of problems, better definition of the musculoskeletal ailments, classification of the relationship of problems with performance and individual biomechanical features, information about response of specific problems to interventions, and data about the long-term consequences, if any, of these rheumatic problems to the musculoskeletal system. Artists as patients are unique. Minor problems can become potentially career-ending disabilities. Making music or performing dance may provide us with delightful entertainment but represents a source of livelihood to artists. Understanding their medical needs and enabling them to continue to perform is the challenge before us.
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
Problems diagnosis in diesel engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leugner, L.
1986-10-01
Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.
Non-Euclidean Visibility Problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Fernando Chamizo
2006-05-01
We consider the analog of visibility problems in hyperbolic plane (represented by Poincaré half-plane model $\\mathbb{H}$), replacing the standard lattice $\\mathbb{Z} × \\mathbb{Z}$ by the orbit = under the full modular group $SL_2(\\mathbb{Z})$. We prove a visibility criterion and study orchard problem and the cardinality of visible points in large circles.
Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations
Romanov, V G
1994-01-01
The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.
Ruin problems and tail asymptotics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønn-Nielsen, Anders
The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...
Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems
Ritter, William W.
1973-01-01
An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Solving the drift control problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melda Ormeci Matoglu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We model the problem of managing capacity in a build-to-order environment as a Brownian drift control problem. We formulate a structured linear program that models a practical discretization of the problem and exploit a strong relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a functional lower bound for the continuous problem from a dual solution to the discrete problem. Refining the discretization proves a functional strong duality for the continuous problem. The linear programming formulation is so badly scaled, however, that solving it is beyond the capabilities of standard solvers. By demonstrating the equivalence between strongly feasible bases and deterministic unichain policies, we combinatorialize the pivoting process and by exploiting the relationship between dual solutions and relative value functions, develop a mechanism for solving the LP without ever computing its coefficients. Finally, we exploit the relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a scheme analogous to column generation for refining the discretization so as to drive the gap between the discrete approximation and the continuous problem to zero quickly while keeping the LP small. Computational studies show our scheme is much faster than simply solving a regular discretization of the problem both in terms of finding a policy with a low average cost and in terms of providing a lower bound on the optimal average cost.
Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems
Coenen, Tom; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Nellie
2016-01-01
This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving pr
Analysis of a Pendulum Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jantzen, Jan
1998-01-01
The ball-balancer, or cart-ball system, demonstrates some basic concepts in control being nonlinear, multivariable, and non-minimum phase. It is basically an inverted pendulum problem, which is a much used benchmark problem. The objective here is to provide an analysis of the system, which can...
The problem of compatible representatives
Knuth, Donald E
2008-01-01
The purpose of this note is to attach a name to a natural class of combinatorial problems and to point out that this class includes many important special cases. We also show that a simple problem of placing nonoverlapping labels on a rectangular map is NP-complete.
Some Results behind Dividend Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming Zhou; Li Wei; Jun-yi Guo
2006-01-01
We consider the basic dividend problem of the compound Poisson model with constant barrier strategy. Some results concealed behind the dividend problem are made explicit in the present work. Different methods and some of which are firstly given in this paper. All these results presented certain direct relationship between some important actuary variables in classical risk theory is also revealed.
Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?
Edge, Julian
1985-01-01
Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…
"What Works" with Problem Learners.
Swanson, Elizabeth F.; Halley, Mari Kirsch
1986-01-01
Describes the use of a structured, problem-solving dialog among teachers and between teacher and student to review successes in solving the instructional problems of a particular child and to develop an effective education plan which fosters student responsibility for learning and behavior. Uses a case study to illustrate the "What Works" process.…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Poul Bitsch; Pedersen, Nils Kaare
This book is meant to support problem-oriented learning activities. Problem-orientation concerns the reasoning about lack of knowledge, while project work includes the ethnomethods that are practiced when collectives produce scientific knowledge. This book reflects particular methods related...
Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems
Ritter, William W.
1973-01-01
An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)
Sinopec Tests Find No Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2010-01-01
@@ Sinopec gas defended the quality of its liquefied petroleum gas(LPG)by announcing the results of independent tests in early February,following allegations by drivers that their vehicles had problems after filling their tanks at Sinopec petrol stations.Its first media briefing over the suspected engine-stalling problem of its product,Sinopec(Hong Kong)Petrol Filling Station Co.
Subspace Methods for Eigenvalue Problems
Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik
2003-01-01
This thesis treats a number of aspects of subspace methods for various eigenvalue problems. Vibrations and their corresponding eigenvalues (or frequencies) arise in science, engineering, and daily life. Matrix eigenvalue problems come from a large number of areas, such as chemistry, mechanics, dyn
Warren, Simon
2003-01-01
The "problem" of boys' achievement in the United Kingdom has emerged as part of a policy response to a crisis in the post-war social settlement. Post-Fordism has become the dominant meta-policy of education reform in the United Kingdom, constituting both policy problems and solutions as gender-neutral. However, the economic and political…
Secretary Problems: Weights and Discounts
Babaioff, M.; Dinitz, M.; Gupta, A.; Immorlica, N.S.; Talwar, K.
2009-01-01
The classical secretary problem studies the problem of selecting online an element (a “secretary”) with maximum value in a randomly ordered sequence. The difficulty lies in the fact that an element must be either selected or discarded upon its arrival, and this decision is irrevocable. Constant-comp
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Styer, Daniel F.
2011-01-01
A physics teacher assigns problems to his or her students not to keep them indoors during sunny days, but to strengthen and deepen their understanding of the universe. Every problem has not only an answer, but also a "moral to the story"--a reason why that question and that answer are interesting and probing. It is an unfortunate fact that our…
Promote Problem-Solving Discourse
Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim
2010-01-01
Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…
Teaching Employees to Solve Problems.
Miller, Lauren E.; Feggestad, Kurt
1987-01-01
John Deere's systematic problem-solving training for its employees is applicable in the vocational classroom. The process includes stating the problem, writing its specifications, identifying distinctions, determining changes that occurred at the time, identifying possible causes, testing the possibilities, verifying the most probable cause, and…
Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)
... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Common Sleep Problems Print A A A What's in ... insomnia — trouble falling or staying asleep. The most common cause of insomnia is stress . But all sorts ...
Math word problems for dummies
Sterling, Mary Jane
2008-01-01
Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work
Scalable algorithms for contact problems
Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít
2016-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...
Problem-oriented project studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf
2010-01-01
This contribution focuses on 'problem based learning' (however we prefer the notion of ‘problem-oriented project studies’) and the role of the teacher in such a context. The classic traditional role as an expert deciding the curriculum, providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments and mark......This contribution focuses on 'problem based learning' (however we prefer the notion of ‘problem-oriented project studies’) and the role of the teacher in such a context. The classic traditional role as an expert deciding the curriculum, providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments...... and marking papers / essays is complemented and in some way overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem, they themselves have picked. However different dimensions of this new teacher role can be seen – from expert in an academic field (result...
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Multiscale Modelling and Inverse Problems
Nolen, J; Stuart, A M
2010-01-01
The need to blend observational data and mathematical models arises in many applications and leads naturally to inverse problems. Parameters appearing in the model, such as constitutive tensors, initial conditions, boundary conditions, and forcing can be estimated on the basis of observed data. The resulting inverse problems are often ill-posed and some form of regularization is required. These notes discuss parameter estimation in situations where the unknown parameters vary across multiple scales. We illustrate the main ideas using a simple model for groundwater flow. We will highlight various approaches to regularization for inverse problems, including Tikhonov and Bayesian methods. We illustrate three ideas that arise when considering inverse problems in the multiscale context. The first idea is that the choice of space or set in which to seek the solution to the inverse problem is intimately related to whether a homogenized or full multiscale solution is required. This is a choice of regularization. The ...
