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Sample records for voice signal parameters

  1. Objective voice parameters in Colombian school workers with healthy voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Cantor Cutiva (Lady Catherine); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional

  2. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

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    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  3. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

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    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  4. [Assessment of voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with diagnosed occupational voice disorders].

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    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Laryngovideostroboscopy is the method most frequently used in the assessment of voice disorders. However, the employment of quantitative methods, such as voice acoustic analysis, is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic activities as well as for objective medical certification of larynx pathologies. The aim of this study was to examine voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with occupational voice diseases. Acoustic analysis (IRIS software) was performed in 66 female teachers, including 35 teachers with occupational voice diseases and 31 with functional dysphonia. The teachers with occupational voice diseases presented the lower average fundamental frequency (193 Hz) compared to the group with functional dysphonia (209 Hz) and to the normative value (236 Hz), whereas other acoustic parameters did not differ significantly in both groups. Voice acoustic analysis, when applied separately from vocal loading, cannot be used as a testing method to verify the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders.

  5. METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

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    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  6. A Novel Voice Sensor for the Detection of Speech Signals

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    Kun-Ching Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a novel voice sensor to detect human voices, the use of features which are more robust to noise is an important issue. Voice sensor is also called voice activity detection (VAD. Due to that the inherent nature of the formant structure only occurred on the speech spectrogram (well-known as voiceprint, Wu et al. were the first to use band-spectral entropy (BSE to describe the characteristics of voiceprints. However, the performance of VAD based on BSE feature was degraded in colored noise (or voiceprint-like noise environments. In order to solve this problem, we propose the two-dimensional part-band energy entropy (TD-PBEE parameter based on two variables: part-band partition number upon frequency index and long-term window size upon time index to further improve the BSE-based VAD algorithm. The two variables can efficiently represent the characteristics of voiceprints on each critical frequency band and use long-term information for noisy speech spectrograms, respectively. The TD-PBEE parameter can be regarded as a PBEE parameter over time. First, the strength of voiceprints can be partly enhanced by using four entropies applied to four part-bands. We can use the four part-band energy entropies for describing the voiceprints in detail. Due to the characteristics of non-stationary for speech and various noises, we will then use long-term information processing to refine the PBEE, so the voice-like noise can be distinguished from noisy speech through the concept of PBEE with long-term information. Our experiments show that the proposed feature extraction with the TD-PBEE parameter is quite insensitive to background noise. The proposed TD-PBEE-based VAD algorithm is evaluated for four types of noises and five signal-to-noise ratio (SNR levels. We find that the accuracy of the proposed TD-PBEE-based VAD algorithm averaged over all noises and all SNR levels is better than that of other considered VAD algorithms.

  7. [Role of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment].

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    Guo, Yong-qing; Lin, Sheng-zhi; Xu, Xin-lin; Zhou, Li; Zhuang, Pei-yun; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the application and significance of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment. The phonatory aerodynamic system (PAS) was used to collect aerodynamic parameters from subjects with normal voice, vocal fold polyp, vocal fold cyst, and vocal fold immobility. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to compare measurements across groups. Phonation threshold flow (PTF), mean flow rate (MFR), maximum phonation time (MPT), and glottal resistance (GR) in one hundred normal subjects were significantly affected by sex (P efficiency (VE) were not (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP, and MPT were significantly different between normal voice and voice disorders (P 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that PTP, PTF, SGP, MFR, MPT, and VE in one hundred thirteen voice dis orders had similar diagnostic utility (P aerodynamic parameters of the three degrees of voice dysfunction due to vocal cord polyps were compared and found to have no significant differences (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP and MPT in forty one patients with vocal polyps were significantly different after surgical resection of vocal cord polyps (P aerodynamic parameters can objectively and effectively evaluate the variations of vocal function, and have good auxiliary diagnostic value.

  8. Start/End Delays of Voiced and Unvoiced Speech Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrnstein, A

    1999-09-24

    Recent experiments using low power EM-radar like sensors (e.g, GEMs) have demonstrated a new method for measuring vocal fold activity and the onset times of voiced speech, as vocal fold contact begins to take place. Similarly the end time of a voiced speech segment can be measured. Secondly it appears that in most normal uses of American English speech, unvoiced-speech segments directly precede or directly follow voiced-speech segments. For many applications, it is useful to know typical duration times of these unvoiced speech segments. A corpus, assembled earlier of spoken ''Timit'' words, phrases, and sentences and recorded using simultaneously measured acoustic and EM-sensor glottal signals, from 16 male speakers, was used for this study. By inspecting the onset (or end) of unvoiced speech, using the acoustic signal, and the onset (or end) of voiced speech using the EM sensor signal, the average duration times for unvoiced segments preceding onset of vocalization were found to be 300ms, and for following segments, 500ms. An unvoiced speech period is then defined in time, first by using the onset of the EM-sensed glottal signal, as the onset-time marker for the voiced speech segment and end marker for the unvoiced segment. Then, by subtracting 300ms from the onset time mark of voicing, the unvoiced speech segment start time is found. Similarly, the times for a following unvoiced speech segment can be found. While data of this nature have proven to be useful for work in our laboratory, a great deal of additional work remains to validate such data for use with general populations of users. These procedures have been useful for applying optimal processing algorithms over time segments of unvoiced, voiced, and non-speech acoustic signals. For example, these data appear to be of use in speaker validation, in vocoding, and in denoising algorithms.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FIRMWARE FOR INPUT AND EXTRACTION OF USER’S VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

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    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific task for improving the signal-to-noise ratio for user’s voice signal in computer systems and networks during the process of user’s voice authentication is considered. The object of study is the process of input and extraction of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of the voice signal on the background of external interference signals are investigated. Ways for quality improving of the user’s voice signal in systems of voice authentication are investigated experimentally. Firmware means for experimental unit of input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are considered. As modern computer means, including mobile, have two-channel audio card, two microphones are used in the voice signal input. The distance between sonic-wave sensors is 20 mm and it provides forming one direction pattern lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. According to the results of experimental studies, the usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array and space-time processing of the recorded signals with implementation of constant and adaptive weighting factors has made it possible to reduce considerably the influence of interference signals. The results of firmware experimental studies for input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are shown. The proposed solutions will give the possibility to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker discrimination.

  10. Voice parameters and videonasolaryngoscopy in children with vocal nodules: a longitudinal study, before and after voice therapy.

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    Valadez, Victor; Ysunza, Antonio; Ocharan-Hernandez, Esther; Garrido-Bustamante, Norma; Sanchez-Valerio, Araceli; Pamplona, Ma C

    2012-09-01

    Vocal Nodules (VN) are a functional voice disorder associated with voice misuse and abuse in children. There are few reports addressing vocal parameters in children with VN, especially after a period of vocal rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to describe measurements of vocal parameters including Fundamental Frequency (FF), Shimmer (S), and Jitter (J), videonasolaryngoscopy examination and clinical perceptual assessment, before and after voice therapy in children with VN. Voice therapy was provided using visual support through Speech-Viewer software. Twenty patients with VN were studied. An acoustical analysis of voice was performed and compared with data from subjects from a control group matched by age and gender. Also, clinical perceptual assessment of voice and videonasolaryngoscopy were performed to all patients with VN. After a period of voice therapy, provided with visual support using Speech Viewer-III (SV-III-IBM) software, new acoustical analyses, perceptual assessments and videonasolaryngoscopies were performed. Before the onset of voice therapy, there was a significant difference (ptherapy period, a significant improvement (pvocal nodules were no longer discernible on the vocal folds in any of the cases. SV-III software seems to be a safe and reliable method for providing voice therapy in children with VN. Acoustic voice parameters, perceptual data and videonasolaryngoscopy were significantly improved after the speech therapy period was completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Applied Chaos Level Test for Validation of Signal Conditions Underlying Optimal Performance of Voice Classification Methods

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    Liu, Boquan; Polce, Evan; Sprott, Julien C.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to introduce a chaos level test to evaluate linear and nonlinear voice type classification method performances under varying signal chaos conditions without subjective impression. Study Design: Voice signals were constructed with differing degrees of noise to model signal chaos. Within each noise power, 100…

  12. Advanced Time-Frequency Representation in Voice Signal Analysis

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    Dariusz Mika

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used time-frequency representation of the analysis in voice signal is spectrogram. This representation belongs in general to Cohen's class, the class of time-frequency energy distributions. From the standpoint of properties of the resolution spectrogram representation is not optimal. In Cohen class representations are known which have a better resolution properties. All of them are created by smoothing the Wigner-Ville'a (WVD distribution characterized by the best resolution, however, the biggest harmful interference. Used smoothing functions decide about a compromise between the properties of resolution and eliminating harmful interference term. Another class of time-frequency energy distributions is the affine class of distributions. From the point of view of readability of analysis the best properties are known so called Redistribution of energy caused by the use of a general methodology referred to as reassignment to any time-frequency representation. Reassigned distributions efficiently combine a reduction of the interference terms provided by a well adapted smoothing kernel and an increased concentration of the signal components.

  13. [Comparison of cepstral coefficients to other voice evaluation parameters in patients with occupational dysphonia].

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    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Strumiłło, Paweł; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Special consideration has recently been given to cepstral analysis with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of MFCCs in acoustic analysis for diagnosing occupational dysphonia in comparison to subjective and objective parameters of voice evaluation. The study comprised 2 groups, one of 55 female teachers (mean age: 45 years) with occupational dysphonia confirmed by videostroboscopy and 40 female controls with normal voice (mean age: 43 years). The acoustic samples involving sustained vowels "a" and four standardized sentences were analyzed by computed analysis of MFCCs. The results were compared to acoustic parameters of jitter and shimmer groups, noise to harmonic ratio, Yanagihara index evaluating the grade of hoarseness, the aerodynamic parameter: maximum phonation time and also subjective parameters: GRBAS perceptual scale and Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The compared results revealed differences between the study and control groups, significant for MFCC2, MFCC3, MFCC5, MFCC6, MFCC8, MFCC10, particularly for MFCC6 (p teachers correlated with all eight objective parameters, also showed the significant relation with perceptual voice feature A (asthenity) of subjective scale GRBAS, characteristic of weak tired voice. The cepstral analysis with mel frequency cepstral coefficients is a promising tool for evaluating occupational voice disorders, capable of reflecting the perceptual voice features better than other methods of acoustic analysis.

  14. The Relationship Between Acoustic Signal Typing and Perceptual Evaluation of Tracheoesophageal Voice Quality for Sustained Vowels.

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    Clapham, Renee P; van As-Brooks, Corina J; van Son, Rob J J H; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between acoustic signal typing and perceptual evaluation of sustained vowels produced by tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers and the use of signal typing in the clinical setting. Two evaluators independently categorized 1.75-second segments of narrow-band spectrograms according to acoustic signal typing and independently evaluated the recording of the same segments on a visual analog scale according to overall perceptual acoustic voice quality. The relationship between acoustic signal typing and overall voice quality (as a continuous scale and as a four-point ordinal scale) was investigated and the proportion of inter-rater agreement as well as the reliability between the two measures is reported. The agreement between signal type (I-IV) and ordinal voice quality (four-point scale) was low but significant, and there was a significant linear relationship between the variables. Signal type correctly predicted less than half of the voice quality data. There was a significant main effect of signal type on continuous voice quality scores with significant differences in median quality scores between signal types I-IV, I-III, and I-II. Signal typing can be used as an adjunct to perceptual and acoustic evaluation of the same stimuli for TE speech as part of a multidimensional evaluation protocol. Signal typing in its current form provides limited predictive information on voice quality, and there is significant overlap between signal types II and III and perceptual categories. Future work should consider whether the current four signal types could be refined. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of cepstral coefficients to other voice evaluation parameters in patients with occupational dysphonia

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    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Special consideration has recently been given to cepstral analysis with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of MFCCs in acoustic analysis for diagnosing occupational dysphonia in comparison to subjective and objective parameters of voice evaluation. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 2 groups, one of 55 female teachers (mean age: 45 years with occupational dysphonia confirmed by videostroboscopy and 40 female controls with normal voice (mean age: 43 years. The acoustic samples involving sustained vowels "a" and four standardized sentences were analyzed by computed analysis of MFCCs. The results were compared to acoustic parameters of jitter and shimmer groups, noise to harmonic ratio, Yanagihara index evaluating the grade of hoarseness, the aerodynamic parameter: maximum phonation time and also subjective parameters: GRBAS perceptual scale and Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Results: The compared results revealed differences between the study and control groups, significant for MFCC2, MFCC3, MFCC5, MFCC6, MFCC8, MFCC10, particularly for MFCC6 (p < 0.001 and MFCC8 (p < 0.009, which may suggest their clinical applicability. In the study group, MFCC4, MFCC8 and MFCC10 correlated significantly with the major objective parameters of voice assessment. Moreover, MFCC8 coefficient, which in the female teachers correlated with all eight objective parameters, also showed the significant relation with perceptual voice feature A (asthenity of subjective scale GRBAS, characteristic of weak tired voice. Conclusions: The cepstral analysis with mel frequency cepstral coefficients is a promising tool for evaluating occupational voice disorders, capable of reflecting the perceptual voice features better than other methods of acoustic analysis. Med Pr 2013;64(6:805–816

  16. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality among College/University Singing Students Ages 18–24 through Ambulatory Monitoring with a Full Accelerometer Signal

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    Schloneger, Matthew; Hunter, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18–24 y/o, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal were analyzed traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, LTAS slope, alpha ratio, dB SPL 1–3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between non-singing, solo singing and choral singing. PMID:26897545

  17. Robust signal selection for lineair prediction analysis of voiced speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.; Kamp, Y.; Willems, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates a weighted LPC analysis of voiced speech. In view of the speech production model, the weighting function is either chosen to be the short-time energy function of the preemphasized speech sample sequence with certain delays or is obtained by thresholding the short-time energy

  18. Correlation between acoustic parameters and Voice Handicap Index in dysphonic teachers.

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    Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Woznicka, E; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, E; Sliwinska-Kowalska, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acoustic analysis and biopsychosocial implications of voice problems, evaluated by the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The study comprised 120 female teachers with voice disorders, evaluated by videolaryngostroboscopy. 60.8% of this group were diagnosed as having functional dysphonia and 39.2% had dysphonia with benign vocal fold masses (nodules and polyps). The controls consisted of 30 euphonic women. The correlations between VHI and acoustic analysis were assessed in both groups using the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. In teachers, the total VHI score was over 5 times as high as in controls (p teachers, significant positive correlations were found between the total VHI score and the frequency perturbation parameters and amplitude perturbation parameters when both statistical methods were used. These acoustic parameters also significantly correlated with the score on the functional and emotional subscales, but rarely with the physical subscale of the VHI. The study revealed a significant relationship between the objective voice measurements and the VHI. The results confirmed that VHI can be a valuable tool for assessing biopsychosocial implications of occupational dysphonia and should be incorporated in multidimensional voice evaluation. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Cultural and language differences in voice quality perception: a preliminary investigation using synthesized signals.

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    Yiu, Edwin M-L; Murdoch, Bruce; Hird, Kathryn; Lau, Polly; Ho, Elaine Mandy

    2008-01-01

    Perceptual voice evaluation is a common clinical tool. However, to date, there is no consensus yet as to which common quality should be measured. Some available evidence shows that voice quality is a language-specific property which may be different across different languages. The familiarity of a language may affect the perception and reliability in rating voice quality. The present study set out to investigate the effects of listeners' cultural and language backgrounds on the perception of voice qualities. Forty speech pathology students from Australia and Hong Kong were asked to rate the breathy and rough qualities of synthesized voice signals in Cantonese and English. Results showed that the English stimulus sets as a whole were rated less severely than the Cantonese stimuli by both groups of listeners. In addition, the male Cantonese and English breathy stimuli were rated differently by the Australian and Hong Kong listeners. These results provided some evidence to support the claim that cultural and language backgrounds of the listeners would affect the perception for some voice quality types. Thus, the cultural and language backgrounds of judges should be taken into consideration in clinical voice evaluation. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Study of the characteristic parameters of the normal voices of Argentinian speakers

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    Edgardo Bonzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The voice laboratory permits to study the human voices using a method that is objective and noninvasive. In this work, we have studied the parameters of the human voice such as pitch, formant, jitter, shimmer and harmonic-noise ratio of a group of young people. This statistical information of parameters is obtained from Argentinian speakers. Received: 29 December 2013, Accepted: 27 May 2014; Reviewed by: J. Brum, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay; Edited by: E. Mizraji; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.060002 Cite as: E V Bonzi, G B Grad, A M Maggi, M R Muñoz, Papers in Physics 6, 060002 (2014

  1. The Effects of Size and Type of Vocal Fold Polyp on Some Acoustic Voice Parameters

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    Elaheh Akbari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal abuse and misuse would result in vocal fold polyp. Certain features define the extent of vocal folds polyp effects on voice acoustic parameters. The present study aimed to define the effects of polyp size on acoustic voice parameters, and compare these parameters in hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic polyps. Methods: In the present retrospective study, 28 individuals with hemorrhagic or non-hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal folds were recruited to investigate acoustic voice parameters of vowel/ æ/ computed by the Praat software. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 17.0. According to the type and size of polyps, mean acoustic differences and correlations were analyzed by the statistical t test and Pearson correlation test, respectively; with significance level below 0.05. Results: The results indicated that jitter and the harmonics-to-noise ratio had a significant positive and negative correlation with the polyp size (P=0.01, respectively. In addition, both mentioned parameters were significantly different between the two types of the investigated polyps. Conclusion: Both the type and size of polyps have effects on acoustic voice characteristics. In the present study, a novel method to measure polyp size was introduced. Further confirmation of this method as a tool to compare polyp sizes requires additional investigations.

  2. Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.

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    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2018-05-02

    To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

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    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-06

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  4. Enhancement of speech signals - with a focus on voiced speech models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie

    This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based...... on this model. The basic model used in this thesis is the harmonic model which is a commonly used model for describing the voiced part of the speech signal. We show that it can be beneficial to extend the model to take inharmonicities or the non-stationarity of speech into account. Extending the model...

  5. Normative Values and Interrelationship of MDVP Voice Analysis Parameters Before and After Endotracheal Intubation

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    Sørensen, Martin Kryspin; Durck, Tina Trier; Bork, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    normative values for adults and investigates the correlation between these MDVP parameters in relation to the "standardized" trauma of endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative assessments of vocal fold pathology with flexible videolaryngoscopy and voice analysis with MDVP using...... the best-of-three standardized recording were performed in 121 patients with normal voices included consecutively in the RCT. The procedures of anesthesia were standardized. RESULTS: The normative MDVP values of this study are consistently lower compared with most normative values presented in other...... studies. The preoperative to postoperative differences in jitter values (jitter and relative average perturbation) were closely correlated to the shimmer values for patients with postoperative vocal fold edemas. In the patients with edema, the preoperative to postoperative differences in jitter had...

  6. Evaluation of voice acoustic parameters related to the vocal-loading test in professionally active teachers with dysphonia.

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    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are at risk of developing voice disorders. A clinical battery of vocal function tests should include non-invasive and accurate measurements. The quantitative methods (e.g., voice acoustic analysis) make it possible to objectively evaluate voice efficiency and outcomes of dysphonia treatment. To identify possible signs of vocal fatigue, acoustic waveform perturbations during sustained phonation were measured before and after the vocal-loading test in 51 professionally active female teachers with functional voice disorders, using IRIS software. All the participants were also subjected to laryngological/phoniatric examination involving videostroboscopy combined with self-estimation by voice handicap index (VHI)-based scale. The phoniatric examination revealed glottal insufficiency with bowed vocal folds in 35.2%, soft vocal nodules in 31.4%, and hyperfunctional dysphonia with a tendency towards vestibular phonation in 19.6% of the patients. In the VHI scale, 66% of the female teachers estimated their own voice problems as moderate disability. An acoustic analysis performed after the vocal-loading test showed an increased rate of abnormal frequency perturbation parameters (pitch perturbation quotient (Jitter), relative average perturbation (RAP), and pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ)) compared to the pre-test outcomes. The same was true of pitch-intensity contour of vowel /a:/, an indication of voice instability during sustained phonation. The recorded impairments of voice acoustic parameters related to vocal loading provide further evidence of dysphonia. The voice acoustic analysis performed before and after the vocal-loading test can significantly contribute to objective voice examinations useful in diagnosis of dysphonia among teachers.

  7. The Vocal Extent Measure: Development of a Novel Parameter in Voice Diagnostics and Initial Clinical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp P. Caffier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice range profile (VRP and evaluation using the dysphonia severity index (DSI represent essentials of instrument-based objective voice diagnostics and are implemented in different standardized registration programs. The respective measurement results, however, show differences. The aim of the study was to prove these differences statistically and to develop a new parameter, the Vocal Extent Measure (VEM, which is not influenced by the measurement program. VRPs of 97 subjects were recorded by two examiners using the established registration programs DiVAS (XION medical and LingWAVES (WEVOSYS simultaneously. The VEM was developed on the basis of VRP area and perimeter. All 194 VRP files were analyzed for various parameters and gender independence. The registration programs exhibited significant differences in several vocal parameters. A significant gender influence for DSI was found with DiVAS (p<0.01, but not with LingWAVES. The VEM quantified the dynamic performance and frequency range by a unidimensional, interval-scaled value without unit, mostly between 0 and 120. This novel parameter represents an intelligible and user-friendly positive measure of vocal function, allows simple and stable VRP description, and seems to be suitable for quantification of vocal capacity. In contrast to DSI, the VEM proved to be less susceptible to registration program and gender.

  8. Vocal parameters and voice-related quality of life in adult women with and without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Pablo Rodrigo Rocha; Bertoldo, Simão Veras; Costa, Luanne Gabrielle Morais; Serra, Emmeliny Cristini Nogueira; Silva, Eduardo Magalhães; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptual and acoustic parameters of voice in adult women with and without ovarian function and its impact on quality of life related to voice. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 106 women divided into, two groups: G1, with ovarian function (n=43) and G2, without physiological ovarian function (n=63). The women were instructed to sustain the vowel "a" and the sounds of /s/ and /z/ in habitual pitch and loudness. They were also asked to classify their voices and answer the voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. The perceptual analysis of the vocal samples was performed by three speech-language pathologists using the GRBASI (G: grade; R: roughness; B: breathness; A: asthenia; S: strain; I: instability) scale. The acoustic analysis was carried out with the software VoxMetria 2.7h (CTS Informatica). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the perceptual analysis, both groups showed a mild deviation for the parameters roughness, strain, and instability, but only G2 showed a mild impact for the overall degree of dysphonia. The mean of fundamental frequency was significantly lower for the G2, with a difference of 17.41Hz between the two groups. There was no impact on V-RQOL in any of the V-RQOL domains for this group. With the menopause, there is a change in women's voices, impacting on some voice parameters. However, there is no direct impact on their quality of life related to voice. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of vocal tract discomfort scale results with objective and instrumental phoniatric parameters among teacher rehabilitees from voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Woźnicka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of occupational dysphonia play a major role in voice self-assessment, which is one of the elements of a comprehensive evaluation of voice disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD scale to monitor the effectiveness of voice rehabilitation and compare the VTD results with objective and instrumental methods of phoniatric diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 55 teachers (mean age, 47.2 with occupational dysphonia. A comprehensive diagnosis took into account self-assessment by VTD scale, phoniatric examination, including laryngovideostroboscopy (LVSS and objective measurements of the aerodynamic parameter - the maximum phonation time (MPT. After 4 months of intense rehabilitation, post-therapy examination was performed using the methods specified above. Results: After the treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in the subjective symptoms measured on a VTD scale - assessed both for the frequency (p = 0.000 and the severity (p = 0.000 subscales. Positive effects of the therapy were also observed for the parameters evaluated in the phoniatric study (p < 0.01 and laryngovideostroboscopy (p < 0.01. After voice therapy, there was also an improvement in the objective parameter MCF, which was about 5 seconds longer. Studies have shown that the VTD scale is characterized by high reliability - Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the preliminary test was as follows: for the frequency subscale symptoms - 0.826, and severity - 0.845; similarly high reliability was achieved in the control test, 0.908 and 0.923, respectively. Conclusions: Vocal Tract Discomfort scale can be a valuable tool for assessing voice, and can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of therapy of the occupational dysphonia. Med Pr 2013;64(2:199–206

  10. Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Human Voice Parameters to Investigate the Influence of Psychological Stress and to Determine the Vocal Tract Transfer Function of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar Mongia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 parameters follow a unique course of variation from normal to positive and negative stress in 32% of the total analyzed signals. The upshot of the analysis is to determine the vocal tract transfer function for each vowel for an individual. The analysis indicates that it can be computed by estimating the mean of the pole zero plots of that individual’s vocal tract estimated for the whole day. Besides this, an analysis is presented to find the relationship between the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract and the vocal tract cavities. The results of the analysis indicate that all the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract are affected due to change in the position of any cavity.

  11. Automatic Assessment of Acoustic Parameters of the Singing Voice: Application to Professional Western Operatic and Jazz Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Claudia; Barbagallo, Davide; Baracca, Giovanna; Orlandi, Silvia; Bandini, Andrea; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2015-07-01

    The obvious perceptual differences between various singing styles like Western operatic and jazz rely on specific dissimilarities in vocal technique. The present study focuses on differences in vibrato acoustics and in singer's formant as analyzed by a novel software tool, named BioVoice, based on robust high-resolution and adaptive techniques that have proven its validity on synthetic voice signals. A total of 48 professional singers were investigated (29 females; 19 males; 29 Western operatic; and 19 jazz). They were asked to sing "a cappella," but with artistic expression, a well-known musical phrase from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, in their own style: either operatic or jazz. A specific sustained note was extracted for detailed vibrato analysis. Beside rate (s(-1)) and extent (cents), duration (seconds) and regularity were computed. Two new concepts are introduced: vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer, by analogy with the traditional jitter and shimmer of voice signals. For the singer's formant, on the same sustained tone, the ratio of the acoustic energy in formants 1-2 to the energy in formants 3, 4, and 5 was automatically computed, providing a quality ratio (QR). Vibrato rates did not differ among groups. Extent was significantly larger in operatic singers, particularly females. Vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer were significantly smaller in operatic singers. Duration of vibrato was also significantly longer in operatic singers. QR was significantly lower in male operatic singers. Some vibrato characteristics (extent, regularity, and duration) very clearly differentiate the Western operatic singing style from the jazz singing style. The singer's formant is typical of male operatic singers. The new software tool is well suited to provide useful feedback in a pedagogical context. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Comparison of vocal tract discomfort scale results with objective and instrumental phoniatric parameters among teacher rehabilitees from voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźnicka, Ewelina; Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of occupational dysphonia play a major role in voice self-assessment, which is one of the elements of a comprehensive evaluation of voice disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale to monitor the effectiveness of voice rehabilitation and compare the VTD results with objective and instrumental methods of phoniatric diagnosis. The study included 55 teachers (mean age, 47.2) with occupational dysphonia. A comprehensive diagnosis took into account self-assessment by VTD scale, phoniatric examination, including laryngovideostroboscopy (LVSS) and objective measurements of the aerodynamic parameter - the maximum phonation time (MPT). After 4 months of intense rehabilitation, post-therapy examination was performed using the methods specified above. After the treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in the subjective symptoms measured on a VTD scale - assessed both for the frequency (p = 0.000) and the severity (p = 0.000) subscales. Positive effects of the therapy were also observed for the parameters evaluated in the phoniatric study (p dysphonia.

  13. Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Human Voice Parameters to Investigate the Influence of Psychological Stress and to Determine the Vocal Tract Transfer Function of an Individual

    OpenAIRE

    Mongia, Puneet Kumar; Sharma, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress) on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 p...

  14. Method for Estimating the Parameters of LFM Radar Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuan-Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reliable estimate of parameters, it is very important to protect the integrality of linear frequency modulation (LFM signal. Therefore, in the practical LFM radar signal processing, the length of data frame is often greater than the pulse width (PW of signal. In this condition, estimating the parameters by fractional Fourier transform (FrFT will cause the signal to noise ratio (SNR decrease. Aiming at this problem, we multiply the data frame by a Gaussian window to improve the SNR. Besides, for a further improvement of parameters estimation precision, a novel algorithm is derived via Lagrange interpolation polynomial, and we enhance the algorithm by a logarithmic transformation. Simulation results demonstrate that the derived algorithm significantly reduces the estimation errors of chirp-rate and initial frequency.

  15. Robust Parameter and Signal Estimation in Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.

    This thesis deals with theories and methods for robust parameter and signal estimation in induction motors. The project originates in industrial interests concerning sensor-less control of electrical drives. During the work, some general problems concerning estimation of signals and parameters...... in nonlinear systems, have been exposed. The main objectives of this project are: - analysis and application of theories and methods for robust estimation of parameters in a model structure, obtained from knowledge of the physics of the induction motor. - analysis and application of theories and methods...... for robust estimation of the rotor speed and driving torque of the induction motor based only on measurements of stator voltages and currents. Only contimuous-time models have been used, which means that physical related signals and parameters are estimated directly and not indirectly by some discrete...

  16. Estimating parameters of chaotic systems synchronized by external driving signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaogang; Wang Zuxi

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced synchronization (NIS) has evoked great research interests recently. Two uncoupled identical chaotic systems can achieve complete synchronization (CS) by feeding a common noise with appropriate intensity. Actually, NIS belongs to the category of external feedback control (EFC). The significance of applying EFC in secure communication lies in fact that the trajectory of chaotic systems is disturbed so strongly by external driving signal that phase space reconstruction attack fails. In this paper, however, we propose an approach that can accurately estimate the parameters of the chaotic systems synchronized by external driving signal through chaotic transmitted signal, driving signal and their derivatives. Numerical simulation indicates that this approach can estimate system parameters and external coupling strength under two driving modes in a very rapid manner, which implies that EFC is not superior to other methods in secure communication

  17. The Effect of Traditional Singing Warm-Up Versus Semioccluded Vocal Tract Exercises on the Acoustic Parameters of Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Emily; Plexico, Laura W; Sandage, Mary J; Hoch, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of traditional vocal warm-up versus semioccluded vocal tract exercises on the acoustic parameters of voice through three questions: does vocal warm-up condition significantly alter the singing power ratio of the singing voice? Is singing power ratio dependent upon vowel? Is perceived phonatory effort affected by warm-up condition? Hypotheses were that vocal warm-up would alter the singing power ratio, and that semioccluded vocal tract warm-up would affect the singing power ratio more than no warm-up or traditional warm-up, that singing power ratio would vary across vowel, and that perceived phonatory effort would vary with warm-up condition. This study was a within-participant repeated measures design with counterbalanced conditions. Thirteen male singers were recorded under three different conditions: no warm-up, traditional warm-up, and semioccluded vocal tract exercise warm-up. Recordings were made of these singers performing the Star Spangled Banner, and singing power ratio (SPR) was calculated from four vowels. Singers rated their perceived phonatory effort (PPE) singing the Star Spangled Banner after each warm-up condition. Warm-up condition did not significantly affect SPR. SPR was significantly different for /i/ and /e/. PPE was not significantly different between warm-up conditions. The present study did not find significant differences in SPR between warm-up conditions. SPR differences for /i/, support previous findings. PPE did not differ significantly across warm-up condition despite the expectation that traditional or semioccluded warm-up would cause a decrease. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the Auditory Feedback and Phonation in Normal Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Mareike; Petermann, Simon; Hoppe, Ulrich; Bohr, Christopher; Doellinger, Michael; Ziethe, Anke

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the auditory feedback mechanisms and voice quality during phonation in response to a spontaneous pitch change in the auditory feedback. Does the pitch shift reflex (PSR) change voice pitch and voice quality? Quantitative and qualitative voice characteristics were analyzed during the PSR. Twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent transnasal high-speed video endoscopy (HSV) at 8000 fps during sustained phonation [a]. While phonating, the subjects heard their sound pitched up for 700 cents (interval of a fifth), lasting 300 milliseconds in their auditory feedback. The electroencephalography (EEG), acoustic voice signal, electroglottography (EGG), and high-speed-videoendoscopy (HSV) were analyzed to compare feedback mechanisms for the pitched and unpitched condition of the phonation paradigm statistically. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative voice characteristics were analyzed. The PSR was successfully detected within all signals of the experimental tools (EEG, EGG, acoustic voice signal, HSV). A significant increase of the perturbation measures and an increase of the values of the acoustic parameters during the PSR were observed, especially for the audio signal. The auditory feedback mechanism seems not only to control for voice pitch but also for voice quality aspects.

  19. Structural Parameters of Star Clusters: Signal to Noise Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbutis D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of photometric signal to noise on the accuracy of derived structural parameters of unresolved star clusters using MCMC model fitting techniques. Star cluster images were simulated as a smooth surface brightness distribution following a King profile convolved with a point spread function. The simulation grid was constructed by varying the levels of sky background and adjusting the cluster’s flux to a specified signal to noise. Poisson noise was introduced to a set of cluster images with the same input parameters at each node of the grid. Model fitting was performed using “emcee” algorithm. The presented posterior distributions of the parameters illustrate their uncertainty and degeneracies as a function of signal to noise. By defining the photometric aperture containing 80% of the cluster’s flux, we find that in all realistic sky background level conditions a signal to noise ratio of ~50 is necessary to constrain the cluster’s half-light radius to an accuracy better than ~20%. The presented technique can be applied to synthetic images simulating various observations of extragalactic star clusters.

  20. Comparison of acoustic voice characteristics in smoking and nonsmoking teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice of vocal professionals is exposed to great temptations, i.e. there is a high probability of voice alterations. Smoking, allergies and respiratory infections greatly affect the voice, which can change its acoustic characteristics. In smokers, the vocal cords mass increases, resulting in changes in vocal fold vibratory cycle. Pathological changes of vocal folds deform the acoustic signal and affect voice production. As vocal professionals, teachers are much more affected by voice disorders than average speakers. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in acoustic parameters of voice between smoking and nonsmoking teachers, in a sample of vocal professionals. The sample consisted of 60 female subjects, aged from 25 to 59. For voice analysis we used Computer lab, model 4300, 'Kay Elemetrics Corporation'. The statistical significance of differences in the values of acoustic parameters between smokers and nonsmokers was tested by ANOVA. Results showed that in the sample of female teachers, professional use of voice combined with the smoking habit can be linked to the changes in voice parameters. Comparing smokers and nonsmokers, average values of the parameters in short-term and long-term disturbances of frequency and amplitude proved to be significantly different.

  1. Removing the Influence of Shimmer in the Calculation of Harmonics-To-Noise Ratios Using Ensemble-Averages in Voice Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ferrer; Eduardo González; María E. Hernández-Díaz; Diana Torres; Anesto del Toro

    2009-01-01

    Harmonics-to-noise ratios (HNRs) are affected by general aperiodicity in voiced speech signals. To specifically reflect a signal-to-additive-noise ratio, the measurement should be insensitive to other periodicity perturbations, like jitter, shimmer, and waveform variability. The ensemble averaging technique is a time-domain method which has been gradually refined in terms of its sensitivity to jitter and waveform variability and required number of pulses. In this paper, shimmer is introduced ...

  2. Hidden Markov Model-based Packet Loss Concealment for Voice over IP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Murthi, Manohar N.; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2006-01-01

    As voice over IP proliferates, packet loss concealment (PLC) at the receiver has emerged as an important factor in determining voice quality of service. Through the use of heuristic variations of signal and parameter repetition and overlap-add interpolation to handle packet loss, conventional PLC...

  3. Characteristic parameters of electromagnetic signals from a human heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xin-Yuan; Wang Yin; Zhang Su-Ming; Gao Hong-Lei; Pei Liu-Qing; Dai Yuan-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field of a human heart system is a bioelectromagnetic field. Electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) are both carriers of electromagnetic information about the cardiac system, and they are nonstationary signals. In this study, ECG and MCG data from healthy subjects are acquired; the MCG data are captured using a high-T c radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (HTc rf SQUIDs) and the QRS complexes in these data are analysed by the evolutionary spectrum analysis method. The results show that the quality factor Q and the central frequency f z of the QRS complex evolutionary spectrum are the characteristic parameters (CHPs) of ECG and MCG in the time—frequency domain. The confidence intervals of the mean values of the CHPs are estimated by the Student t distribution method in mathematical statistics. We believe that there are threshold ranges of the mean values of Q and f z for healthy subjects. We have postulated the following criterion: if the mean values of CHPs are in the proper ranges, the cardiac system is in a normal condition and it possesses the capability of homeostasis. In contrast, if the mean values of the CHPs do not lie in the proper ranges, the homeostasis of the cardiac system is lacking and some cardiac disease may follow. The results and procedure of MCG CHPs in the study afford a technological route for the application of HTc rf SQUIDs in cardiology. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women With Reinke's Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-12-01

    Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Using a self-evaluation study, we verified RW's perception of their own voices. We compared the acoustic parameters of vowels produced by 10 RW to those produced by 10 men and 10 women with healthy voices (hereafter referred to as NW) in Lebanese Arabic. We conducted a perception study for the evaluation of RW, healthy men's, and NW voices by naïve listeners. RW self-evaluated their voices as masculine and their gender identities as feminine. The acoustic parameters that distinguish RW from NW voices concern fundamental frequency, spectral slope, harmonicity of the voicing signal, and complexity of the spectral envelope. Naïve listeners very often rate RW as surely masculine. Listeners may rate RW's gender incorrectly. These incorrect gender ratings are correlated with acoustic measures of fundamental frequency and voice quality. Further investigations will reveal the contribution of each of these parameters to gender perception and guide the treatment plan of patients complaining of a gender ambiguous voice.

  5. Removing the Influence of Shimmer in the Calculation of Harmonics-To-Noise Ratios Using Ensemble-Averages in Voice Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ferrer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonics-to-noise ratios (HNRs are affected by general aperiodicity in voiced speech signals. To specifically reflect a signal-to-additive-noise ratio, the measurement should be insensitive to other periodicity perturbations, like jitter, shimmer, and waveform variability. The ensemble averaging technique is a time-domain method which has been gradually refined in terms of its sensitivity to jitter and waveform variability and required number of pulses. In this paper, shimmer is introduced in the model of the ensemble average, and a formula is derived which allows the reduction of shimmer effects in HNR calculation. The validity of the technique is evaluated using synthetically shimmered signals, and the prerequisites (glottal pulse positions and amplitudes are obtained by means of fully automated methods. The results demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the correction.

  6. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  7. Voice Morphing Using 3D Waveform Interpolation Surfaces and Lossless Tube Area Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavner Yizhar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice morphing is the process of producing intermediate or hybrid voices between the utterances of two speakers. It can also be defined as the process of gradually transforming the voice of one speaker to that of another. The ability to change the speaker's individual characteristics and to produce high-quality voices can be used in many applications. Examples include multimedia and video entertainment, as well as enrichment of speech databases in text-to-speech systems. In this study we present a new technique which enables production of a given number of intermediate voices or of utterances which gradually change from one voice to another. This technique is based on two components: (1 creation of a 3D prototype waveform interpolation (PWI surface from the LPC residual signal, to produce an intermediate excitation signal; (2 a representation of the vocal tract by a lossless tube area function, and an interpolation of the parameters of the two speakers. The resulting synthesized signal sounds like a natural voice lying between the two original voices.

  8. Signal processing for longitudinal parameters of the Tevatron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, S.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Flora, R.; Para, A.; Tollestrup, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the system known as the Tevatron SBD [1] which is used to provide information on the longitudinal parameters of coalesced beam bunches in the Tevatron. The system has been upgraded over the past year with a new digitizer and improved software. The quantities provided for each proton and antiproton bunch include the intensity, the longitudinal bunch profile, the timing of the bunch with respect to the low-level RF, the momentum spread and the longitudinal emittance. The system is capable of 2 Hz operation and is run at 1 Hz

  9. Investigation of a glottal related harmonics-to-noise ratio and spectral tilt as indicators of glottal noise in synthesized and human voice signals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    The harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) of the voiced speech signal has implicitly been used to infer information regarding the turbulent noise level at the glottis. However, two problems exist for inferring glottal noise attributes from the HNR of the speech wave form: (i) the measure is fundamental frequency (f0) dependent for equal levels of glottal noise, and (ii) any deviation from signal periodicity affects the ratio, not just turbulent noise. An alternative harmonics-to-noise ratio formulation [glottal related HNR (GHNR\\')] is proposed to overcome the former problem. In GHNR\\' a mean over the spectral range of interest of the HNRs at specific harmonic\\/between-harmonic frequencies (expressed in linear scale) is calculated. For the latter issue [(ii)] two spectral tilt measures are shown, using synthesis data, to be sensitive to glottal noise while at the same time being comparatively insensitive to other glottal aperiodicities. The theoretical development predicts that the spectral tilt measures reduce as noise levels increase. A conventional HNR estimator, GHNR\\' and two spectral tilt measures are applied to a data set of 13 pathological and 12 normal voice samples. One of the tilt measures and GHNR\\' are shown to provide statistically significant differentiating power over a conventional HNR estimator.

  10. Parameter-free resolution of the superposition of stochastic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Teresa, E-mail: tascholz@fc.ul.pt [Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Lisbon (Portugal); Raischel, Frank [Center for Geophysics, IDL, University of Lisbon (Portugal); Closer Consulting, Av. Eng. Duarte Pacheco Torre 1 15" 0, 1070-101 Lisboa (Portugal); Lopes, Vitor V. [DEIO-CIO, University of Lisbon (Portugal); UTEC–Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Lima (Peru); Lehle, Bernd; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim [Institute of Physics and ForWind, Carl-von-Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Lind, Pedro G. [Institute of Physics and ForWind, Carl-von-Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    This paper presents a direct method to obtain the deterministic and stochastic contribution of the sum of two independent stochastic processes, one of which is an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process and the other a general (non-linear) Langevin process. The method is able to distinguish between the stochastic processes, retrieving their corresponding stochastic evolution equations. This framework is based on a recent approach for the analysis of multidimensional Langevin-type stochastic processes in the presence of strong measurement (or observational) noise, which is here extended to impose neither constraints nor parameters and extract all coefficients directly from the empirical data sets. Using synthetic data, it is shown that the method yields satisfactory results.

  11. Fault detection of a spur gear using vibration signal with multivariable statistical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songpon Klinchaeam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a condition monitoring technique of a spur gear fault detection using vibration signal analysis based on time domain. Vibration signals were acquired from gearboxes and used to simulate various faults on spur gear tooth. In this study, vibration signals were applied to monitor a normal and various fault conditions of a spur gear such as normal, scuffing defect, crack defect and broken tooth. The statistical parameters of vibration signal were used to compare and evaluate the value of fault condition. This technique can be applied to set alarm limit of the signal condition based on statistical parameter such as variance, kurtosis, rms and crest factor. These parameters can be used to set as a boundary decision of signal condition. From the results, the vibration signal analysis with single statistical parameter is unclear to predict fault of the spur gears. The using at least two statistical parameters can be clearly used to separate in every case of fault detection. The boundary decision of statistical parameter with the 99.7% certainty ( 3   from 300 referenced dataset and detected the testing condition with 99.7% ( 3   accuracy and had an error of less than 0.3 % using 50 testing dataset.

  12. On the relationship between input parameters in two-mass vocal-fold model with acoustical coupling an signal parameters of the glottal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hirtum, Annemie; Lopez, Ines; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the sensitivity of the two-mass model with acoustical coupling to the model input-parameters is assessed. The model-output or the glottal volume air flow is characterised by signal-parameters in the time-domain. The influence of changing input-parameters on the signal-parameters is

  13. On the relationship between input parameters in the two-mass vocal-fold model with acoustical coupling and signal parameters of the glottal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirtum, van A.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the sensitivity of the two-mass model with acoustical coupling to the model input-parameters is assessed. The model-output or the glottal volume air flow is characterised by signal-parameters in the time-domain. The influence of changing input-parameters on the signal-parameters is

  14. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance. - Highlights: • The response of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. • The optimal parameter of this linear monostable system to maximum the output SNR-gain is obtained. • Application of this linear monostable system in parameters estimation algorithm for PSK signals obtains performance improvement.

  15. Normalization of informatisation parameter on airfield light-signal bar at flights in complex meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П.В. Попов

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The technique of maintenance of the set level of flights safetivness is developed by normalization of informatisation parameters functional groups of light-signal lightings at technological stages of interaction of crew of the airplane with the airfield light-signals bar at flights in a complex weathercast conditions.

  16. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-03-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance.

  17. Signal shape registration in the JINR synchrophasotron slowly extracted beam parameter control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.I.; Kulikov, I.I.; Romanov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    Signal shape registration in the JINR synchrophasotron slowly estracted beam parameter control system on-line with the ES-1010 computer is described. 32 input signals can be connected to the registrator. The maximum measurement rate of signal shape registration is about 38 kHz. The registrator consists of 32-channel analog multiplexer, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter, 1024-word buffer memory and control circuits. For information representation the colour TV monitor is used

  18. Optical voice encryption based on digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Sudheesh K; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-11-15

    We propose an optical voice encryption scheme based on digital holography (DH). An off-axis DH is employed to acquire voice information by obtaining phase retardation occurring in the object wave due to sound wave propagation. The acquired hologram, including voice information, is encrypted using optical image encryption. The DH reconstruction and decryption with all the correct parameters can retrieve an original voice. The scheme has the capability to record the human voice in holograms and encrypt it directly. These aspects make the scheme suitable for other security applications and help to use the voice as a potential security tool. We present experimental and some part of simulation results.

  19. DYNAMIC ESTIMATION FOR PARAMETERS OF INTERFERENCE SIGNALS BY THE SECOND ORDER EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Ermolaev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Data processing in the interferometer systems requires high-resolution and high-speed algorithms. Recurrence algorithms based on parametric representation of signals execute consequent processing of signal samples. In some cases recurrence algorithms make it possible to increase speed and quality of data processing as compared with classic processing methods. Dependence of the measured interferometer signal on parameters of its model and stochastic nature of noise formation in the system is, in general, nonlinear. The usage of nonlinear stochastic filtering algorithms is expedient for such signals processing. Extended Kalman filter with linearization of state and output equations by the first vector parameters derivatives is an example of these algorithms. To decrease approximation error of this method the second order extended Kalman filtering is suggested with additionally usage of the second vector parameters derivatives of model equations. Examples of algorithm implementation with the different sets of estimated parameters are described. The proposed algorithm gives the possibility to increase the quality of data processing in interferometer systems in which signals are forming according to considered models. Obtained standard deviation of estimated amplitude envelope does not exceed 4% of the maximum. It is shown that signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed signal is increased by 60%.

  20. Blind Compressed Sensing Parameter Estimation of Non-cooperative Frequency Hopping Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the disadvantages of a non-cooperative frequency hopping communication system, such as a high sampling rate and inadequate prior information, parameter estimation based on Blind Compressed Sensing (BCS is proposed. The signal is precisely reconstructed by the alternating iteration of sparse coding and basis updating, and the hopping frequencies are directly estimated based on the results. Compared with conventional compressive sensing, blind compressed sensing does not require prior information of the frequency hopping signals; hence, it offers an effective solution to the inadequate prior information problem. In the proposed method, the signal is first modeled and then reconstructed by Orthonormal Block Diagonal Blind Compressed Sensing (OBD-BCS, and the hopping frequencies and hop period are finally estimated. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can reconstruct and estimate the parameters of noncooperative frequency hopping signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Estimation of effect of hydrogen on the parameters of magnetoacoustic emission signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalskyi, Valentyn; Stankevych, Olena; Dubytskyi, Olexandr

    2018-05-01

    The features of the magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) signals during magnetization of structural steels with the different degree of hydrogenating were investigated by the wavelet transform. The dominant frequency ranges of MAE signals for the different magnetic field strength were determined using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and the energy and spectral parameters of MAE signals were determined using Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The characteristic differences of the local maximums of signals according to energy, bandwidth, duration and frequency were found. The methodology of estimation of state of local degradation of materials by parameters of wavelet transform of MAE signals was proposed. This methodology was approbated for investigate of state of long-time exploitations structural steels of oil and gas pipelines.

  2. Aperiodic signals processing via parameter-tuning stochastic resonance in a photorefractive ring cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on solving numerically the generalized nonlinear Langevin equation describing the nonlinear dynamics of stochastic resonance by Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, an aperiodic stochastic resonance based on an optical bistable system is numerically investigated. The numerical results show that a parameter-tuning stochastic resonance system can be realized by choosing the appropriate optical bistable parameters, which performs well in reconstructing aperiodic signals from a very high level of noise background. The influences of optical bistable parameters on the stochastic resonance effect are numerically analyzed via cross-correlation, and a maximum cross-correlation gain of 8 is obtained by optimizing optical bistable parameters. This provides a prospective method for reconstructing noise-hidden weak signals in all-optical signal processing systems.

  3. SU-E-T-113: Dose Distribution Using Respiratory Signals and Machine Parameters During Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imae, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Takeuchi, Y; Shiraki, T; Yano, K; Yamashita, H; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique capable of acquiring projection images during treatment. Treatment plans for lung tumors using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) are calculated with planning computed tomography (CT) images only exhale phase. Purpose of this study is to evaluate dose distribution by reconstructing from only the data such as respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during treatment. Methods: Phantom and three patients with lung tumor underwent CT scans for treatment planning. They were treated by VMAT while acquiring projection images to derive their respiratory signals and machine parameters including positions of multi leaf collimators, dose rates and integrated monitor units. The respiratory signals were divided into 4 and 10 phases and machine parameters were correlated with the divided respiratory signals based on the gantry angle. Dose distributions of each respiratory phase were calculated from plans which were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and the machine parameters during treatment. The doses at isocenter, maximum point and the centroid of target were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Dose distributions during treatment were calculated using the machine parameters and the respiratory signals detected from projection images. Maximum dose difference between plan and in treatment distribution was −1.8±0.4% at centroid of target and dose differences of evaluated points between 4 and 10 phases were no significant. Conclusion: The present method successfully evaluated dose distribution using respiratory signals and machine parameters during treatment. This method is feasible to verify the actual dose for moving target

  4. Voiced Excitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzricher, John

    2004-01-01

    To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...

  5. Adaptive synchronization of fractional Lorenz systems using a reduced number of control signals and parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Delgado-Aguilera, Efredy

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the synchronization of two fractional Lorenz systems in two cases: the first one considering fractional Lorenz systems with unknown parameters, and the second one considering known upper bounds on some of the fractional Lorenz systems parameters. The proposed control strategies use a reduced number of control signals and control parameters, employing mild assumptions. The stability of the synchronization errors is analytically demonstrated in all cases, and the convergence to zero of the synchronization errors is analytically proved in the case when the upper bounds on some system parameters are assumed to be known. Simulation studies are presented, which allows verifying the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  6. A new method of hybrid frequency hopping signals selection and blind parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoyu; Jiao, Wencheng; Sun, Huixian

    2018-04-01

    Frequency hopping communication is widely used in military communications at home and abroad. In the case of single-channel reception, it is scarce to process multiple frequency hopping signals both effectively and simultaneously. A method of hybrid FH signals selection and blind parameter estimation is proposed. The method makes use of spectral transformation, spectral entropy calculation and PRI transformation basic theory to realize the sorting and parameter estimation of the components in the hybrid frequency hopping signal. The simulation results show that this method can correctly classify the frequency hopping component signal, and the estimated error of the frequency hopping period is about 5% and the estimated error of the frequency hopping frequency is less than 1% when the SNR is 10dB. However, the performance of this method deteriorates seriously at low SNR.

  7. Parameter Optimization for Quantitative Signal-Concentration Mapping Using Spoiled Gradient Echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Hathout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives. Accurate signal to tracer concentration maps are critical to quantitative MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and optimize spoiled gradient echo (SPGR MR sequences for the use of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA as a kinetic tracer. Methods. Water-gadolinium phantoms were constructed for a physiologic range of gadolinium concentrations. Observed and calculated SPGR signal to concentration curves were generated. Using a percentage error determination, optimal pulse parameters for signal to concentration mapping were obtained. Results. The accuracy of the SPGR equation is a function of the chosen MR pulse parameters, particularly the time to repetition (TR and the flip angle (FA. At all experimental values of TR, increasing FA decreases the ratio between observed and calculated signals. Conversely, for a constant FA, increasing TR increases this ratio. Using optimized pulse parameter sets, it is possible to achieve excellent accuracy (approximately 5% over a physiologic range of concentration tracer concentrations. Conclusion. Optimal pulse parameter sets exist and their use is essential for deriving accurate signal to concentration curves in quantitative MRI.

  8. Statistics of the acoustic emission signals parameters from Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveto, Maria E.; Lopez Pumarega, Maria I.; Ruzzante, Jose E.

    2000-01-01

    Statistic analysis of acoustic emission signals parameters: amplitude, duration and risetime was carried out. CANDU type Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings were pressurized up to rupture, one set of five normal pieces and six with defects included, acoustic emission was used on-line. Amplitude and duration frequency distributions were fitted with lognormal distribution functions, and risetime with an exponential one. Using analysis of variance, acoustic emission was appropriated to distinguish between defective and non-defective subsets. Clusters analysis applied on mean values of acoustic emission signal parameters were not effective to distinguish two sets of fuel claddings studied. (author)

  9. Evolving Spiking Neural Networks for Recognition of Aged Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marco; Vellasco, Marley M B R; Cataldo, Edson

    2017-01-01

    The aging of the voice, known as presbyphonia, is a natural process that can cause great change in vocal quality of the individual. This is a relevant problem to those people who use their voices professionally, and its early identification can help determine a suitable treatment to avoid its progress or even to eliminate the problem. This work focuses on the development of a new model for the identification of aging voices (independently of their chronological age), using as input attributes parameters extracted from the voice and glottal signals. The proposed model, named Quantum binary-real evolving Spiking Neural Network (QbrSNN), is based on spiking neural networks (SNNs), with an unsupervised training algorithm, and a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm that automatically determines the most relevant attributes and the optimal parameters that configure the SNN. The QbrSNN model was evaluated in a database composed of 120 records, containing samples from three groups of speakers. The results obtained indicate that the proposed model provides better accuracy than other approaches, with fewer input attributes. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Large signal S-parameters: modeling and radiation effects in microwave power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, E.D. Jr.; Chaffin, R.J.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1973-01-01

    Microwave power transistors are usually characterized by measuring the source and load impedances, efficiency, and power output at a specified frequency and bias condition in a tuned circuit. These measurements provide limited data for circuit design and yield essentially no information concerning broadbanding possibilities. Recently, a method using large signal S-parameters has been developed which provides a rapid and repeatable means for measuring microwave power transistor parameters. These large signal S-parameters have been successfully used to design rf power amplifiers. Attempts at modeling rf power transistors have in the past been restricted to a modified Ebers-Moll procedure with numerous adjustable model parameters. The modified Ebers-Moll model is further complicated by inclusion of package parasitics. In the present paper an exact one-dimensional device analysis code has been used to model the performance of the transistor chip. This code has been integrated into the SCEPTRE circuit analysis code such that chip, package and circuit performance can be coupled together in the analysis. Using []his computational tool, rf transistor performance has been examined with particular attention given to the theoretical validity of large-signal S-parameters and the effects of nuclear radiation on device parameters. (auth)

  11. Reconstruction of signals with unknown spectra in information field theory with parameter uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Frommert, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The optimal reconstruction of cosmic metric perturbations and other signals requires knowledge of their power spectra and other parameters. If these are not known a priori, they have to be measured simultaneously from the same data used for the signal reconstruction. We formulate the general problem of signal inference in the presence of unknown parameters within the framework of information field theory. To solve this, we develop a generic parameter-uncertainty renormalized estimation (PURE) technique. As a concrete application, we address the problem of reconstructing Gaussian signals with unknown power-spectrum with five different approaches: (i) separate maximum-a-posteriori power-spectrum measurement and subsequent reconstruction, (ii) maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction with marginalized power-spectrum, (iii) maximizing the joint posterior of signal and spectrum, (iv) guessing the spectrum from the variance in the Wiener-filter map, and (v) renormalization flow analysis of the field-theoretical problem providing the PURE filter. In all cases, the reconstruction can be described or approximated as Wiener-filter operations with assumed signal spectra derived from the data according to the same recipe, but with differing coefficients. All of these filters, except the renormalized one, exhibit a perception threshold in case of a Jeffreys prior for the unknown spectrum. Data modes with variance below this threshold do not affect the signal reconstruction at all. Filter (iv) seems to be similar to the so-called Karhune-Loeve and Feldman-Kaiser-Peacock estimators for galaxy power spectra used in cosmology, which therefore should also exhibit a marginal perception threshold if correctly implemented. We present statistical performance tests and show that the PURE filter is superior to the others, especially if the post-Wiener-filter corrections are included or in case an additional scale-independent spectral smoothness prior can be adopted.

  12. Prediction of body mass index status from voice signals based on machine learning for automated medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Ku, Boncho; Jang, Jun-Su; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2013-05-01

    The body mass index (BMI) provides essential medical information related to body weight for the treatment and prognosis prediction of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke. We propose a method for the prediction of normal, overweight, and obese classes based only on the combination of voice features that are associated with BMI status, independently of weight and height measurements. A total of 1568 subjects were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender differences. We performed statistical analyses by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe test to find significant features in each group. We predicted BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) by a logistic regression algorithm and two ensemble classification algorithms (bagging and random forests) based on statistically significant features. In the Female-2030 group (females aged 20-40 years), classification experiments using an imbalanced (original) data set gave area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.569-0.731 by logistic regression, whereas experiments using a balanced data set gave AUC values of 0.893-0.994 by random forests. AUC values in Female-4050 (females aged 41-60 years), Male-2030 (males aged 20-40 years), and Male-4050 (males aged 41-60 years) groups by logistic regression in imbalanced data were 0.585-0.654, 0.581-0.614, and 0.557-0.653, respectively. AUC values in Female-4050, Male-2030, and Male-4050 groups in balanced data were 0.629-0.893 by bagging, 0.707-0.916 by random forests, and 0.695-0.854 by bagging, respectively. In each group, we found discriminatory features showing statistical differences among normal, overweight, and obese classes. The results showed that the classification models built by logistic regression in imbalanced data were better than those built by the other two algorithms, and significant features differed according to age and gender groups. Our results could support the development of BMI diagnosis

  13. Emotional voices in context: a neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  15. Assessment of intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Mohammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor; Rafique, Umair; Ahmed, Umer Farooq

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a technique has been developed to estimate intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs, designed for high power microwave applications. In the developed technique, small signal parameters are extracted by involving drain-to-source current, Ids instead of Schottky barrier depletion layer expression. It has been demonstrated that in SiC MESFETs, the depletion layer gets modified due to intense transverse electric field and/or self-heating effects, which are conventionally not taken into account. Thus, assessment of AC small signal parameters by employing depletion layer expression loses its accuracy for devices meant for high power applications. A set of expressions for AC small signal elements has been developed using Ids and its dependence on device biasing has been discussed. The validity of the proposed technique has been demonstrated using experimental data. Dr. Ahmed research interests are in Microelectronics, Microwave and RF Engineering and he has supervised numerous MS and PhD research projects. He authored over 100 research papers in the field of microelectronics. Dr. Ahmed is a fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), UK.; a Chartered Engineer (CEng) from the UK Engineering Council and holds the title of European Engineer (Eur Ing) from the European Federation of National Engineering Association (FEANI), Brussels. He is a life member of PEC (Pak); EDS & MTTS (USA).

  16. Transmission of Voice Signal: BER Performance Analysis of Different FEC Schemes Based OFDM System over Various Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Md. Golam; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Reza, Md. Selim; Islam, Md. Matiqul; Shams, Rifat Ara; Masum, Saleh; Ullah, Sheikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes namely Cyclic Redundancy Code and Convolution Code on the performance of OFDM wireless communication system for speech signal transmission over both AWGN and fading (Rayleigh and Rician) channels in term of Bit Error Probability. The simulation has been done in conjunction with QPSK digital modulation and compared with uncoded resultstal modulation. In the fading channels, it is found via computer simulation that...

  17. Impulsive synchronization of Roessler systems with parameter driven by an external signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong; Hu Manfeng; Xu Zhenyuan

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, an impulsive control scheme is presented to control two uncoupled identical Roessler systems. By driving the parameter of Roessler systems using external chaotic signal or periodic signal, chaotic synchronization and periodic synchronization can be implemented. This is a special impulsive control, but by using the existing results of impulsive control theory, a less conservative estimation of the upper bound of the impulse interval is given, which can guarantee the global asymptotical stability for the impulsive synchronization of Roessler systems. Numerical results are in accord with our estimation

  18. A morphing technique for signal modelling in a multidimensional space of coupling parameters

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This note describes a morphing method that produces signal models for fits to data in which both the affected event yields and kinematic distributions are simultaneously taken into account. The signal model is morphed in a continuous manner through the available multi-dimensional parameter space. Searches for deviations from Standard Model predictions for Higgs boson properties have so far used information either from event yields or kinematic distributions. The combined approach described here is expected to substantially enhance the sensitivity to beyond the Standard Model contributions.

  19. PARTICLE FILTERING WITH SEQUENTIAL PARAMETER LEARNING FOR NONLINEAR BOLD fMRI SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Wang, Michelle Yongmei

    Analyzing the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is typically based on recent ground-breaking time series analysis techniques. This work represents a significant improvement over existing approaches to system identification using nonlinear hemodynamic models. It is important for three reasons. First, instead of using linearized approximations of the dynamics, we present a nonlinear filtering based on the sequential Monte Carlo method to capture the inherent nonlinearities in the physiological system. Second, we simultaneously estimate the hidden physiological states and the system parameters through particle filtering with sequential parameter learning to fully take advantage of the dynamic information of the BOLD signals. Third, during the unknown static parameter learning, we employ the low-dimensional sufficient statistics for efficiency and avoiding potential degeneration of the parameters. The performance of the proposed method is validated using both the simulated data and real BOLD fMRI data.

  20. Sensitivity of Hurst parameter estimation to periodic signals in time series and filtering approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D.; Koch, M.

    2005-09-01

    The influence of the periodic signals in time series on the Hurst parameter estimate is investigated with temporal, spectral and time-scale methods. The Hurst parameter estimates of the simulated periodic time series with a white noise background show a high sensitivity on the signal to noise ratio and for some methods, also on the data length used. The analysis is then carried on to the investigation of extreme monthly river flows of the Elbe River (Dresden) and of the Rhine River (Kaub). Effects of removing the periodic components employing different filtering approaches are discussed and it is shown that such procedures are a prerequisite for an unbiased estimation of H. In summary, our results imply that the first step in a time series long-correlation study should be the separation of the deterministic components from the stochastic ones. Otherwise wrong conclusions concerning possible memory effects may be drawn.

  1. Signal recognition and parameter estimation of BPSK-LFM combined modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chao; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Intra-pulse analysis plays an important role in electronic warfare. Intra-pulse feature abstraction focuses on primary parameters such as instantaneous frequency, modulation, and symbol rate. In this paper, automatic modulation recognition and feature extraction for combined BPSK-LFM modulation signals based on decision theoretic approach is studied. The simulation results show good recognition effect and high estimation precision, and the system is easy to be realized.

  2. Parameter Estimation of Multiple Frequency-Hopping Signals with Two Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper essentially focuses on parameter estimation of multiple wideband emitting sources with time-varying frequencies, such as two-dimensional (2-D direction of arrival (DOA and signal sorting, with a low-cost circular synthetic array (CSA consisting of only two rotating sensors. Our basic idea is to decompose the received data, which is a superimposition of phase measurements from multiple sources into separated groups and separately estimate the DOA associated with each source. Motivated by joint parameter estimation, we propose to adopt the expectation maximization (EM algorithm in this paper; our method involves two steps, namely, the expectation-step (E-step and the maximization (M-step. In the E-step, the correspondence of each signal with its emitting source is found. Then, in the M-step, the maximum-likelihood (ML estimates of the DOA parameters are obtained. These two steps are iteratively and alternatively executed to jointly determine the DOAs and sort multiple signals. Closed-form DOA estimation formulae are developed by ML estimation based on phase data, which also realize an optimal estimation. Directional ambiguity is also addressed by another ML estimation method based on received complex responses. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived for understanding the estimation accuracy and performance comparison. The verification of the proposed method is demonstrated with simulations.

  3. Relationship of signal-to-noise ratio with acquisition parameters in MRI for a given contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittoun, J.; Leroy-Willig, A.; Idy, I.; Halimi, P.; Syrota, A.; Desgrez, A.; Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1987-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is certainly the most important characteristic of medical images, since the spatial resolution and the visualization of contrast are dependent on its value. On the other hand, modifying an acquisition variable in magnetic resonance imaging, in order to improve spatial resolution for example, may induce a SNR loss and finally alter the image quality. We have studied a theoretical relation between SNR and 2DFT method acquisition variables with the exception of parameters such as TR, TE and TI; these parameters are determined by the desired contrast in order to confirm a diagnosis. According to this relation SNR is proportional to each dimension of the slice, and to the square root of the number of averaged signals; it is inversely proportional to the number of frequency points and to the square root of the number of phase points. This relation was experimentally verified with phantoms and on an MR system at 1.5 T. It was then plotted as a multiple-entry graph on which operators at the console can read the number of averaged signals necessary to compensate SNR loss induced by a modification of other parameters [fr

  4. Influence of classroom acoustics on the voice levels of teachers with and without voice problems: a field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland

    2010-01-01

    of the classroom. The results thus suggest that teachers with voice problems are more aware of classroom acoustic conditions than their healthy colleagues and make use of the more supportive rooms to lower their voice levels. This behavior may result from an adaptation process of the teachers with voice problems...... of the voice problems was made with a questionnaire and a laryngological examination. During teaching, the sound pressure level at the teacher’s position was monitored. The teacher’s voice level and the activity noise level were separated using mixed Gaussians. In addition, objective acoustic parameters...... of Reverberation Time and Voice Support were measured in the 30 empty classrooms of the study. An empirical model shows that the measured voice levels depended on the activity noise levels and the voice support. Teachers with and without voice problems were differently affected by the voice support...

  5. [Parameters of phoniatric examination of solo vocalists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Slobodan; Jović, Rajko; Aleksić, Vesna; Cvejić, Biserka

    2002-01-01

    A phoniatrist analyzes the professional's voice at the beginning of his vocal studies or career but also later, in cases of voice disorder. Phoniatric examination of professional singers must be done according to "all inclusive" protocols of examination. Such protocols must establish the status of basic elements of phonatory system: activator, generator and resonator of voice and articulatory space. All patients requiring phoniatric examination no matter if they are candidates for professional singers, need to provide anamnestic data about their previous problems regarding voice or singing. This examination is necessary and it must include: examination of nose, cavum oris, pharynx, ears and larynx. This analysis is based on evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological manifestations of voice. Determination of musical voice range during phoniatric examination does not intend to make any classification of voice, nor to suggest to vocal teacher what he should count upon from future singers. Musical range can be determined only by a phoniatrist skilled in music or with musical training, but first of all vocal teacher. These methods are used for examination of phonatory function, or laryngeal pathology. They are not invasive and give objective and quantitative information. They include: laryngostroboscopy, spectral analysis of voice (sonography) and fundamental parameters of voice signal (computer program). Articulation is very important for solo singers, because good articulation contributes to qualitative emission of sound and expression of emotions. Tonal-threshold audiometry is performed as a hearing test. They include rhinomanometry, vital capacity measurements, maximal phonation time and phonation quotient. Phoniatric examination is a necessary proceeding which must be performed before admission to the academy of solo singing, and then during singers' education and career. The phoniatric protocol must include a minimal number of parameters, which can be

  6. EGS in sedimentary basins: sensitivity of early-flowback tracer signals to induced-fracture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Artificial-fracture design, and fracture characterization during or following stimulation treatment is a central aspect of many EGS ('enhanced' or 'engineered' geothermal system) projects. During the creation or stimulation of an EGS, the injection of fluids, followed by flowback and production stages offers the opportunity for conducting various tracer tests in a single-well (SW) configuration, and given the typical operational and time limitations associated with such tests, along with the need to assess treatment success in real time, investigators mostly favour using short-time tracer-test data, rather than awaiting long-term 'tailings' of tracer signals. Late-time tracer signals from SW injection-flowback and production tests have mainly been used for the purpose of multiple-fracture inflow profiling in multi-layer reservoirs [1]. However, the potential of using SW short-term tracer signals for fracture characterization [2, 3] remained little explored as yet. Dealing with short-term flowback signals, we face a certain degree of parameter interplay, leading to ambiguity in fracture parameter inversion from the measured signal of a single tracer. This ambiguity can, to a certain extent, be overcome by - combining different sources of information (lithostratigraphy, and hydraulic monitoring) in order to constrain the variation range of hydrogeologic parameters (matrix and fracture permeability and porosity, fracture size), - using different types of tracers, such as conservative tracer pairs with contrasting diffusivity, or tracers pairs with contrasting sorptivity onto target surfaces. Fracture height is likely to be constrained by lithostratigraphy, while fracture length is supposed to be determinable from hydraulic monitoring (pressure recordings); the flowback rate can be assumed as a known (measurable) quantity during individual-fracture flowback. This leaves us with one or two unknown parameters to be determined from tracer signals: - the transport

  7. Motorcycle On-Road Driving Parameters Influencing Fuel Consumption and Emissions on Congested Signalized Urban Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atthapol Seedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the on-road driving parameters influencing fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor. A motorcycle onboard measurement system was developed to measure instantaneously and continuously record on-road driving data, including speed-time profile, emissions, and fuel consumption, by the second. The test motorcycles were driven by 30 sample motorcyclists on a signalized urban corridor in Khon Kaen City, Thailand, to collect their on-road driving behavior during the morning peak period. Cluster analysis was applied to analyze collected driving data and to categorize the drivers by level of fuel consumption and on-road driver behavior. The on-road driving parameter influencing fuel consumption and emissions was then determined. Results revealed that proportion of idle time significantly influenced fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor, though aggressive driving behavior, hard acceleration and deceleration, did not have the same kind of influence.

  8. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...

  9. Automated detection of sleep apnea from electrocardiogram signals using nonlinear parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Faust, Oliver; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lim, Teik-Cheng; Lim, Liang Feng Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Sleep apnoea is a very common sleep disorder which can cause symptoms such as daytime sleepiness, irritability and poor concentration. To monitor patients with this sleeping disorder we measured the electrical activity of the heart. The resulting electrocardiography (ECG) signals are both non-stationary and nonlinear. Therefore, we used nonlinear parameters such as approximate entropy, fractal dimension, correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Hurst exponent to extract physiological information. This information was used to train an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier to categorize ECG signal segments into one of the following groups: apnoea, hypopnoea and normal breathing. ANN classification tests produced an average classification accuracy of 90%; specificity and sensitivity were 100% and 95%, respectively. We have also proposed unique recurrence plots for the normal, hypopnea and apnea classes. Detecting sleep apnea with this level of accuracy can potentially reduce the need of polysomnography (PSG). This brings advantages to patients, because the proposed system is less cumbersome when compared to PSG

  10. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  11. Does CPAP treatment affect the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylam, Güleser; Şahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayır, Ömer; Yüceege, Melike Bağnu; Çadallı Tatar, Emel; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in voice parameters among patients using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Patients with an indication for CPAP treatment without any voice problems and with normal laryngeal findings were included and voice parameters were evaluated before and 1 and 6 months after CPAP. Videolaryngostroboscopic findings, a self-rated scale (Voice Handicap Index-10, VHI-10), perceptual voice quality assessment (GRBAS: grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain), and acoustic parameters were compared. Data from 70 subjects (48 men and 22 women) with a mean age of 44.2 ± 6.0 years were evaluated. When compared with the pre-CPAP treatment period, there was a significant increase in the VHI-10 score after 1 month of treatment and in VHI- 10 and total GRBAS scores, jitter percent (P = 0.01), shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and voice turbulence index after 6 months of treatment. Vague negative effects on voice parameters after the first month of CPAP treatment became more evident after 6 months. We demonstrated nonsevere alterations in the voice quality of patients under CPAP treatment. Given that CPAP is a long-term treatment it is important to keep these alterations in mind.

  12. A theoretical signal processing framework for linear diffusion MRI: Implications for parameter estimation and experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Divya; Haldar, Justin P

    2017-11-01

    The data measured in diffusion MRI can be modeled as the Fourier transform of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP), a probability distribution that summarizes the molecular diffusion behavior of the spins within each voxel. This Fourier relationship is potentially advantageous because of the extensive theory that has been developed to characterize the sampling requirements, accuracy, and stability of linear Fourier reconstruction methods. However, existing diffusion MRI data sampling and signal estimation methods have largely been developed and tuned without the benefit of such theory, instead relying on approximations, intuition, and extensive empirical evaluation. This paper aims to address this discrepancy by introducing a novel theoretical signal processing framework for diffusion MRI. The new framework can be used to characterize arbitrary linear diffusion estimation methods with arbitrary q-space sampling, and can be used to theoretically evaluate and compare the accuracy, resolution, and noise-resilience of different data acquisition and parameter estimation techniques. The framework is based on the EAP, and makes very limited modeling assumptions. As a result, the approach can even provide new insight into the behavior of model-based linear diffusion estimation methods in contexts where the modeling assumptions are inaccurate. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework is illustrated using both simulated and real diffusion MRI data in applications such as choosing between different parameter estimation methods and choosing between different q-space sampling schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the physiological parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio of single myoelectric channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YT

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important measure of the performance of a myoelectric (ME control system for powered artificial limbs is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at the output of ME channel. However, few studies illustrated the neuron-muscular interactive effects on the SNR at ME control channel output. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding on the relationship between the physiology of individual motor unit and the ME control performance, this study investigates the effects of physiological factors on the SNR of single ME channel by an analytical and simulation approach, where the SNR is defined as the ratio of the mean squared value estimation at the channel output and the variance of the estimation. Methods Mathematical models are formulated based on three fundamental elements: a motoneuron firing mechanism, motor unit action potential (MUAP module, and signal processor. Myoelectric signals of a motor unit are synthesized with different physiological parameters, and the corresponding SNR of single ME channel is numerically calculated. Effects of physiological multi factors on the SNR are investigated, including properties of the motoneuron, MUAP waveform, recruitment order, and firing pattern, etc. Results The results of the mathematical model, supported by simulation, indicate that the SNR of a single ME channel is associated with the voluntary contraction level. We showed that a model-based approach can provide insight into the key factors and bioprocess in ME control. The results of this modelling work can be potentially used in the improvement of ME control performance and for the training of amputees with powered prostheses. Conclusion The SNR of single ME channel is a force, neuronal and muscular property dependent parameter. The theoretical model provides possible guidance to enhance the SNR of ME channel by controlling physiological variables or conscious contraction level.

  14. Phylogenetic signal in the acoustic parameters of the advertisement calls of four clades of anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Mohandesan, Elmira; Boko, Drasko; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-07-01

    Anuran vocalizations, especially their advertisement calls, are largely species-specific and can be used to identify taxonomic affiliations. Because anurans are not vocal learners, their vocalizations are generally assumed to have a strong genetic component. This suggests that the degree of similarity between advertisement calls may be related to large-scale phylogenetic relationships. To test this hypothesis, advertisement calls from 90 species belonging to four large clades (Bufo, Hylinae, Leptodactylus, and Rana) were analyzed. Phylogenetic distances were estimated based on the DNA sequences of the 12S mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene, and, for a subset of 49 species, on the rhodopsin gene. Mean values for five acoustic parameters (coefficient of variation of root-mean-square amplitude, dominant frequency, spectral flux, spectral irregularity, and spectral flatness) were computed for each species. We then tested for phylogenetic signal on the body-size-corrected residuals of these five parameters, using three statistical tests (Moran's I, Mantel, and Blomberg's K) and three models of genetic distance (pairwise distances, Abouheif's proximities, and the variance-covariance matrix derived from the phylogenetic tree). A significant phylogenetic signal was detected for most acoustic parameters on the 12S dataset, across statistical tests and genetic distance models, both for the entire sample of 90 species and within clades in several cases. A further analysis on a subset of 49 species using genetic distances derived from rhodopsin and from 12S broadly confirmed the results obtained on the larger sample, indicating that the phylogenetic signals observed in these acoustic parameters can be detected using a variety of genetic distance models derived either from a variable mitochondrial sequence or from a conserved nuclear gene. We found a robust relationship, in a large number of species, between anuran phylogenetic relatedness and acoustic similarity in the

  15. Performance of the phonatory deviation diagram in the evaluation of rough and breathy synthesized voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Freitas, Jonas Almeida de; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Alves, Giorvan Ânderson Dos Santos

    2017-07-05

    Voice disorders alter the sound signal in several ways, combining several types of vocal emission disturbances and noise. The Phonatory Deviation Diagram (PDD) is a two-dimensional chart that allows the evaluation of the vocal signal based on the combination of periodicity (jitter, shimmer, and correlation coefficient) and noise (Glottal to Noise Excitation - GNE) measurements. The use of synthesized signals, where one has a greater control and knowledge of the production conditions, may allow a better understanding of the physiological and acoustic mechanisms underlying the vocal emission and its main perceptual-auditory correlates regarding the intensity of the deviation and types of vocal quality. To analyze the performance of the PDD in the discrimination of the presence and degree of roughness and breathiness in synthesized voices. 871 synthesized vocal signals were used corresponding to the vowel /ɛ/. The perceptual-auditory analysis of the degree of roughness and breathiness of the synthesized signals was performed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Subsequently, the signals were categorized regarding the presence/absence of these parameters based on the VAS cutoff values. Acoustic analysis was performed by assessing the distribution of vocal signals according to the PDD area, quadrant, shape, and density. The equality of proportions and the chi-square tests were performed to compare the variables. Rough and breathy vocal signals were located predominantly outside the normal range and in the lower right quadrant of the PDD. Voices with higher degrees of roughness and breathiness were located outside the area of normality in the lower right quadrant and had concentrated density. The normality area and the PDD quadrant can discriminate healthy voices from rough and breathy ones. Voices with higher degrees of roughness and breathiness are proportionally located outside the area of normality, in the lower right quadrant and with concentrated density. Copyright

  16. Systematic parameter estimation in data-rich environments for cell signalling dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nim, Tri Hieu; Luo, Le; Clément, Marie-Véronique; White, Jacob K.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Computational models of biological signalling networks, based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs), have generated many insights into cellular dynamics, but the model-building process typically requires estimating rate parameters based on experimentally observed concentrations. New proteomic methods can measure concentrations for all molecular species in a pathway; this creates a new opportunity to decompose the optimization of rate parameters. Results: In contrast with conventional parameter estimation methods that minimize the disagreement between simulated and observed concentrations, the SPEDRE method fits spline curves through observed concentration points, estimates derivatives and then matches the derivatives to the production and consumption of each species. This reformulation of the problem permits an extreme decomposition of the high-dimensional optimization into a product of low-dimensional factors, each factor enforcing the equality of one ODE at one time slice. Coarsely discretized solutions to the factors can be computed systematically. Then the discrete solutions are combined using loopy belief propagation, and refined using local optimization. SPEDRE has unique asymptotic behaviour with runtime polynomial in the number of molecules and timepoints, but exponential in the degree of the biochemical network. SPEDRE performance is comparatively evaluated on a novel model of Akt activation dynamics including redox-mediated inactivation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). Availability and implementation: Web service, software and supplementary information are available at www.LtkLab.org/SPEDRE Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: LisaTK@nus.edu.sg PMID:23426255

  17. Prior and posterior probabilistic models of uncertainties in a model for producing voice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Edson; Sampaio, Rubens; Soize, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Bayesian statistics to update a probability density function related to the tension parameter, which is one of the main parameters responsible for the changing of the fundamental frequency of a voice signal, generated by a mechanical/mathematical model for producing voiced sounds. We follow a parametric approach for stochastic modeling, which requires the adoption of random variables to represent the uncertain parameters present in the cited model. For each random variable, a probability density function is constructed using the Maximum Entropy Principle and the Monte Carlo method is used to generate voice signals as the output of the model. Then, a probability density function of the voice fundamental frequency is constructed. The random variables are fit to experimental data so that the probability density function of the fundamental frequency obtained by the model can be as near as possible of a probability density function obtained from experimental data. New values are obtained experimentally for the fundamental frequency and they are used to update the probability density function of the tension parameter, via Bayes's Theorem.