Bacteriological problems in water supply systems; Bakteriologische Probleme bei Wassersystemen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunz, P.
2007-07-01
This article takes a look at bacteriological problems in hot-water distribution system and, in particular looks at the situation concerning legionella bacteria which thrive in standing water at temperatures often encountered in domestic hot water systems. The article is based on experience gained in the analysis of over 1500 hot-water systems. Diseases caused by the inhalation of water droplets emanating from domestic hot-water systems are discussed and showers are mentioned as being a problem zone. An ecological thermal protective system is described. Problems that can be encountered in ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other potential sources are also mentioned.
Spreadsheet modelling for solving combinatorial problems: The vendor selection problem
Ipsilandis, Pandelis G
2008-01-01
Spreadsheets have grown up and became very powerful and easy to use tools in applying analytical techniques for solving business problems. Operations managers, production managers, planners and schedulers can work with them in developing solid and practical Do-It-Yourself Decision Support Systems. Small and Medium size organizations, can apply OR methodologies without the presence of specialized software and trained personnel, which in many cases cannot afford anyway. This paper examines an efficient approach in solving combinatorial programming problems with the use of spreadsheets. A practical application, which demonstrates the approach, concerns the development of a spreadsheet-based DSS for the Multi Item Procurement Problem with Fixed Vendor Cost. The DSS has been build using exclusively standard spreadsheet feature and can solve real problems of substantial size. The benefits and limitations of the approach are also discussed.
Optimization and geophysical inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.
2000-10-01
A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.
Boundary stabilization of transmission problems
Cardoso, Fernando; Vodev, Georgi
2010-02-01
We study the transmission problem in bounded domains with dissipative boundary conditions. Under some natural assumptions, we prove uniform bounds of the corresponding resolvents on the real axis at high frequency and, as a consequence, we obtain regions free of eigenvalue. To this end, we extend the result of Cardoso et al. ["Distribution of resonances and local energy decay in the transmission problem. II," Math. Res. Lett. 6, 377 (1999)] under more general assumptions. As an application, we get exponential decay of the energy of the solutions of the corresponding mixed boundary value problems.
Problems of multiphase fluid filtration
Konovalov, AN
1994-01-01
This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
1998-12-31
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.
[Ethical problems in organ transplantation].
Valenta, J; Treska, V; Hasman, D
1999-02-01
Organ transplantation is an accepted therapeutic method with good results, but it is connected with many not only medical but also ethical problems. One of the most important problems is the donor programme. In cadaverous donors the main ethical and legal question is the decision who can issue the consent with organ retrieval; in living donors it is the problem of motivation and financial compensation. Allocation of organs with low compatibility or from non-ideal donors, and the recipient's consent in these cases may involve difficult decisions.
Fractional Moments on Bandit Problems
B, Ananda Narayanan
2012-01-01
Reinforcement learning addresses the dilemma between exploration to find profitable actions and exploitation to act according to the best observations already made. Bandit problems are one such class of problems in stateless environments that represent this explore/exploit situation. We propose a learning algorithm for bandit problems based on fractional expectation of rewards acquired. The algorithm is theoretically shown to converge on an eta-optimal arm and achieve O(n) sample complexity. Experimental results show the algorithm incurs substantially lower regrets than parameter-optimized eta-greedy and SoftMax approaches and other low sample complexity state-of-the-art techniques.
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2014-07-01
The idea that Lorentz-symmetry in momentum space could be modified but still remain observer-independent has received quite some attention in the recent years. This modified Lorentz-symmetry, which has been argued to arise in Loop Quantum Gravity, is being used as a phenomenological model to test possibly observable effects of quantum gravity. The most pressing problem in these models is the treatment of multi-particle states, known as the 'soccer-ball problem'. This article briefly reviews the problem and the status of existing solution attempts.