  18. Mapping Phonetic Features for Voice-Driven Sound Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, Jordi; Maestre, Esteban

    In applications where the human voice controls the synthesis of musical instruments sounds, phonetics convey musical information that might be related to the sound of the imitated musical instrument. Our initial hypothesis is that phonetics are user- and instrument-dependent, but they remain constant for a single subject and instrument. We propose a user-adapted system, where mappings from voice features to synthesis parameters depend on how subjects sing musical articulations, i.e. note to note transitions. The system consists of two components. First, a voice signal segmentation module that automatically determines note-to-note transitions. Second, a classifier that determines the type of musical articulation for each transition based on a set of phonetic features. For validating our hypothesis, we run an experiment where subjects imitated real instrument recordings with their voice. Performance recordings consisted of short phrases of saxophone and violin performed in three grades of musical articulation labeled as: staccato, normal, legato. The results of a supervised training classifier (user-dependent) are compared to a classifier based on heuristic rules (user-independent). Finally, from the previous results we show how to control the articulation in a sample-concatenation synthesizer by selecting the most appropriate samples.

  19. Assessment of Characteristic Function Modulus of Vibroacoustic Signal Given a Limit State Parameter of Diagnosed Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.; Kudryavtseva, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Improvement of distinguishing criteria, determining defects of machinery and mechanisms, by vibroacoustic signals is a recent problem for technical diagnostics. The work objective is assessment of instantaneous values by methods of statistical decision making theory and risk of regulatory values of characteristic function modulus. The modulus of the characteristic function is determined given a fixed parameter of the characteristic function. It is possible to determine the limits of the modulus, which correspond to different machine’s condition. The data of the modulus values are used as diagnostic features in the vibration diagnostics and monitoring systems. Using such static decision-making methods as: minimum number of wrong decisions, maximum likelihood, minimax, Neumann-Pearson characteristic function modulus limits are determined, separating conditions of a diagnosed object.

  20. Feature selection and classifier parameters estimation for EEG signals peak detection using particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Asrul; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Tumari, Mohd Zaidi Mohd; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model.

  1. Reliability in perceptual analysis of voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on speaking voice quality in male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), who represent untrained and trained voice users, because we wanted to investigate normal and supranormal voices. In this study, both substantial and methodologic aspects were considered. It includes a method for perceptual voice evaluation, and a basic issue was rater reliability. A listening group of 10 listeners, 7 experienced speech-language therapists, and 3 speech-language therapist students evaluated the voices by 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. Two sets of voice signals were investigated: text reading (2 loudness levels) and sustained vowel (3 levels). The results indicated a high interrater reliability for most perceptual characteristics. Connected speech was evaluated more reliably, especially at the normal level, but both types of voice signals were evaluated reliably, although the reliability for connected speech was somewhat higher than for vowels. Experienced listeners tended to be more consistent in their ratings than did the student raters. Some vocal characteristics achieved acceptable reliability even with a smaller panel of listeners. The perceptual characteristics grouped in 4 factors reflected perceptual dimensions.

  2. Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis Depends on Two Signaling Pathways Regulating Distinct Motility Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Kumar, Dhivya; Burriss, Nathan; Xie, Zhihong; Alexandre, Gladys

    2016-06-15

    The genomes of most motile bacteria encode two or more chemotaxis (Che) systems, but their functions have been characterized in only a few model systems. Azospirillum brasilense is a motile soil alphaproteobacterium able to colonize the rhizosphere of cereals. In response to an attractant, motile A. brasilense cells transiently increase swimming speed and suppress reversals. The Che1 chemotaxis pathway was previously shown to regulate changes in the swimming speed, but it has a minor role in chemotaxis and root surface colonization. Here, we show that a second chemotaxis system, named Che4, regulates the probability of swimming reversals and is the major signaling pathway for chemotaxis and wheat root surface colonization. Experimental evidence indicates that Che1 and Che4 are functionally linked to coordinate changes in the swimming motility pattern in response to attractants. The effect of Che1 on swimming speed is shown to enhance the aerotactic response of A. brasilense in gradients, likely providing the cells with a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere. Together, the results illustrate a novel mechanism by which motile bacteria utilize two chemotaxis pathways regulating distinct motility parameters to alter movement in gradients and enhance the chemotactic advantage. Chemotaxis provides motile bacteria with a competitive advantage in the colonization of diverse niches and is a function enriched in rhizosphere bacterial communities, with most species possessing at least two chemotaxis systems. Here, we identify the mechanism by which cells may derive a significant chemotactic advantage using two chemotaxis pathways that ultimately regulate distinct motility parameters. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Detecting effects of donepezil on visual selective attention using signal detection parameters in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Nancy S; White, Richard E C; Schaefer, Lynn A

    2005-05-01

    Attentional function is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, attention is mediated by acetylcholine. But, despite the widespread use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-I) to augment available acetylcholine in AD, measures of attentional function have not been used to assess the drug response. We hypothesized that as cholinergic augmentation impacts directly on the attentional system, higher-order measures of visual selective attention would be sensitive to effects of treatment using an AChE-I (donepezil hydrochloride). We also sought to determine whether these attentional measures were more sensitive to treatment than other measures of cognitive function. Seventeen patients with AD (8 untreated, 9 treated with donepezil) were contrasted on performance of a selective cancellation task. Two signal detection parameters were used as outcome measures: decision strategy (beta, beta) and discriminability (d-prime, d'). Standard screening and cognitive domain measures of vigilance, language, memory, and executive function were also contrasted. Treated patients judged stimuli more conservatively (p = 0.29) by correctly endorsing targets and rejecting false alarms. They also discriminated targets from distractors more easily (p = 0.58). The screening and neuropsychological measures failed to differentiate the groups. Higher-order attentional measures captured the effects of donepezil treatment in small groups of patients with AD. The results suggest that cholinergic availability may directly affect the attentional system, and that these selective attention measures are sensitive markers to detect treatment response. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  5. Voice Use Among Music Theory Teachers: A Voice Dosimetry and Self-Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Isabel S; Morsomme, Dominique; Remacle, Angélique

    2017-07-25

    This study aimed (1) to investigate music theory teachers' professional and extra-professional vocal loading and background noise exposure, (2) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and background noise, and (3) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and self-evaluation data. Using voice dosimetry, 13 music theory teachers were monitored for one workweek. The parameters analyzed were voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), phonation time, vocal loading index (VLI), and noise SPL. Spearman correlation was used to correlate vocal loading parameters (voice SPL, F0, and phonation time) and noise SPL. Each day, the subjects self-assessed their voice using visual analog scales. VLI and self-evaluation data were correlated using Spearman correlation. Vocal loading parameters and noise SPL were significantly higher in the professional than in the extra-professional environment. Voice SPL, phonation time, and female subjects' F0 correlated positively with noise SPL. VLI correlated with self-assessed voice quality, vocal fatigue, and amount of singing and speaking voice produced. Teaching music theory is a profession with high vocal demands. More background noise is associated with increased vocal loading and may indirectly increase the risk for voice disorders. Correlations between VLI and self-assessments suggest that these teachers are well aware of their vocal demands and feel their effect on voice quality and vocal fatigue. Visual analog scales seem to represent a useful tool for subjective vocal loading assessment and associated symptoms in these professional voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unstable Modes and Order Parameters of Bistable Signaling Pathways at Saddle-Node Bifurcations: A Theoretical Study Based on Synergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling has become an indispensable part of systems biology which is a discipline that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In this context, our understanding of bistable signaling pathways in terms of mathematical modeling is of particular importance because such bistable components perform crucial functions in living cells. Bistable signaling pathways can act as switches or memory functions and can determine cell fate. In the present study, properties of mathematical models of bistable signaling pathways are examined from the perspective of synergetics, a theory of self-organization and pattern formation founded by Hermann Haken. At the heart of synergetics is the concept of so-called unstable modes or order parameters that determine the behavior of systems as a whole close to bifurcation points. How to determine these order parameters for bistable signaling pathways at saddle-node bifurcation points is shown. The procedure is outlined in general and an explicit example is worked out in detail.

  7. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included.

  8. Parâmetros acústicos do contraste de sonoridade das plosivas no desenvolvimento fonológico típico e no desviante Acoustic parameters of the voicing contrast of plosives in typical phonological development and phonological disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Michelon Melo

    2012-01-01

    (['papa], ['baba], ['tata], ['dada], ['kaka] and ['gaga] inserted into carrier phrases, we measured voice onset time, vowel length, burst amplitude, and occlusion length of each plosive. The acoustic parameters of voiceless and voiced plosives were compared between and within groups through statistical analysis. RESULTS: The subjects within typical phonological development presented significant results mainly in distinguishing the parameters voice onset time, vowel length, and occlusion of voiceless and voiced stops, which was different from what was observed for children with phonological disorder. The comparison between groups showed differences related to the production of voice onset time and the occlusion length of voiced plosives. Regarding the other analyzed parameters, the values were similar between groups, with no statistical differences. CONCLUSION: The marking of the voicing contrast of the group with phonological disorder is different from the group with typical phonological development, especially regarding the voice onset time and the occlusion length of the voiced segments.

  9. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  10. Marshall’s Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halper Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most judicial opinions, for a variety of reasons, do not speak with the voice of identifiable judges, but an analysis of several of John Marshall’s best known opinions reveals a distinctive voice, with its characteristic language and style of argumentation. The power of this voice helps to account for the influence of his views.

  11. Associations between the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQMtF ) and self-report of voice femininity and acoustic voice measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacakis, Georgia; Oates, Jennifer; Douglas, Jacinta

    2017-11-01

    The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) was designed to capture the voice-related perceptions of individuals whose gender identity as female is the opposite of their birth-assigned gender (MtF women). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the TVQ MtF is ongoing. To investigate associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic parameters of voice pitch and voice quality in order to evaluate further the validity of the TVQ MtF . A strong correlation between TVQ MtF scores and self-ratings of voice femininity was predicted, but no association between TVQ MtF scores and acoustic measures of voice pitch and quality was proposed. Participants were 148 MtF women (mean age 48.14 years) recruited from the La Trobe Communication Clinic and the clinics of three doctors specializing in transgender health. All participants completed the TVQ MtF and 34 of these participants also provided a voice sample for acoustic analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to examine the associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic measures of F0, jitter (%), shimmer (dB) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). Strong negative correlations between the participants' perceptions of their voice femininity and the TVQ MtF scores demonstrated that for this group of MtF women a low self-rating of voice femininity was associated with more frequent negative voice-related experiences. This association was strongest with the vocal-functioning component of the TVQ MtF . These strong correlations and high levels of shared variance between the TVQ MtF and a measure of a related construct provides evidence for the convergent validity of the TVQ MtF . The absence of significant correlations between the TVQ MtF and the acoustic data is consistent with the equivocal findings of earlier research. This finding indicates that these two measures assess different aspects of the voice

  12. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors in classrooms and teachers' voice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if voice ergonomic risk factors in classrooms correlated with acoustic parameters of teachers' voice production. The voice ergonomic risk factors in the fields of working culture, working postures and indoor air quality were assessed in 40 classrooms using the Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment - Handbook and Checklist. Teachers (32 females, 8 males) from the above-mentioned classrooms recorded text readings before and after a working day. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL) and the slope of the spectrum (alpha ratio) were analyzed. The higher the number of the risk factors in the classrooms, the higher SPL the teachers used and the more strained the males' voices (increased alpha ratio) were. The SPL was already higher before the working day in the teachers with higher risk than in those with lower risk. In the working environment with many voice ergonomic risk factors, speakers increase voice loudness and use more strained voice quality (males). A practical implication of the results is that voice ergonomic assessments are needed in schools. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. INVARIAN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM, USING THE INTERMEDIATE-FREQUENCY SIGNALS OF HEAT POWER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of digital micro-processing automatic means allow to use design methods (technique of automatic control systems  more wider, and also to apply optimal ways of control, for example, it is possible to combine the Method of structural-parameter optimization and invariance theory. This method allow to increase essential system speed in processing of task jump and to reduce operation time of outside external disturbance up to two  values of regulated influence, and the usage of invariance principle is based on an additional measuring of the most dangerous perturbation influence and in connection with it the improvement of regulation quality is achieved.In this article the principle of invariance is applied in order to improve greatly external disturbance attack by consumption of over-heated steam. Compensation of disturbance influence on regulated value is achieving by introduction of additional signal on input of correction regulator from output of compensation device, measuring the external disturbance by consumption of over-heated steam.Modeling results of transient processes of cascade system of automatic control (CSAC, on the base of which were realized the unity of these methods, demonstrated the fact that, in processing of external disturbance by consumption of steam, the reduction of maximal dynamic regulation error is six times and cutting of regulation time by 30 % in comparison with CSAC without compensation device of external disturbance. And that is why it leads to the further reduction of maximal dynamic regulation error in processing of external disturbance by consumption of steam, and this allows to improve the quality of control.

  14. Method of test signal design for estimating the aircraft aerodynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokon', S. A.; Zolotukhin, Yu. N.; Filippov, M. N.

    2017-07-01

    A method of test signal design is proposed for studying the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics with the use of the technology of dynamically scaled free-flight models. Simultaneous excitation of all input channels in a prescribed frequency band by a set of mutually orthogonal signals is applied to increase the efficiency. A modified method of calculating the set of mutually orthogonal sinusoidal signals with a small normalized peak factor is presented. Results of simulating the aircraft motion in the MATLAB/Simulink environment with the use of the developed method of test signal design are reported.

  15. Uni-, bi- and tri-modal warning signals: effects of temporal parameters and sensory modality on perceived urgency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander; Janssen, Joris B.

    Multi-sensory warnings can potentially enhance risk communication. Hereto we investigated how temporal signal parameters affect perceived urgency within and across modalities. In an experiment, 78 observers rated the perceived urgency of uni-, bi-, and/or tri-modal stimuli as function of 25

  16. Uni-, bi- and tri-modal warning signals : Effects of temporal parameters and sensory modality on perceived urgency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.; Janssen, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-sensory warnings can potentially enhance risk communication. Hereto we investigated how temporal signal parameters affect perceived urgency within and across modalities. In an experiment, 78 observers rated the perceived urgency of uni-, bi-, and/or tri-modal stimuli as function of 25

  17. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jong Beom; Song, Dong Gil; Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window.

  18. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  19. Millimeter-wave small-signal modeling with optimizing sensitive-parameters for metamorphic high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S-W; Baek, Y-H; Han, M; Rhee, J-K; Kim, S-D; Oh, J-H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and reliable technique for determining the small-signal equivalent circuit model parameters of the 0.1 µm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) in a millimeter-wave frequency range. The initial eight extrinsic parameters of the MHEMT are extracted using two S-parameter (scattering parameter) sets measured under the pinched-off and zero-biased cold field-effect transistor conditions by avoiding the forward gate biasing. Furthermore, highly calibration-sensitive values of the R s , L s and C pd are optimized by using a gradient optimization method to improve the modeling accuracy. The accuracy enhancement of this procedure is successfully verified with an excellent correlation between the measured and calculated S-parameters up to 65 GHz

  20. Demonstration of the frequency modulation of optical signals with a high frequency deviation parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamray, A V; Kozlov, A S; Il'ichev, I V; Petrov, M P

    2008-01-01

    A new type of an integrated optical modulator for the frequency coding of optical signals is developed and fabricated. The modulator operation is based on the original technology of the electric control of a Bragg grating. The frequency modulation of an optical signal with the frequency deviation of 25 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. The modular was used to transfer the ASCII code through an optical fibre. (optical communication)

  1. COHERENT NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNALS IN A PULSAR TIMING ARRAY: PULSAR PHASES AS EXTRINSIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074 (China); Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A., E-mail: ywang12@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries are one of the primary targets of gravitational wave (GW) searches using pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). GW signals from such systems are well represented by parameterized models, allowing the standard Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) to be used for their detection and estimation. However, there is a dichotomy in how the GLRT can be implemented for PTAs: there are two possible ways in which one can split the set of signal parameters for semi-analytical and numerical extremization. The straightforward extension of the method used for continuous signals in ground-based GW searches, where the so-called pulsar phase parameters are maximized numerically, was addressed in an earlier paper. In this paper, we report the first study of the performance of the second approach where the pulsar phases are maximized semi-analytically. This approach is scalable since the number of parameters left over for numerical optimization does not depend on the size of the PTA. Our results show that for the same array size (9 pulsars), the new method performs somewhat worse in parameter estimation, but not in detection, than the previous method where the pulsar phases were maximized numerically. The origin of the performance discrepancy is likely to be in the ill-posedness that is intrinsic to any network analysis method. However, the scalability of the new method allows the ill-posedness to be mitigated by simply adding more pulsars to the array. This is shown explicitly by taking a larger array of pulsars.

  2. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Diagnostic value of voice acoustic analysis in assessment of occupational voice pathologies in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Kotylo, Piotr; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at risk of developing occupational dysphonia, which accounts for over 25% of all occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland. The most frequently used method of diagnosing voice diseases is videostroboscopy. However, to facilitate objective evaluation of voice efficiency as well as medical certification of occupational voice disorders, it is crucial to implement quantitative methods of voice assessment, particularly voice acoustic analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the results of acoustic analysis in 66 female teachers (aged 40-64 years), including 35 subjects with occupational voice pathologies (e.g., vocal nodules) and 31 subjects with functional dysphonia. The acoustic analysis was performed using the IRIS software, before and after a 30-minute vocal loading test. All participants were subjected also to laryngological and videostroboscopic examinations. After the vocal effort, the acoustic parameters displayed statistically significant abnormalities, mostly lowered fundamental frequency (Fo) and incorrect values of shimmer and noise to harmonic ratio. To conclude, quantitative voice acoustic analysis using the IRIS software seems to be an effective complement to voice examinations, which is particularly helpful in diagnosing occupational dysphonia.

  4. The effectiveness of voice therapy for teachers with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Sznurowska-Przygocka, B; Fiszer, M; Kotyło, P; Sinkiewicz, A; Modrzewska, M; Sliwinska-Kowalska, M

    2008-01-01

    An incorrect voice emission is a risk factor for developing occupational voice disorders. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of voice therapy in female teachers with dysphonia. The study comprised 133 subjects with voice disorders, taking part in a vocal training programme. A reference group for the present study included 53 teachers with dysphonia. Questionnaire surveys, phoniatric examination and videostroboscopic evaluation were conducted at initial and control examination. In the study group, an improvement after the vocal training was noted in most of the reported symptoms and also in some quantitative parameters of phoniatric examinations compared to the findings for the reference group. The number of patients who assessed their voice as normal increased significantly after the vocal training (2.3 vs. 46.6%). A significant increase in the mean maximum phonation time, from 13.3 to 16.6 s, was observed. The same applied to voice frequency range (increase from 171 to 226.8 Hz). The outcomes of vocal training, such as a subjective improvement of voice quality and an increase in the quantitative parameters (prolonged maximum phonation time, extended voice range) seem to be important parameters for monitoring the effectiveness of training in correct voice emission. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  6. Emotional state and its impact on voice authentication accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznak, Miroslav; Partila, Pavol; Penhaker, Marek; Peterek, Tomas; Tomala, Karel; Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub

    2013-05-01

    The paper deals with the increasing accuracy of voice authentication methods. The developed algorithm first extracts segmental parameters, such as Zero Crossing Rate, the Fundamental Frequency and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients from voice. Based on these parameters, the neural network classifier detects the speaker's emotional state. These parameters shape the distribution of neurons in Kohonen maps, forming clusters of neurons on the map characterizing a particular emotional state. Using regression analysis, we can calculate the function of the parameters of individual emotional states. This relationship increases voice authentication accuracy and prevents unjust rejection.

  7. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  8. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  9. Maximum likelihood estimation of signal detection model parameters for the assessment of two-stage diagnostic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, R B; Dondériz, I C; Pérez Abalo, M C

    1992-08-01

    The methodology of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves based on the signal detection model is extended to evaluate the accuracy of two-stage diagnostic strategies. A computer program is developed for the maximum likelihood estimation of parameters that characterize the sensitivity and specificity of two-stage classifiers according to this extended methodology. Its use is briefly illustrated with data collected in a two-stage screening for auditory defects.

  10. Analysis of sensor impulse response effects on Cramèr–Rao lower bounds for signal parameter estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim S. Gower

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a generic analysis of sensor impulse response effects on linearly filtered channel noise is presented to illustrate the resulting variations to the Cramèr–Rao lower bounds (CRLBs of signal parameter estimators in signal processing and communication applications. The authors start by deriving the density function of a filtered signal, which is shown to be a mixture density, and hence the exact expressions for the mean and variance. Simulation results are used to confirm the derivations, which are then used to investigate the effects of impulse response length and variance, as well as channel noise length and variance effects on the resulting CRLBs. Results indicate that for non-zero-mean channel noise and impulse responses, the resulting mean of filtered noise can be relatively large causing adverse deviations to parameter estimations. The filtered noise variance is shown to be proportional to the impulse response energy, where for long duration of signal capture the CRLB is significantly increased.

  11. Mechanical design parameters for detection of nuclear signals by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.J.; Hanlon, J.A.; Lamartine, B.; Hawley, M.; Solem, J.C.; Signer, S.; Jarmer, J.J.; Penttila, S.; Sillerud, L.O.; Pryputniewicz, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that mechanical detection of magnetic resonance from a single nuclear spin is in principle possible. This theory has recently been experimentally validated by the mechanical detection of electron spin resonance signals using microscale cantilevers. Currently we are extending this technology in an attempt to detect nuclear signals which are extending this technology in an attempt to detect nuclear signals which are three orders of magnitude lower in intensity than electron signals. In order to achieve the needed thousand-fold improvement in sensitivity we have undertaken the development of optimized mechanical cantilevers and highly polarized samples. Finite element modeling is used as a tool to simulate cantilever beam dynamics and to optimize the mechanical properties including Q, resonant frequency, amplitude of vibration and spring constant. Simulations are compared to experiments using heterodyne hologram interferometry. Nanofabrication of optimized cantilevers via ion milling will be directed by the outcome of these simulations and experiments. Highly polarized samples are developed using a three-fold approach: (1) high magnetic field strength (2.5T), (2) low temperature (1K), and (3) use of samples polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization. Our recent experiments have demonstrated nuclear polarizations in excess of 50% in molecules of toulene

  12. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Signal detection theory and vestibular perception: III. Estimating unbiased fit parameters for psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Shomesh E; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2013-03-01

    Psychophysics generally relies on estimating a subject's ability to perform a specific task as a function of an observed stimulus. For threshold studies, the fitted functions are called psychometric functions. While fitting psychometric functions to data acquired using adaptive sampling procedures (e.g., "staircase" procedures), investigators have encountered a bias in the spread ("slope" or "threshold") parameter that has been attributed to the serial dependency of the adaptive data. Using simulations, we confirm this bias for cumulative Gaussian parametric maximum likelihood fits on data collected via adaptive sampling procedures, and then present a bias-reduced maximum likelihood fit that substantially reduces the bias without reducing the precision of the spread parameter estimate and without reducing the accuracy or precision of the other fit parameters. As a separate topic, we explain how to implement this bias reduction technique using generalized linear model fits as well as other numeric maximum likelihood techniques such as the Nelder-Mead simplex. We then provide a comparison of the iterative bootstrap and observed information matrix techniques for estimating parameter fit variance from adaptive sampling procedure data sets. The iterative bootstrap technique is shown to be slightly more accurate; however, the observed information technique executes in a small fraction (0.005 %) of the time required by the iterative bootstrap technique, which is an advantage when a real-time estimate of parameter fit variance is required.

  14. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10 –6 -10 –9 Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10 3 Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10 –4 -10 –1 Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  15. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10{sup –6}-10{sup –9} Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10{sup 3} Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10{sup –4}-10{sup –1} Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  16. The Wigner-Ville Distribution Based on the Linear Canonical Transform and Its Applications for QFM Signal Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-E Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD based on the linear canonical transform (LCT (WDL not only has the advantages of the LCT but also has the good properties of WVD. In this paper, some new and important properties of the WDL are derived, and the relationships between WDL and some other time-frequency distributions are discussed, such as the ambiguity function based on LCT (LCTAF, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT, and the wavelet transform (WT. The WDLs of some signals are also deduced. A novel definition of the WVD based on the LCT and generalized instantaneous autocorrelation function (GWDL is proposed and its applications in the estimation of parameters for QFM signals are also discussed. The GWDL of the QFM signal generates an impulse and the third-order phase coefficient of QFM signal can be estimated in accordance with the position information of such impulse. The proposed algorithm is fast because it only requires 1-dimensional maximization. Also the new algorithm only has fourth-order nonlinearity thus it has accurate estimation and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR threshold. The simulation results are provided to support the theoretical results.

  17. 27-day variation in solar-terrestrial parameters: Global characteristics and an origin based approach of the signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblet, Facundo L.; Azpilicueta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The Earth and the near interplanetary medium are affected by the Sun in different ways. Those processes generated in the Sun that induce perturbations into the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system are called geoeffective processes and show a wide range of temporal variations, like the 11-year solar cycle (long term variations), the variation of ∼27 days (recurrent variations), solar storms enduring for some days, particle acceleration events lasting for some hours, etc. In this article, the periodicity of ∼27 days associated with the solar synodic rotation period is investigated. The work is mainly focused on studying the resulting 27-day periodic signal in the magnetic activity, by the analysis of the horizontal component of the magnetic field registered on a set of 103 magnetic observatories distributed around the world. For this a new method to isolate the periodicity of interest has been developed consisting of two main steps: the first one consists of removing the linear trend corresponding to every calendar year from the data series, and the second one of removing from the resulting series a smoothed version of it obtained by applying a 30-day moving average. The result at the end of this process is a data series in which all the signal with periods larger than 30 days are canceled. The most important characteristics observed in the resulting signals are two main amplitude modulations: the first and most prominent related to the 11-year solar cycle and the second one with a semiannual pattern. In addition, the amplitude of the signal shows a dependence on the geomagnetic latitude of the observatory with a significant discontinuity at approx. ±60°. The processing scheme was also applied to other parameters that are widely used to characterize the energy transfer from the Sun to the Earth: F10.7 and Mg II indices and the ionospheric vertical total electron content (vTEC) were considered for radiative interactions; and the solar wind velocity for the non

  18. Measurements of Interferometer Parameters at Reception of GLONASS and GPS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechaeva M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the calibration method of interferometers with antennas having a small effective area, on the quasinoise signals of GLONASS and GPS navigation satellites. Algorithms for calculation of antenna coordinates and instrumental delay from the analysis of correlation interferometer response to signals of satellites in the near field of the instrument were reviewed. The method was tested in VLBI experiments on interferometers with medium and large baselines that included radio telescopes of NIRFI and VIRAC. The values of the antenna coordinates and instrumental delay with an error within the limits of one discrete were obtained. The sources of measurement errors and ways to improve the accuracy of results were analysed.

  19. Compressive Parameter Estimation for Sparse Translation-Invariant Signals Using Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Duarte, Marco F.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    We propose new compressive parameter estimation algorithms that make use of polar interpolation to improve the estimator precision. Our work extends previous approaches involving polar interpolation for compressive parameter estimation in two aspects: (i) we extend the formulation from real non...... to attain good estimation precision and keep the computational complexity low. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms outperform existing approaches that either leverage polynomial interpolation or are based on a conversion to a frequency-estimation problem followed by a super...... interpolation increases the estimation precision....

  20. [Diagnostics and therapy in professional voice-users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Echternach, M

    2010-04-01

    Voice is one of the most important instruments for expression and communication in humans. Dysphonia remains very frequent. Generally people in voice-intensive professions, such as teachers, call center employees, singers and actors suffer from these complaints. In recent years methods have been developed which facilitate appropriate diagnosis and therapy, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine, in voice patients appropriate to their degree of disease. The basic protocol of the European Laryngological Society offers a standardized evaluation of multidimensional voice parameters. In our own patient collective there were statistically significant improvements in voice quality, according to a pre/post mean value comparison, in both phonomicrosurgical (n=45) and voice therapy (n=30) patients in relation to RBH, DSI and VHI.

  1. Voice Response Systems Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Jeanette

    1984-01-01

    Examines two methods of generating synthetic speech in voice response systems, which allow computers to communicate in human terms (speech), using human interface devices (ears): phoneme and reconstructed voice systems. Considerations prior to implementation, current and potential applications, glossary, directory, and introduction to Input Output…

  2. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how...

  3. Voice Quality in Mobile Telecommunication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Stankevičius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods measuring the quality of voice transmitted over the mobile network as well as related problem, algorithms and options. It presents the created voice quality measurement system and discusses its adequacy as well as efficiency. Besides, the author presents the results of system application under the optimal hardware configuration. Under almost ideal conditions, the system evaluates the voice quality with MOS 3.85 average estimate; while the standardized TEMS Investigation 9.0 has 4.05 average MOS estimate. Next, the article presents the discussion of voice quality predictor implementation and investigates the predictor using nonlinear and linear prediction methods of voice quality dependence on the mobile network settings. Nonlinear prediction using artificial neural network resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.62. While the linear prediction method using the least mean squares resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.57. The analytical expression of voice quality features from the three network parameters: BER, C / I, RSSI is given as well.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  5. Signal processing to evaluate parameters affecting SPE for multi-residue analysis of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Basaglia, Giulia; Dondi, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the development of a comprehensive method for the simultaneous analysis of personal care products (PCPs) based on SPE and GC-MS. The method was developed on 29 target compounds to represent PCPs belonging to different chemical classes: surfactants in detergents (alkyl benzenes), fragrances in cosmetics (nitro and polycyclic musks), antioxidants and preservatives (phenols), plasticizers (phthalates) displaying a wide range of volatility, polarity, water solubility. In addition to the conventional C(18) stationary phase, a surface modified styrene divinylbenzene polymeric phase (Strata X SPE cartridge) has been investigated as suitable for the simultaneous extraction of several PCPs with polar and non-polar characteristics. For both sorbents different solvent compositions and eluting conditions were tested and compared in order to achieve high extraction efficiency for as many sample components as possible. Comparison of the behavior of the two cartridges reveals that, overall, Strata-X provides better efficiency with extraction recovery higher than 70% for most of the PCPs investigated. The best results were obtained under the following operative conditions: an evaporation temperature of 40 degrees C, elution on Strata-X cartridge using a volume of 15 mL of ethyl acetate (EA) as solvent and operating with slow flow rate (-10 KPa). In addition to the conventional method based on peak integration, a chemometric approach based on the computation of the experimental autocovariance function (EACVF(tot)) was applied to the complex GC-MS signal: the percentage recovery and information on peak abundance distribution can be evaluated for each procedure step. The PC-based signal processing proved very helpful in assisting the development of the analytical procedure, since it saves labor and time and increases result reliability in handling GC complex signals.

  6. Multi-Parameter Observation and Detection of Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Parrot, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent large earthquakes (M9.0 Tohoku, 03/2011; M7.0 Haiti, 01/2010; M6.7 L Aquila, 04/2008; and M7.9 Wenchuan 05/2008) have renewed interest in pre-anomalous seismic signals associated with them. Recent workshops (DEMETER 2006, 2011 and VESTO 2009 ) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric /ionospheric signals observed in space prior to these events. Our initial results indicate that no single pre-earthquake observation (seismic, magnetic field, electric field, thermal infrared [TIR], or GPS/TEC) can provide a consistent and successful global scale early warning. This is most likely due to complexity and chaotic nature of earthquakes and the limitation in existing ground (temporal/spatial) and global satellite observations. In this study we analyze preseismic temporal and spatial variations (gas/radon counting rate, atmospheric temperature and humidity change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) which we propose occur before the onset of major earthquakes:. We propose an Integrated Space -- Terrestrial Framework (ISTF), as a different approach for revealing pre-earthquake phenomena in seismically active areas. ISTF is a sensor web of a coordinated observation infrastructure employing multiple sensors that are distributed on one or more platforms; data from satellite sensors (Terra, Aqua, POES, DEMETER and others) and ground observations, e.g., Global Positioning System, Total Electron Content (GPS/TEC). As a theoretical guide we use the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model to explain the generation of multiple earthquake precursors. Using our methodology, we evaluated retrospectively the signals preceding the most devastated earthquakes during 2005-2011. We observed a correlation between both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of these earthquakes. The second phase of our validation include systematic retrospective analysis for more than 100 major earthquakes (M>5

  7. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of western operatic singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The operatic singing technique is frequently used in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate, and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer), and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique used. This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation, and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Psychological effects of preventive voice care training in student teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseck, M; Richter, B; Echternach, M; Spahn, C

    2017-07-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of preventive voice care programs have focused mainly on voice parameters. Psychological parameters, however, have not been investigated in detail so far. The effect of a voice training program for German student teachers on psychological health parameters was investigated in a longitudinal study. The sample of 204 student teachers was divided into the intervention group (n = 123), who participated in the voice training program, and the control group (n = 81), who received no voice training. Voice training contained ten 90-min group courses and an individual visit by the voice trainer in a teaching situation with feedback afterwards. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires (self-efficacy, Short-Form Health Survey, self-consciousness, voice self-concept, work-related behaviour and experience patterns) at the beginning and the end of their student teacher training period. The training program showed significant positive influences on psychological health, voice self-concept (i.e. more positive perception and increased awareness of one's own voice) and work-related coping behaviour in the intervention group. On average, the mental health status of all participants reduced over time, whereas the status in the trained group diminished significantly less than in the control group. Furthermore, the trained student teachers gained abilities to cope with work-related stress better than those without training. The training program clearly showed a positive impact on mental health. The results maintain the importance of such a training program not only for voice health, but also for wide-ranging aspects of constitutional health.

  9. Adverse effects of MWCNTs on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and activation of MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Puthumana, Jayesh; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-10-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received widespread applications in a broad variety of commercial products due to low production cost. Despite their significant commercial applications, CNTs are being discharged to aquatic ecosystem, leading a threat to aquatic life. Thus, we investigated the adverse effect of CNTs on the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Additional to the study on the uptake of CNTs and acute toxicity, adverse effects on life parameters (e.g. growth, fecundity, and size) were analyzed in response to various concentrations of CNTs. Also, as a measurement of cellular damage, oxidative stress-related markers were examined in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the phosphorylation pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of oxidative stress-induced toxicity in the copepod P. nana. As a result, significant inhibition on life parameters and evoked antioxidant systems were observed without ROS induction. In addition, CNTs activated MAPK signaling pathway via ERK, suggesting that phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)-mediated adverse effects are the primary cause of in vitro and in vivo endpoints in response to CNTs exposure. Moreover, ROS-independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway was observed. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of CNTs on the copepod P. nana at cellular and molecular level and insight on possible ecotoxicological implications in the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Voice following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoicheff, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease

  11. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  12. A study of MRI gradient echo signals from discrete magnetic particles with considerations of several parameters in simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokeny, Paul; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Xie, He

    2018-05-01

    Modeling MRI signal behaviors in the presence of discrete magnetic particles is important, as magnetic particles appear in nanoparticle labeled cells, contrast agents, and other biological forms of iron. Currently, many models that take into account the discrete particle nature in a system have been used to predict magnitude signal decays in the form of R2* or R2' from one single voxel. Little work has been done for predicting phase signals. In addition, most calculations of phase signals rely on the assumption that a system containing discrete particles behaves as a continuous medium. In this work, numerical simulations are used to investigate MRI magnitude and phase signals from discrete particles, without diffusion effects. Factors such as particle size, number density, susceptibility, volume fraction, particle arrangements for their randomness, and field of view have been considered in simulations. The results are compared to either a ground truth model, theoretical work based on continuous mediums, or previous literature. Suitable parameters used to model particles in several voxels that lead to acceptable magnetic field distributions around particle surfaces and accurate MR signals are identified. The phase values as a function of echo time from a central voxel filled by particles can be significantly different from those of a continuous cubic medium. However, a completely random distribution of particles can lead to an R2' value which agrees with the prediction from the static dephasing theory. A sphere with a radius of at least 4 grid points used in simulations is found to be acceptable to generate MR signals equivalent from a larger sphere. Increasing number of particles with a fixed volume fraction in simulations reduces the resulting variance in the phase behavior, and converges to almost the same phase value for different particle numbers at each echo time. The variance of phase values is also reduced when increasing the number of particles in a fixed

  13. Changes after voice therapy in objective and subjective voice measurements of pediatric patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.

  14. Algorithm for evaluation of parameters of ionization chamber signals from the flash-ADC date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturin, V.N.; Balin, D.V.; Maev, E.M.; Petrov, G.E.; Semenchuk, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm for evaluation of parameters of pulses obtained from the ionization chamber (IC) and digitized by Flash-ADC is described. It was designed for determination of the energies and times of arrival of charged particles in DTμ catalyzed fusion that occurs in the IC sensitive volume, in order to measure directly the probability of muon sticking. The algorithm provides the extraction of weak pulses of sloped muon with 50% efficiency, the measurement of fusion energy, especially for long and low amplitude pulses, the recognition of pulse pileups, using special shape analysis procedure. The algorithm was tuned with a special electronic hardware that supplied sequences of pulses with specified amplitudes, durations and shapes and simulation of simulated tritium-noise background. 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Extracting lunar dust parameters from image charge signals produced by the Lunar Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.; Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector used to characterize the lunar dust exosphere generated by the impacts of large interplanetary particles and meteor streams (Horanyi et al., 2015). In addition to the mass and speed of these lofted particles, LDEX is sensitive to their charge. The resulting signatures of impact events therefore provide valuable information about not only the ambient plasma environment, but also the speed vectors of these dust grains. Here, impact events produced from LDEX's calibration at the Dust Accelerator Laboratory are analyzed using an image charge model derived from the electrostatic simulation program, Coulomb. We show that parameters such as dust grain speed, size, charge, and position of entry into LDEX can be recovered and applied to data collected during LADEE's seven-month mission.

  16. An evaluation of neural networks for identification of system parameters in reactor noise signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    Several backpropagation neural networks for identifying fundamental mode eigenvalues were evaluated. The networks were trained and tested on analytical data and on results from other numerical methods. They were then used to predict first mode break frequencies for noise data from several sources. These predictions were, in turn, compared with analytical values and with results from alternative methods. Comparisons of results for some data sets suggest that the accuracy of predictions from neural networks are essentially equivalent to results from conventional methods while other evaluations indicate that either method may be superior. Experience gained from these numerical experiments provide insight for improving the performance of neural networks relative to other methods for identifying parameters associated with experimental data. Neural networks may also be used in support of conventional algorithms by providing starting points for nonlinear minimization algorithms

  17. MRI signal changes of the bone marrow in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy: correlation with clinical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ana I.; Tomas, Xavier; Pomes, Jaume; Amo, Montserrat del; Milinkovic, Ana; Perez, Inaki; Mallolas, Josep; Rios, Jose; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, imaging appearance, and clinical significance, of bone marrow MR signal changes in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome. Twenty-eight HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 12 HIV-negative controls underwent MRI of the legs. Whole-body MRI, SPECT/CT, and a complete radiographic skeletal survey were obtained in subjects with signal changes in bone marrow. MRI and clinical evaluations were reviewed 6 months after baseline to determine changes after switching from thymidine analogs (TA) to tenofovir-DF (TDF). MRI results correlated with clinical parameters. We observed foci of a serous-like pattern (low signal and no enhancement on T1-weighted, high signal on T2-weighted images) in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%) and an intermediate signal on T1-weighted images in 4 out of 28 patients (14.3%). Serous-like lesions were located in the lower limbs and scattered in the talus, calcaneus, femurs, and humeral bones; they showed slight uptake on SPECT bone scans and were normal on CT and radiographs. Patients with serous-like lesions had significantly lower peripheral and total fat at baseline than other groups (P < 0.05). No changes at 6 months were observed on MRI, and the serous-like lesion group showed good peripheral fat recovery after changing drug treatment. A serous-like MRI pattern is observed in the peripheral skeletons of HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, which correlates with peripheral lipoatrophy, and should not be misdiagnosed as malignant or infectious diseases. Although the MR lesions did not improve after switching the treatment, there was evidence of lipoatrophy recovery. (orig.)

  18. When the face fits: recognition of celebrities from matching and mismatching faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework.

  19. Classification of Parameters Extracted from Cardiotocographic Signals for Early Detection of Metabolic Acidemia in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROTARIU, C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal acidosis is reflected by the values of umbilical cord pH and base deficit (BDecf: normal recordings (pH over 7.2 and BDecf under 8 mmol/l and abnormal recordings (pH under 7.2 and BDecf over 8 mmol/l. The purpose of this paper is to present the implementation of an automated system for detecting fetal acidosis in cardiotocographic recordings. The method uses spectral analysis of medium (0.07-0.13 Hz and high (0.13-1 Hz frequency spectrum. We implement the algorithm for segments of the recordings without signal loss for better classification. We determined the normalized medium and high frequency components and mid to high frequency ratio. The recordings in the database are divided into a control group (100 normal recordings and a test group (431 normal or abnormal recordings. A t-test with the p value under 0.05 between the two groups is used to classify the test group. The classification is improved by including the presence of late and prolonged decelerations in the classification process, obtaining the final results, which are comparable to the best ones in current literature.

  20. A Novel Fast and Secure Approach for Voice Encryption Based on DNA Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaei Kate, Hamidreza; Razmara, Jafar; Isazadeh, Ayaz

    2018-06-01

    Today, in the world of information communication, voice information has a particular importance. One way to preserve voice data from attacks is voice encryption. The encryption algorithms use various techniques such as hashing, chaotic, mixing, and many others. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for voice encryption based on three different schemes to increase flexibility and strength of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses an innovative encoding scheme, the DNA encryption technique and a permutation function to provide a secure and fast solution for voice encryption. The algorithm is evaluated based on various measures including signal to noise ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, correlation coefficient, signal similarity and signal frequency content. The results demonstrate applicability of the proposed method in secure and fast encryption of voice files

  1. Factors affecting the quality of voice in the early glottic cancer treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Baccher, Gurmit K.; Waghmare, Chaitali M.; Mallick, Indranil; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Pai, Prathamesh; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; D'Cruz, Anil; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To prospectively analyze the objective voice quality before and after radiotherapy (RT) for early glottic cancer and to evaluate the role of different factors that may affect it. Methods: Patients with T1-T2N0M0 glottic cancer underwent voice quality assessment before treatment and after radical RT. Post-RT voice quality was compared to the voice at diagnosis and the voice of healthy individuals used as controls. A comprehensive set of voice parameters were measured. The effects of age, smoking history, T stage, anterior commissure (AC) involvement, radiation dose, fractionation and volumes on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice quality were analyzed. Results: The voice quality data of 50 patients were analyzed. Following treatment, there was a significant improvement in the majority of measured parameters. However, perturbation and HNR remained inferior compared to controls. A history of smoking, AC involvement and larger RT volumes resulted in poorer voice parameters following RT. There was no significant impact of age alone. T2 tumors had an inferior voice quality before treatment, but did not remain inferior following RT. Hypofractionated RT did not show any negative impact. Conclusions: There is a considerable improvement of voice quality following RT. Several factors may have specific effects on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice

  2. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kriegstein

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  3. Understanding the mechanisms of familiar voice-identity recognition in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguinness, Corrina; Roswandowitz, Claudia; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-03-31

    Humans have a remarkable skill for voice-identity recognition: most of us can remember many voices that surround us as 'unique'. In this review, we explore the computational and neural mechanisms which may support our ability to represent and recognise a unique voice-identity. We examine the functional architecture of voice-sensitive regions in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, and bring together findings on how these regions may interact with each other, and additional face-sensitive regions, to support voice-identity processing. We also contrast findings from studies on neurotypicals and clinical populations which have examined the processing of familiar and unfamiliar voices. Taken together, the findings suggest that representations of familiar and unfamiliar voices might dissociate in the human brain. Such an observation does not fit well with current models for voice-identity processing, which by-and-large assume a common sequential analysis of the incoming voice signal, regardless of voice familiarity. We provide a revised audio-visual integrative model of voice-identity processing which brings together traditional and prototype models of identity processing. This revised model includes a mechanism of how voice-identity representations are established and provides a novel framework for understanding and examining the potential differences in familiar and unfamiliar voice processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Finding viable models in SUSY parameter spaces with signal specific discovery potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Thomas; Lindroos, Jan Øye; Lipniacka, Anna; Sandaker, Heidi

    2013-08-01

    Recent results from ATLAS giving a Higgs mass of 125.5 GeV, further constrain already highly constrained supersymmetric models such as pMSSM or CMSSM/mSUGRA. As a consequence, finding potentially discoverable and non-excluded regions of model parameter space is becoming increasingly difficult. Several groups have invested large effort in studying the consequences of Higgs mass bounds, upper limits on rare B-meson decays, and limits on relic dark matter density on constrained models, aiming at predicting superpartner masses, and establishing likelihood of SUSY models compared to that of the Standard Model vis-á-vis experimental data. In this paper a framework for efficient search for discoverable, non-excluded regions of different SUSY spaces giving specific experimental signature of interest is presented. The method employs an improved Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme exploiting an iteratively updated likelihood function to guide search for viable models. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds as well as the LHC discovery potential are taken into account. This includes recent bounds on relic dark matter density, the Higgs sector and rare B-mesons decays. A clustering algorithm is applied to classify selected models according to expected phenomenology enabling automated choice of experimental benchmarks and regions to be used for optimizing searches. The aim is to provide experimentalist with a viable tool helping to target experimental signatures to search for, once a class of models of interest is established. As an example a search for viable CMSSM models with τ-lepton signatures observable with the 2012 LHC data set is presented. In the search 105209 unique models were probed. From these, ten reference benchmark points covering different ranges of phenomenological observables at the LHC were selected.

  5. Voice - How humans communicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us-members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners.

  6. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors and voice symptoms, voice handicap, and respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  8. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  9. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...

  10. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  11. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Hearing Voices and Seeing Things No. 102; Updated October ... delusions (a fixed, false, and often bizarre belief). Hearing voices or seeing things that are not there ...

  12. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaja, Bagus Tris; Farid, Mifta Nur; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-01-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation. (paper)

  13. Voice Disorder Classification Based on Multitaper Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Eskidere

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs are widely used in order to extract essential information from a voice signal and became a popular feature extractor used in audio processing. However, MFCC features are usually calculated from a single window (taper characterized by large variance. This study shows investigations on reducing variance for the classification of two different voice qualities (normal voice and disordered voice using multitaper MFCC features. We also compare their performance by newly proposed windowing techniques and conventional single-taper technique. The results demonstrate that adapted weighted Thomson multitaper method could distinguish between normal voice and disordered voice better than the results done by the conventional single-taper (Hamming window technique and two newly proposed windowing methods. The multitaper MFCC features may be helpful in identifying voices at risk for a real pathology that has to be proven later.

  14. [Voice assessment and demographic data of applicants for a school of speech therapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S

    2008-05-01

    Demographic data, subjective und objective voice analysis as well as self-assessment of voice quality from applicants for a school of speech therapists were investigated. Demographic data from 116 applicants were collected and their voice quality assessed by three independent judges. An objective evaluation was done by maximum phonation time, average fundamental frequency, dynamic range and percent of jitter and shimmer by means of Goettinger Hoarseness diagram. Self-assessment of voice quality was done by "voice handicap index questionnaire". The twenty successful applicants had a physiological voice in 95 %, they were all musical and had university entrance qualifications. Subjective voice assessment showed in 16 % of the applicants a hoarse voice. In this subgroup an unphysiological vocal use was observed in 72 % and a reduced articulation in 45 %. The objective voice parameters did not show a significant difference between the 3 groups. Self-assessment of the voice was inconspicuous in all applicants. Applicants with general qualification for university entrance, musicality and a physiological voice were more likely to be successful. There were main differences between self assessment of voice and quantitative analysis or subjective assessment by three independent judges.

  15. Voice Disorders: Etiology and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; do Amaral, Henrique Abrantes; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Maira Garcia; Gonçalves, Tatiana Maria; Dias, Norimar Hernandes

    2016-11-01

    Voice disorders affect adults and children and have different causes in different age groups. The aim of the study is to present the etiology and diagnosis dysphonia in a large population of patients with this voice disorder.for dysphonia of a large population of dysphonic patients. We evaluated 2019 patients with dysphonia who attended the Voice Disease ambulatories of a university hospital. Parameters assessed were age, gender, profession, associated symptoms, smoking, and videolaryngoscopy diagnoses. Of the 2019 patients with dysphonia who were included in this study, 786 were male (38.93%) and 1233 were female (61.07). The age groups were as follows: 1-6 years (n = 100); 7-12 years (n = 187); 13-18 years (n = 92); 19-39 years (n = 494); 41-60 years (n = 811); and >60 years (n = 335). Symptoms associated with dysphonia were vocal overuse (n = 677), gastroesophageal symptoms (n = 535), and nasosinusal symptoms (n = 497). The predominant professions of the patients were domestic workers, students, and teachers. Smoking was reported by 13.6% patients. With regard to the etiology of dysphonia, in children (1-18 years old), nodules (n = 225; 59.3%), cysts (n = 39; 10.3%), and acute laryngitis (n = 26; 6.8%) prevailed. In adults (19-60 years old), functional dysphonia (n = 268; 20.5%), acid laryngitis (n = 164; 12.5%), and vocal polyps (n = 156; 12%) predominated. In patients older than 60 years, presbyphonia (n = 89; 26.5%), functional dysphonia (n = 59; 17.6%), and Reinke's edema (n = 48; 14%) predominated. In this population of 2019 patients with dysphonia, adults and women were predominant. Dysphonia had different etiologies in the age groups studied. Nodules and cysts were predominant in children, functional dysphonia and reflux in adults, and presbyphonia and Reinke's edema in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aerodynamic and sound intensity measurements in tracheoesophageal voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolman, Wilko; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Tan, Frédérique M. L.; Tange, Rinze A.; Schouwenburg, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In laryngectomized patients, tracheoesophageal voice generally provides a better voice quality than esophageal voice. Understanding the aerodynamics of voice production in patients with a voice prosthesis is important for optimizing prosthetic designs and successful voice rehabilitation.

  17. [Voice disorders in female teachers assessed by Voice Handicap Index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the application of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders in female teachers. The subjective assessment of voice by VHI was performed in fifty subjects with dysphonia diagnosed in laryngovideostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 30 women whose jobs did not involve vocal effort. The results of the total VHI score and each of its subscales: functional, emotional and physical was significantly worse in the study group than in controls (p teachers estimated their own voice problems as a moderate disability, while 12% of them reported severe voice disability. However, all non-teachers assessed their voice problems as slight, their results ranged at the lowest level of VHI score. This study confirmed that VHI as a tool for self-assessment of voice can be a significant contribution to the diagnosis of occupational dysphonia.

  18. Relationship Between Voice and Motor Disabilities of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Fatemeh; Karkheiran, Siamak; Soltani, Majid; Moradi, Negin; Shahidi, Gholamali

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate voice of Iranian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and find any relationship between motor disabilities and acoustic voice parameters as speech motor components. We evaluated 27 Farsi-speaking PD patients and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy persons as control. Motor performance was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III and Hoehn and Yahr rating scale in the "on" state. Acoustic voice evaluation, including fundamental frequency (f0), standard deviation of f0, minimum of f0, maximum of f0, shimmer, jitter, and harmonic to noise ratio, was done using the Praat software via /a/ prolongation. No difference was seen between the voice of the patients and the voice of the controls. f0 and its variation had a significant correlation with the duration of the disease, but did not have any relationships with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III. Only limited relationship was observed between voice and motor disabilities. Tremor is an important main feature of PD that affects motor and phonation systems. Females had an older age at onset, more prolonged disease, and more severe motor disabilities (not statistically significant), but phonation disorders were more frequent in males and showed more relationship with severity of motor disabilities. Voice is affected by PD earlier than many other motor components and is more sensitive to disease progression. Tremor is the most effective part of PD that impacts voice. PD has more effect on voice of male versus female patients. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Listen to a voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2001-01-01

    Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and her...

  20. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  1. Voices of courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Abdullah Karim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.

  2. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted

  3. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  4. Human voice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-02-22

    We are all voice experts. First and foremost, we can produce and understand speech, and this makes us a unique species. But in addition to speech perception, we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication. Consider the following example: you are sitting in a plane, and you can hear a conversation in a foreign language in the row behind you. You do not see the speakers' faces, and you cannot understand the speech content because you do not know the language. Yet, an amazing amount of information is available to you. You can evaluate the physical characteristics of the different protagonists, including their gender, approximate age and size, and associate an identity to the different voices. You can form a good idea of the different speaker's mood and affective state, as well as more subtle cues as the perceived attractiveness or dominance of the protagonists. In brief, you can form a fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction unfolding, which a brief glance backwards can on the occasion help refine - sometimes surprisingly so. What are the acoustical cues that carry these different types of vocal information? How does our brain process and analyse this information? Here we briefly review an emerging field and the main tools used in voice perception research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Voice application development for Android

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po

  6. Speakers comfort and voice use in different environments and babble-noise. What are the effects on effort and cognition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; von Lochow, Heike; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Teachers often report voice problems related to the occupational environment, and voice problems are more prevalent in teaching than in other occupations. Relationships between objectively measurable acoustical parameters and voice use have been shown. Speakers have been shown to be able to predi...... a correlation to cognitive aspects. Listener assessments and the data from the voice accumulator will be presented. This knowledge may contribute to the area of classroom acoustics and speakers’ comfort in general....

  7. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.

  8. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test in occupational voice disorders: outcomes before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2008-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of acoustic analysis with vocal loading test for evaluating the treatment outcomes in occupational voice disorders. Fifty-one female teachers with dysphonia were examined (Voice Handicap Index--VHI, laryngovideostroboscopy and acoustic analysis with vocal loading) before and after treatment. The outcomes of teachers receiving vocal training (group I) were referred to outcomes of group II receiving only voice hygiene instructions. The results of subjective assessment (VHI score) and objective evaluation (acoustic analysis) improved more significantly in group I than in group II. The post-treatment examination revealed a decreased percentage of subjects with deteriorated jitter parameters after vocal loading, particularly in group I. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test can be a helpful tool in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in occupational dysphonia.

  9. Double Fourier analysis for Emotion Identification in Voiced Speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Sosa, D.; Bastidas, M.; Ortiz P, D.; Quintero, O.L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel analysis alternative, based on two Fourier Transforms for emotion recognition from speech. Fourier analysis allows for display and synthesizes different signals, in terms of power spectral density distributions. A spectrogram of the voice signal is obtained performing a short time Fourier Transform with Gaussian windows, this spectrogram portraits frequency related features, such as vocal tract resonances and quasi-periodic excitations during voiced sounds. Emotions induce such characteristics in speech, which become apparent in spectrogram time-frequency distributions. Later, the signal time-frequency representation from spectrogram is considered an image, and processed through a 2-dimensional Fourier Transform in order to perform the spatial Fourier analysis from it. Finally features related with emotions in voiced speech are extracted and presented. (paper)

  10. Data reduction, radial velocities and stellar parameters from spectra in the very low signal-to-noise domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Large astronomical facilities usually provide data reduction pipeline designed to deliver ready-to-use scientific data, and too often as- tronomers are relying on this to avoid the most difficult part of an astronomer job Standard data reduction pipelines however are usu- ally designed and tested to have good performance on data with av- erage Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) data, and the issues that are related with the reduction of data in the very low SNR domain are not taken int account properly. As a result, informations in data with low SNR are not optimally exploited. During the last decade our group has collected thousands of spec- tra using the GIRAFFE spectrograph at Very Large Telescope (Chile) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) to determine the ge- ometrical distance and dynamical state of several Galactic Globular Clusters but ultimately the analysis has been hampered by system- atics in data reduction, calibration and radial velocity measurements. Moreover these data has never been exploited to get other informa- tions like temperature and metallicity of stars, because considered too noisy for these kind of analyses. In this thesis we focus our attention on data reduction and analysis of spectra with very low SNR. The dataset we analyze in this thesis comprises 7250 spectra for 2771 stars of the Globular Cluster M 4 (NGC 6121) in the wavelength region 5145-5360Å obtained with GIRAFFE. Stars from the upper Red Giant Branch down to the Main Sequence have been observed in very different conditions, including nights close to full moon, and reaching SNR - 10 for many spectra in the dataset. We will first review the basic steps of data reduction and spec- tral extraction, adapting techniques well tested in other field (like photometry) but still under-developed in spectroscopy. We improve the wavelength dispersion solution and the correction of radial veloc- ity shift between day-time calibrations and science observations by following a completely

  11. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  12. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  13. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  14. Voice search for development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of speech technology development, similar approaches are likely to be applicable in both circumstances. However, within these broad approaches there are details which are specific to certain languages (or lan- guage families) that may require solutions... to the modeling of pitch were therefore required. Similarly, it is possible that novel solutions will be required to deal with the click sounds that occur in some Southern Bantu languages, or the voicing Copyright  2010 ISCA 26-30 September 2010, Makuhari...

  15. The shouted voice: A pilot study of laryngeal physiology under extreme aerodynamic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Galant, Camille; Amy de La Bretèque, Benoit; Meynadier, Yohann; Giovanni, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to study the behavior of the larynx during shouted voice production, when the larynx is exposed to extremely high subglottic pressure. The study involved electroglottographic, acoustic, and aerodynamic analyses of shouts produced at maximum effort by three male participants. Under a normal speaking voice, the voice sound pressure level (SPL) is proportional to the subglottic pressure. However, when the subglottic pressure reached high levels, the voice SPL reached a maximum value and then decreased as subglottic pressure increased further. Furthermore, the electroglottographic signal sometimes lost its periodicity during the shout, suggesting irregular vocal fold vibration.

  16. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  17. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Emanuelli, Enzo; Martini, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1) amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2) voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3) classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003). The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005). The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade). In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  18. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bovo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1 amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2 voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3 classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Materials and Methods: Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Results: Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003. The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005. The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade. Conclusions: In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  19. Voice and silence in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaşa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.

  20. Effect of pulse sequence parameter selection on signal strength in positive-contrast MRI markers for MRI-based prostate postimplant assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tze Yee [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas at Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org; Wang, Jihong; Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Stafford, R. Jason [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); MacLellan, Christopher [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas at Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: For postimplant dosimetric assessment, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to identify prostate brachytherapy seeds, at the expense of accurate anatomical contouring. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but identification of the negative-contrast seeds is challenging. Positive-contrast MRI markers were proposed to replace spacers to assist seed localization on MRI images. Visualization of these markers under varying scan parameters was investigated. Methods: To simulate a clinical scenario, a prostate phantom was implanted with 66 markers and 86 seeds, and imaged on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a 3D fast radiofrequency-spoiled gradient recalled echo acquisition with various combinations of scan parameters. Scan parameters, including flip angle, number of excitations, bandwidth, field-of-view, slice thickness, and encoding steps were systematically varied to study their effects on signal, noise, scan time, image resolution, and artifacts. Results: The effects of pulse sequence parameter selection on the marker signal strength and image noise were characterized. The authors also examined the tradeoff between signal-to-noise ratio, scan time, and image artifacts, such as the wraparound artifact, susceptibility artifact, chemical shift artifact, and partial volume averaging artifact. Given reasonable scan time and managable artifacts, the authors recommended scan parameter combinations that can provide robust visualization of the MRI markers. Conclusions: The recommended MRI pulse sequence protocol allows for consistent visualization of the markers to assist seed localization, potentially enabling MRI-only prostate postimplant dosimetry.

  1. Voice after radiotherapy of the larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzielska, Grazyna; Niedzielski, Antoni; Toman, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Background: The study presents the evaluation of the phonatory function of the larynx after radiotherapy. The research covered the patients from the rural areas of Poland who revealed neoplastic changes in the glottis area. Material and methods: The test group consisted of 45 men aged 41-78 years with the carcinoma of the larynx with T1 and T2 progression types of cancer, according to the TNM classification. The analysis of laryngeal tone was performed with the digital analyzer Kay Elemetrics Model CSL 4300 and Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). A stroboscopic test in all the patients with T1 progression revealed the reduction of vibrations. Results: The acoustic analysis of the voice in the pre-treatment group as compared with the control group allowed for differentiation of the following parameters of a definitely pathologic character: Jita, Jitter, RAP, PPQ, vFo, Shimmer, APQ, vAm, NHR, VTI, SPI, and DUV. Conclusions: In the acoustic analysis of voice in the post-radiotherapy group, the following parameters reached values close to the norm: JITA, JITT, RAP, PPQ, vF0, vAM, DUV, and Schimmer dB.

  2. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  3. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, George

    2002-01-01

    .... The ultimate goal of voice biometrics is to enable the use of voice as a password. Voice biometrics are "man-in-the-loop" systems in which system performance is significantly dependent on human performance...

  4. Acoustic characteristics of voice after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, M

    2000-07-01

    To describe the acoustic characteristics of voice in individuals with motor speech disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prospective study of 100 individuals with TBI based on consecutive referrals for motor speech evaluations. Subjects were audio tape-recorded while producing sustained vowels and single word and sentence intelligibility tests. Laryngeal airway resistance was estimated, and voice quality was rated perceptually. None of the subjects evidenced vocal parameters within normal limits. The most frequently occurring abnormal parameter across subjects was amplitude perturbation, followed by voice turbulence index. Twenty-three percent of subjects evidenced deviation in all five parameters measured. The perceptual ratings of breathiness were significantly correlated with both the amplitude perturbation quotient and the noise-to-harmonics ratio. Vocal quality deviation is common in motor speech disorders after TBI and may impact intelligibility.

  5. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  6. Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals Parameter Estimation Based on Two-Dimensional Product Modified Parameterized Chirp Rate-Quadratic Chirp Rate Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhiyu; Qu, Fuxin; Hou, Changbo; Jing, Fulong

    2018-05-19

    In an inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging system for targets with complex motion, the azimuth echo signals of the target are always modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals. The chirp rate (CR) and quadratic chirp rate (QCR) estimation of QFM signals is very important to solve the ISAR image defocus problem. For multicomponent QFM (multi-QFM) signals, the conventional QR and QCR estimation algorithms suffer from the cross-term and poor anti-noise ability. This paper proposes a novel estimation algorithm called a two-dimensional product modified parameterized chirp rate-quadratic chirp rate distribution (2D-PMPCRD) for QFM signals parameter estimation. The 2D-PMPCRD employs a multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function and modified nonuniform fast Fourier transform-Fast Fourier transform to transform the signals into the chirp rate-quadratic chirp rate (CR-QCR) domains. It can greatly suppress the cross-terms while strengthening the auto-terms by multiplying different CR-QCR domains with different scale factors. Compared with high order ambiguity function-integrated cubic phase function and modified Lv's distribution, the simulation results verify that the 2D-PMPCRD acquires higher anti-noise performance and obtains better cross-terms suppression performance for multi-QFM signals with reasonable computation cost.

  7. Singer's preferred acoustic condition in performance in an opera house and self-perception of the singer's voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noson, Dennis; Kato, Kosuke; Ando, Yoichi

    2004-05-01

    Solo singers have been shown to over estimate the relative sound pressure level of a delayed, external reproduction of their own voice, singing single syllables, which, in turn, appears to influence the preferred delay of simulated stage reflections [Noson, Ph.D. thesis, Kobe University, 2003]. Bone conduction is thought to be one factor separating singer versus instrumental performer judgments of stage acoustics. Using a parameter derived from the vocal signal autocorrelation function (ACF envelope), the changes in singer preference for delayed reflections is primarily explained by the ACF parameter, rather than internal bone conduction. An auditory model of a singer's preferred reflection delay is proposed, combining the effects of acoustical environment (reflection amplitude), bone conduction, and performer vocal overestimate, which may be applied to the acoustic design of reflecting elements in both upstage and forestage environments of opera stages. For example, soloists who characteristically underestimate external voice levels (or overestimate their own voice) should be provided shorter distances to reflective panels-irrespective of their singing style. Adjustable elements can be deployed to adapt opera houses intended for bel canto style performances to other styles. Additional examples will also be discussed. a)Now at Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, Japan. b)Now at: 1-10-27 Yamano Kami, Kumamoto, Japan.

  8. [Coenzyme Q10 (Q-ter) in treatment of functional voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensini, M; Corvino, A; Passeri, L; Gallone, G O; Landolfo, V; Raimondo, L; Giordano, C

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effectivness of Coenzyme Q-Ter and Vitamin A in functional voice disorders. Twenty two patients were treated with CoQ10-ter and vitamin A twice a day for ten days. A general otolaryngological/foniatric and logopedic examination were performed. Videolaringostroboscopy, GIRBAS, Voice Handicap Index questionnaire and Multi-Dimensional Voice analysis were carried out before and after treatment. In all patients an improvement was observed in almost all parameters considered after treatment. CoQ10-ter and Vitamin A risulted effective in treatment of patients with functional voice disorders (caused by vocal "malmenage" or "surmenage").

  9. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  10. Voice over IP Security

    CERN Document Server

    Keromytis, Angelos D

    2011-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  11. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Mazzoleni; Pietro Vitiello

    2013-01-01

    A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon), made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others v...

  12. Correlations between Sportsmen’s Morpho-Functional Measurements and Voice Acoustic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rexhepi Agron M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Since human voice characteristics are specific to each individual, numerous anthropological studies have been oriented to find significant relationships between voice and morpho-functional features. The goal of this study was to identify the correlation between seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters in sportsmen. Methods. Following the protocols of the International Biological Program, seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters have been measured in 88 male professional athletes from Kosovo, aged 17-35 years, during the period of April-October 2013. The statistical analysis was accomplished through the SPSS program, version 20. The obtained data were analysed through descriptive parameters and with Spearman’s method of correlation analysis. Results. Spearman’s method of correlation showed significant negative correlations (R = -0.215 to -0.613; p = 0.05 between three voice acoustic variables of the fundamental frequency of the voice sample (Mean, Minimum, and Maximum Pitch and six morpho-functional measures (Body Height, Body Weight, Margaria-Kalamen Power Test, Sargent Jump Test, Pull-up Test, and VO2max.abs. Conclusions. The significant correlations imply that the people with higher stature have longer vocal cords and a lower voice. These results encourage investigations on predicting sportsmen’s functional abilities on the basis of their voice acoustic parameters.

  13. Voice and Fluency Changes as a Function of Speech Task and Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Rogers, Tiffany; Godier, Violette; Tagliati, Michele; Sidtis, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speaking, which naturally occurs in different modes or "tasks" such as conversation and repetition, relies on intact basal ganglia nuclei. Recent studies suggest that voice and fluency parameters are differentially affected by speech task. In this study, the authors examine the effects of subcortical functionality on voice and fluency,…

  14. Vocal effectiveness of speech-language pathology students: Before and after voice use during service delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Stephanie; Zieba, Dominique; van der Merwe, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist's (SLP) vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours, poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors. Objectives To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. Method A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research design was used. Participants included third- and final-year speech-language pathology students at the University of Pretoria (South Africa). Voice parameters were evaluated in a pre-test measurement, after which the participants provided two consecutive hours of therapy. A post-test measurement was then completed. Data analysis consisted of an instrumental analysis in which the multidimensional voice programme (MDVP) and the voice range profile (VRP) were used to measure vocal parameters and then calculate the dysphonia severity index (DSI). The GRBASI scale was used to conduct a perceptual analysis of voice quality. Data were processed using descriptive statistics to determine change in each measured parameter after service delivery. Results A change of clinical significance was observed in the acoustic and perceptual parameters of voice. Conclusion Guidelines for SLPs in order to maintain optimal vocal effectiveness were suggested. PMID:26304213

  15. Is there any correlation between model-based perfusion parameters and model-free parameters of time-signal intensity curve on dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Boram; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Tae Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dukyong [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hyunee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To find out any correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) model-based parameters and model-free parameters, and evaluate correlations between perfusion parameters with histologic prognostic factors. Model-based parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) of 102 invasive ductal carcinomas were obtained using DCE-MRI and post-processing software. Correlations between model-based and model-free parameters and between perfusion parameters and histologic prognostic factors were analysed. Mean Kep was significantly higher in cancers showing initial rapid enhancement (P = 0.002) and a delayed washout pattern (P = 0.001). Ve was significantly lower in cancers showing a delayed washout pattern (P = 0.015). Kep significantly correlated with time to peak enhancement (TTP) (ρ = -0.33, P < 0.001) and washout slope (ρ = 0.39, P = 0.002). Ve was significantly correlated with TTP (ρ = 0.33, P = 0.002). Mean Kep was higher in tumours with high nuclear grade (P = 0.017). Mean Ve was lower in tumours with high histologic grade (P = 0.005) and in tumours with negative oestrogen receptor status (P = 0.047). TTP was shorter in tumours with negative oestrogen receptor status (P = 0.037). We could acquire general information about the tumour vascular physiology, interstitial space volume and pathologic prognostic factors by analyzing time-signal intensity curve without a complicated acquisition process for the model-based parameters. (orig.)

  16. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  17. The Voices of the Documentarist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utterback, Ann S.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses T. S. Elliot's essay, "The Three Voices of Poetry" which conceptualizes the position taken by the poet or creator. Suggests that an examination of documentary film, within the three voices concept, expands the critical framework of the film genre. (MH)

  18. Deviant vocal fold vibration as observed during videokymography : the effect on voice quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    Videokymographic images of deviant or irregular vocal fold vibration, including diplophonia, the transition from falsetto to modal voice, irregular vibration onset and offset, and phonation following partial laryngectomy were compared with the synchronously recorded acoustic speech signals. A clear

  19. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  20. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  1. Task completion report for investigating why output signal-variable values differ from their output component-parameter values in test problem MST2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Signal-variable values and their component-parameter values differ in an end-of-timestep edit to the TRCOUT and TRCGRF files because signal variables have beginning-of-timestep values, and component parameters have end-of-timestep values. Oscillatory divergence in the MST2 standard test problem after 9000 s occurs because of TRAC-P's numerical evaluation at a 1000 material Courant number. The magnitude of that divergence has diminished by a factor of 3.5 from Version 5.3.01 to 5.4.15 and by a factor of 25 from Version 5.4.15 to 5.4.28. That divergence can be eliminated by evaluating MST2 with a maximum material Courant number of 500

  2. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  3. Oxidative stress parameters induced by exposure to either cadmium or 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. The role of signaling molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Oxidative parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes were measured. •Comparison between cadmium and 17β-estradiol cytotoxicity is discussed. •NHE, PKC, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, NO synthase, JNK involvement was observed. •Protective role of cAMP is suggested. •Signaling molecules studied could constitute novel biomarkers. -- Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the possible effects of exposure to an estrogen, 17β-estradiol and to a metal, cadmium on oxidative parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and to elucidate the signaling pathways that probably mediate the studied effects exerted by these two chemicals. In addition, it was of interest to investigate if the studied parameters could constitute biomarkers for aquatic pollution monitoring. Our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol affected the redox status of mussels by modulating oxidative parameters and antioxidant enzymes gene expression in mussel M. galloprovincialis hemocytes. In particular, our results showed that treatment of hemocytes with either 5 μM of cadmium chloride or with 25 nM of 17β-estradiol for 30 min caused significant increased ROS production; this led to oxidative damage exemplified by significant increased DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismoutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Furthermore, our results suggest that either cadmium or 17β-estradiol signal is mediated either through one of the already known pathways initiated by photatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) and reaching Na + /H + exchanger (NHE) probably through protein kinase C (PKC) or a kinase-mediated signaling pathway that involves in most of the cases NHE, PKC, Ca 2+ -dependent PKC isoforms, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclic adenosine

  4. Oxidative stress parameters induced by exposure to either cadmium or 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. The role of signaling molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Franzellitti, Silvia [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Fabbri, Elena [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy); Kaloyianni, Martha, E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Zoology Department, School of Biology, Faculty of Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Oxidative parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes were measured. •Comparison between cadmium and 17β-estradiol cytotoxicity is discussed. •NHE, PKC, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, NO synthase, JNK involvement was observed. •Protective role of cAMP is suggested. •Signaling molecules studied could constitute novel biomarkers. -- Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the possible effects of exposure to an estrogen, 17β-estradiol and to a metal, cadmium on oxidative parameters of Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and to elucidate the signaling pathways that probably mediate the studied effects exerted by these two chemicals. In addition, it was of interest to investigate if the studied parameters could constitute biomarkers for aquatic pollution monitoring. Our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol affected the redox status of mussels by modulating oxidative parameters and antioxidant enzymes gene expression in mussel M. galloprovincialis hemocytes. In particular, our results showed that treatment of hemocytes with either 5 μM of cadmium chloride or with 25 nM of 17β-estradiol for 30 min caused significant increased ROS production; this led to oxidative damage exemplified by significant increased DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismoutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Furthermore, our results suggest that either cadmium or 17β-estradiol signal is mediated either through one of the already known pathways initiated by photatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) and reaching Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) probably through protein kinase C (PKC) or a kinase-mediated signaling pathway that involves in most of the cases NHE, PKC, Ca{sup 2+}-dependent PKC isoforms, PI3-K, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and

  5. Experimental research of the influence of the strength of ore samples on the parameters of an electromagnetic signal during acoustic excitation in the process of uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovich, L. V.; Bespal`ko, A. A.; Fedotov, P. I.

    2018-01-01

    Parameters of electromagnetic responses (EMRe) generated during uniaxial compression of rock samples under excitation by deterministic acoustic pulses are presented and discussed. Such physical modeling in the laboratory allows to reveal the main regularities of electromagnetic signals (EMS) generation in rock massive. The influence of the samples mechanical properties on the parameters of the EMRe excited by an acoustic signal in the process of uniaxial compression is considered. It has been established that sulfides and quartz in the rocks of the Tashtagol iron ore deposit (Western Siberia, Russia) contribute to the conversion of mechanical energy into the energy of the electromagnetic field, which is expressed in an increase in the EMS amplitude. The decrease in the EMS amplitude when the stress-strain state of the sample changes during the uniaxial compression is observed when the amount of conductive magnetite contained in the rock is increased. The obtained results are important for the physical substantiation of testing methods and monitoring of changes in the stress-strain state of the rock massive by the parameters of electromagnetic signals and the characteristics of electromagnetic emission.

  6. Modern Methods of Voice Authentication in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Leonovich Evseev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of voice authentication in mobile devices.The proposed evaluation of the probability errors of the first and second kind for multi-modal methods of voice authentication. The advantages of multimodal multivariate methods before, when authentication takes place in several stages – this is the one-stage, which means convenience for customers. Further development of multimodal methods of authentication will be based on the significantly increased computing power of mobile devices, the growing number and improved accuracy built-in mobile device sensors, as well as to improve the algorithms of signal processing.

  7. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  8. Voice synthesis application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, P. C.; Davidson, W. M.

    1982-04-01

    The military detection assessment laboratory houses an experimental field system which assesses different alarm indicators such as fence disturbance sensors, MILES cables, and microwave Racons. A speech synthesis board which could be interfaced, by means of a computer, to an alarm logger making verbal acknowledgement of alarms possible was purchased. Different products and different types of voice synthesis were analyzed before a linear predictive code device produced by Telesensory Speech Systems of Palo Alto, California was chosen. This device is called the Speech 1000 Board and has a dedicated 8085 processor. A multiplexer card was designed and the Sp 1000 interfaced through the card into a TMS 990/100M Texas Instrument microcomputer. It was also necessary to design the software with the capability of recognizing and flagging an alarm on any 1 of 32 possible lines. The experimental field system was then packaged with a dc power supply, LED indicators, speakers, and switches, and deployed in the field performing reliably.

  9. How to help teachers' voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatweber, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at high risk of developing occupational dysphonia, and it has been widely accepted that the vocal characteristics of a speaker play an important role in determining the reactions of listeners. The functions of breathing, breathing movement, breathing tonus, voice vibrations and articulation tonus are transmitted to the listener. So we may conclude that listening to the teacher's voice at school influences children's behavior and the perception of spoken language. This paper presents the concept of Schlaffhorst-Andersen including exercises to help teachers improve their voice, breathing, movement and their posture. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  11. A posteriori error estimates in voice source recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. S.; Sorokin, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The inverse problem of voice source pulse recovery from a segment of a speech signal is under consideration. A special mathematical model is used for the solution that relates these quantities. A variational method of solving inverse problem of voice source recovery for a new parametric class of sources, that is for piecewise-linear sources (PWL-sources), is proposed. Also, a technique for a posteriori numerical error estimation for obtained solutions is presented. A computer study of the adequacy of adopted speech production model with PWL-sources is performed in solving the inverse problems for various types of voice signals, as well as corresponding study of a posteriori error estimates. Numerical experiments for speech signals show satisfactory properties of proposed a posteriori error estimates, which represent the upper bounds of possible errors in solving the inverse problem. The estimate of the most probable error in determining the source-pulse shapes is about 7-8% for the investigated speech material. It is noted that a posteriori error estimates can be used as a criterion of the quality for obtained voice source pulses in application to speaker recognition.