Hossenfelder, S
2014-01-01
The idea that Lorentz-symmetry in momentum space could be modified but still remain observer-independent has received quite some attention in the recent years. Motivated by Loop Quantum Gravity, this modified Lorentz-symmetry is being used as a phenomenological model to test possibly observable effects of quantum gravity. The most pressing problem in these models is the treatment of multi-particle states, known as the "soccer-ball problem." This article briefly reviews the problem and the status of existing solution attempts.
Problem Based Learning and sustainability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pizzol, Massimo; Løkke, Søren; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a style of active learning based on problem solving. PBL aims at providing university students with flexible knowledge, capacity to self-learning, and skills in problem solving and collaboration. In this context, the present study explores the advantages...... University (AAU), Denmark, and focuses on the teaching of Life Cycle Assessment as a method for sustainability assessment. The objective is providing recommendations for future LCA teaching and learning. PBL activites performed at AAU were evaluated critically to detemine to what extent they addressed...
COPD and other health problems
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000701.htm COPD and other health problems To use the sharing ... diabetes, and high blood pressure. Staying Healthy With COPD Work closely with your doctor to keep COPD ...
Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems
... Breastfeeding sessions that are consistently briefer than about ten minutes during the first few months may mean ... such as mastitis and help you with any problems with latching on. You may need to start ...
Solutions of fractional diffusion problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabha W. Ibrahim
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Using the concept of majorant functions, we prove the existence and uniqueness of holomorphic solutions to nonlinear fractional diffusion problems. The analytic continuation of these solutions is studied and the singularity for two cases are posed.
On Generalized Vector Equilibrium Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
An-hua Wan; Jun-yi Fu; Wei-hua Mao
2006-01-01
A new generalized vector equilibrium problem involving set-valued mappings and the proper quasi-concavity of set-valued mappings in topological vector spaces are introduced; its existence theorems and the convexity of the solution sets are established.
Fodor, Jerry A.
1981-01-01
Describes several different philosophies of mind with each philosophy's explanation of the mind-body problem. Philosophies discussed include dualism, materialism, functionalism, radical behaviorism, logical behaviorism and central-state identity. (DS)
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2005-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...
Multiple Solutions Involving Geoboard Problems.
Smith, Lyle R.
1993-01-01
Illustrates various methods to determine the perimeter and area of triangles and polygons formed on the geoboard. Methods utilize algebraic techniques, trigonometry, geometric theorems, and analytic geometry to solve problems and connect a variety of mathematical concepts. (MDH)
Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galvão Roberto Diéguez
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.
Statistical perspectives on inverse problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Kim Emil
of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... is obtained by assuming that the a priori beliefs about the solution before having observed any data can be described by a prior distribution. The solution to the statistical inverse problem is then given by the posterior distribution obtained by Bayes' formula. Hence the solution of an ill-posed inverse...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation...
Easton, Don
1999-03-01
This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
Special Medical Problems of Athletes.
Couch, Joan M.
1987-01-01
This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)
Medical Tests for Prostate Problems
... frequency—urination eight or more times a day urinary urgency—the inability to delay urination urinary incontinence—the ... prostatitis and another with BPH may both experience urinary urgency. Sometimes symptoms for the same prostate problem differ ...
The Origin of Stoichiometry Problems
Jensen, William B.
2003-11-01
In response to a reader query, the column discusses the question of when quantitative stoichiometry problems first began to appear in introductory textbooks, and especially the role of the American chemist, Josiah Parsons Cooke, in this process.
Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers
Stetson, Bruce
1978-01-01
Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)
Ingenious mathematical problems and methods
Graham, Louis A
2013-01-01
Collection of 100 of the best submissions to a math puzzle column features problems in engineering situations, logic, number theory, and geometry. Most solutions include details of several different methods.
Progressive problems higher grade physics
Kennedy, William
2001-01-01
This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.
Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egeblad, Jens
for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... for a three-dimensional knapsack packing problem involving furniture is presented in the fourth paper. The heuristic is based on a variety of techniques including tree-search, wall-building, and sequential placement. The solution process includes considerations regarding stability and load bearing strength...... paper. Ensuring that a loaded consignment of items are balanced throughout a container can reduce fuel consumption and prolong the life-span of vehicles. The heuristic can be used as a post-processing tool to reorganize an existing solution to a packing problem. A method for optimizing the placement...
Lung problems and volcanic smog
... releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse. ... deep into the lungs. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucus membranes. It can affect ...
Musielak, Z E
2015-01-01
The three-body problem, which describes three masses interacting through Newtonian gravity without any restrictions imposed on the initial positions and velocities of these masses, has attracted the attention of many scientists for more than 300 years. In this paper, we present a review of the three-body problem in the context of both historical and modern developments. We describe the general and restricted (circular and elliptic) three-body problems, different analytical and numerical methods of finding solutions, methods for performing stability analysis, search for periodic orbits and resonances, and application of the results to some interesting astronomical and space dynamical settings. We also provide a brief presentation of the general and restricted relativistic three-body problems, and discuss their astronomical applications.
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...
Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-06
The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.
Problems in Recording the Electrocardiogram.
Webster, John G.
The unwanted signals that arise in electrocardiography are discussed. A technical background of electrocardiography is given, along with teaching techniques that educate students of medical instrumentation to solve the problems caused by these signals. (MJH)
Solving Optimal Timing Problems Elegantly
Todorova, Tamara
2013-01-01
Few textbooks in mathematical economics cover optimal timing problems. Those which cover them do it scantly or in a rather clumsy way, making it hard for students to understand and apply the concept of optimal time in new contexts. Discussing the plentiful illustrations of optimal timing problems, we present an elegant and simple method of solving them. Whether the present value function is exponential or logarithmic, a convenient way to solve it is to convert the base to the exponential numb...
Splittorff, K
2007-01-01
We discuss the sign problem in QCD at nonzero chemical potential and its relation with chiral symmetry breaking and the spectrum of the Dirac operator using the framework of chiral random matrix theory. We show that the Banks-Casher formula is not valid for theories with a sign problem and has to be replaced by an alternative mechanism that is worked out in detail for QCD in one dimension at nonzero chemical potential.
[Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy].
Fadda, S; Müller, C
1978-01-01
The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
颜寒箫
2012-01-01
The real price of Sept 11 for America is the economic decline. The reason is that America didn＇t deal well with the terrorists. So, Bush tax cuts and the deficit-financed wars in Iraq and Afghanistan made America heavily in debt. If America hadn＇t caused war in Iraq and Afghan in order to sol;ee the terrorist problem, things might be different now. That makes me think deeply how we should deal with problems.
COUNTERFEIT DRUGS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Khanna Surabhi; Nasa Atul; Garg Arun
2010-01-01
The pharmaceutical industry is under extraordinary strain. Facing the wrath of consumers because of the cost of products, constantly answering the questions of state and federal legislators looking to control health care costs, and losing value in the marketplace, the industry’s hands are more than full. A less discussed but substantial problem impacts all of pharmaceutical industry’s other problems, counterfeiting. The World Health Organization estimates that counterfeit drugs make up about ...