  12. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A model for treating voice disorders in school-age children within a video gaming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Suzanne N; Davis, Larry; Lehman, Jeffrey J; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman

    2012-09-01

    Clinicians use a variety of approaches to motivate children with hyperfunctional voice disorders to comply with voice therapy in a therapeutic session and improve the motivation of children to practice home-based exercises. Utilization of current entertainment technology in such approaches may improve participation and motivation in voice therapy. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using an entertainment video game as a therapy device. Prospective cohort and case-control study. Three levels of game testing were conducted to an existing entertainment video game for use as a voice therapy protocol. The game was tested by two computer programmers and five normal participants. The third level of testing was a case study with a child diagnosed with a hyperfunctional voice disorder. Modifications to the game were made after each feasibility test. Errors with the video game performance were modified, including the addition of a time stamp directory and game controller. Resonance voice exercises were modified to accommodate the gaming environment and unique competitive situation, including speech rate, acoustic parameters, game speed, and point allocations. The development of video games for voice therapeutic purposes attempt to replicate the high levels of engagement and motivation attained with entertainment video games, stimulating a more productive means of learning while doing. This case study found that a purely entertainment video game can be implemented as a voice therapeutic protocol based on information obtained from the case study. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-dose cone-beam CT via raw counts domain low-signal correction schemes: Performance assessment and task-based parameter optimization (Part II. Task-based parameter optimization).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Hayes, John W; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2018-05-01

    Different low-signal correction (LSC) methods have been shown to efficiently reduce noise streaks and noise level in CT to provide acceptable images at low-radiation dose levels. These methods usually result in CT images with highly shift-variant and anisotropic spatial resolution and noise, which makes the parameter optimization process highly nontrivial. The purpose of this work was to develop a local task-based parameter optimization framework for LSC methods. Two well-known LSC methods, the adaptive trimmed mean (ATM) filter and the anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, were used as examples to demonstrate how to use the task-based framework to optimize filter parameter selection. Two parameters, denoted by the set P, for each LSC method were included in the optimization problem. For the ATM filter, these parameters are the low- and high-signal threshold levels p l and p h ; for the AD filter, the parameters are the exponents δ and γ in the brightness gradient function. The detectability index d' under the non-prewhitening (NPW) mathematical observer model was selected as the metric for parameter optimization. The optimization problem was formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem that consisted of maximizing an objective function d'(P), where i and j correspond to the i-th imaging task and j-th spatial location, respectively. Since there is no explicit mathematical function to describe the dependence of d' on the set of parameters P for each LSC method, the optimization problem was solved via an experimentally measured d' map over a densely sampled parameter space. In this work, three high-contrast-high-frequency discrimination imaging tasks were defined to explore the parameter space of each of the LSC methods: a vertical bar pattern (task I), a horizontal bar pattern (task II), and a multidirectional feature (task III). Two spatial locations were considered for the analysis, a posterior region-of-interest (ROI) located within the noise streaks region

  15. Lax Vox as a Voice Training Program for Teachers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailänder, Eva; Mühre, Lea; Barsties, Ben

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a 3-week training program with the voice therapy "Lax Vox" for teachers. Four healthy female teachers participated as volunteers for the study. Several voice measurements of perception, acoustics, aerodynamics, and self-evaluation were investigated. Furthermore, a survey to rate the applicability of Lax Vox was also part of the study. To assess the treatment effects of the Lax Vox training, an effect size analysis (d unb ) was conducted. After 3 weeks of training, medium and large improvements were found in some parameters of perceptual and acoustic voice quality assessments (d unb >0.50 and d unb >0.80, respectively). Furthermore, medium improvements were revealed in some parameters of self-evaluation (ie, physical and total scale of the Voice Handicap Index) and aerodynamic (ie, maximum phonation time) assessments (all d unb >0.50). Additionally, acoustic measures of vocal function showed an expansion in the upper contour of voice range profiles after training. Particularly, the main improvements in the voice range profile was found in the modal and the beginning of the falsetto voice registers. There was an increase of the intensity levels of about 4.6 dB. No changes were revealed in some acoustic measures of the voice range profile, self-evaluation measurements, and the perception of breathy voice quality (all d unb teachers appears to improve select measures of voice quality, maximum phonation time, vocal function, self-evaluation, and perceived applicability. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation Between Acoustic Measurements and Self-Reported Voice Disorders Among Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  18. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  19. Taking Care of Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative effect on voice. Exercise regularly. Exercise increases stamina and muscle tone. This helps provide good posture ... testing man-made and biological materials and stem cell technologies that may eventually be used to engineer ...

  20. The Christian voice in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  1. Parameter restoration of a soft X radiation spectrum by the signals of X-ray vacuum diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskij, A.V.; Olejnik, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The multichannel measurement complex on the basis of vacuum X-ray diodes with various filters and the methodology of signals treatment, making it possible to obtained with nanosecond time resolution the radiation capacity in several spectral intervals, ranging from 0.1 up to 4 keV, the radiation capacity within the whole spectral range and the quantum average energy, are described. The method of linear combinations and the two-parametric models, providing close capacity values, are the most acceptable algorithms. This methodology was used at the Angara-5-1 facility in experiments on the cascade liners implosion and with the Z-pinch [ru

  2. Imaging Formation Algorithm of the Ground and Space-Borne Hybrid BiSAR Based on Parameters Estimation from Direct Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image formation algorithm for the bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR with the configuration of a noncooperative transmitter and a stationary receiver in which the traditional imaging algorithm failed because the necessary imaging parameters cannot be estimated from the limited information from the noncooperative data provider. In the new algorithm, the essential parameters for imaging, such as squint angle, Doppler centroid, and Doppler chirp-rate, will be estimated by full exploration of the recorded direct signal (direct signal is the echo from satellite to stationary receiver directly from the transmitter. The Doppler chirp-rate is retrieved by modeling the peak phase of direct signal as a quadratic polynomial. The Doppler centroid frequency and the squint angle can be derived from the image contrast optimization. Then the range focusing, the range cell migration correction (RCMC, and the azimuth focusing are implemented by secondary range compression (SRC and the range cell migration, respectively. At last, the proposed algorithm is validated by imaging of the BiSAR experiment configured with china YAOGAN 10 SAR as the transmitter and the receiver platform located on a building at a height of 109 m in Jiangsu province. The experiment image with geometric correction shows good accordance with local Google images.

  3. The sound of trustworthiness: Acoustic-based modulation of perceived voice personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Belin

    Full Text Available When we hear a new voice we automatically form a "first impression" of the voice owner's personality; a single word is sufficient to yield ratings highly consistent across listeners. Past studies have shown correlations between personality ratings and acoustical parameters of voice, suggesting a potential acoustical basis for voice personality impressions, but its nature and extent remain unclear. Here we used data-driven voice computational modelling to investigate the link between acoustics and perceived trustworthiness in the single word "hello". Two prototypical voice stimuli were generated based on the acoustical features of voices rated low or high in perceived trustworthiness, respectively, as well as a continuum of stimuli inter- and extrapolated between these two prototypes. Five hundred listeners provided trustworthiness ratings on the stimuli via an online interface. We observed an extremely tight relationship between trustworthiness ratings and position along the trustworthiness continuum (r = 0.99. Not only were trustworthiness ratings higher for the high- than the low-prototypes, but the difference could be modulated quasi-linearly by reducing or exaggerating the acoustical difference between the prototypes, resulting in a strong caricaturing effect. The f0 trajectory, or intonation, appeared a parameter of particular relevance: hellos rated high in trustworthiness were characterized by a high starting f0 then a marked decrease at mid-utterance to finish on a strong rise. These results demonstrate a strong acoustical basis for voice personality impressions, opening the door to multiple potential applications.

  4. Quality of the voice after injection of hyaluronic acid into the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkiełkowska, Agata; Miaśkiewicz, Beata; Remacle, Marc; Krasnodębska, Paulina; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2013-04-17

    Voice disorders resulting from glottic insufficiency are a significant clinical problem in everyday phoniatric practice. One method of treatment is injection laryngoplasty. Our study aimed to assess the voice quality of patients treated with hyaluronic acid injection into the vocal fold. We studied 25 patients suffering from dysphonia, conducting laryngological and phoniatric examination, including videostroboscopy and acoustic voice analysis, before the operation and 1, 3, and 6 months later. In all cases there was complete or almost complete glottic closure after the operation. One month after the procedure, videostroboscopic examination revealed reappearance of vocal fold vibration in 8 cases; after 3 months this had risen to 15 cases. Perceptual voice quality (as assessed by the GRBAS scale) in patients with glottic insufficiency was improved. The most significant improvement was obtained 1 month after surgery (p=0.0002), and within the next months further statistically significant improvements (p=0.000002) were noted. Multidimensional voice analysis showed statistically significant and rapid improvement in frequency parameters, especially vFo. Other parameters were also improved 3 and 6 months after surgery. Injection of hyaluronic acid into the vocal fold improves phonatory functions of the larynx and the quality of voice in patients with glottic insufficiency. It may be a safe and conservative method for treatment of voice disorders. Hyaluronic acid injection to the vocal fold is an easy, effective, and fast method for restoration of good voice quality.

  5. Flow Glottogram and Subglottal Pressure Relationship in Singers and Untrained Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan

    2018-01-01

    This article combines results from three earlier investigations of the glottal voice source during phonation at varying degrees of vocal loudness (1) in five classically trained baritone singers (Sundberg et al., 1999), (2) in 15 female and 14 male untrained voices (Sundberg et al., 2005), and (3) in voices rated as hyperfunctional by an expert panel (Millgård et al., 2015). Voice source data were obtained by inverse filtering. Associated subglottal pressures were estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. Five flow glottogram parameters, (1) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), (2) peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, (3) level difference between the first and the second harmonics of the voice source, (4) closed quotient, and (5) normalized amplitude quotient, were averaged across the singer subjects and related to associated MFDR values. Strong, quantitative relations, expressed as equations, are found between subglottal pressure and MFDR and between MFDR and each of the other flow glottogram parameters. The values for the untrained voices, as well as those for the voices rated as hyperfunctional, deviate systematically from the values derived from the equations. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Voice disorder in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena S F C de Macedo

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic disease characterized by progressive tissue damage. In recent decades, novel treatments have greatly extended the life span of SLE patients. This creates a high demand for identifying the overarching symptoms associated with SLE and developing therapies that improve their life quality under chronic care. We hypothesized that SLE patients would present dysphonic symptoms. Given that voice disorders can reduce life quality, identifying a potential SLE-related dysphonia could be relevant for the appraisal and management of this disease. We measured objective vocal parameters and perceived vocal quality with the GRBAS (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain scale in SLE patients and compared them to matched healthy controls. SLE patients also filled a questionnaire reporting perceived vocal deficits. SLE patients had significantly lower vocal intensity and harmonics to noise ratio, as well as increased jitter and shimmer. All subjective parameters of the GRBAS scale were significantly abnormal in SLE patients. Additionally, the vast majority of SLE patients (29/36 reported at least one perceived vocal deficit, with the most prevalent deficits being vocal fatigue (19/36 and hoarseness (17/36. Self-reported voice deficits were highly correlated with altered GRBAS scores. Additionally, tissue damage scores in different organ systems correlated with dysphonic symptoms, suggesting that some features of SLE-related dysphonia are due to tissue damage. Our results show that a large fraction of SLE patients suffers from perceivable dysphonia and may benefit from voice therapy in order to improve quality of life.

  7. On Better Estimating and Normalizing the Relationship between Clinical Parameters: Comparing Respiratory Modulations in the Photoplethysmogram and Blood Pressure Signal (DPOP versus PPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Addison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DPOP (ΔPOP or Delta-POP is a noninvasive parameter which measures the strength of respiratory modulations present in the pulse oximeter waveform. It has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative to pulse pressure variation (PPV used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. We considered a number of simple techniques for better determining the underlying relationship between the two parameters. It was shown numerically that baseline-induced signal errors were asymmetric in nature, which corresponded to observation, and we proposed a method which combines a least-median-of-squares estimator with the requirement that the relationship passes through the origin (the LMSO method. We further developed a method of normalization of the parameters through rescaling DPOP using the inverse gradient of the linear fitted relationship. We propose that this normalization method (LMSO-N is applicable to the matching of a wide range of clinical parameters. It is also generally applicable to the self-normalizing of parameters whose behaviour may change slightly due to algorithmic improvements.

  8. On better estimating and normalizing the relationship between clinical parameters: comparing respiratory modulations in the photoplethysmogram and blood pressure signal (DPOP versus PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S; Wang, Rui; Uribe, Alberto A; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    DPOP (ΔPOP or Delta-POP) is a noninvasive parameter which measures the strength of respiratory modulations present in the pulse oximeter waveform. It has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative to pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. We considered a number of simple techniques for better determining the underlying relationship between the two parameters. It was shown numerically that baseline-induced signal errors were asymmetric in nature, which corresponded to observation, and we proposed a method which combines a least-median-of-squares estimator with the requirement that the relationship passes through the origin (the LMSO method). We further developed a method of normalization of the parameters through rescaling DPOP using the inverse gradient of the linear fitted relationship. We propose that this normalization method (LMSO-N) is applicable to the matching of a wide range of clinical parameters. It is also generally applicable to the self-normalizing of parameters whose behaviour may change slightly due to algorithmic improvements.

  9. Identification of Combined Power Quality Disturbances Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Total Least Squares-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishuo Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify various kinds of combined power quality disturbances, the singular value decomposition (SVD and the improved total least squares-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (TLS-ESPRIT are combined as the basis of disturbance identification in this paper. SVD is applied to identify the catastrophe points of disturbance intervals, based on which the disturbance intervals are segmented. Then the improved TLS-ESPRIT optimized by singular value norm method is used to analyze each data segment, and extract the amplitude, frequency, attenuation coefficient and initial phase of various kinds of disturbances. Multi-group combined disturbance test signals are constructed by MATLAB and the proposed method is also tested by the measured data of IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES Database. The test results show that the new method proposed has a relatively higher accuracy than conventional TLS-ESPRIT, which could be used in the identification of measured data.

  10. Vocal Parameters and Self-Perception in Individuals With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Gleidy Vannesa E; Ricz, Hilton; Tumas, Vitor; Rodrigues, Guilherme R; Toscano, Patrícia; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to compare and correlate perceptual-auditory analysis of vocal parameters and self-perception in individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia before and after the application of botulinum toxin. This is a prospective cohort study. Sixteen individuals with a diagnosis of adductor spasmodic dysphonia were submitted to the application of botulinum toxin in the thyroarytenoid muscle, to the recording of a voice signal, and to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire before the application and at two time points after application. Two judges performed a perceptual-auditory analysis of eight vocal parameters with the aid of the Praat software for the visualization of narrow band spectrography, pitch, and intensity contour. Comparison of the vocal parameters before toxin application and on the first return revealed a reduction of oscillation intensity (P = 0.002), voice breaks (P = 0.002), and vocal tremor (P = 0.002). The same parameters increased on the second return. The degree of severity, strained-strangled voice, roughness, breathiness, and asthenia was unchanged. The total score and the emotional domain score of the VHI were reduced on the first return. There was a moderate correlation between the degree of voice severity and the total VHI score before application and on the second return, and a weak correlation on the first return. Perceptual-auditory analysis and self-perception proved to be efficient in the recognition of vocal changes and of the vocal impact on individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia under treatment with botulinum toxin, permitting the quantitation of changes along time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Acoustic and aerodynamic measures of the voice during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Gross, Heather E

    2015-01-01

    Known influences of sex hormones on the voice would suggest pregnancy hormones could have an effect, yet studies using acoustic measures have not indicated changes. Additionally, no examination of the voice before the third trimester has been reported. Effect of pregnancy on the voice is relatively unexplored yet could be quite relevant to female speakers and singers. It is possible that spectral and aerodynamic measures would be more sensitive to tissue-level changes caused by pregnancy hormones. In this first longitudinal study of a 32-year-old woman's pregnancy, weekly voice samples were analyzed for acoustic (fundamental frequency, perturbation ratios of shimmer and jitter, Harmonic-to-Noise Ratio, spectral measures, and maximum phonation time) and aerodynamic (average airflow, peak flow, AC/DC ratio, open quotient, and speed quotient) parameters. All measures appeared generally stable during weeks 11-39 of pregnancy compared with 21 weeks postpartum. Slight decrease in minimum airflow and open speed quotient may reflect suspected vocal fold tissue changes. It is recommended that future studies monitor and test correlations among hormone levels, visual analyses of vocal fold mucosa, aerodynamic function, and glottal efficiency. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the oesophageal voice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez de la Iglesia, F; Fernández González, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the physiology and pathophisiology of esophageal voice according to objective aerodynamic and acoustic parameters (quantitative and qualitative parameters). Our subjects were comprised of 33 laryngectomized patients (all male) that underwent aerodynamic, acoustic and perceptual protocol. There is a statistical association between acoustic and aerodynamic qualitative parameters (phonation flow chart type, sound spectrum, perceptual analysis) among quantitative parameters (neoglotic pressure, phonation flow, phonation time, fundamental frequency, maximum intensity sound level, speech rate). Nevertheles, not always such observations bring practical resources to clinical practice. We consider that the facts studied may enable us to add, pragmatically, new resources to the more effective vocal rehabilitation to these patients. The physiology of esophageal voice is well understood by the method we have applied, also seeking for rehabilitation, improving oral communication skills in the laryngectomee population.

  13. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2017-05-01

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Experiences of an internal 'anorexic voice' are common in anorexia nervosa. Clinicians should consider the role of the voice when formulating eating pathology in anorexia nervosa, including how individuals perceive and relate to that voice. Addressing the voice may be beneficial, particularly in more severe and enduring forms of anorexia nervosa. When working with the voice, clinicians should aim to address both the content of the voice and how

  14. Anti-voice adaptation suggests prototype-based coding of voice identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLatinus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A. In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype.

  15. Effects of the innervation zone on the time and frequency domain parameters of the surface electromyographic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cory M; Housh, Terry J; Herda, Trent J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Ryan, Eric D; Camic, Clayton L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Smith, Doug B; Weir, Joseph P; Cramer, Joel T; Hill, Ethan C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the effects of electrode placements over, proximal, and distal to the innervation zone (IZ) on electromyographic (EMG) amplitude (RMS) and frequency (MPF) responses during: (1) a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and; (2) a sustained, submaximal isometric muscle action. A linear array was used to record EMG signals from the vastus lateralis over the IZ, 30mm proximal, and 30mm distal to the IZ during an MVIC and a sustained isometric muscle action of the leg extensors at 50% MVIC. During the MVIC, lower EMG RMS (p>0.05) and greater EMG MPF (ptime relationships over, proximal, and distal to the IZ occurred. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that during an MVIC, EMG RMS and MPF values recorded over the IZ are not comparable to those away from the IZ. However, the rates of fatigue-induced changes in EMG RMS and MPF during sustained, submaximal isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors were the same regardless of the electrode placement locations relative to the IZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of wavelet analysis and neural networks for pathological voices identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Lotfi; Talbi, Mourad; Abid, Sabeur; Cherif, Adnane

    2011-09-01

    Within the medical environment, diverse techniques exist to assess the state of the voice of the patient. The inspection technique is inconvenient for a number of reasons, such as its high cost, the duration of the inspection, and above all, the fact that it is an invasive technique. This study focuses on a robust, rapid and accurate system for automatic identification of pathological voices. This system employs non-invasive, non-expensive and fully automated method based on hybrid approach: wavelet transform analysis and neural network classifier. First, we present the results obtained in our previous study while using classic feature parameters. These results allow visual identification of pathological voices. Second, quantified parameters drifting from the wavelet analysis are proposed to characterise the speech sample. On the other hand, a system of multilayer neural networks (MNNs) has been developed which carries out the automatic detection of pathological voices. The developed method was evaluated using voice database composed of recorded voice samples (continuous speech) from normophonic or dysphonic speakers. The dysphonic speakers were patients of a National Hospital 'RABTA' of Tunis Tunisia and a University Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Experimental results indicate a success rate ranging between 75% and 98.61% for discrimination of normal and pathological voices using the proposed parameters and neural network classifier. We also compared the average classification rate based on the MNN, Gaussian mixture model and support vector machines.

  17. Multidimensional effects of voice therapy in patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Camila Barbosa; Silveira, Paula Angélica Lorenzon; Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Gonçalves, Aline Nogueira; Slobodticov, Luciana Dall'Agnol Siqueira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de

    2017-08-24

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may demonstrate different degrees of voice perturbation depending on the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. Understanding the effectiveness of voice therapy in this population may be an important coefficient to define the therapeutic approach. To evaluate the voice therapy effectiveness in the short, medium and long-term in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and determine the risk factors for voice rehabilitation failure. Prospective study with 61 patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis enrolled. Each subject had voice therapy with an experienced speech pathologist twice a week. A multidimensional assessment protocol was used pre-treatment and in three different times after voice treatment initiation: short-term (1-3 months), medium-term (4-6 months) and long-term (12 months); it included videoendoscopy, maximum phonation time, GRBASI scale, acoustic voice analysis and the portuguese version of the voice handicap index. Multiple comparisons for GRBASI scale and VHI revealed statistically significant differences, except between medium and long term (pvocal improvement over time with stabilization results after 6 months (medium term). From the 28 patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis, 18 (69.2%) reached complete glottal closure following vocal therapy (p=0.001). The logistic regression method indicated that the Jitter entered the final model as a risk factor for partial improvement. For every unit of increased jitter, there was an increase of 0.1% (1.001) of the chance for partial improvement, which means an increase on no full improvement chance during rehabilitation. Vocal rehabilitation improves perceptual and acoustic voice parameters and voice handicap index, besides favor glottal closure in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The results were also permanent during the period of 1 year. The Jitter value, when elevated, is a risk factor for the voice therapy

  18. The Study of MSADQ/CDMA Protocol in Voice/Data Integration Packet Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new packet medium access protocol, namely, minislot signalingaccess based on distributed queues(MSADQ/CDMA), is proposed in voice and data intergration CDMA networks. The MSADQ protocol is based on distributed queues and collision resolution algorithm. Through proper management of the PN codes, the number of random competition collision reduces greatly, the multiple access interference (MAI) decreases. It has several special access signaling channels to carry the voice and data access request. Each slot is devided into several control minislots (CMSs), in which the Data Terminals (DT) or Voice Terminals (VT) transmit their request. According to the voice and data traffic character, the signaling access structure is proposed. The code assign rules and queue managing rules are also proposed to ensure the QoS requirement of each traffic. Comparisions with other three protocol are developed by simulation, which shows that MSADQ/CDMA protocol occupies less PN codes, but still has very good performance.

  19. Mechanics of human voice production and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-10-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed.

  20. Analysis and Classification of Stride Patterns Associated with Children Development Using Gait Signal Dynamics Parameters and Ensemble Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn and average stride interval (ASI parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.01 in children of 3–14 years old, which indicates the stride irregularity has been significantly ameliorated with the body growth. The original and normalized ASI values are also significantly changing when comparing between any two groups of young (aged 3–5 years, middle (aged 6–8 years, and elder (aged 10–14 years children. Such results suggest that healthy children may better modulate their gait cadence rhythm with the development of their musculoskeletal and neurological systems. In addition, the AdaBoost.M2 and Bagging algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children’s gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%, recall (≥0.8, and precision (≥0.8077.

  1. Seasonal Climate Signals in Multiple Tree-Ring Parameters: A Pilot Study of Pinus ponderosa in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, M.; Wise, E. K.; Keung, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Proxy-based reconstructions of past climate have played an integral role in assessments of historical climate change, and tree-ring widths (TRW) have a long history of use in this paleoclimate research due to their annual resolution, widespread availability, and sensitivity of growth processes to variation in temperature and water availability. Increasingly, studies have shown that additional tree-ring metrics—including earlywood and latewood widths (EW and LW, respectively), maximum latewood density, and the intensity of reflected blue light from latewood (BI)—can provide additional information on seasonal climatic variability that is not present in TRW alone due to different processes that affect growth in different parts of the growing season. Studies of these additional tree-ring metrics highlight their utility in climate reconstructions, but to date they have mostly been limited to a few tree species and regions. Here, we extend the range of previous studies on alternative tree-ring metrics by evaluating the seasonal climate signals in TRW, EW, LW, and BI of Pinus ponderosa at six semiarid sites surrounding the Columbia River basin in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Cores from each site were cross-dated and EW, LW, and TRW were measured using standard dendrochronological procedures. BI was obtained using a high-resolution flatbed scanner and CooRecorder software. To evaluate the unique climate processes and seasonalities contributing to different dendrochronological metrics, monthly temperature and precipitation from each site were obtained from the PRISM climate model and were correlated with each of the tree-ring metrics using the MATLAB program SEASCORR. We also evaluate the potential of using multiple tree-ring metrics (rather than a single proxy) in reconstructions of precipitation in the PNW. Initial results suggest that 1) tree growth at each site is water-limited but with substantial differences among the sites in the strength and seasonality of

  2. Voice amplification as a means of reducing vocal load for elementary music teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P

    2011-07-01

    Music teachers are over four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice disorders and greater than eight times more likely to have voice-related problems than the general public. Research has shown that individual voice-use parameters of phonation time, fundamental frequency and vocal intensity, as well as vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose are significantly higher for music teachers than their classroom teacher counterparts. Finding effective and inexpensive prophylactic measures to decrease vocal load for music teachers is an important aspect for voice preservation for this group of professional voice users. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voice amplification on vocal intensity and vocal load in the workplace as measured using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Seven music teachers were monitored for 1 workweek using an APM to determine average vocal intensity (dB sound pressure level [SPL]) and vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose. Participants were monitored a second week while using a voice amplification unit (Asyst ChatterVox; Asyst Communications Company, Inc., Indian Creek, IL). Significant decreases in mean vocal intensity of 7.00-dB SPL (Pmusic teachers in the classroom. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acoustic analysis of voice in children with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice can provide instrumental data concerning vocal abnormalities. These findings can be used for monitoring clinical course in cases of voice disorders. Cleft palate severely affects the structure of the vocal tract. Hence, voice quality can also be also affected. To study whether the main acoustic parameters of voice, including fundamental frequency, shimmer and jitter are significantly different in patients with a repaired cleft palate, as compared with normal children without speech, language and voice disorders. Fourteen patients with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and persistent or residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) were studied. A control group was assembled with healthy volunteer subjects matched by age and gender. Hypernasality and nasal emission were perceptually assessed in patients with VPI. Size of the gap as assessed by videonasopharyngoscopy was classified in patients with VPI. Acoustic analysis of voice including Fundamental frequency (F0), shimmer and jitter were compared between patients with VPI and control subjects. F0 was significantly higher in male patients as compared with male controls. Shimmer was significantly higher in patients with VPI regardless of gender. Moreover, patients with moderate VPI showed a significantly higher shimmer perturbation, regardless of gender. Although future research regarding voice disorders in patients with VPI is needed, at the present time it seems reasonable to include strategies for voice therapy in the speech and language pathology intervention plan for patients with VPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of a Voice Training Program for Student Teachers on Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Bernhard; Nusseck, Manfred; Spahn, Claudia; Echternach, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of a preventive training program on vocal health for German student teachers was investigated on specific vocal parameters. The voice quality as described by the Dysphonia Severity Index of 204 student teachers (training group: n = 123; control group: n = 81) was measured at the beginning and at the end of the student teachers training period (duration 1.5 years). Additionally, for investigating the voice-carrying capacity, a vocal loading test (VLT) was performed. Finally, participants had to provide a subjective judgment of a possible Voice Handicap Index. The training program improved the voice quality of the trained group compared with that of the control group, whose voice quality declined. The trained group was also able to better sustain their voice quality across the VLT than the control group. Both groups, however, reported a similar increase in subjective vocal strain. The presented training program clearly showed a positive impact on the voice quality and the vocal capacity. The results maintain the importance of such a training program to be integrated in the education and occupational routine of teachers. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Some objective measures indicative of perceived voice robustness in student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Rosemary; de Jong, Felix; Cranen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    One of the problems confronted in the teaching profession is the maintenance of a healthy voice. This basic pedagogical tool is subjected to extensive use, and frequently suffers from overload, with some teachers having to give up their profession altogether. In some teacher training schools, it is the current practice to examine the student's voice, and to refer any perceived susceptibility to strain to voice specialists. For this study, a group of vocally healthy students were examined first at the teacher training schools, and then at the ENT clinic at the University Hospital of Nijmegen. The aim was to predict whether the subject's voice might be at risk for occupational dysphonia as a result of the vocal load of the teaching profession. We tried to find objective measures of voice quality in student teachers, used in current clinical practice, which reflect the judgements of the therapists and phoniatricians. We tried to explain such measures physiologically in terms of robustness of, and control over voicing. Objective measures used included video-laryngostroboscopy, phonetography and spectrography. Maximum phonation time, melodic range in conjunction with maximum intensity range, and the production of soft voice are suggested as possible predictive parameters for the risk of occupational voice strain.

  6. Enhanced Living by Assessing Voice Pathology Using a Co-Occurrence Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alhamid, Mohammed F.; Hossain, M. Shamim; Almogren, Ahmad S.; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    A large number of the population around the world suffers from various disabilities. Disabilities affect not only children but also adults of different professions. Smart technology can assist the disabled population and lead to a comfortable life in an enhanced living environment (ELE). In this paper, we propose an effective voice pathology assessment system that works in a smart home framework. The proposed system takes input from various sensors, and processes the acquired voice signals an...

  7. The Voice as Computer Interface: A Look at Tomorrow's Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holley R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of voice as the communications device for computer-human interaction focuses on voice recognition systems for use within a library environment. Voice technologies are described, including voice response and voice recognition; examples of voice systems in use in libraries are examined; and further possibilities, including use with…

  8. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...

  9. The influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Haiyue; Gao Sijia; Xu Ke; Wang Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Methods: Seventeen patients underwent brain CT perfusion scanning. All row data were analyzed with perfusion software for 6 times, and get different arterial and venous enhancement curves for each patient. The maximal values and peak enhancement values of each arterial and venous enhancement curves, as well as mean perfusion parameters including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability surface area product (PS), and their standard deviations (SD) in homolateral white and gray matter were measured and recorded. SNR was calculated by dividing the mean perfusion parameter value by its SD. Pearson correlation analysis and two-tailed paired Student t test were used for statistics. Results: The maximal values and peak enhancement values of arterial and venous curves were correlated with mean SNR CBF , SNR CBV and SNR MTT in both white matter and gray matters (r value range: 0.332-0.922, P PS in white matter(r=0.256, P PS (in both white matter and gray matters) and arterial peak enhancement values, the maximal values and venous peak enhancement values, or between SNR PS (in gray matter) and the maximal values of venous curve(r value range: -0.058-0.210, P>0.05). (2) Mean CBF, CBV and PS values in the group with low venous peak enhancement values were significantly different from the group with high venous peak enhancement values in both white and gray matters (t value range: 3.830-5.337, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean perfusion parameters and SNR are influenced by the maximal values and peak enhancement values of the arterial and venous curves. Peak enhancement of arterial and venous curves should be adjusted to higher level to make parameter values more reliable and increase the SNR. (authors)

  10. Dosimetric complication probability and acoustic analysis of vocal cord region in oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with voice-sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.; Gupta, T.; Agarwal, J.P.; Baccher, G.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Reenadevi; Master, J.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation to larynx has long been associated with speech and voice dysfunction. The objective is to study dosimetric parameters and complication probability of vocal cord region (VCR) and the effect of voice-sparing (VS) in the patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The secondary objective is to describe the post-radiation acoustic voice characteristics and correlate them with the dosimetric parameters. (author)

  11. Electrolarynx Voice Recognition Utilizing Pulse Coupled Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatchul Arifin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The laryngectomies patient has no ability to speak normally because their vocal chords have been removed. The easiest option for the patient to speak again is by using electrolarynx speech. This tool is placed on the lower chin. Vibration of the neck while speaking is used to produce sound. Meanwhile, the technology of "voice recognition" has been growing very rapidly. It is expected that the technology of "voice recognition" can also be used by laryngectomies patients who use electrolarynx.This paper describes a system for electrolarynx speech recognition. Two main parts of the system are feature extraction and pattern recognition. The Pulse Coupled Neural Network – PCNN is used to extract the feature and characteristic of electrolarynx speech. Varying of β (one of PCNN parameter also was conducted. Multi layer perceptron is used to recognize the sound patterns. There are two kinds of recognition conducted in this paper: speech recognition and speaker recognition. The speech recognition recognizes specific speech from every people. Meanwhile, speaker recognition recognizes specific speech from specific person. The system ran well. The "electrolarynx speech recognition" has been tested by recognizing of “A” and "not A" voice. The results showed that the system had 94.4% validation. Meanwhile, the electrolarynx speaker recognition has been tested by recognizing of “saya” voice from some different speakers. The results showed that the system had 92.2% validation. Meanwhile, the best β parameter of PCNN for electrolarynx recognition is 3.

  12. Collaboration and conquest: MTD as viewed by voice teacher (singing voice specialist) and speech-language pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi-Fynn, Jeanne C; Carroll, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative case study to demonstrate the process of diagnosis and treatment between a voice team to manage a singer diagnosed with muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). Traditionally, literature suggests that MTD is challenging to treat and little in the literature directly addresses singers with MTD. Data collected included initial medical screening with laryngologist, referral to speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializing in voice disorders among singers, and adjunctive voice training with voice teacher trained in vocology (singing voice specialist or SVS). Initial target goals with SLP included reducing extrinsic laryngeal tension, using a relaxed laryngeal posture, and effective abdominal-diaphragmatic support for all phonation events. Balance of respiratory forces, laryngeal coordination, and use of optimum filtering of the source signal through resonance and articulatory awareness was emphasized. Further work with SVS included three main goals including a lowered breathing pattern to aid in decreasing subglottic air pressure, vertical laryngeal position to lower to allow for a relaxed laryngeal position, and a top-down singing approach to encourage an easier, more balanced registration, and better resonance. Initial results also emphasize the retraining of subject toward a sensory rather than auditory mode of monitoring. Other areas of consideration include singers' training and vocal use, the psychological effects of MTD, the personalities potentially associated with it, and its relationship with stress. Finally, the results emphasize that a positive rapport with the subject and collaboration between all professionals involved in a singer's care are essential for recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. English Voicing in Dimensional Theory*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Gregory K.; Ahn, Sang-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Assuming a framework of privative features, this paper interprets two apparently disparate phenomena in English phonology as structurally related: the lexically specific voicing of fricatives in plural nouns like wives or thieves and the prosodically governed “flapping” of medial /t/ (and /d/) in North American varieties, which we claim is itself not a rule per se, but rather a consequence of the laryngeal weakening of fortis /t/ in interaction with speech-rate determined segmental abbreviation. Taking as our point of departure the Dimensional Theory of laryngeal representation developed by Avery & Idsardi (2001), along with their assumption that English marks voiceless obstruents but not voiced ones (Iverson & Salmons 1995), we find that an unexpected connection between fricative voicing and coronal flapping emerges from the interplay of familiar phonemic and phonetic factors in the phonological system. PMID:18496590

  14. Audiovisual speech facilitates voice learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffert, Sonya M; Olson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    In this research, we investigated the effects of voice and face information on the perceptual learning of talkers and on long-term memory for spoken words. In the first phase, listeners were trained over several days to identify voices from words presented auditorily or audiovisually. The training data showed that visual information about speakers enhanced voice learning, revealing cross-modal connections in talker processing akin to those observed in speech processing. In the second phase, the listeners completed an auditory or audiovisual word recognition memory test in which equal numbers of words were spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers. The data showed that words presented by familiar talkers were more likely to be retrieved from episodic memory, regardless of modality. Together, these findings provide new information about the representational code underlying familiar talker recognition and the role of stimulus familiarity in episodic word recognition.

  15. Voices Falling Through the Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Elliman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Where am I? Or as the young boy in Jules Verne’s Journey to the Centre of the Earth calls back to his distant-voiced companions: ‘Lost… in the most intense darkness.’ ‘Then I understood it,’ says the boy, Axel, ‘To make them hear me, all I had to do was to speak with my mouth close to the wall, which would serve to conduct my voice, as the wire conducts the electric fluid’ (Verne 1864. By timing their calls, the group of explorers work out that Axel is separated from them by a distance of four miles, held in a cavernous vertical gallery of smooth rock. Feeling his way down towards the others, the boy ends up falling, along with his voice, through the space. Losing consciousness he seems to give himself up to the space...

  16. DolphinAtack: Inaudible Voice Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoming; Yan, Chen; Ji, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Taimin; Zhang, Tianchen; Xu, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition (SR) systems such as Siri or Google Now have become an increasingly popular human-computer interaction method, and have turned various systems into voice controllable systems(VCS). Prior work on attacking VCS shows that the hidden voice commands that are incomprehensible to people can control the systems. Hidden voice commands, though hidden, are nonetheless audible. In this work, we design a completely inaudible attack, DolphinAttack, that modulates voice commands on ultra...

  17. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  18. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  19. I like my voice better: self-enhancement bias in perceptions of voice attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that the human voice can communicate a wealth of nonsemantic information; preferences for voices can predict health, fertility, and genetic quality of the speaker, and people often use voice attractiveness, in particular, to make these assessments of others. But it is not known what we think of the attractiveness of our own voices as others hear them. In this study eighty men and women rated the attractiveness of an array of voice recordings of different individuals and were not told that their own recorded voices were included in the presentation. Results showed that participants rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others had rated their voices, and participants also rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than they had rated the voices of others. These findings suggest that people may engage in vocal implicit egotism, a form of self-enhancement.

  20. Estimating RASATI scores using acoustical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agüero, P D; Tulli, J C; Moscardi, G; Gonzalez, E L; Uriz, A J

    2011-01-01

    Acoustical analysis of speech using computers has reached an important development in the latest years. The subjective evaluation of a clinician is complemented with an objective measure of relevant parameters of voice. Praat, MDVP (Multi Dimensional Voice Program) and SAV (Software for Voice Analysis) are some examples of software for speech analysis. This paper describes an approach to estimate the subjective characteristics of RASATI scale given objective acoustical parameters. Two approaches were used: linear regression with non-negativity constraints, and neural networks. The experiments show that such approach gives correct evaluations with ±1 error in 80% of the cases.

  1. Auditory and visual modulation of temporal lobe neurons in voice-sensitive and association cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2014-02-12

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies.

  2. Auditory and Visual Modulation of Temporal Lobe Neurons in Voice-Sensitive and Association Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2014-01-01

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies. PMID:24523543

  3. Visual assessment of voice disorders in patients with occupational dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kosztyła-Hojna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. In a group of persons using the voice occupationally, the frequent symptoms are hoarseness, voice fatigability and aphonia. Pathological changes in the larynx may have organic or functional character which require different methods of treatment and rehabilitation. Visualization of vibrations of the vocal folds is an essential condition for an appropriate assessment of the causes of dysphonia. [b]objective[/b]. The purpose of the study is assessment of the usefulness of a high-speed imaging (HSI system in the diagnosis of functional and organic dysphonia of occupational character, compared with digital kymography (DKG and digital stroboscopy (DS with a high resolution module. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study group consisted of 64 patients with voice quality disorders with features of occupational dysphonia. The control group consisted of 15 patients with euphonic voice. Analysis of the voice quality parameters during phonation of the ‘e’ vowel was performed using HSI, DKG and stroboscopy of high resolution, by means of a digital HS camera (HRES Endocam, Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany. Vocal folds vibrations were registered at the rate of 4,000 frames per second. [b]results[/b]. HSI is the most reliable diagnostic tool giving the possibility of an analysis of the true vibrations of the vocal folds. It also enables an observation of the aperiodicity of vibrations of the vocal folds, while DS with high resolution allows diagnosis of the periodicity of the vibrations. [b]conclusions[/b]. HSI is particularly useful in the diagnosis of neurologically-based pathology of the voice (paralytic dysphonia and organic dysphonia. The quickest method of diagnosing the phonatory paresis of the glottis is DKG. The advantage of both HSI and DKG is the non-invasiveness of examinations; however, their limitations are time-consuming and the high cost of equipment.

  4. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method o...... of analysis of the mediated voice...

  5. Voices Not Heard: Voice-Use Profiles of Elementary Music Teachers, the Effects of Voice Amplification on Vocal Load, and Perceptions of Issues Surrounding Voice Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…

  6. The voice conveys specific emotions: Evidence from vocal burst displays

    OpenAIRE

    Simon-Thomas, E.; Keltner, D.; Sauter, D.; Sinicropi-Yao, L.; Abramson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more ...

  7. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    with the deployment of wireless heterogeneous systems, both speech and data traffic are carrried over wireless links by the same IP-based packet-switched infrastructure. However, this combination faces some challenges due to the inherent properties of the wireless network. The requirements for good quality VoIP...... communications are difficult to achieve in a time-varying environment due to channel errors and traffic congestion and across different systems. The provision of VoIP in wireless heterogeneous networks requires a set of time-efficient control mechanisms to support a VoIP session with acceptable quality....... The focus of Voice over IP in Wierless Heterogeneous Networks is on mechanisms that affect the VoIP user satisfaction  while not explicitly involved in the media session. This relates to the extra delays introduced by the security and the signaling protocols used to set up an authorized VoIP session...

  8. Interventions for preventing voice disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, J H; Sellman, J; Lehto, L; Jauhiainen, M; Verbeek, J H

    2007-10-17

    Poor voice quality due to a voice disorder can lead to a reduced quality of life. In occupations where voice use is substantial it can lead to periods of absence from work. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent voice disorders in adults. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed, 1950 to 2006), EMBASE (1974 to 2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2006), CINAHL (1983 to 2006), PsychINFO (1967 to 2006), Science Citation Index (1986 to 2006) and the Occupational Health databases OSH-ROM (to 2006). The date of the last search was 05/04/06. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of interventions evaluating the effectiveness of treatments to prevent voice disorders in adults. For work-directed interventions interrupted time series and prospective cohort studies were also eligible. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. We identified two randomised controlled trials including a total of 53 participants in intervention groups and 43 controls. One study was conducted with teachers and the other with student teachers. Both trials were poor quality. Interventions were grouped into 1) direct voice training, 2) indirect voice training and 3) direct and indirect voice training combined.1) Direct voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct voice training compared to no intervention.2) Indirect voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for indirect voice training when compared to no intervention.3) Direct and indirect voice training combined: One study did not find a decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no intervention. The same study did however find an improvement in maximum phonation time (Mean Difference -3.18 sec; 95 % CI -4.43 to -1.93) for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no

  9. Effects of consensus training on the reliability of auditory perceptual ratings of voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Reinholt Petersen, Niels

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of consensus training of listeners on intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement of perceptual voice analysis. The use of such training, including a reference voice sample, could be assumed to make the internal standards held in memory common and more robust, which is of great importance to reduce the variability of auditory perceptual ratings. A prospective design with testing before and after training. Thirteen students of audiologopedics served as listening subjects. The ratings were made using a multidimensional protocol with four-point equal-appearing interval scales. The stimuli consisted of text reading by authentic dysphonic patients. The consensus training for each perceptual voice parameter included (1) definition, (2) underlying physiology, (3) presentation of carefully selected sound examples representing the parameter in three different grades followed by group discussions of perceived characteristics, and (4) practical exercises including imitation to make use of the listeners' proprioception. Intrarater reliability and agreement showed a marked improvement for intermittent aphonia but not for vocal fry. Interrater reliability was high for most parameters before training with a slight increase after training. Interrater agreement showed marked increases for most voice quality parameters as a result of the training. The results support the recommendation of specific consensus training, including use of a reference voice sample material, to calibrate, equalize, and stabilize the internal standards held in memory by the listeners. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Voice Disorder in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Bruna Mendes; Costa, Kauê Machado; da Silva Filho, Manoel

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common autosomal recessive disorder with drastic respiratory symptoms, including shortness of breath and chronic cough. While most of cystic fibrosis treatment is dedicated to mitigating the effects of respiratory dysfunction, the potential effects of this disease on vocal parameters have not been systematically studied. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis patients, given their characteristic respiratory disorders, would also present dysphonic symptoms. Given that voice disorders can severely impair quality of life, the identification of a potential cystic fibrosis-related dysphonia could be of great value for the clinical evaluation and treatment of this disease. We tested our hypothesis by measuring vocal parameters, using both objective physical measures and the GRBAS subjective evaluation method, in male and female cystic fibrosis patients undergoing conventional treatment and compared them to age and sex matched controls. We found that cystic fibrosis patients had a significantly lower vocal intensity and harmonic to noise ratio, as well as increased levels of jitter and shimmer. In addition, cystic fibrosis patients also showed higher scores of roughness, breathiness and asthenia, as well as a significantly altered general grade of dysphonia. When we segregated the results according to sex, we observed that, as a group, only female cystic fibrosis patients had significantly lower values of harmonic to noise ratio and an abnormal general grade of dysphonia in relation to matched controls, suggesting that cystic fibrosis exerts a more pronounced effect on vocal parameters of women in relation to men. Overall, the dysphonic characteristics of CF patients can be explained by dysfunctions in vocal fold movement and partial upper airway obstruction, potentially caused by the accumulation of mucus and chronic cough characteristic of CF symptomatology. Our results show that CF patients exhibit significant dysphonia and suggest they may

  11. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  12. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  13. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between child...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  14. Does the speaker's voice quality influence children's performance on a language comprehension test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Haake, Magnus; Brännström, Jonas; Schötz, Susanne; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2015-02-01

    A small number of studies have explored children's perception of speakers' voice quality and its possible influence on language comprehension. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between the examiner's voice quality, the child's performance on a digital version of a language comprehension test, the Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG-2), and two measures of cognitive functioning. The participants were (n = 86) mainstreamed 8-year old children with typical language development. Two groups of children (n = 41/45) were presented with the TROG-2 through recordings of one female speaker: one group was presented with a typical voice and the other with a simulated dysphonic voice. Significant associations were found between executive functioning and language comprehension. The results also showed that children listening to the dysphonic voice achieved significantly lower scores for more difficult sentences ("the man but not the horse jumps") and used more self-corrections on simpler sentences ("the girl is sitting"). Findings suggest that a dysphonic speaker's voice may force the child to allocate capacity to the processing of the voice signal at the expense of comprehension. The findings have implications for clinical and research settings where standardized language tests are used.

  15. Mobile voice health monitoring using a wearable accelerometer sensor and a smartphone platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Daryush D; Zañartu, Matías; Feng, Shengran W; Cheyne, Harold A; Hillman, Robert E

    2012-11-01

    Many common voice disorders are chronic or recurring conditions that are likely to result from faulty and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior, referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. An ongoing goal in clinical voice assessment is the development and use of noninvasively derived measures to quantify and track the daily status of vocal hyperfunction so that the diagnosis and treatment of such behaviorally based voice disorders can be improved. This paper reports on the development of a new, versatile, and cost-effective clinical tool for mobile voice monitoring that acquires the high-bandwidth signal from an accelerometer sensor placed on the neck skin above the collarbone. Using a smartphone as the data acquisition platform, the prototype device provides a user-friendly interface for voice use monitoring, daily sensor calibration, and periodic alert capabilities. Pilot data are reported from three vocally normal speakers and three subjects with voice disorders to demonstrate the potential of the device to yield standard measures of fundamental frequency and sound pressure level and model-based glottal airflow properties. The smartphone-based platform enables future clinical studies for the identification of the best set of measures for differentiating between normal and hyperfunctional patterns of voice use.

  16. Sounds like a winner: voice pitch influences perception of leadership capacity in both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofstad, Casey A; Anderson, Rindy C; Peters, Susan

    2012-07-07

    It is well known that non-human animals respond to information encoded in vocal signals, and the same can be said of humans. Specifically, human voice pitch affects how speakers are perceived. As such, does voice pitch affect how we perceive and select our leaders? To answer this question, we recorded men and women saying 'I urge you to vote for me this November'. Each recording was manipulated digitally to yield a higher- and lower-pitched version of the original. We then asked men and women to vote for either the lower- or higher-pitched version of each voice. Our results show that both men and women select male and female leaders with lower voices. These findings suggest that men and women with lower-pitched voices may be more successful in obtaining positions of leadership. This might also suggest that because women, on average, have higher-pitched voices than men, voice pitch could be a factor that contributes to fewer women holding leadership roles than men. Additionally, while people are free to choose their leaders, these results clearly demonstrate that these choices cannot be understood in isolation from biological influences.

  17. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  18. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  19. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  20. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  1. Model based Binaural Enhancement of Voiced and Unvoiced Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavalekalam, Mathew Shaji; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Boldt, Jesper B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the enhancement of speech in presence of non-stationary babble noise. A binaural speech enhancement framework is proposed which takes into account both the voiced and unvoiced speech production model. The usage of this model in enhancement requires the Short term predictor...... (STP) parameters and the pitch information to be estimated. This paper uses a codebook based approach for estimating the STP parameters and a parametric binaural method is proposed for estimating the pitch parameters. Improvements in objective score are shown when using the voicedunvoiced speech model...

  2. Adverse effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and MAPK signaling pathways in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Wang, Minghua; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of MeHg on the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana, we assessed the effects of MeHg toxicity on life parameters (e.g. growth retardation and fecundity), antioxidant systems, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways at various concentrations (1ng/L, 10ng/L, 100ng/L, 500ng/L, and 1000ng/L). MeHg exposure resulted in the growth retardation with the increased ROS levels but decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in both B. koreanus and P. nana. Antioxidant enzymatic activities (e.g. glutathione S-transferase [GST], glutathione reductase [GR], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) in B. koreanus showed more positive responses compared the control but in P. nana, those antioxidant enzymatic activities showed subtle changes due to different no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values among the two species. Expression of antioxidant genes (e.g. superoxide dismutase [SOD], GSTs, glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and catalase [CAT]) also demonstrated similar effects as shown in antioxidant enzymatic activities. In B. koreanus, the level of p-ERK was decreased in the presence of 1000ng/L MeHg, while the levels of p-ERK and p-p38 in P. nana were reduced in the presence of 10ng/L MeHg. However, p-JNK levels were not altered by MeHg in B. koreanus and P. nana, compared to the corresponding controls. In summary, life parameters (e.g. reduced fecundity and survival rate) were closely associated with effects on the antioxidant system in response to MeHg. These observations provide a better understanding on the adverse effects of MeHg on in vivo life parameters and molecular defense mechanisms in B. koreanus and P. nana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced Living by Assessing Voice Pathology Using a Co-Occurrence Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alhamid, Mohammed F; Hossain, M Shamim; Almogren, Ahmad S; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-01-29

    A large number of the population around the world suffers from various disabilities. Disabilities affect not only children but also adults of different professions. Smart technology can assist the disabled population and lead to a comfortable life in an enhanced living environment (ELE). In this paper, we propose an effective voice pathology assessment system that works in a smart home framework. The proposed system takes input from various sensors, and processes the acquired voice signals and electroglottography (EGG) signals. Co-occurrence matrices in different directions and neighborhoods from the spectrograms of these signals were obtained. Several features such as energy, entropy, contrast, and homogeneity from these matrices were calculated and fed into a Gaussian mixture model-based classifier. Experiments were performed with a publicly available database, namely, the Saarbrucken voice database. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system in light of its high accuracy and speed. The proposed system can be extended to assess other disabilities in an ELE.

  4. Effect of singing training on total laryngectomees wearing a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Fernanda; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Takeshita-Monaretti, Telma Kioko; Prado, Maria Yuka de Almeida; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian Neto

    2013-02-01

    To assess the effect of a program of singing training on the voice of total laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis, considering the quality of alaryngeal phonation, vocal extension and the musical elements of tunning and legato. Five laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis completed the singing training program over a period of three months, with exploration of the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and vocalization and with evaluation of perceptive-auditory and singing voice being performed before and after 12 sessions of singing therapy. After the program of singing voice training, the quality of tracheoesophageal voice showed improvement or the persistence of the general degree of dysphonia for the emitted vowels and for the parameters of roughness and breathiness. For the vowel "a", the pitch was displaced to grave in two participants and to acute in one, and remained adequate in the others. A similar situation was observed also for the vowel "i". After the singing program, all participants presented tunning and most of them showed a greater presence of legato. The vocal extension improved in all participants. Singing training seems to have a favorable effect on the quality of tracheoesophageal phonation and on singing voice.

  5. Improvement of electrolaryngeal speech quality using a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Wan, Congying; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-07-01

    Electrolarynx (EL) is a medical speech-recovery device designed for patients who have lost their original voice box due to laryngeal cancer. As a substitute for human larynx, the current commercial EL voice source cannot reconstruct natural EL speech under laryngectomy conditions. To eliminate the abnormal acoustic properties of EL speech, a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics was proposed and provided through an experimental EL(SGVS-EL) system. The acoustic analyses of simulated EL speech and reconstructed EL speech produced with different voice sources were performed in the normal subject and laryngectomee. The results indicated that the supraglottal voice source was successful in improving the acoustic properties of EL speech by enhancing low- frequency energy, correcting the shifted formants to normal range, and eliminating the visible spectral zeros. Both normal subject and laryngectomee also produced more natural vowels using SGVS-EL than commercial EL, even if the vocal tract parameter was substituted and the supraglottal voice source was biased to a certain degree. Therefore, supraglottal voice source is a feasible and effective approach to improving the acoustic quality of EL speech.

  6. Differences between self-assessment and external rating of voice with regard to sex characteristics, age, and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Katja; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Rosslau, Ken; Lang-Roth, Ruth; Burgmer, Markus; Knief, Arne; Matulat, Peter; Vauth, Melanie; Deuster, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates differences between the self-assessment and external rating of a person's voice with regard to sex characteristics, age, and attractiveness of the voice and mean fundamental frequency (F0). Cross-sectional study. A group of 47 participants with a balanced sex distribution was recruited and the following data were collected: videostroboscopy, voice range profile, F0, self-assessment questionnaire (attractiveness, masculinity or femininity of voice, and appearance), Voice Handicap Index, and questionnaires to determine levels of depression and quality of life. External rating was performed by four experts and four laymen. In both sexes, fair to moderate significant correlations between the self-assessment of masculinity (men)/femininity (women) of voice and masculinity/femininity of appearance could be found, but not between the self-assessment of attractiveness of voice and appearance. In men, a statistically significant correlation was found between external ratings and self-assessment of attractiveness and, with the exception of the female rating group, of masculinity. In women, self-assessment of femininity and attractiveness of voice did not correlate to a statistically significant extent with the evaluation of the external rater. Additionally, the statistical correlation between estimated and real ages was high. Although the objective parameters of age and gender identification could be rated with a high degree of accuracy, subjective parameters showed significant differences between self-assessment and external rating, in particular in rating women's voices. Taking these findings into account in treatments for modifying voice could impede successful interventions. As one consequence, we recommend summarizing target agreements in detail before the treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of voice quality in patients with GERD-related dysphonia or chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeracka-Kołodziej, Anna; Grabczak, Elżbieta M; Dąbrowska, Marta; Arcimowicz, Magdalena; Lachowska, Magdalena; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare a voice quality in patients with GERD-related dysphonia or chronic cough and to determine whether there is a relationship between the main symptom reported and voice quality. 249 consecutive patients diagnosed with GERD-related chronic cough or dysphonia were involved in this retrospective study and were divided into two main groups of men and women, and furthermore into groups of chronic cough and dysphonia. Laryngeal lesions were evaluated with videolaryngostroboscopy using Reflux Finding Score. Voice quality was assessed using GRBAS scale, sonograms, and multidimensional voice program (MDVP). All subjects were found to have vocal abnormalities both in subjective and objective voice analysis. Perceptual assessment of voice (GRBAS) did not reveal any differences between analyzed groups depending on the reported symptom. In MDVP analysis, the group of women with cough as the main symptom demonstrated significantly less abnormalities in VTI value. In men with cough as their main complaint, significantly less MDVP abnormalities were found in Jita, Jitt, RAP, PPQ, and sPPQ parameters. The comparison of voice perceptual assessment in patients with GERD-related dysphonia or chronic cough revealed no differences between analyzed groups. In objective voice analysis, the latter group presented lower degree of hoarseness in Yanagihara's scale. In objective MDVP analysis, the chronic cough group presented lower degree of abnormalities only in one of the noise related parameters in females and five frequency perturbation parameters in males. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Foetal response to music and voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Noura H

    2005-10-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to music and voice alters foetal behaviour and whether foetal response to music differs from human voice. A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 normal term pregnant mothers. Ten foetuses were exposed to music and voice for 15 s at different sound pressure levels to find out the optimal setting for the auditory stimulation. Music, voice and sham were played to another 10 foetuses via a headphone on the maternal abdomen. The sound pressure level was 105 db and 94 db for music and voice, respectively. Computerised assessment of foetal heart rate and activity were recorded. 90 actocardiograms were obtained for the whole group. One way anova followed by posthoc (Student-Newman-Keuls method) analysis was used to find if there is significant difference in foetal response to music and voice versus sham. Foetuses responded with heart rate acceleration and motor response to both music and voice. This was statistically significant compared to sham. There was no significant difference between the foetal heart rate acceleration to music and voice. Prenatal exposure to music and voice alters the foetal behaviour. No difference was detected in foetal response to music and voice.

  9. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  10. [THE APPLICATION OF SHORT-TERM EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONAL VOICE DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Just, Marcin; Tyc, Michał; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Morawska, Joanna; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men) diagnosed with occupational dysphonia throuigh videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men) with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR), as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel "a." The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00). The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00). Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Effliciency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larnx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology.

  11. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  12. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  13. Hearing history influences voice gender perceptual performance in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačić, Damir; Balaban, Evan

    2010-12-01

    The study was carried out to assess the role that five hearing history variables (chronological age, age at onset of deafness, age of first cochlear implant [CI] activation, duration of CI use, and duration of known deafness) play in the ability of CI users to identify speaker gender. Forty-one juvenile CI users participated in two voice gender identification tasks. In a fixed, single-interval task, subjects listened to a single speech item from one of 20 adult male or 20 adult female speakers and had to identify speaker gender. In an adaptive speech-based voice gender discrimination task with the fundamental frequency difference between the voices as the adaptive parameter, subjects listened to a pair of speech items presented in sequential order, one of which was always spoken by an adult female and the other by an adult male. Subjects had to identify the speech item spoken by the female voice. Correlation and regression analyses between perceptual scores in the two tasks and the hearing history variables were performed. Subjects fell into three performance groups: (1) those who could distinguish voice gender in both tasks, (2) those who could distinguish voice gender in the adaptive but not the fixed task, and (3) those who could not distinguish voice gender in either task. Gender identification performance for single voices in the fixed task was significantly and negatively related to the duration of deafness before cochlear implantation (shorter deafness yielded better performance), whereas performance in the adaptive task was weakly but significantly related to age at first activation of the CI device, with earlier activations yielding better scores. The existence of a group of subjects able to perform adaptive discrimination but unable to identify the gender of singly presented voices demonstrates the potential dissociability of the skills required for these two tasks, suggesting that duration of deafness and age of cochlear implantation could have

  14. [Evaluation of music department students who passed the entrance exam with phonetogram (Voice Range Profile)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Çağıl; Gökdoğan, Ozan; Şahin, Esra; Yılmaz, Metin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate phonetogram data of the students in the department of music who passed the entrance exam. The phonetogram data of 44 individuals with a good voice quality in the department of music and age-matched individuals who were not trained in the field of music or not involved in music amateurish as the control group were compared. The voice of both groups were recorded using the voice range profile within the scope of Kay Elemetrics CSL (Model 4300 B) programmed. There was a significant difference in the voice range profile parameters including max Fo, Fo range, Fo range (St), min dB SPL, and max dB sound pressure level (pmusic is higher than the control group and that plays a major role in their acceptance to the department of music.

  15. Influences of Fundamental Frequency, Formant Frequencies, Aperiodicity, and Spectrum Level on the Perception of Voice Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuk, Verena G.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative importance of acoustic parameters (fundamental frequency [F0], formant frequencies [FFs], aperiodicity, and spectrum level [SL]) on voice gender perception, the authors used a novel parameter-morphing approach that, unlike spectral envelope shifting, allows the application of nonuniform scale factors to transform…

  16. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-01-01

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women ...

  17. Signal-to-noise ratio and MR tissue parameters in human brain imaging at 3, 7, and 9.4 tesla using current receive coil arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohmann, Rolf; Speck, Oliver; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Relaxation times, transmit homogeneity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and parallel imaging g-factor were determined in the human brain at 3T, 7T, and 9.4T, using standard, tight-fitting coil arrays. The same human subjects were scanned at all three field strengths, using identical sequence parameters and similar 31- or 32-channel receive coil arrays. The SNR of three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo images was determined using a multiple replica approach and corrected with measured flip angle and T2 (*) distributions and the T1 of white matter to obtain the intrinsic SNR. The g-factor maps were derived from 3D gradient echo images with several GRAPPA accelerations. As expected, T1 values increased, T2 (*) decreased and the B1 -homogeneity deteriorated with increasing field. The SNR showed a distinctly supralinear increase with field strength by a factor of 3.10 ± 0.20 from 3T to 7T, and 1.76 ± 0.13 from 7T to 9.4T over the entire cerebrum. The g-factors did not show the expected decrease, indicating a dominating role of coil design. In standard experimental conditions, SNR increased supralinearly with field strength (SNR ∼ B0 (1.65) ). To take full advantage of this gain, the deteriorating B1 -homogeneity and the decreasing T2 (*) have to be overcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of aspects of quality of life in teachers' voice after discharged: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Josiane Mendes; Campos, Nathália Ferreira; Bassi, Iara Barreto; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of voice therapy on the life quality of teachers who were discharged or abandoned the voice therapy for dysphonia. This was a longitudinal study based on analysis of assessments with teachers of municipal schools in Belo Horizonte, who were referred to voice therapy and were discharged or abandoned the speech-language therapy for more than six months. A total of 33 teachers in the discharged group and 20 teachers in the abandoned group were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the study by answering the Voice activity and participation profile, which was forwarded to the researchers and sent via letter. At the moment of the pre speech therapy, the discharged and abandoned groups were homogeneous, except in relation to daily communication parameter. Comparing the discharged group in the pre and post speech-language therapy, it was showed improvements in social communication parameter as well as in the total score. The discharged group presented worsening in self-perception parameter when comparing the average values in the post therapy and current moments, and the group abandoned presented worsening in work, social communication and total score when comparing to the average values in the pre therapy and current moments. The discharged and abandoned groups differ in the present moment in all investigated parameters. Speech-language therapy for dysphonia have long term positive effects on life quality and voice of teachers who were soon discharged from the therapy and in a period of two years on average. Teachers who have abandoned treatment and did not obtain improvement in the voice showed negative impact in life quality and voice in a time of 2 years and 2 months on average.

  19. Voice Onset Time in Azerbaijani Consonants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Voice onset time is known to be cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops and it can be used to describe or categorize a range of developmental, neuromotor and linguistic disorders. The aim of this study is determination of standard values of voice onset time for Azerbaijani language (Tabriz dialect. Materials & Methods: In this description-analytical study, 30 Azeris persons whom were selected conveniently by simple selection, uttered 46 monosyllabic words initiating with 6 Azerbaijani stops twice. Using Praat software, the voice onset time values were analyzed by waveform and wideband spectrogram in milliseconds. Vowel effect, sex differences and the effect of place of articulation on VOT, were evaluated and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: There was no significant difference in voice onset time between male and female Azeris speakers (P<0.05. Vowel and place of articulation had significant correlation with voice onset time (P<0.001. Voice onset time values for /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, and [c], [ɟ] allophones were 10.64, 86.88, 13.35, 87.09, 26.25, 100.62, 131.19, 63.18 mili second, respectively. Conclusion: Voice onset time values are the same for Azerbaijani men and women. However, like many other languages, back and high vowels and back place of articulation lengthen VOT. Also, voiceless stops are aspirated in this language and voiced stops have positive VOT values.

  20. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  1. Familiarity and Voice Representation: From Acoustic-Based Representation to Voice Averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Fontaine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1, and famous voices (Experiment 2 are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker. In experiment 1, participants learned three voices over several sessions, and performed a three-alternative forced-choice identification task on original voice samples and several “speaker averages,” created by morphing across varying numbers of different vowels (e.g., [a] and [i] produced by the same speaker. In experiment 2, the same participants performed the same task on voice samples produced by familiar speakers. The two experiments showed that for famous voices, but not for trained-to-familiar voices, identification performance increased and response times decreased as a function of the number of utterances in the averages. This study sheds light on the perceptual representation of familiar voices, and demonstrates the power of average in recognizing familiar voices. The speaker average captures the unique characteristics of a speaker, and thus retains the information essential for recognition; it acts as a prototype of the speaker.

  2. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool for non...

  3. Communication in a noisy environment: Perception of one's own voice and speech enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Cecile

    Workers in noisy industrial environments are often confronted to communication problems. Lost of workers complain about not being able to communicate easily with their coworkers when they wear hearing protectors. In consequence, they tend to remove their protectors, which expose them to the risk of hearing loss. In fact this communication problem is a double one: first the hearing protectors modify one's own voice perception; second they interfere with understanding speech from others. This double problem is examined in this thesis. When wearing hearing protectors, the modification of one's own voice perception is partly due to the occlusion effect which is produced when an earplug is inserted in the car canal. This occlusion effect has two main consequences: first the physiological noises in low frequencies are better perceived, second the perception of one's own voice is modified. In order to have a better understanding of this phenomenon, the literature results are analyzed systematically, and a new method to quantify the occlusion effect is developed. Instead of stimulating the skull with a bone vibrator or asking the subject to speak as is usually done in the literature, it has been decided to excite the buccal cavity with an acoustic wave. The experiment has been designed in such a way that the acoustic wave which excites the buccal cavity does not excite the external car or the rest of the body directly. The measurement of the hearing threshold in open and occluded car has been used to quantify the subjective occlusion effect for an acoustic wave in the buccal cavity. These experimental results as well as those reported in the literature have lead to a better understanding of the occlusion effect and an evaluation of the role of each internal path from the acoustic source to the internal car. The speech intelligibility from others is altered by both the high sound levels of noisy industrial environments and the speech signal attenuation due to hearing

  4. Utility and accuracy of perceptual voice and speech distinctions in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, PSP and MSA-P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nick; Nath, Uma; Noble, Emma; Burn, David

    2017-06-01

    To determine if perceptual speech measures distinguish people with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Speech-language therapists blind to patient characteristics employed clinical rating scales to evaluate speech/voice in 24 people with clinically diagnosed PD, 17 with PSP and 9 with MSA-P, matched for disease duration (mean 4.9 years, standard deviation 2.2). No consistent intergroup differences appeared on specific speech/voice variables. People with PD were significantly less impaired on overall speech/voice severity. Analyses by severity suggested further investigation around laryngeal, resonance and fluency changes may characterize individual groups. MSA-P and PSP compared with PD were distinguished by severity of speech/voice deterioration, but individual speech/voice parameters failed to consistently differentiate groups.

  5. Two-component network model in voice identification technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita K. Kuular

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the most important parameters of biometric systems with voice modalities that determine their effectiveness, along with reliability and noise immunity, a speed of identification and verification of a person has been accentuated. This parameter is especially sensitive while processing large-scale voice databases in real time regime. Many research studies in this area are aimed at developing new and improving existing algorithms for presentation and processing voice records to ensure high performance of voice biometric systems. Here, it seems promising to apply a modern approach, which is based on complex network platform for solving complex massive problems with a large number of elements and taking into account their interrelationships. Thus, there are known some works which while solving problems of analysis and recognition of faces from photographs, transform images into complex networks for their subsequent processing by standard techniques. One of the first applications of complex networks to sound series (musical and speech analysis are description of frequency characteristics by constructing network models - converting the series into networks. On the network ontology platform a previously proposed technique of audio information representation aimed on its automatic analysis and speaker recognition has been developed. This implies converting information into the form of associative semantic (cognitive network structure with amplitude and frequency components both. Two speaker exemplars have been recorded and transformed into pertinent networks with consequent comparison of their topological metrics. The set of topological metrics for each of network models (amplitude and frequency one is a vector, and together  those combine a matrix, as a digital "network" voiceprint. The proposed network approach, with its sensitivity to personal conditions-physiological, psychological, emotional, might be useful not only for person identification

  6. Clinical voice analysis of Carnatic singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Ravikumar; Boominathan, Prakash; Mahalingam, Shenbagavalli

    2014-01-01

    Carnatic singing is a classical South Indian style of music that involves rigorous training to produce an "open throated" loud, predominantly low-pitched singing, embedded with vocal nuances in higher pitches. Voice problems in singers are not uncommon. The objective was to report the nature of voice problems and apply a routine protocol to assess the voice. Forty-five trained performing singers (females: 36 and males: 9) who reported to a tertiary care hospital with voice problems underwent voice assessment. The study analyzed their problems and the clinical findings. Voice change, difficulty in singing higher pitches, and voice fatigue were major complaints. Most of the singers suffered laryngopharyngeal reflux that coexisted with muscle tension dysphonia and chronic laryngitis. Speaking voices were rated predominantly as "moderate deviation" on GRBAS (Grade, Rough, Breathy, Asthenia, and Strain). Maximum phonation time ranged from 4 to 29 seconds (females: 10.2, standard deviation [SD]: 5.28 and males: 15.7, SD: 5.79). Singing frequency range was reduced (females: 21.3 Semitones and males: 23.99 Semitones). Dysphonia severity index (DSI) scores ranged from -3.5 to 4.91 (females: 0.075 and males: 0.64). Singing frequency range and DSI did not show significant difference between sex and across clinical diagnosis. Self-perception using voice disorder outcome profile revealed overall severity score of 5.1 (SD: 2.7). Findings are discussed from a clinical intervention perspective. Study highlighted the nature of voice problems (hyperfunctional) and required modifications in assessment protocol for Carnatic singers. Need for regular assessments and vocal hygiene education to maintain good vocal health are emphasized as outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sound induced activity in voice sensitive cortex predicts voice memory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eWatson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVAs (Belin et al., 2000 of the human brain show greater neuronal activity in response to human voices than to other categories of nonvocal sounds. However, a direct link between TVA activity and voice perceptionbehaviour has not yet been established. Here we show that a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measure of activity in the TVAs predicts individual performance at a separately administered voice memory test. This relation holds whengeneral sound memory ability is taken into account. These findings provide the first evidence that the TVAs are specifically involved in voice cognition.

  8. Clinical-Radiological Parameters Improve the Prediction of the Thrombolysis Time Window by Both MRI Signal Intensities and DWI-FLAIR Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madai, Vince Istvan; Wood, Carla N; Galinovic, Ivana; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Revankar, Gajanan S; Martin, Steve Z; Zaro-Weber, Olivier; Moeller-Hartmann, Walter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Ebinger, Martin; Fiebach, Jochen B; Sobesky, Jan

    2016-01-01

    With regard to acute stroke, patients with unknown time from stroke onset are not eligible for thrombolysis. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI relative signal intensity (rSI) biomarkers have been introduced to predict eligibility for thrombolysis, but have shown heterogeneous results in the past. In the present work, we investigated whether the inclusion of easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters would improve the prediction of the thrombolysis time window by rSIs and compared their performance to the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch. In a retrospective study, patients from 2 centers with proven stroke with onset value/mean value of the unaffected hemisphere). Additionally, the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch was evaluated. Prediction of the thrombolysis time window was evaluated by the area-under-the-curve (AUC) derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Factors such as the association of age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, MRI field strength, lesion size, vessel occlusion and Wahlund-Score with rSI were investigated and the models were adjusted and stratified accordingly. In 82 patients, the unadjusted rSI measures DWI-mean and -SD showed the highest AUCs (AUC 0.86-0.87). Adjustment for clinical-radiological covariates significantly improved the performance of FLAIR-mean (0.91) and DWI-SD (0.91). The best prediction results based on the AUC were found for the final stratified and adjusted models of DWI-SD (0.94) and FLAIR-mean (0.96) and a multivariable DWI-FLAIR model (0.95). The adjusted visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch did not perform in a significantly worse manner (0.89). ADC-rSIs showed fair performance in all models. Quantitative DWI and FLAIR MRI biomarkers as well as the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch provide excellent prediction of eligibility for thrombolysis in acute stroke, when easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters are included in the prediction

  9. Central voice production and pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Niv; Simonyan, Kristina; Blitzer, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Our ability to speak is complex, and the role of the central nervous system in controlling speech production is often overlooked in the field of otolaryngology. In this brief review, we present an integrated overview of speech production with a focus on the role of central nervous system. The role of central control of voice production is then further discussed in relation to the potential pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Peer-review articles on central laryngeal control and SD were identified from PUBMED search. Selected articles were augmented with designated relevant publications. Publications that discussed central and peripheral nervous system control of voice production and the central pathophysiology of laryngeal dystonia were chosen. Our ability to speak is regulated by specialized complex mechanisms coordinated by high-level cortical signaling, brainstem reflexes, peripheral nerves, muscles, and mucosal actions. Recent studies suggest that SD results from a primary central disturbance associated with dysfunction at our highest levels of central voice control. The efficacy of botulinum toxin in treating SD may not be limited solely to its local effect on laryngeal muscles and also may modulate the disorder at the level of the central nervous system. Future therapeutic options that target the central nervous system may help modulate the underlying disorder in SD and allow clinicians to better understand the principal pathophysiology. NA.Laryngoscope, 128:177-183, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Influence of the parameters of supplying pulses and polarization voltage on the signal and shape of current characteristics of the electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.; Sliwka, I.; Drozdowicz, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper contains results of measurements of current characteristics and of the signal for the constant concentration of freon F-11 of the ECD supplied with pulse voltage of changeable time of pulse duration t p , amplitude U 1 and the time of pulse repetition t r . In the course of measurements the detector worked at temperature 573 K with the additional constant polarization voltage. The polarization voltage has been observed to cause the effect of hypercoulometry. The presented mathematical analysis helps to determine the values of the coefficient of efficiency of electron capture p, the coefficient of electron loss k D , the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the anode k' 3 and the coefficient of collecting of electric charges by the detector cathode k u . The coefficients are determined on the basis of experimental measurements. An attempt of physical interpretation of calculated values of these coefficients and their dependence on the parameters of the pulses supplying the detector has been presented. This interpretation requires the assumption that in some pulse periods t r the concentration of positive ions in the detector considerably exceeds concentration n 0 + = √a xα e /V, where a is an efficiency of the carrier gas ionization, α e is the coefficient of the electron-ion recombination and V is the detector volume. This statement helping to describe the effects observed in the electron capture polarized by voltage U a contradicts the recognized concept that the concentration of positive ions in the detector does not exceed the concentration n 0 + . The paper shows that the detector of the cylindrical construction, supplied with a pulse voltage can be used for coulometric measurements and the voltage polarizing the cathode can cause an effect of hypercoulometry. 33 figs., 9 refs. (author)

  11. Voices from Around the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JSAA has been seeking to provide an opportunity for Student Affairs professionals and higher education scholars from around the globe to share their research and experiences of student services and student affairs programmes from their respective regional and institutional contexts. This has been given a specific platform with the guest-edited issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS, and particularly with the guest editors, Kathleen Callahan and Chinedu Mba.

  12. From Out of Our Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Papanikolaou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Note from the interviewer: Diane Austin's new book “The Theory and Practice of Vocal Psychotherapy: Songs of the Self” (2008 which was published recently, has been an excellent opportunity to learn more about the use of voice in therapy, its clinical applications and its enormous possibilities that offers within a psychotherapeutic setting. This interview focuses on introducing some of these aspects based on Austin’s work, and on exploring her background, motivations and considerations towards this pioneer music-therapeutic approach. The interview has been edited by Diane Austin and Evangelia Papanikolaou and took place via a series of emails, dated from September to December 2009.

  13. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2018-05-01

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men's preferences for women's voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana

    2008-04-23

    Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women who appeared relatively disinterested in the listener. These findings show that voice preferences are not determined solely by physical properties of voices and that men integrate information about voice pitch and the degree of social interest expressed by women when forming voice preferences. Women's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices were not modulated by cues of social interest, suggesting that the integration of cues of social interest and voice pitch when men judge the attractiveness of women's voices may reflect adaptations that promote efficient allocation of men's mating effort.

  15. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  16. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  17. Analog voicing detector responds to pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, R. S.; Watkins, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Modified electronic voice encoder /Vocoder/ includes an independent analog mode of operation in addition to the conventional digital mode. The Vocoder is a bandwidth compression equipment that permits voice transmission over channels, having only a fraction of the bandwidth required for conventional telephone-quality speech transmission.

  18. The Voice of the Technical Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, James S.

    The author's voice is implicit in all writing, even technical writing. It is the expression of the writer's attitude toward audience, subject matter, and self. Effective use of voice is made possible by recognizing the three roles of the technical writer: transmitter, translator, and author. As a transmitter, the writer must consciously apply an…

  19. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  20. Employee voice and engagement : Connections and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, C.; Alfes, K.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between employee voice and employee engagement. Employee perceptions of voice behaviour aimed at improving the functioning of the work group are found to have both a direct impact and an indirect impact on levels of employee engagement. Analysis of data from two

  1. Speaking with the voice of authority

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    GPB Consulting has developed a scientific approach to voice coaching. A digital recording of the voice is sent to a lab in Switzerland and analyzed by a computer programme designed by a doctor of psychology and linguistics and a scientist at CERN (1 page).

  2. Managing dysphonia in occupational voice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Zambon, Fabiana; Madazio, Glaucya

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances with regard to occupational voice disorders are highlighted with emphasis on issues warranting consideration when assessing, training, and treating professional voice users. Findings include the many particularities between the various categories of professional voice users, the concept that the environment plays a major role in occupational voice disorders, and that biopsychosocial influences should be analyzed on an individual basis. Assessment via self-evaluation protocols to quantify the impact of these disorders is mandatory as a component of an evaluation and to document treatment outcomes. Discomfort or odynophonia has evolved as a critical symptom in this population. Clinical trials are limited and the complexity of the environment may be a limitation in experiment design. This review reinforced the need for large population studies of professional voice users; new data highlighted important factors specific to each group of voice users. Interventions directed at student teachers are necessities to not only improving the quality of future professionals, but also to avoid the frustration and limitations associated with chronic voice problems. The causative relationship between the work environment and voice disorders has not yet been established. Randomized controlled trials are lacking and must be a focus to enhance treatment paradigms for this population.

  3. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  4. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  6. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  7. Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data Over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data. Over Telephone Networks. 1. Basic Principles of Data Trans.mission v U Reddy is with the. Electrical Communica- tion Engineering. Department, Indian. Institute of Science. His research areas are adaptive signal process- ing, multirate filtering and wavelets, and multi-.

  8. Voice disorders in teachers. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Hidalgo, Caio Bosque; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2014-11-01

    Voice disorders are very prevalent among teachers and consequences are serious. Although the literature is extensive, there are differences in the concepts and methodology related to voice problems; most studies are restricted to analyzing the responses of teachers to questionnaires and only a few studies include vocal assessments and videolaryngoscopic examinations to obtain a definitive diagnosis. To review demographic studies related to vocal disorders in teachers to analyze the diverse methodologies, the prevalence rates pointed out by the authors, the main risk factors, the most prevalent laryngeal lesions, and the repercussions of dysphonias on professional activities. The available literature (from 1997 to 2013) was narratively reviewed based on Medline, PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, and Cochrane library databases. Excluded were articles that specifically analyzed treatment modalities and those that did not make their abstracts available in those databases. The keywords included were teacher, dysphonia, voice disorders, professional voice. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  10. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  11. Voice Activity Detection Using Fuzzy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Johny Elton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes support vector machine (SVM based voice activity detection using FuzzyEn to improve detection performance under noisy conditions. The proposed voice activity detection (VAD uses fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn as a feature extracted from noise-reduced speech signals to train an SVM model for speech/non-speech classification. The proposed VAD method was tested by conducting various experiments by adding real background noises of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR ranging from −10 dB to 10 dB to actual speech signals collected from the TIMIT database. The analysis proves that FuzzyEn feature shows better results in discriminating noise and corrupted noisy speech. The efficacy of the SVM classifier was validated using 10-fold cross validation. Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method was compared with those of previous standardized VAD algorithms as well as recently developed methods. Performance comparison suggests that the proposed method is proven to be more efficient in detecting speech under various noisy environments with an accuracy of 93.29%, and the FuzzyEn feature detects speech efficiently even at low SNR levels.