On Constrained Facility Location Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-Lin Li; Peng Zhang; Da-Ming Zhu
2008-01-01
Given m facilities each with an opening cost, n demands, and distance between every demand and facility,the Facility Location problem finds a solution which opens some facilities to connect every demand to an opened facility such that the total cost of the solution is minimized. The k-Facility Location problem further requires that the number of opened facilities is at most k, where k is a parameter given in the instance of the problem. We consider the Facility Location problems satisfying that for every demand the ratio of the longest distance to facilities and the shortest distance to facilities is at most w, where w is a predefined constant. Using the local search approach with scaling technique and error control technique, for any arbitrarily small constant ∈ > 0, we give a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the ω-constrained Facility Location problem with approximation ratio 1 + √ω + 1 + ∈, which significantly improves the previous best known ratio (ω + 1)/α for some 1 ≤α≤ 2, and a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the ω-constrained κ-Facility Location problem with approximation ratio ω + 1 + ∈. On the aspect of approximation hardness, we prove that unless NP (C) DTIME(nO(loglogn)), the ω-constrained Facility Location problem cannot be approximated within 1 + √ω-1,which slightly improves the previous best known hardness result 1.243 + 0.316 ln(ω - 1). The experimental results on the standard test instances of Facility Location problem show that our algorithm also has good performance in practice.
Multigrid method for stability problems
Taasan, Shlomo
1988-01-01
The problem of calculating the stability of steady state solutions of differential equations is treated. Leading eigenvalues (i.e., having maximal real part) of large matrices that arise from discretization are to be calculated. An efficient multigrid method for solving these problems is presented. The method begins by obtaining an initial approximation for the dominant subspace on a coarse level using a damped Jacobi relaxation. This proceeds until enough accuracy for the dominant subspace has been obtained. The resulting grid functions are then used as an initial approximation for appropriate eigenvalue problems. These problems are being solved first on coarse levels, followed by refinement until a desired accuracy for the eigenvalues has been achieved. The method employs local relaxation on all levels together with a global change on the coarsest level only, which is designed to separate the different eigenfunctions as well as to update their corresponding eigenvalues. Coarsening is done using the FAS formulation in a non-standard way in which the right hand side of the coarse grid equations involves unknown parameters to be solved for on the coarse grid. This in particular leads to a new multigrid method for calculating the eigenvalues of symmetric problems. Numerical experiments with a model problem demonstrate the effectiveness of the method proposed. Using an FMG algorithm a solution to the level of discretization errors is obtained in just a few work units (less than 10), where a work unit is the work involved in one Jacobi relization on the finest level.
Marchal, Christian
Recent research on the theory of perturbations, the analytical approach and the quantitative analysis of the three-body problem have reached a high degree of perfection. The use of electronics has aided developments in quantitative analysis and has helped to disclose the extreme complexity of the set of solutions. This accelerated progress has given new orientation and impetus to the qualitative analysis that is so complementary to the quantitative analysis. The book begins with the various formulations of the three-body problem, the main classical results and the important questions and conjectures involved in this subject. The main part of the book describes the remarkable progress achieved in qualitative analysis which has shed new light on the three-body problem. It deals with questions such as escapes, captures, periodic orbits, stability, chaotic motions, Arnold diffusion, etc. The most recent tests of escape have yielded very impressive results and border very close on the true limits of escape, showing the domain of bounded motions to be much smaller than was expected. An entirely new picture of the three-body problem is emerging, and the book reports on this recent progress. The structure of the solutions for the three-body problem lead to a general conjecture governing the picture of solutions for all Hamiltonian problems. The periodic, quasi-periodic and almost-periodic solutions form the basis for the set of solutions and separate the chaotic solutions from the open solutions.
Stump problems in traumatic amputation.
Hirai, M; Tokuhiro, A; Takechi, H
1993-12-01
Stump problems in amputations resulting from employment related injuries were investigated in 397 cases in the Chugoku and Shikoku districts of Japan between 1987 and 1991. Ninety-seven patients (24%) had stump problems which interfered the prosthetic fitting. Stump problems of the upper extremity were seen in about 9% (17 amputees), two thirds of which were skin troubles. Stump problems of the lower extremity were seen in about 37% (80 amputees). Certain complaints were associated with specific methods of amputation; abnormal keratosis in Syme's amputation, equinus deformity in Chopart's amputation, reduced muscle power in above the knee (A/K) amputation and joint dysfunction in below the knee (B/K) amputation. Adequate prosthetic fitting was achieved by the modification of the socket and alignment in almost all amputees with stump problems. In only two cases, Chopart's amputation required subsequent Syme's amputation due to equinus deformity with abnormal keratosis. In almost every case, stump problems are avoidable by means of surgeons' deliberate evaluation of the affected limb and adequate choice of the amputation level.