  12. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  13. Your Cheatin' Voice Will Tell on You: Detection of Past Infidelity from Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures. We found that participants indeed rated the voices of those who had a history of cheating as more likely to cheat. Male speakers were given higher ratings for cheating, while female raters were more likely to ascribe the likelihood to cheat to speakers. Additionally, we manipulated the pitch of the voice samples, and for both sexes, the lower pitched versions were consistently rated to be from those who were more likely to have cheated. Regardless of the pitch manipulation, speakers were able to assess actual history of infidelity; the one exception was that men's accuracy decreased when judging women whose voices were lowered. These findings expand upon the idea that the human voice may be of value as a cheater detection tool and very thin slices of vocal information are all that is needed to make certain assessments about others.

  14. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadi

    Full Text Available Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  15. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  16. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis—Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech. PMID:29466455

  17. Mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and secure attachment in relation to the experience of hearing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, James; Eames, Catrin; Mulligan, John; Fisher, Naomi

    2018-03-01

    Developing compassion towards oneself has been linked to improvement in many areas of psychological well-being, including psychosis. Furthermore, developing a non-judgemental, accepting way of relating to voices is associated with lower levels of distress for people who hear voices. These factors have also been associated with secure attachment. This study explores associations between the constructs of mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and distress from hearing voices and how secure attachment style related to each of these variables. Cross-sectional online. One hundred and twenty-eight people (73% female; M age  = 37.5; 87.5% Caucasian) who currently hear voices completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Southampton Mindfulness of Voices Questionnaire, Relationships Questionnaire, and Hamilton Programme for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire. Results showed that mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and severity of voices, and self-compassion mediated the relationship between mindfulness of voices and severity of voices. Self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with distress and severity of voices. Mindful relation to voices and self-compassion are associated with reduced distress and severity of voices, which supports the proposed potential benefits of mindful relating to voices and self-compassion as therapeutic skills for people experiencing distress by voice hearing. Greater self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly associated with less distress from voices. These findings support theory underlining compassionate mind training. Mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and distress from voices, indicating a synergistic relationship between the constructs. Although the current findings do not give a direction of causation, consideration is given to the potential impact of mindful and

  18. Correlation of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI), Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V), and Gender in Brazilians With and Without Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; de Souza, Glaucia S; Hachiya, Adriana; Tsuji, Domingos H

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in Brazilians with or without voice disorders and investigate DSI's correlation with gender and auditory-perceptual evaluation data obtained via the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) protocol. A total of 66 Brazilian adults from both genders participated in the study, including 24 patients with dysphonia confirmed on laryngeal examination (dysphonic group [DG]) and 42 volunteers without voice or hearing complaints and without auditory-perceptual voice disorders (nondysphonic group [NDG]). The vocal tasks included in CAPE-V and DSI were performed and recorded. Data were analyzed by means of the independent t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation at the 5% significance level. Differences were found in the mean DSI values between the DG and the NDG. Differences were also found in all DSI items between the groups, except for the highest frequency parameter. In the DG, a moderate negative correlation was detected between overall dysphonia severity (CAPE-V) and DSI value, and between breathiness and DSI value, and a weak negative correlation was detected between DSI value and roughness. In the NDG, the maximum phonation time was higher among males. In both groups, the highest frequency parameter was higher among females. The DSI discriminated among Brazilians with or without voice disorders. A correlation was found between some aspects of the DSI and the CAPE-V but not between DSI and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salturk, Ziya; Kumral, Tolgar Lutfi; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals compared to non-voice professionals and in both genders. Cross-sectional analysis. Forty-eight 48 voice professionals and 52 non-voice professionals with dysphonia were included in this study. All participants underwent a complete ear, nose, and throat examination and an evaluation for pathologies that might affect vocal quality. Participants were asked to complete the Turkish versions of the Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). HADS scores were evaluated as HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression). Dysphonia status was evaluated by grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale perceptually. The results were compared statistically. Significant differences between the two groups were evident when the VHI-30 and PSS data were compared (P = .00001 and P = .00001, respectively). However, neither HADS score (HADS-A and HADS-D) differed between groups. An analysis of the scores in terms of sex revealed that females had significantly higher PSS scores (P = .006). The GRBAS scale revealed no difference between groups (P = .819, .931, .803, .655, and .803, respectively). No between-sex differences in the VHI-30 or HADS scores were evident We found that voice professionals and females experienced more stress and were more dissatisfied with their voices. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Muted 'voice': The writing of two groups of postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate and account for the weak emergence of 'voice' in the writing of students embarking upon their postgraduate studies in Geosciences. The two elements of 'voice' that are emphasised are 'voice' as style of expression and 'voice' as the ability to write distinctly, yet building upon ...

  1. Voice Quality after Treatment for T1a Glottic Carcinoma - Radiotherapy Versus Laser Cordectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krengli, Marco; Policarpo, Mario; Manfredda, Irene; Aluffi, Paolo; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Panella, Massimiliano; Pia, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic and functional outcomes and compare the voice quality in patients affected by T1a glottic carcinoma treated with curative intent with radiotherapy or laser cordectomy. Fifty-seven cases were analysed: 27 after curative radiotherapy and 30 after laser cordectomy. All patients were studied with videolaryngostroboscopy, voice analysis by narrow spectrogram, and vocal parameters (Jitter, Shimmer, noise/harmonic ratio, and diplophonia). Videolaryngostroboscopy showed severe glottic inadequacy in 25% of cases treated with radiation and insufficient compensation 'ventricular band' or 'with arytenoid hyperadduction' in 65% of cases after surgery. Severe dysphonia on the electro-acoustic analysis of voice was observed in 25% of cases after radiation and 70% after laser (p<0.001). Fundamental frequency and vocal parameters showed more favourable results in the radiation group (p<0.001). Voice assessment showed better results after radiotherapy compared with laser cordectomy. Voice outcome should be carefully considered in the treatment decision for T1 glottic carcinoma

  2. Voice Quality after Treatment for T1a Glottic Carcinoma - Radiotherapy Versus Laser Cordectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, Marco; Policarpo, Mario; Manfredda, Irene; Aluffi, Paolo; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Panella, Massimiliano; Pia, Francesco [Univ. of Piemonte Orientale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Novara (Italy). Div. of Radiotherapy

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic and functional outcomes and compare the voice quality in patients affected by T1a glottic carcinoma treated with curative intent with radiotherapy or laser cordectomy. Fifty-seven cases were analysed: 27 after curative radiotherapy and 30 after laser cordectomy. All patients were studied with videolaryngostroboscopy, voice analysis by narrow spectrogram, and vocal parameters (Jitter, Shimmer, noise/harmonic ratio, and diplophonia). Videolaryngostroboscopy showed severe glottic inadequacy in 25% of cases treated with radiation and insufficient compensation 'ventricular band' or 'with arytenoid hyperadduction' in 65% of cases after surgery. Severe dysphonia on the electro-acoustic analysis of voice was observed in 25% of cases after radiation and 70% after laser (p<0.001). Fundamental frequency and vocal parameters showed more favourable results in the radiation group (p<0.001). Voice assessment showed better results after radiotherapy compared with laser cordectomy. Voice outcome should be carefully considered in the treatment decision for T1 glottic carcinoma.

  3. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    and restrictions, Call for aesthetics an sensuality, Longings for home and parents, Longings for better social relations Making children's voice visible allows preschool teachers to reflect children's knowledge and life word in pedagogical practice. Keywords: empowerment and participation, action research...... children to raise and render visible their own critique and wishes related to their everyday life in daycare. Research on how and why to engage children as participants in research and in institutional developments addresses overall interests in democratization and humanization that can be traced back...... to strategies for Nordic welfare developments and the Conventions on Children's Rights. The theoretical and methodological framework follow the lines of how to form and learn democracy of Lewin (1948) and Dewey (1916). The study is carried out as action research involving 50 children at age three to five...

  4. His Master’s Voice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörbom, Adrienne; Garsten, Christina

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. Many global business leaders today do much more than engage narrowly in their own corporation and its search for profit. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation...... as political. What is the role of business in the World Economic Forum, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? The results show that corporations find a strategically positioned amplifier for their non-market interests in the WEF. The WEF functions to enhance and gain...... leverage for their ideas and priorities in a highly selective and resourceful environment. In the long run, both the market priorities and the political interests of business may be served by engagement in the WEF. However, the WEF cannot only be conceived as the extended voice of corporations. The WEF...

  5. Giving the Customer a Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Hoven, Christopher; Michea, Adela; Varnes, Claus

    , for example there are studies that have strongly criticized focus groups, interviews and surveys (e.g. Ulwick, 2002; Goffin et al, 2010; Sandberg, 2002). In particular, a point is made that, “…traditional market research and development approaches proved to be particularly ill-suited to breakthrough products...... the voice of the customer (VoC) through market research is well documented (Davis, 1993; Mullins and Sutherland, 1998; Cooper et al., 2002; Flint, 2002; Davilla et al., 2006; Cooper and Edgett, 2008; Cooper and Dreher, 2010; Goffin and Mitchell, 2010). However, not all research methods are well received......” (Deszca et al, 2010, p613). Therefore, in situations where traditional techniques - interviews and focus groups - are ineffective, the question is which market research techniques are appropriate, particularly for developing breakthrough products? To investigate this, an attempt was made to access...

  6. Dangertalk: Voices of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  8. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  9. Disability: a voice in Australian bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher

    2003-06-01

    The rise of research and advocacy over the years to establish a disability voice in Australia with regard to bioethical issues is explored. This includes an analysis of some of the political processes and engagement in mainstream bioethical debate. An understanding of the politics of rejected knowledge is vital in understanding the muted disability voices in Australian bioethics and public policy. It is also suggested that the voices of those who are marginalised or oppressed in society, such as people with disability, have particular contribution to make in fostering critical bioethics.

  10. Unfamiliar voice identification: Effect of post-event information on accuracy and voice ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mary Jessica Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the effect of misleading post-event information (PEI on voice ratings, identification accuracy, and confidence, as well as the link between verbal recall and accuracy. Participants listened to a dialogue between male and female targets, then read misleading information about voice pitch. Participants engaged in verbal recall, rated voices on a feature checklist, and made a lineup decision. Accuracy rates were low, especially on target-absent lineups. Confidence and accuracy were unrelated, but the number of facts recalled about the voice predicted later lineup accuracy. There was a main effect of misinformation on ratings of target voice pitch, but there was no effect on identification accuracy or confidence ratings. As voice lineup evidence from earwitnesses is used in courts, the findings have potential applied relevance.

  11. Bringing voice in policy building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Kane, Mary; Zocchi, Mark S; Gosa, Jessica; Lazar, Danielle; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of group concept mapping (GCM) as a tool for developing a conceptual model of an episode of acute, unscheduled care from illness or injury to outcomes such as recovery, death and chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach After generating a literature review drafting an initial conceptual model, GCM software (CS Global MAX TM ) is used to organize and identify strengths and directionality between concepts generated through feedback about the model from several stakeholder groups: acute care and non-acute care providers, patients, payers and policymakers. Through online and in-person population-specific focus groups, the GCM approach seeks feedback, assigned relationships and articulated priorities from participants to produce an output map that described overarching concepts and relationships within and across subsamples. Findings A clustered concept map made up of relational data points that produced a taxonomy of feedback was used to update the model for use in soliciting additional feedback from two technical expert panels (TEPs), and finally, a public comment exercise was performed. The results were a stakeholder-informed improved model for an acute care episode, identified factors that influence process and outcomes, and policy recommendations, which were delivered to the Department of Health and Human Services's (DHHS) Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Practical implications This study provides an example of the value of cross-population multi-stakeholder input to increase voice in shared problem health stakeholder groups. Originality/value This paper provides GCM results and a visual analysis of the relational characteristics both within and across sub-populations involved in the study. It also provides an assessment of observational key factors supporting how different stakeholder voices can be integrated to inform model development and policy recommendations.

  12. Experiment and practice on signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The contents of this book contains basic practice of CEM Tool, discrete time signal and experiment and practice of system, experiment and practice of discrete time signal sampling, practice of frequency analysis, experiment of digital filter design, application of digital signal processing, project related voice, basic principle of signal processing, the technique of basic image signal processing, biology astronomy and Robot soccer with apply of image signal processing technique, control video signal and project related image. It also has an introduction of CEM Linker I. O in the end.

  13. Experiment and practice on signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    The contents of this book contains basic practice of CEM Tool, discrete time signal and experiment and practice of system, experiment and practice of discrete time signal sampling, practice of frequency analysis, experiment of digital filter design, application of digital signal processing, project related voice, basic principle of signal processing, the technique of basic image signal processing, biology astronomy and Robot soccer with apply of image signal processing technique, control video signal and project related image. It also has an introduction of CEM Linker I. O in the end.

  14. [Applicability of Voice Handicap Index to the evaluation of voice therapy effectiveness in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Błoch, Piotr; Domańska, Maja; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the evaluation of effectiveness of functional voice disorders treatment in teachers. The subjects were 45 female teachers with functional dysphonia who evaluated their voice problems according to the subjective VHI scale before and after phoniatric management. Group I (29 patients) were subjected to vocal training, whereas group II (16 patients) received only voice hygiene instructions. The results demonstrated that differences in the mean VHI score before and after phoniatric treatment were significantly higher in group 1 than in group II (p teacher's dysphonia.

  15. Instantaneous and Frequency-Warped Signal Processing Techniques for Auditory Source Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Avery Li-Chun

    This thesis summarizes several contributions to the areas of signal processing and auditory source separation. The philosophy of Frequency-Warped Signal Processing is introduced as a means for separating the AM and FM contributions to the bandwidth of a complex-valued, frequency-varying sinusoid p (n), transforming it into a signal with slowly-varying parameters. This transformation facilitates the removal of p (n) from an additive mixture while minimizing the amount of damage done to other signal components. The average winding rate of a complex-valued phasor is explored as an estimate of the instantaneous frequency. Theorems are provided showing the robustness of this measure. To implement frequency tracking, a Frequency-Locked Loop algorithm is introduced which uses the complex winding error to update its frequency estimate. The input signal is dynamically demodulated and filtered to extract the envelope. This envelope may then be remodulated to reconstruct the target partial, which may be subtracted from the original signal mixture to yield a new, quickly-adapting form of notch filtering. Enhancements to the basic tracker are made which, under certain conditions, attain the Cramer -Rao bound for the instantaneous frequency estimate. To improve tracking, the novel idea of Harmonic -Locked Loop tracking, using N harmonically constrained trackers, is introduced for tracking signals, such as voices and certain musical instruments. The estimated fundamental frequency is computed from a maximum-likelihood weighting of the N tracking estimates, making it highly robust. The result is that harmonic signals, such as voices, can be isolated from complex mixtures in the presence of other spectrally overlapping signals. Additionally, since phase information is preserved, the resynthesized harmonic signals may be removed from the original mixtures with relatively little damage to the residual signal. Finally, a new methodology is given for designing linear-phase FIR filters

  16. Audio-visual identification of place of articulation and voicing in white and babble noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn M; Wang, Yue; Eg, Ragnhild

    2009-07-01

    Research shows that noise and phonetic attributes influence the degree to which auditory and visual modalities are used in audio-visual speech perception (AVSP). Research has, however, mainly focused on white noise and single phonetic attributes, thus neglecting the more common babble noise and possible interactions between phonetic attributes. This study explores whether white and babble noise differentially influence AVSP and whether these differences depend on phonetic attributes. White and babble noise of 0 and -12 dB signal-to-noise ratio were added to congruent and incongruent audio-visual stop consonant-vowel stimuli. The audio (A) and video (V) of incongruent stimuli differed either in place of articulation (POA) or voicing. Responses from 15 young adults show that, compared to white noise, babble resulted in more audio responses for POA stimuli, and fewer for voicing stimuli. Voiced syllables received more audio responses than voiceless syllables. Results can be attributed to discrepancies in the acoustic spectra of both the noise and speech target. Voiced consonants may be more auditorily salient than voiceless consonants which are more spectrally similar to white noise. Visual cues contribute to identification of voicing, but only if the POA is visually salient and auditorily susceptible to the noise type.

  17. Former Auctioneer Finds Voice After Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aphasia Follow us Former Auctioneer Finds Voice After Aphasia Speech impairment changed his life One unremarkable September ... 10 Tips for Communicating with Someone who has Aphasia Talk to them in a quiet, calm, relaxed ...

  18. Voice Based City Panic Button System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriansyah; Zainuddin, Zahir; Bachtiar Nappu, M.

    2018-03-01

    The development of voice activated panic button application aims to design faster early notification of hazardous condition in community to the nearest police by using speech as the detector where the current application still applies touch-combination on screen and use coordination of orders from control center then the early notification still takes longer time. The method used in this research was by using voice recognition as the user voice detection and haversine formula for the comparison of closest distance between the user and the police. This research was equipped with auto sms, which sent notification to the victim’s relatives, that was also integrated with Google Maps application (GMaps) as the map to the victim’s location. The results show that voice registration on the application reaches 100%, incident detection using speech recognition while the application is running is 94.67% in average, and the auto sms to the victim relatives reaches 100%.

  19. A model to explain human voice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Bôas, C. S. N.; Gobara, S. T.

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a device constructed with low-cost material to demonstrate and explain voice production. It also provides a contextualized, interdisciplinary approach to introduce the study of sound waves.

  20. Development of a Voice Activity Controlled Noise Canceller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid Noor, Ali O.; Samad, Salina Abdul; Hussain, Aini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a variable threshold voice activity detector (VAD) is developed to control the operation of a two-sensor adaptive noise canceller (ANC). The VAD prohibits the reference input of the ANC from containing some strength of actual speech signal during adaptation periods. The novelty of this approach resides in using the residual output from the noise canceller to control the decisions made by the VAD. Thresholds of full-band energy and zero-crossing features are adjusted according to the residual output of the adaptive filter. Performance evaluation of the proposed approach is quoted in terms of signal to noise ratio improvements as well mean square error (MSE) convergence of the ANC. The new approach showed an improved noise cancellation performance when tested under several types of environmental noise. Furthermore, the computational power of the adaptive process is reduced since the output of the adaptive filter is efficiently calculated only during non-speech periods. PMID:22778667

  1. Development of a Voice Activity Controlled Noise Canceller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a variable threshold voice activity detector (VAD is developed to control the operation of a two-sensor adaptive noise canceller (ANC. The VAD prohibits the reference input of the ANC from containing some strength of actual speech signal during adaptation periods. The novelty of this approach resides in using the residual output from the noise canceller to control the decisions made by the VAD. Thresholds of full-band energy and zero-crossing features are adjusted according to the residual output of the adaptive filter. Performance evaluation of the proposed approach is quoted in terms of signal to noise ratio improvements as well mean square error (MSE convergence of the ANC. The new approach showed an improved noise cancellation performance when tested under several types of environmental noise. Furthermore, the computational power of the adaptive process is reduced since the output of the adaptive filter is efficiently calculated only during non-speech periods.

  2. Control of automated system with voice commands

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Denis

    2012-01-01

    In smart houses contemporary achievements in the fields of automation, communications, security and artificial intelligence, increase comfort and improve the quality of user's lifes. For the purpose of this thesis we developed a system for managing a smart house with voice commands via smart phone. We focused at voice commands most. We want move from communication with fingers - touches, to a more natural, human relationship - speech. We developed the entire chain of communication, by which t...

  3. Voice disorders in Nigerian primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, R; Lam, K B H; Ayres, J G; Sadhra, S

    2014-07-01

    The prolonged use or abuse of voice may lead to vocal fatigue and vocal fold tissue damage. School teachers routinely use their voices intensively at work and are therefore at a higher risk of dysphonia. To determine the prevalence of voice disorders among primary school teachers in Lagos, Nigeria, and to explore associated risk factors. Teaching and non-teaching staff from 19 public and private primary schools completed a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on personal lifestyles, work experience and environment, and voice disorder symptoms. Dysphonia was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: hoarseness, repetitive throat clearing, tired voice or straining to speak. A total of 341 teaching and 155 non-teaching staff participated. The prevalence of dysphonia in teachers was 42% compared with 18% in non-teaching staff. A significantly higher proportion of the teachers reported that voice symptoms had affected their ability to communicate effectively. School type (public/private) did not predict the presence of dysphonia. Statistically significant associations were found for regular caffeinated drink intake (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-6.62), frequent upper respiratory tract infection (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.39-9.33) and raised voice while teaching (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.07-20.2). Nigerian primary school teachers were at risk for dysphonia. Important environment and personal factors were upper respiratory infection, the need to frequently raise the voice when teaching and regular intake of caffeinated drinks. Dysphonia was not associated with age or years of teaching. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Enhancement and Noise Statistics Estimation for Non-Stationary Voiced Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, single channel speech enhancement in the time domain is considered. We address the problem of modelling non-stationary speech by describing the voiced speech parts by a harmonic linear chirp model instead of using the traditional harmonic model. This means that the speech signal...... through simulations on synthetic and speech signals, that the chirp versions of the filters perform better than their harmonic counterparts in terms of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal reduction factor. For synthetic signals, the output SNR for the harmonic chirp APES based filter...... is increased 3 dB compared to the harmonic APES based filter at an input SNR of 10 dB, and at the same time the signal reduction factor is decreased. For speech signals, the increase is 1.5 dB along with a decrease in the signal reduction factor of 0.7. As an implicit part of the APES filter, a noise...

  5. Voicing Others’ Voices: Spotlighting the Researcher as Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O’SULLIVAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  6. Voicing others’ voices: Spotlighting the researcher as narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O'Sullivan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As qualitative research undertakings are not independent of the researcher, the “indissoluble interrelationship between interpreter and interpretation” (Thomas & James, 2006, p. 782 renders it necessary for researchers to understand that their text is a representation, a version of the truth that is the product of writerly choices, and that it is discursive. Endlessly creative, artistic and political, as there is no single interpretative truth, the interpretative process facilitates the refashioning of representations, the remaking of choices and the probing of discourses. As a consequence of the particularity of any researcher’s account, issues pertaining to researcher identity and authorial stance always remain central to research endeavours (Kamler & Thomson, 2006, p. 68; Denzin & Lincoln 2011, pp. 14-15. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to be reflexive about their analyses and research accounts (Elliott, 2005, p. 152, as reflexivity helps spotlight the role of the researcher as narrator. In turn, spotlighting the researcher as narrator foregrounds a range of complex issues about voice, representation and interpretive authority (Chase, 2005, p. 657; Genishi & Glupczynski, 2006, p. 671; Eisenhart, 2006. In essence, therefore, this paper is reflective of the challenges of “doing” qualitative research in educational settings. Its particular focus-the shaping of beginning primary teachers’ identities, in Ireland, throughout the course of their initial year of occupational experience, post-graduation- endeavours to highlight issues pertaining to the researcher as narrator (O’Sullivan, 2014.

  7. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  8. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  9. Weak lensing Study in VOICE Survey I: Shear Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liping; Liu, Dezi; Radovich, Mario; Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Covone, Giovanni; Vaccari, Mattia; Amaro, Valeria; Brescia, Massimo; Capaccioli, Massimo; De Cicco, Demetra; Grado, Aniello; Limatola, Luca; Miller, Lance; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Pignata, Giuliano

    2018-06-01

    The VST Optical Imaging of the CDFS and ES1 Fields (VOICE) Survey is a Guaranteed Time program carried out with the ESO/VST telescope to provide deep optical imaging over two 4 deg2 patches of the sky centred on the CDFS and ES1 pointings. We present the cosmic shear measurement over the 4 deg2 covering the CDFS region in the r-band using LensFit. Each of the four tiles of 1 deg2 has more than one hundred exposures, of which more than 50 exposures passed a series of image quality selection criteria for weak lensing study. The 5σ limiting magnitude in r- band is 26.1 for point sources, which is ≳1 mag deeper than other weak lensing survey in the literature (e.g. the Kilo Degree Survey, KiDS, at VST). The photometric redshifts are estimated using the VOICE u, g, r, i together with near-infrared VIDEO data Y, J, H, Ks. The mean redshift of the shear catalogue is 0.87, considering the shear weight. The effective galaxy number density is 16.35 gal/arcmin2, which is nearly twice the one of KiDS. The performance of LensFit on such a deep dataset was calibrated using VOICE-like mock image simulations. Furthermore, we have analyzed the reliability of the shear catalogue by calculating the star-galaxy cross-correlations, the tomographic shear correlations of two redshift bins and the contaminations of the blended galaxies. As a further sanity check, we have constrained cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. For a flat ΛCDM model we have obtained Σ _8 = σ _8(Ω _m/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.68^{+0.11}_{-0.15}.

  10. Voice Disorders in Teachers: Clinical, Videolaryngoscopical, and Vocal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Dysphonia is more prevalent in teachers than among the general population. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical, vocal, and videolaryngoscopical aspects in dysphonic teachers. Ninety dysphonic teachers were inquired about their voice, comorbidities, and work conditions. They underwent vocal auditory-perceptual evaluation (maximum phonation time and GRBASI scale), acoustic voice analysis, and videolaryngoscopy. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 90 dysphonic nonteachers, of similar gender and ages, and with professional activities excluding teaching and singing. In both groups, there were 85 women and five men (age range 31-50 years). In the controls, the majority of subjects worked in domestic activities, whereas the majority of teachers worked in primary (42.8%) and secondary school (37.7%). Teachers and controls reported, respectively: vocal abuse (76.7%; 37.8%), weekly hours of work between 21 and 40 years (72.2%; 80%), under 10 years of practice (36%; 23%), absenteeism (23%; 0%), sinonasal (66%; 20%) and gastroesophageal symptoms (44%; 22%), hoarseness (82%; 78%), throat clearing (70%; 62%), and phonatory effort (72%; 52%). In both groups, there were decreased values of maximum phonation time, impairment of the G parameter in the GRBASI scale (82%), decrease of F0 and increase of the rest of acoustic parameters. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant in teachers; laryngopharyngeal reflux, polyps, and sulcus vocalis predominated in the controls. Vocal symptoms, comorbidities, and absenteeism were predominant among teachers. The vocal analyses were similar in both groups. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant among teachers, whereas polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and sulcus were predominant among controls. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What makes a voice masculine: physiological and acoustical correlates of women's ratings of men's vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Bond, Rod; Reby, David

    2014-09-01

    Men's voices contain acoustic cues to body size and hormonal status, which have been found to affect women's ratings of speaker size, masculinity and attractiveness. However, the extent to which these voice parameters mediate the relationship between speakers' fitness-related features and listener's judgments of their masculinity has not yet been investigated. We audio-recorded 37 adult heterosexual males performing a range of speech tasks and asked 20 adult heterosexual female listeners to rate speakers' masculinity on the basis of their voices only. We then used a two-level (speaker within listener) path analysis to examine the relationships between the physiological (testosterone, height), acoustic (fundamental frequency or F0, and resonances or ΔF) and perceptual dimensions (listeners' ratings) of speakers' masculinity. Overall, results revealed that male speakers who were taller and had higher salivary testosterone levels also had lower F0 and ΔF, and were in turn rated as more masculine. The relationship between testosterone and perceived masculinity was essentially mediated by F0, while that of height and perceived masculinity was partially mediated by both F0 and ΔF. These observations confirm that women listeners attend to sexually dimorphic voice cues to assess the masculinity of unseen male speakers. In turn, variation in these voice features correlate with speakers' variation in stature and hormonal status, highlighting the interdependence of these physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Acute effects of inhaling Oud incense on voice of Saudi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesallam, Tamer A; Farahat, Mohamed; Shoeib, Rasha; Alharethy, Sami; Alshahwan, Abdulaziz; Murry, Thomas; Almalkia, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Like in most of the Arab countries, incense burning, including Oud, is widely used in Saudi Arabia. The widespread effects of the Oud incense on voice have not been examined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of Oud incense on laryngeal symptoms and voice acoustics in normal Saudi adults. A prospective study that has been carried out at King Abdulaziz University Hospital between July 2012 and Jan 2014. Study subjects were recruited on a volunteer basis. A total of 72 adults (44.4% males and 55.6 % females), were exposed to Oud incense smoke for 5 minutes while sitting 1 m away from an electrical sensor in a closed room. Symptom and acoustic voice analyses were performed pre-exposure and immediately post-exposure. A total of 27.8% of the subjects reported throat and voice symptoms after 5 minutes of exposure. Some frequency-related acoustic measures increased in male and female subjects after exposure to Oud incense. However, the difference between the pre- and post-exposure measures was not statistically significant. One third of the study subjects reported voice-related symptoms following exposure to Oud incense. Despite the absence of statistical significant difference, some frequency-based acoustic parameters increased following exposure to Oud incense smoke.

  13. High-speed kymography identifies the immediate effects of voiced vibration in healthy vocal folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta, Regina Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of voiced vibration technique can be assessed by laryngeal imaging. Kymographic images derived from high-speed videoendoscopy allow actual visualization of vocal folds vibration. Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the immediate effects of the voiced vibration technique in healthy vocal folds using high-speed digital laryngeal imaging. Methods: Samples were obtained from 15 healthy subjects with no history of voice disorders (6 men and 9 women aged 21 to 43 years. High-speed videoendoscopy recordings were performed before and after the voiced vibration technique. Kymographic images were obtained using high-speed videoendoscopy. The vocal folds were examined in their open and closed positions and the characteristics of the opening and closing phases were determined. A customize computational routine was used quantify these parameters. The closing, opening, and speed quotients were also calculated. Results: In this study, women displayed statistically significant differences in opened phase (P= 0.05*, closed phase (P= 0.046*, and closing phase (P= 0.026* phase characteristics. Men displayed the highest difference rate in opening time characteristics (P= 0.06. The closing and opening quotients for the female group showed significant differences (P= 0.029* and P= 0.049*, respectively. The speed quotient exhibited statistically significant differences in the male group (P= 0.048*. Conclusion: The kymographic images indicated that the immediate effect of the voiced vibration technique was smooth contact in healthy vocal fold vibration.

  14. Comparison of Voice Quality Between Patients Who Underwent Inferior Turbinoplasty or Radiofrequency Cauterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göker, Ayşe Enise; Aydoğdu, İmran; Saltürk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Uyar, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the vocal quality in patients who underwent either submucosal turbinectomy or radiofrequency cauterization. In this study, we enrolled 60 patients diagnosed with inferior concha hypertrophy. These patients were divided into two groups by using computer program "Research Randomizer." Of the 60 patients, 30 underwent submucosal inferior turbinoplasty and 30 underwent radiofrequency cauterization. The control group was composed of 30 healthy adults with no nasal or upper aerodigestive system pathology. The patients were checked at weeks 1, 2, and 4. Voice records were taken before the procedure and at week 4 postprocedure. The mean age of patients in the inferior turbinoplasty group was 29.4 years (range: 19-42 years); in the radiofrequency group, it was 30.30 years (range: 18-50 years). There was no statistical difference in age between groups. In the inferior turbinoplasty group, there were 16 male and 14 female patients, and in the radiofrequency group, there were 13 male and 17 female patients. There was no significant difference in the number of males and females between groups. Voice professionals, especially singers, actors, and actresses, should be informed about possible voice changes before undergoing endonasal surgery because these individuals are more sensitive to changes in resonance organs. We believe that voice quality should be regarded as a highly important parameter when measuring the success of endonasal surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of voice-use profiles between elementary classroom and music teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P

    2011-05-01

    Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their voices at high intensities and durations in the course of their workday, voice-use profiles concerning the amount and intensity of vocal use and vocal load have neither been quantified nor has vocal load for music teachers been compared with classroom teachers using these same voice-use parameters. In this study, total phonation time, fundamental frequency (F₀), and vocal intensity (dB SPL [sound pressure level]) were measured or estimated directly using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Vocal load was calculated as cycle and distance dose, as defined by Švec et al (2003), which integrates total phonation time, F₀, and vocal intensity. Twelve participants (n = 7 elementary music teachers and n = 5 elementary classroom teachers) were monitored during five full teaching days of one workweek to determine average vocal load for these two groups of teachers. Statistically significant differences in all measures were found between the two groups (P vocal loads for music teachers are substantially higher than those experienced by classroom teachers (P vocal load may have immediate clinical and educational benefits in vocal health in music teachers. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of failure of voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Torn, M.; van Gogh, C.D.L.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the cause of failing voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis (SPVP). METHODS: The functioning of a prototype SPVP is described in a female laryngectomee before and after its sound-producing mechanism was impeded by tracheal phlegm. This assessment included:

  17. Phonomicrosurgery in Vocal Fold Nodules: Quantification of Outcomes in Professional and Non-Professional Voice Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Salmen, Tatjana; Ermakova, Tatiana; Forbes, Eleanor; Ko, Seo-Rin; Song, Wen; Gross, Manfred; Nawka, Tadeus

    2017-12-01

    There are few data demonstrating the specific extent to which surgical intervention for vocal fold nodules (VFN) improves vocal function in professional (PVU) and non-professional voice users (NVU). The objective of this study was to compare and quantify results after phonomicrosurgery for VFN in these patient groups. In a prospective clinical study, surgery was performed via microlaryngoscopy in 37 female patients with chronic VFN manifestations (38±12 yrs, mean±SD). Pre- and postoperative evaluations of treatment efficacy comprised videolaryngostroboscopy, auditory-perceptual voice assessment, voice range profile (VRP), acoustic-aerodynamic analysis, and voice handicap index (VHI-9i). The dysphonia severity index (DSI) was compared with the vocal extent measure (VEM). PVU (n=24) and NVU (n=13) showed comparable laryngeal findings and levels of suffering (VHI-9i 16±7 vs 17±8), but PVU had a better pretherapeutic vocal range (26.8±7.4 vs 17.7±5.1 semitones, p<0.001) and vocal capacity (VEM 106±18 vs 74±29, p<0.01). Three months postoperatively, all patients had straight vocal fold edges, complete glottal closure, and recovered mucosal wave propagation. The mean VHI-9i score decreased by 8±6 points. DSI increased from 4.0±2.4 to 5.5±2.4, and VEM from 95±27 to 108±23 (p<0.001). Both parameters correlated significantly (rs=0.82). The average vocal range increased by 4.1±5.3 semitones, and the mean speaking pitch lowered by 0.5±1.4 semitones. These results confirm that phonomicrosurgery for VFN is a safe therapy for voice improvement in both PVU and NVU who do not respond to voice therapy alone. Top-level artistic capabilities in PVU were restored, but numeric changes of most vocal parameters were considerably larger in NVU.

  18. Interactive Augmentation of Voice Quality and Reduction of Breath Airflow in the Soprano Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Martin; Schutte, Harm K

    2016-11-01

    In 1985, at a conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Martin Rothenberg first described a form of nonlinear source-tract acoustic interaction mechanism by which some sopranos, singing in their high range, can use to reduce the total airflow, to allow holding the note longer, and simultaneously enrich the quality of the voice, without straining the voice. (M. Rothenberg, "Source-Tract Acoustic Interaction in the Soprano Voice and Implications for Vocal Efficiency," Fourth International Conference on Vocal Fold Physiology, New Haven, Connecticut, June 3-6, 1985.) In this paper, we describe additional evidence for this type of nonlinear source-tract interaction in some soprano singing and describe an analogous interaction phenomenon in communication engineering. We also present some implications for voice research and pedagogy. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of a ×4 subharmonic sub-millimeter wave diode mixer, based on an analytic expression for small-signal conversion admittance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Instead of using frequency multipliers before a fundamental mixer, subharmonic mixers can be used. In order to develop novel subharmonic mixer architectures it is necessary to know the exact signal phase at the nonlinear element. The purpose of this paper is to generalize the description of the s....... With an RF frequency of 640 GHz, this design achieves a conversion gain of −13.5 dB with a LO-power of only −2.5 dBm....

  20. Presidential, But Not Prime Minister, Candidates With Lower Pitched Voices Stand a Better Chance of Winning the Election in Conservative Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Benjamin; Laustsen, Lasse; Banai, Irena Pavela; Bovan, Kosta

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts. In light of these findings, this study investigates whether country-level ideology influences the relationship between candidate voice pitch and electoral outcomes of real elections. Specifically, we collected voice pitch data for presidential and prime minister candidates, aggregate national ideology for the countries in which the candidates were nominated, and measures of electoral outcomes for 69 elections held across the world. In line with previous studies, we found that candidates with lower pitched voices received more votes and had greater likelihood of winning the elections. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed an interaction between candidate voice pitch, national ideology, and election type (presidential or parliamentary). That is, having a lower pitched voice was a particularly valuable asset for presidential candidates in conservative and right-leaning countries (in comparison to presidential candidates in liberal and left-leaning countries and parliamentary elections). We discuss the practical implications of these findings, and how they relate to existing research on candidates' voices, voting preferences, and democratic elections in general.

  1. Indirect vs Direct Voice Therapy for Children With Vocal Nodules: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnick, Christopher; Ballif, Catherine; De Guzman, Vanessa; Sataloff, Robert; Campisi, Paolo; Kerschner, Joseph; Shembel, Adrianna; Reda, Domenic; Shi, Helen; Sheryka Zacny, Elinore; Bunting, Glenn

    2018-02-01

    Benign vocal fold nodules affect 12% to 22% of the pediatric population, and 95% of otolaryngologists recommend voice therapy as treatment. However, no randomized clinical trials that we are aware of have shown its benefits. To determine the impact of voice therapy in children with vocal fold nodules according to pretherapy and posttherapy scores on the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life (PVRQOL) survey; secondary objectives included changes in phonatory parameters. For this multicenter randomized clinical trial, 114 children ages 6 to 10 years with vocal fold nodules, PVRQOL scores less than 87.5, and dysphonia for longer than 12 weeks were recruited from outpatient voice and speech clinics. This age range was identified because these patients have not experienced pubertal changes of the larynx, tolerate stroboscopy, and cooperate with voice therapy. Participants were blinded to treatment arm. Participants received either indirect or direct therapy for 8 to 12 weeks. Indirect therapy focused on education and discussion of voice principles, while direct treatment used the stimulus, response, antecedent paradigm. The primary outcome measure was PVRQOL score change before and after treatment. Secondary phonatory measures were also compared. Overall, 114 children were recruited for study (mean [SD] age, 8 [1.4] years; 83 males [73%]); with 57 randomized to receive either indirect or direct therapy. Both direct and indirect therapy approaches showed significant differences in PVRQOL scores pretherapy to posttherapy. The mean increase in PVRQOL score for direct therapy was 19.2, and 14.7 for indirect therapy (difference, 4.5; 95.3% CI, -10.8 to 19.8). Of 44 participants in the direct therapy group, 27 (61%) achieved a clinically meaningful PVRQOL improvement, compared with 26 of 49 (53%) for indirect therapy (difference, 8%; 95% CI, -12 to 28). Post hoc stratification showed robust effects in the direct therapy group for older children (Cohen d = 0.50) and the

  2. Efficient voice activity detection in reverberant enclosures using far field microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm suitable for voice activity detection under reverberant conditions is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of far-filed microphones the proposed solution processes speech signals of highly-varying intensity and signal to noise ratio, that are contaminated with several echoes....... The core of the system is a pair of Hidden Markov Models, that effectively model the speech presence and speech absence situations. To minimise mis-detections an adaptive threshold is used, while a hang-over scheme caters for the intra-frame correlation of speech signals. Experimental results conducted...

  3. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...

  4. Probing echoic memory with different voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, D J; Bastian, J

    1977-05-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that some acoustical properties of spoken items are preserved in an "echoic" memory for approximately 2 sec. However, some of this evidence has also shown that changing the voice speaking the stimulus items has a disruptive effect on memory which persists longer than that of other acoustical variables. The present experiment examined the effect of voice changes on response bias as well as on accuracy in a recognition memory task. The task involved judging recognition probes as being present in or absent from sets of dichotically presented digits. Recognition of probes spoken in the same voice as that of the dichotic items was more accurate than recognition of different-voice probes at each of three retention intervals of up to 4 sec. Different-voice probes increased the likelihood of "absent" responses, but only up to a 1.4-sec delay. These shifts in response bias may represent a property of echoic memory which should be investigated further.