Problem Based Learning and sustainability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pizzol, Massimo; Løkke, Søren; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a style of active learning based on problem solving. PBL aims at providing university students with flexible knowledge, capacity to self-learning, and skills in problem solving and collaboration. In this context, the present study explores the advantages and challe......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a style of active learning based on problem solving. PBL aims at providing university students with flexible knowledge, capacity to self-learning, and skills in problem solving and collaboration. In this context, the present study explores the advantages...... University (AAU), Denmark, and focuses on the teaching of Life Cycle Assessment as a method for sustainability assessment. The objective is providing recommendations for future LCA teaching and learning. PBL activites performed at AAU were evaluated critically to detemine to what extent they addressed...... of how PBL-approaches were used to develop five specific competences in sustainability. It is concluded that -for the case fo LCA teaching at AAU- the PBL model included activities to develop system thinking, interpersonal competence, and normative competence. However, the PBL approach should...
The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University
2009-01-01
In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.
Aging and skilled problem solving.
Charness, N
1981-03-01
Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita
2016-11-01
Two new methods adopted from methods commonly used in the field of transportation and logistics are proposed to solve a specific issue of investment allocation problem. Vehicle routing problem and capacitated vehicle routing methods are applied to optimize the fund allocation of a portfolio of investment assets. This is done by determining the sequence of the assets. As a result, total investment risk is minimized by this sequence.
Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric
2004-09-30
This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.
Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity
Anderson, Edward
2012-01-01
The Problem of Time occurs because the `time' of GR and of ordinary Quantum Theory are mutually incompatible notions. This is problematic in trying to replace these two branches of physics with a single framework in situations in which the conditions of both apply, e.g. in black holes or in the very early universe. Emphasis in this Review is on the Problem of Time being multi-faceted and on the nature of each of the eight principal facets. Namely, the Frozen Formalism Problem, Configurational Relationalism Problem (formerly Sandwich Problem), Foliation Dependence Problem, Constraint Closure Problem (formerly Functional Evolution Problem), Multiple Choice Problem, Global Problem of Time, Problem of Beables (alias Problem of Observables) and Spacetime Reconstruction or Replacement Problem. Strategizing in this Review is not just centred about the Frozen Formalism Problem facet, but rather about each of the eight facets. Particular emphasis is placed upon A) relationalism as an underpinning of the facets and as ...
Bilinguisme, diglossie, hegemonie: problemes (Problems of Bilingualism, Diglossia, and Hegemony).
Marcellesi, Jean-Baptiste
1981-01-01
A brief reveiw of recent literature in France on bilingualism, or more properly, diglossia. In the context of a bi- or pluri-linguistic situation, dialectology, linguistic distribution of both speakers and systems, official and regional languages, and the problem of belonging to a linguistic community and ethnic identification are discussed. (AMH)
Sinus actuator solves emc problems; Sinussteller loest EMV-Probleme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kammerer, Olaf [Systemtechnik LEBER GmbH und Co. KG, Schwaig (Germany)
2009-11-15
The steep slope of the phase angle variation control tend to cause problems of electromagnetic compatibility. A sinus actuator controls the amplitude of the current continuously from 0 to 100 percent. It also has low power loss and requires no rectifier. (orig.)
The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?
Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…
Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond
Lorz, Alexander
2013-12-17
The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem
Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-11-01
The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolbæk, Ditte; Nortvig, Anne-Mette
2017-01-01
Problem- and Project-Based Learning (PBL) is a widely used pedagogical method in higher education. Although PBL encourages self-directed learning and works with the students’ own projects and problems, it also includes teacher presentations, discussions and group reflections, both on......-campus and online. Therefore, the teacher’s plans might be relevant to the students’ projects, but that is not always the case. This study investigates how master’s students interact with an online Problem-Based Learning design and examines how technology influences these interactions. The empirical data stem from...... lessons at an online master’s course, and they were collected and analyzed using a netnographic approach. The study finds that concepts like self-directed learning and active involvement of everyone can have very different meanings from the teachers’ and the students’ points of view. If the students do...
Linear and complex analysis problem
Nikolski, Nikolai
1994-01-01
The 2-volume book is an updated, reorganized and considerably enlarged version of the previous edition of the Research Problem Book in Analysis (LNM 1043), a collection familiar to many analysts, that has sparked off much research. This new edition, created in a joint effort by a large team of analysts, is, like its predecessor, a collection of unsolved problems of modern analysis designed as informally written mini-articles, each containing not only a statement of a problem but also historical and methodological comments, motivation, conjectures and discussion of possible connections, of plausible approaches as well as a list of references. There are now 342 of these mini- articles, almost twice as many as in the previous edition, despite the fact that a good deal of them have been solved!
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goran P, Šimić
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the self-directed problem-based learning system (PBL named Java PBL. The expert module is the kernel of Java PBL. It involves a specific domain model, a problem generator and a solution generator. The overall system architecture is represented in the paper. Java PBL can act as the stand-alone system, but it is also designed to provide support to learning management systems (LMSs. This is provided by a modular design of the system. An LMS can offer the declarative knowledge only. Java PBL offers the procedural knowledge and the progress of the learner programming skills. The free navigation, unlimited numbers of problems and recommendations represent the main pedagogical strategies and tactics implemented into the system.
Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling
Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella
2016-01-01
This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...
Problems in structural inorganic chemistry
Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah
2013-01-01
This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.
Respiratory problems in advanced cancer.
Ripamonti, Carla; Fusco, Flavio
2002-04-01
Respiratory problems are an important issue in the palliative care setting, not only from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view but also from emotion-related aspects involving both the patients and their families and also caregivers. In this paper we consider some of the most common respiratory problems, such as dyspnea, infections, hemoptysis, hiccup. A review of the literature was performed with reference to the frequency, diagnosis and management of the above respiratory problems in patients in advanced and terminal stages of the disease. Particular emphasis was given to the importance of communication with the patients and their families, which is considered a crucial point in the care and the cure of such patients.
Linear and complex analysis problem
Nikolski, Nikolai
1994-01-01
The 2-volume-book is an updated, reorganized and considerably enlarged version of the previous edition of the Research Problem Book in Analysis (LNM 1043), a collection familiar to many analysts, that has sparked off much research. This new edition, created in a joint effort by a large team of analysts, is, like its predecessor, a collection of unsolved problems of modern analysis designed as informally written mini-articles, each containing not only a statement of a problem but also historical and metho- dological comments, motivation, conjectures and discussion of possible connections, of plausible approaches as well as a list of references. There are now 342 of these mini- articles, almost twice as many as in the previous edition, despite the fact that a good deal of them have been solved!
Coping with persistent environmental problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner;
2014-01-01
involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also......ABSTRACT In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1) decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy...... is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics...
On the sample monotonization problem
Takhanov, R. S.
2010-07-01
The problem of finding a maximal subsample in a training sample consisting of the pairs “object-answer” that does not violate monotonicity constraints is considered. It is proved that this problem is NP-hard and that it is equivalent to the problem of finding a maximum independent set in special directed graphs. Practically important cases in which a partial order specified on the set of answers is a complete order or has dimension two are considered in detail. It is shown that the second case is reduced to the maximization of a quadratic convex function on a convex set. For this case, an approximate polynomial algorithm based on linear programming theory is proposed.