  5. Classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aid using multiple classifier fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayarani Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speech production and speech phonetic features gradually improve in children by obtaining audio feedback after cochlear implantation or using hearing aids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate automated classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aids. Methods We considered 4 disorder categories in children's voice using the following definitions: Level_1: Children who produce spontaneous phonation and use words spontaneously and imitatively. Level_2: Children, who produce spontaneous phonation, use words spontaneously and make short sentences imitatively. Level_3: Children, who produce spontaneous phonations, use words and arbitrary sentences spontaneously. Level_4: Normal children without any hearing loss background. Thirty Persian children participated in the study, including six children in each level from one to three and 12 children in level four. Voice samples of five isolated Persian words "mashin", "mar", "moosh", "gav" and "mouz" were analyzed. Four levels of the voice quality were considered, the higher the level the less significant the speech disorder. "Frame-based" and "word-based" features were extracted from voice signals. The frame-based features include intensity, fundamental frequency, formants, nasality and approximate entropy and word-based features include phase space features and wavelet coefficients. For frame-based features, hidden Markov models were used as classifiers and for word-based features, neural network was used. Results After Classifiers fusion with three methods: Majority Voting Rule, Linear Combination and Stacked fusion, the best classification rates were obtained using frame-based and word-based features with MVR rule (level 1:100%, level 2: 93.75%, level 3: 100%, level 4: 94%. Conclusions Result of this study may help speech pathologists follow up voice disorder recovery in children with cochlear implantation or hearing aid who are

  6. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8-14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs' skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs' performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis.

  7. Similar representations of emotions across faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Lisa Katharina; Wydell, Taeko; Lavan, Nadine; McGettigan, Carolyn; Garrido, Lúcia

    2017-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 17(6) of Emotion (see record 2017-18585-001). In the article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is below. All versions of this article have been corrected. "This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s). Author(s) grant(s) the American Psychological Association the exclusive right to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher."] Emotions are a vital component of social communication, carried across a range of modalities and via different perceptual signals such as specific muscle contractions in the face and in the upper respiratory system. Previous studies have found that emotion recognition impairments after brain damage depend on the modality of presentation: recognition from faces may be impaired whereas recognition from voices remains preserved, and vice versa. On the other hand, there is also evidence for shared neural activation during emotion processing in both modalities. In a behavioral study, we investigated whether there are shared representations in the recognition of emotions from faces and voices. We used a within-subjects design in which participants rated the intensity of facial expressions and nonverbal vocalizations for each of the 6 basic emotion labels. For each participant and each modality, we then computed a representation matrix with the intensity ratings of each emotion. These matrices allowed us to examine the patterns of confusions between emotions and to characterize the representations

  8. Voice disorders in the workplace: productivity in spasmodic dysphonia and the impact of botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tanya K; Hu, Amanda; Hillel, Allen D

    2013-11-01

    treatment of SD, and 72 patients were currently working and had undergone BTX therapy for at least 1 year at the time of the analysis. Currently employed patients reported a mean 4.4% decrease in work missed (absenteeism), a 28.1% decrease in work impairment (presenteeism), a 29.4% decrease in work productivity, and a 21.4% decrease in activity impairment (P best, as compared to their worst voicing period over their last BTX injection cycle. Presenteeism accounted for the major component of the percent work productivity impairment calculation. There was neither apparent shift in job categories nor any change in the vocal demands of their employment over the course of their disease. Among patients that have worked during their diagnosis of SD, greater than 98% report that BTX injections helped them at work. Patients with SD reported that their vocal dysfunction caused a significant negative effect on work productivity and increase in activity impairment. There was a significant improvement in their voice-related work parameters from their worst to best voicing periods over their last BTX injection cycle. Patients undergoing long-term BTX treatment report a positive effect of this treatment in their workplace. Spasmodic dysphonia is a meaningful model in which to study the effects of voice disorders on work productivity and employment patterns. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Teachers’ voice use in teaching environment. Aspects on speakers’ comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    use and prevalence of voice problems in teachers and to explore their ratings of vocally loading aspects of their working environment. Method: A questionnaire-survey in 467 teachers aiming to explore the prevalence of voice problems in teaching staff identified teachers with voice problems and vocally...... in the teaching environment and aspects of the classroom environment were also measured. Results: Teachers with voice problems were more affected by any loading factor in the work-environment and were more perceptive of the room acoustics. Differences between the groups were found during field......-measurements of the voice, while there were no differences in the findings from the clinical examinations of larynx and voice. Conclusion: Teachers suffering from voice problems react stronger to loading factors in the teaching environment. It is in the interplay between the individual and the work environment that voice...

  10. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  11. Automatic determination of pathological voice transformation coefficients for TDPDOLA using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgacem, H.; Cherif, A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in vocal transformation with TD-PSOLA technique is the selection of modified parameters that will make a successful speech resynthesis. The best selection methods are by using human ratters. This study focuses on automatic determination of the pathological voice transformation coefficients using an Artificial Neural Network this way by comparing the results to the previous manual work. Four characterizied parameters (RATA-PLP, Jitter, Shimmer and RAP) were chosen. The system is developed with supervised training, consists of recognition (neural network) for synthesis (TD-PSOLA). The experimental results show that the parameter sets selected by the proposed system can be successfully used to resynthesize and demonstrating that our system can assist in vocal of pathological voice's transformation.

  12. Voice and Video Telephony Services in Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia telephony is a delay-sensitive application. Packet losses, relatively less critical than delay, are allowed up to a certain threshold. They represent the QoS constraints that have to be respected to guarantee the operation of the telephony service and user satisfaction. In this work we introduce a new smartphone architecture characterized by two process levels called application processor (AP and mobile termination (MT, respectively. Here, they communicate through a serial channel. Moreover, we focus our attention on two very important UMTS services: voice and video telephony. Through a simulation study the impact of voice and video telephony is evaluated on the structure considered using the protocols known at this moment to realize voice and video telephony

  13. Voice-activated intelligent radiologic image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a computer-based expert computer system called Mammo-Icon, which automatically assists the radiologist's case analysis by reviewing the trigger phrase output of a commercially available voice transcription system in he domain of mammography. A commercially available PC-based voice dictation system is coupled to an expert system implemented on a microcomputer. Software employs the LISP and C computer languages. Mammo-Icon responds to the trigger phrase output of a voice dictation system with a textual discussion of the potential significance of the findings that have been described and a display of reference images that may help the radiologist to confirm a suspected diagnosis or consider additional diagnoses. This results in automatic availability of potentially useful computer-based expert advice, making such systems much more likely to be used in routine clinical practice

  14. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  15. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Gaulin, Steven J. C.; Puts, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F 0) in men’s voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fert...

  16. A Voice Processing Technology for Rural Specific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhao, Chunshen

    Durian the promotion and applications of rural information, different geographical dialect voice interaction is a very complex issue. Through in-depth analysis of TTS core technologies, this paper presents the methods of intelligent segmentation, word segmentation algorithm and intelligent voice thesaurus construction in the different dialects context. And then COM based development methodology for specific context voice processing system implementation and programming method. The method has a certain reference value for the rural dialect and voice processing applications.

  17. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients ...

  18. Influence of Smartphones and Software on Acoustic Voice Measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth U. Grillo; Jenna N. Brosious; Staci L. Sorrell; Supraja Anand

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the within-subject variability of voice measures captured using different recording devices (i.e., smartphones and head mounted microphone) and software programs (i.e., Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV), Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP), and Praat).  Correlations between the software programs that calculated the voice measures were also analyzed.  Results demonstrated no significant within-subject variability across devices and software and that some o...

  19. Measuring hepatic functional reserve using T1 mapping of Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced 3T MR imaging: A preliminary study comparing with 99mTc GSA scintigraphy and signal intensity based parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masataka; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Kie; Morita, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Fumi; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    To determine the utility of liver T1-mapping on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the measurement of liver functional reserve compared with the signal intensity (SI) based parameters, technetium-99m-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) scintigraphy and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance. This retrospective study included 111 patients (Child-Pugh-A 90; -B 21) performed with both Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced liver MR imaging and 99m Tc-GSA (76 patients with ICG). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare diagnostic performances of T1-relaxation-time parameters [pre-(T1pre) and post-contrast (T1hb) Gd-EOB-DTPA], SI based parameters [relative enhancement (RE), liver-to-muscle-ratio (LMR), liver-to-spleen-ratio (LSR)] and 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy blood clearance index (HH15)] for Child-Pugh classification. Pearson's correlation was used for comparisons among T1-relaxation-time parameters, SI-based parameters, HH15 and ICG. A significant difference was obtained for Child-Pugh classification with T1hb, ΔT1, all SI based parameters and HH15. T1hb had the highest AUC followed by RE, LMR, LSR, ΔT1, HH15 and T1pre. The correlation coefficients with HH15 were T1pre 0.22, T1hb 0.53, ΔT1 -0.38 of T1 relaxation parameters; RE -0.44, LMR -0.45, LSR -0.43 of SI-based parameters. T1hb was highest for correlation with HH15. The correlation coefficients with ICG were T1pre 0.29, T1hb 0.64, ΔT1 -0.42 of T1 relaxation parameters; RE -0.50, LMR -0.61, LSR -0.58 of SI-based parameters; 0.64 of HH15. Both T1hb and HH15 were highest for correlation with ICG. T1 relaxation time at post-contrast of Gd-EOB-DTPA (T1hb) was strongly correlated with ICG clearance and moderately correlated HH15 with 99m Tc-GSA. T1hb has the potential to provide robust parameter of liver functional reserve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of probe design parameters on ECT signal and development of eddy current probe for irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwank, S. W.; Han, Y. K.; Woo, S. K.; Kim, T. W.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, B. J.; Park, J. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Eddy current test(ECT) is used to inspect not only the failed fuel rods but also peripheral rods during repairing of the failed fuel rods, to detect internal defects in irradiated fuel rods which could not be detected by ultrasonic test and visual test, and to obtain the data for determining the root cause of fuel rod failure. This study evaluates the effect of properties of test article, irradiated fuel rods, on the impedance diagram in order to reduce the difficulty of ECT signal analysis. The optimum eddy current probe design conditions for inspecting the irradiated fuel rods, is estimate by using experimental equations and the probe is manufactured based on the estimated conditions. The performance of developed eddy current probe and the optimum conditions is proved through characteristic comparison experiment with the probe purchased from the foreign vendor

  1. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  2. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  3. The Influence of Sleep Disorders on Voice Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Behlau, Mara

    2017-09-19

    To verify the influence of sleep quality on the voice. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an online or printed survey divided in three parts: (1) demographic data and vocal health aspects; (2) self-assessment of sleep and vocal quality, and the influence that sleep has on voice; and (3) sleep and voice self-assessment inventories-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Voice Handicap Index reduced version (VHI-10). A total of 862 people were included (493 women, 369 men), with a mean age of 32 years old (maximum age of 79 and minimum age of 18 years old). The perception of the influence that sleep has on voice showed a difference (P influence a voice handicap are vocal self-assessment, ESS total score, and self-assessment of the influence that sleep has on voice. The absence of daytime sleepiness is a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] > 1) against perceived voice handicap; the presence of daytime sleepiness is a damaging factor (OR influences voice. Perceived poor sleep quality is related to perceived poor vocal quality. Individuals with a voice handicap observe a greater influence of sleep on voice than those without. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Singers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R.; Ravi, Rohit; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Singers are vocal athletes having specific demands from their voice and require special consideration during voice evaluation. Presently, there is a lack of standards for acoustic evaluation in them. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available literature on the acoustic analysis of voice in singers. Method: A…

  5. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.

  6. The Voice Pump: an Affectively Engaging Interface for Changing Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Jacobsen, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results from an ongoing interaction design experiment, the Voice Pump. The Voice Pump is an affectively engaging air-based interface for attuning to the differential qualities of voices in order to change attachments between native Danish speakers and non-native...

  7. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  8. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; de Jong, F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being.

  9. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  10. Voice Over Internet Protocol Testbed Design for Non-Intrusive, Objective Voice Quality Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manka, David L

    2007-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an emerging technology with the potential to assist the United States Marine Corps in solving communication challenges stemming from modern operational concepts...

  11. SIP Signaling Implementations and Performance Enhancement over MANET: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alshamrani, M; Cruickshank, Haitham; Sun, Zhili; Ansa, G; Alshahwan, F

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and multimedia over MANET is still a challenging issue. Many routing factors affect the performance of SIP signaling and the voice Quality of Service (QoS). Node mobility in MANET causes dynamic changes to route calculations, topology, hop numbers, and the connectivity status between the correspondent nodes. SIP-based VoIP depends on the caller’s registration, call initiation, and call termin...

  12. Adverse effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hwan; Kang, Hye-Min; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Wang, Minghua; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a concerning environmental pollutant that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in the aquatic food web. However, the effects of MeHg on marine zooplankton are poorly understood even though zooplankton are considered key mediators of the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MeHg in high-trophic marine organisms. Here, the toxicity of MeHg in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus was assessed, and its adverse effects on growth rate and reproduction were demonstrated. Antioxidant enzymatic activities were increased in the presence of MeHg, indicating that these enzymes play an important role in the defense response to MeHg, which is regulated by a complex mechanism. Subsequent activation of different patterns of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was demonstrated, providing a mechanistic approach to understand the signaling pathways involved in the effects of MeHg. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the toxicity of MeHg and the underlying defense mechanism in response to MeHg exposure in marine zooplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time monitoring and massive inversion of source parameters of very long period seismic signals: An application to Stromboli Volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, E.; D'Auria, L.; Martini, M.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive processing tool for the real-time analysis of the source mechanism of very long period (VLP) seismic data based on waveform inversions performed in the frequency domain for a point source. A search for the source providing the best-fitting solution is conducted over a three-dimensional grid of assumed source locations, in which the Green's functions associated with each point source are calculated by finite differences using the reciprocal relation between source and receiver. Tests performed on 62 nodes of a Linux cluster indicate that the waveform inversion and search for the best-fitting signal over 100,000 point sources require roughly 30 s of processing time for a 2-min-long record. The procedure is applied to post-processing of a data archive and to continuous automatic inversion of real-time data at Stromboli, providing insights into different modes of degassing at this volcano. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  15. Epidemiology of Voice Disorders in Latvian School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinite, Baiba

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of voice disorders in the teacher population in Latvia has not been studied so far and this is the first epidemiological study whose goal is to investigate the prevalence of voice disorders and their risk factors in this professional group. A wide cross-sectional study using stratified sampling methodology was implemented in the general education schools of Latvia. The self-administered voice risk factor questionnaire and the Voice Handicap Index were completed by 522 teachers. Two teachers groups were formed: the voice disorders group which included 235 teachers with actual voice problems or problems during the last 9 months; and the control group which included 174 teachers without voice disorders. Sixty-six percent of teachers gave a positive answer to the following question: Have you ever had problems with your voice? Voice problems are more often found in female than male teachers (68.2% vs 48.8%). Music teachers suffer from voice disorders more often than teachers of other subjects. Eighty-two percent of teachers first faced voice problems in their professional carrier. The odds of voice disorders increase if the following risk factors exist: extra vocal load, shouting, throat clearing, neglecting of personal health, background noise, chronic illnesses of the upper respiratory tract, allergy, job dissatisfaction, and regular stress in the working place. The study findings indicated a high risk of voice disorders among Latvian teachers. The study confirmed data concerning the multifactorial etiology of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Engaging retailers: giving them voice or controlling their voice, a supplier's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Keith; Jackson, Jacqui; Hopkinson, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    This full paper from the Marketing and Retail track of BAM 2013 investigates the relationships between suppliers and retailers in the UK convenience store sector in terms of Hirschman's model whereby members of a group can influence it by either expressing their opinions (voice) or leaving it in protest (exit). Suppliers may create loyalty among retailers by raising exit costs and/or allowing them to express their voices. The investigation was carried out using the recorded turnover of the to...

  17. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  18. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M.; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Method: Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks…

  19. Student Voice Initiative: Exploring Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Blaine G.

    2017-01-01

    Student voice is the process of allowing students to work collaboratively with adults to produce a learning culture that is conducive for optimum growth in every student. In a traditional setting, the adults make the decisions and the students are passive observers in the learning process. Data has shown that this traditional culture is not…

  20. Developing Student Voices on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Eliza T.

    1997-01-01

    Books and online discussion groups encourage youth to develop strong narrative voices. Includes an annotated bibliography of books and Internet sites dealing with discovering the self and others; exploring race, culture, archeology, technology, war, poverty, gender and urban problems; creating and critiquing stories; and publishing industry…

  1. Web life: Voices of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Voices of the Manhattan Project was launched in October 2012 with the aim of preserving the memories and experiences of scientists and other workers who participated in the US-led effort to build an atomic bomb during the Second World War.

  2. Ventriloquising the Voice: Writing in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I consider one aspect of how student writing is supported in the university. I focus on the use of the "writing frame", questioning its status as a vehicle for facilitating student voice, and in the process questioning how that notion is itself understood. I illustrate this by using examples from the story of the 1944 Hollywood film…

  3. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran R.; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S.; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia. PMID:25349193

  4. Cerebral signal intensity abnormalities on T2-weighted MR images in HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy: relationship with clinical parameters and interval changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Uta; Husstedt, Ingo W; Niederstadt, Thomas-Ulrich; Evers, Stefan; Heindel, Walter; Kloska, Stephan P

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between immune state and cerebral signal intensity abnormalities (SIAs) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thirty-two subjects underwent a total of 109 magnetic resonance studies. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorder, categorized CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, and plasma viral load were assessed for relationship with the severity and interval change of SIAs for different anatomic locations of the brain. Subjects with multifocal patterns of SIAs had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 66.0%, whereas subjects with diffuse patterns of SIAs had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in only 31.4% (P < .001). Subjects without SIAs in the basal ganglia had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 37.0%, whereas subjects with minor and moderate SIAs in the basal ganglia had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 78.3% and 80.0%, respectively (P < .005). The percentage of subjects with CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL was 85.7% when there were progressive periventricular SIA changes and 45.5% when periventricular SIA changes were stable in follow-up (P < .05). The presence and progression of cerebral SIAs on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images reflecting cerebral infection with human immunodeficiency virus are significantly related to impaired immune state as measured by CD4(+) cell count. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  6. Perceiving a stranger's voice as being one's own: a 'rubber voice' illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane Z Zheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0 of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.

  7. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproducibility of Automated Voice Range Profiles, a Systematic Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following......Objective: Reliable voice range profiles are of great importance when measuring effects and side effects from surgery affecting voice capacity. Automated recording systems are increasingly used, but the reproducibility of results is uncertain. Our objective was to identify and review the existing...... keywords were used: phonetogram, voice range profile, and acoustic voice analysis. Inclusion criteria were automated recording procedure, healthy voices, and no intervention between test and retest. Test-retest values concerning fundamental frequency and voice intensity were reviewed. Results: Of 483...

  9. Alexa, Siri, Cortana, and More: An Introduction to Voice Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2018-01-01

    Voice assistants are software agents that can interpret human speech and respond via synthesized voices. Apple's Siri, Amazon's Alexa, Microsoft's Cortana, and Google's Assistant are the most popular voice assistants and are embedded in smartphones or dedicated home speakers. Users can ask their assistants questions, control home automation devices and media playback via voice, and manage other basic tasks such as email, to-do lists, and calendars with verbal commands. This column will explore the basic workings and common features of today's voice assistants. It will also discuss some of the privacy and security issues inherent to voice assistants and some potential future uses for these devices. As voice assistants become more widely used, librarians will want to be familiar with their operation and perhaps consider them as a means to deliver library services and materials.

  10. Designing a Voice Controlled Interface For Radio : Guidelines for The First Generation of Voice Controlled Public Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Päärni, Anna

    2017-01-01

    From being a fictional element in sci-fi, voice control has become a reality, with inventions such as Apple's Siri, and interactive voice response (IVR) when calling your doctor's office. The combination of radio’s strength as a hands-free medium, public radio’s mission to reach across all platforms and the rise of voice makes up a relevant intersection; voice controlled public radio in Sweden. This thesis has aimed to investigate how radio listeners wish to interact using voice control to li...

  11. Acoustic markers to differentiate gender in prepubescent children's speaking and singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Muñoz, Daniel; Vivero, Martin; Marín, Natalia; Ramírez, Mirta; Rivera, María Trinidad; Vidal, Carla; Gerhard, Julia; González, Catalina

    2014-10-01

    Investigation sought to determine whether there is any acoustic variable to objectively differentiate gender in children with normal voices. A total of 30 children, 15 boys and 15 girls, with perceptually normal voices were examined. They were between 7 and 10 years old (mean: 8.1, SD: 0.7 years). Subjects were required to perform the following phonatory tasks: (1) to phonate sustained vowels [a:], [i:], [u:], (2) to read a phonetically balanced text, and (3) to sing a song. Acoustic analysis included long-term average spectrum (LTAS), fundamental frequency (F0), speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), equivalent continuous sound level (Leq), linear predictive code (LPC) to obtain formant frequencies, perturbation measures, harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), and Cepstral peak prominence (CPP). Auditory perceptual analysis was performed by four blinded judges to determine gender. No significant gender-related differences were found for most acoustic variables. Perceptual assessment showed good intra and inter rater reliability for gender. Cepstrum for [a:], alpha ratio in text, shimmer for [i:], F3 in [a:], and F3 in [i:], were the parameters that composed the multivariate logistic regression model to best differentiate male and female children's voices. Since perceptual assessment reliably detected gender, it is likely that other acoustic markers (not evaluated in the present study) are able to make clearer gender differences. For example, gender-specific patterns of intonation may be a more accurate feature for differentiating gender in children's voices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The combined treatment of dysphonia in the subjects engaged in the voice and speech professions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Yu E; Gotovyakhina, T V; Korneenkov, A A; Koren', E E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of homeovox for the combined treatment of small vocal cord nodules and acute laryngitis in the professional voice users. A total of 40 subjects presenting with dysphonia were examined after they were divided into two study groups and two groups of comparison depending on the nosological form of the pathological condition. The subjects comprising the study groups were given traditional therapy in the combination with the intake of homeovox whereas the patients included in the two groups of comparison received the traditional treatment alone. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated on days 1, 5, and 10 after the initiation of therapy based on the analysis of the changes in the videoendostroboscopic picture of the larynx and the acoustic characteristics obtained by the computer-assisted analysis of the voice. The analysis of the results of the combined treatment has demonstrated the statistically significant differences in some acoustic parameters of the voice between the subjects with small vocal cord nodules and acute laryngitis belonging to the study groups and the groups of comparison. It is concluded that the introduction of homeovox in the combined treatment of the patients presenting with the small nodules in the vocal cords and acute catarrhal laryngitis accelerates the recovery of the acoustic characteristics of the voice within various periods after the onset of the treatment in comparison with the patients treated with the use of traditional therapy alone.

  13. Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    In this paper, we evaluate available steganographic techniques for SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) that can be used for creating covert channels during signaling phase of VoIP (Voice over IP) call. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by introducing new techniques. We also estimate amount of data that can be transferred in signalling messages for typical IP telephony call.

  14. FonaDyn - A system for real-time analysis of the electroglottogram, over the voice range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternström, Sten; Johansson, Dennis; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    From soft to loud and low to high, the mechanisms of human voice have many degrees of freedom, making it difficult to assess phonation from the acoustic signal alone. FonaDyn is a research tool that combines acoustics with electroglottography (EGG). It characterizes and visualizes in real time the dynamics of EGG waveforms, using statistical clustering of the cycle-synchronous EGG Fourier components, and their sample entropy. The prevalence and stability of different EGG waveshapes are mapped as colored regions into a so-called voice range profile, without needing pre-defined thresholds or categories. With appropriately 'trained' clusters, FonaDyn can classify and map voice regimes. This is of potential scientific, clinical and pedagogical interest.

  15. Clinical Features of Psychogenic Voice Disorder and the Efficiency of Voice Therapy and Psychological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Gökmen, Muhammed Fatih; Yıldırım, Sibel; Dursun, Gürsel

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this study was to define the clinical features of psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and explore the treatment efficiency of voice therapy and psychological evaluation. Fifty-eight patients who received treatment following the PVD diagnosis and had no organic or other functional voice disorders were assessed retrospectively based on laryngoscopic examinations and subjective and objective assessments. Epidemiological characteristics, accompanying organic and psychological disorders, preferred methods of treatment, and previous treatment outcomes were examined for each patient. A comparison was made based on voice disorders and responses to treatment between patients who received psychotherapy and patients who did not. Participants in this study comprised 58 patients, 10 male and 48 female. Voice therapy was applied in all patients, 54 (93.1%) of whom had improvement in their voice. Although all patients were advised to undergo psychological assessment, only 60.3% (35/58) of them underwent psychological assessment. No statistically significant difference was found between patients who did receive psychological support concerning their treatment responses and patients who did not. Relapse occurred in 14.7% (5/34) of the patients who applied for psychological assessment and in 50% (10/20) of those who did not. There was a statistically significant difference in relapse rates, which was higher among patients who did not receive psychological support (P therapy is an efficient treatment method for PVD. However, in the long-term follow-up, relapse of the disease is observed to be higher among patients who failed to follow up on the recommendation for psychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Voice-to-Phoneme Conversion Algorithms for Voice-Tag Applications in Embedded Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ming Cheng

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two voice-to-phoneme conversion algorithms for speaker-independent voice-tag creation specifically targeted at applications on embedded platforms. These algorithms (batch mode and sequential are compared in speech recognition experiments where they are first applied in a same-language context in which both acoustic model training and voice-tag creation and application are performed on the same language. Then, their performance is tested in a cross-language setting where the acoustic models are trained on a particular source language while the voice-tags are created and applied on a different target language. In the same-language environment, both algorithms either perform comparably to or significantly better than the baseline where utterances are manually transcribed by a phonetician. In the cross-language context, the voice-tag performances vary depending on the source-target language pair, with the variation reflecting predicted phonological similarity between the source and target languages. Among the most similar languages, performance nears that of the native-trained models and surpasses the native reference baseline.

  18. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  19. Experiences with voice to design ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding...... material can be transformed and utilised in the use of digital technologies. SoundShaping is based on a generic audio feature extraction system and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used. Moreover, 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....

  20. Experiences with Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    This article presents SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice and thus how digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. The article is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding...... material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. SoundShaping is based on a generic audio feature extraction system and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used. Moreover, 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules....... The shape is output to a 3D printer to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice. Several experiments and reflections demonstrate the validity of this work....

  1. Acoustic passaggio pedagogy for the male voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Kenneth Wood

    2013-07-01

    Awareness of interactions between the lower harmonics of the voice source and the first formant of the vocal tract, and of the passive vowel modifications that accompany them, can assist in working out a smooth transition through the passaggio of the male voice. A stable vocal tract length establishes the general location of all formants, including the higher formants that form the singer's formant cluster. Untrained males instinctively shorten the tube to preserve the strong F1/H2 acoustic coupling of voce aperta, resulting in 'yell' timbre. If tube length and shape are kept stable during pitch ascent, the yell can be avoided by allowing the second harmonic to rise above the first formant, creating the balanced timbre of voce chiusa.

  2. Digital Media Creates Youth Voices Heard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sallee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oklahoma 4-H clubs and military service centers partnered with the Adobe Youth Voices (AYV program to give youth opportunities to raise their voices through digital media. This program reached out to underrepresented youth and gave them the tools and technology to effectively express themselves. The intent of this project was for 4-H members to create videos to educate, help and raise awareness in their communities of topics that were important to the youth. These experiences help youth gain knowledge towards helping others solve farm, home, and community problems. Participating youth selected issues that were important to them and created a short video, educating others and sharing their convictions on the topics of horse therapy, citizenship, bullying, and distracted driving.

  3. Using the Voice to Design Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Digital technology makes new possibilities in ceramic craft. This project is about how experiential knowledge that the craftsmen gains in a direct physical and tactile interaction with a responding material can be transformed and utilized in the use of digital technologies. The project presents...... to make ceramic results. The system demonstrates the close connection between digital technology and craft practice....... SoundShaping, a system to create ceramics from the human voice. Based on a generic audio feature extraction system, and the principal component analysis to ensure that the pertinent information in the voice is used, a 3D shape is created using simple geometric rules. This shape is output to a 3D printer...

  4. Audio-Visual: Disembodied Voices in Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Le Fèvre-Berthelot, Anaïs

    2013-01-01

    After a survey of the major critical trends since the generalization of synchronized film sound, this bibliographical essay sets out to delineate the way film sound studies have developed around issues of taxonomy, meaning, and reception. Focusing on the treatment of the disembodied voice by various theorists, three trends can be identified: borrowing from semiology and narratology, an essentially descriptive approach first emerges that creates a new vocabulary to talk about sound and analyze...

  5. Voice coil based scanning probe microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Duchoň, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), 332:1-7 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SPM * Voice coil * Interferometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2012

  6. Effect of tonsillectomy on the adult voice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heffernan, Colleen B

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS: Anecdotal evidence suggests that tonsillectomy has no deleterious consequences on a person\\'s voice under normal vocal demand. However, whether the enlarged dimensions of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy impair the quality of a professional voice user remains unclear. Therefore, we designed a study to determine whether adult tonsillectomy altered the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract in any way and whether these changes were transient or permanent. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective observational study with full institutional ethical approval. METHODS: All adult patients presenting for tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis in our institution were recruited. Their voice was recorded preoperatively, postoperatively, and at 4 weeks postoperatively. The values of the first four formants were calculated in all recordings. The oropharyngeal dimensions were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Tonsillar weights and volumes were also measured. RESULTS: The first formant was noted to rise postoperatively. The average value of F2 and F3 did not alter postoperatively or at 4 weeks. However, it was noted that the fourth formant was not universally present preoperatively but was present in all patients postoperatively and at 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Altering the dimensions of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy causes the first formant to rise but has no effect on the third and fourth formants. However, the fourth formant appears in patients who previously did not demonstrate it. The fourth formant was present in a greater proportion of male patients preoperatively than female patients, but it was universally present postoperatively and at 4 weeks in both sexes. This suggests that increasing the horizontal dimensions of the oropharynx has a nontransient effect on the higher order formants of the voice.

  7. Start with the street, the voice said

    OpenAIRE

    Jobst, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This text offers a writing experiment that aims to address the processes of gentrification. It employs a narrative mode of writing in the first person plural in order to demonstrate one possible way of capturing the complexities of everyday experiences of metropolitan conditions. The text challenges the assumed notions of authorial voice and supposed analytical objectivity of (academic) critique and proposes a way of tackling the ambiguities that lie at the core of the relationship forged bet...

  8. Development of the morphing method for signal modelling and parameter extraction from ATLAS data, using effective operators in the H → W{sup +}W{sup -} → l{sup +}νl{sup -} anti ν process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, Carsten; Koeneke, Karsten [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Given the parameter space of all physically conceivable Lagrange operators connected to physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs-boson sector, it seems unfeasible to conduct dedicated analyses for every new scenario. Instead, a fast, continuous, and analytical method of signal modelling would not only help to conduct hypothesis tests more efficiently, but would also allow to directly measure and derive limits on the coefficients of the individual terms in the matrix element. Similar approaches, such as Matrix-Element-Reweighting can not only be outperformed significantly by the morphing technique for some applications, but also be used complementarily and in conjunction with this new approach. This talk explores the applications in the context of effective Lagrangians for analyses of Higgs bosons decaying into two vector bosons for leptonic final states.

  9. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Pediatric Voice Handicap Index: in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying

  11. The prevalence and risk factors for occupational voice disorders in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, M; Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Fiszer, M; Los-Spychalska, T; Kotylo, P; Sznurowska-Przygocka, B; Modrzewska, M

    2006-01-01

    Occupational voice disorders in Poland account for over 25% of all occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of voice problems in the general population of Polish teachers, and identify risk factors for developing voice pathology. The study group comprised 425 female full-time teachers (most of them primary and secondary school, age ranging from 23 to 61 years) and 83 non-teacher women (control) whose jobs did not involve vocal effort, matched for age to the study group. All participants were subjected to a survey using an extensive questionnaire, and to laryngological, phoniatric and videostroboscopic examinations. The overall lifetime vocal symptoms were more frequent in the teachers than in the non-teachers (69 vs. 36%), and in particular it related to permanent and recurrent hoarseness, and dryness in the throat. Mean number of the voice symptoms was 3.21 in teachers and 1.98 in controls (p teachers. Mean maximum phonation time was shorter in teachers than in the controls (14.3 vs. 15.9 s, p dysphonia (that is thought to predispose to such pathology) were found in 32.7% of teachers and 9.6% of control subjects. The probability of developing incomplete glottal closure (odds ratio 13.2x; 95% CI: 1.8-96.8) and hyperfunctional dysphonia (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI: 1.14-6.44) were significantly higher in the teacher group versus non-teachers. A significant positive relationship was found in teachers between the prevalence of hyperfunctional dysphonia and strained phonation, neck muscle hypertension, instability of voice, self-assessed hyper-arousal, and lifetime vocal effort index (years of employment as a teacher x hours of professional activity/week). The prevalence of vocal nodules and incomplete glottal closure were correlated with incorrect phonation technique parameters, but not with psychological factors. No correlation was found with environmental variables, such as classroom temperature, humidity, airborne dust. The prevalence of

  12. Voice and Speech Quality Perception Assessment and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Jekosch, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Foundations of Voice and Speech Quality Perception starts out with the fundamental question of: "How do listeners perceive voice and speech quality and how can these processes be modeled?" Any quantitative answers require measurements. This is natural for physical quantities but harder to imagine for perceptual measurands. This book approaches the problem by actually identifying major perceptual dimensions of voice and speech quality perception, defining units wherever possible and offering paradigms to position these dimensions into a structural skeleton of perceptual speech and voice quality. The emphasis is placed on voice and speech quality assessment of systems in artificial scenarios. Many scientific fields are involved. This book bridges the gap between two quite diverse fields, engineering and humanities, and establishes the new research area of Voice and Speech Quality Perception.

  13. Speaking comfort and voice use of teachers in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...... to preserve the teachers’ voices and maximize their comfort, it is necessary to understand the underlaying relationship between classroom acoustics and teachers’ voice production. This paper presents a brief summary of investigations looking into this relationship. A pilot study, carried out in different...... located at various distances, in rooms with very different acoustics. A field study in schools of southern Sweden found out that teachers with and without voice problems, during actual teaching, are affected differently by the support of the classroom. A last laboratory experiment was carried out...

  14. Influence of Smartphones and Software on Acoustic Voice Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth U. Grillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the within-subject variability of voice measures captured using different recording devices (i.e., smartphones and head mounted microphone and software programs (i.e., Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV, Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP, and Praat.  Correlations between the software programs that calculated the voice measures were also analyzed.  Results demonstrated no significant within-subject variability across devices and software and that some of the measures were highly correlated across software programs.  The study suggests that certain smartphones may be appropriate to record daily voice measures representing the effects of vocal loading within individuals.  In addition, even though different algorithms are used to compute voice measures across software programs, some of the programs and measures share a similar relationship.

  15. Trailblazers and Cassandras: Other Voices in Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2012-01-01

    voices and alternative positions in the process of conflict interpretation and resolution. This essay will outline a ‘thumbnail’ sketch of three areas in which ‘other’ voices are sidelined or silenced: in terms of political discourses; community discourses; and wider academic and public discourses......’ and ‘Cassandras’ the essay concludes that the arguments forwarded by other voices are not disappeared but adapted and realigned to the reigning discourses, and that there is not so much a culture of silence surrounding ‘other’ voices as a certain selective and sectarian hearing in picking them up. Whilst...... it follows that ‘other’ voices have failed to dissolve the magnetic field of Northern Irish politics, the essay suggests that in order to rise to current political challenges in Northern Ireland it is worthwhile sounding out the historical and contemporary ‘other’ voices for carefully thought out and non...

  16. Voice Quality Measuring Setup with Automatic Voice over IP Call Generator and Lawful Interception Packet Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLEVA Matus

    Full Text Available This paper describes the packet measuring laboratory setup, which could be used also for lawful interception applications, using professional packet analyzer, Voice over IP call generator, free call server (Asterisk linux setup and appropriate software and hardware described below. This setup was used for measuring the quality of the automatically generated VoIP calls under stressed network conditions, when the call manager server was flooded with high bandwidth traffic, near the bandwidth limit of the connected switch. The call generator realizes 30 calls simultaneously and the packet capturer & analyzercould decode the VoIP traffic, extract RTP session data, automatically analyze the voice quality using standardized MOS (Mean Opinion Score values and describe also the source of the voice degradation (jitter, packet loss, codec, delay, etc..

  17. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vampola, T.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-88 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomechanics of human voice * voice production modelling * vocal excersing * voice training Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/138

  18. Electroglottographic Comparison of Voice Outcomes in Patients With Advanced Laryngopharyngeal Cancer Treated by Chemoradiotherapy or Total Laryngectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Rehan; Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Johnson, Catherine; Prasad, Vyas; Clarke, Peter; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Nutting, Christopher M.; Harrington, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct prospective electroglottographic analyses of voice outcomes after radical chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced laryngopharyngeal cancers and to compare them with patients who have undergone total laryngectomy (TL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients (19 male, 2 female, median age [range] 65 [50-85] years) with Stage III/IV laryngopharyngeal cancer received induction chemotherapy followed by radical chemoradiotherapy. Electroglottography, using the sustained vowel /i/ and connected speech, was performed before treatment and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. In addition, single voice recordings were taken from 21 patients (16 male, 5 female, aged 65 [50-84] years) who had undergone TL and surgical voice restoration and from 21 normal controls (18 male, 3 female, aged 65 [33-80] years). Results: Before treatment the vocal measures for the chemoradiotherapy patients were significantly different from normal controls in jitter (p = 0.02), maximum phonation time (MPT) (p = 0.001), and words per minute (WPM) (p = 0.01). At 12 months after treatment MPT and WPM had normalized, but jitter and normalized noise energy were significantly worse than in normal controls. Comparison of voice outcomes at 12 months for chemoradiotherapy patients revealed superiority over the TL group in all parameters except MPT (18.2 s vs. 10.4 s, p = 0.06). Analysis of the recovery of voice up to 12 months after treatment revealed progressive improvement in most electroglottographic measures. Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates significantly better outcome for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy as compared with TL. Progressive normalization of many voice parameters occurs over the 12 months following chemoradiotherapy

  19. Double Voicing and Personhood in Collaborative Life Writing about Autism: the Transformative Narrative of Carly's Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Monica

    2018-06-01

    Collaborative memoirs by co-writers with and without autism can enable the productive interaction of the voices of the writers in ways that can empower rather than exploit the disabled subject. Carly's Voice, co-written by Arthur Fleischmann and his autistic daughter Carly, demonstrates the capacity for such life narratives to facilitate the relational interaction between writers in the negotiation of understandings of disability. Though the text begins by focusing on the limitations of life with autism, it develops into a collaboration which helps both writers move toward new ways of understanding disability and their own and one another's life stories.

  20. Measurement of voice onset time in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = -2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = -2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  1. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Hattori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z=−2.232, P=0.026 and Z=−2.401, P=0.016, resp. than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  2. Voice acoustic patterns of patients diagnosed with vibroacoustic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mendes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term low frequency noise exposure (LFN (≤ 500 Hz, including infrasound may lead to the development of vibroacoustic disease (VAD, a systemic pathology characterized by the abnormal growth of extra-cellular matrices. The respiratory system is a target for LFN. Fibrosis of the respiratory tract epithelia was observed in VAD patients through biopsy, and confirmed in animal models exposed to LFN. Voice acoustic analysis can detect vocal fold variations of mass, tension, muscular and neural activity. Frequency perturbation (jitter, amplitude perturbation (shimmer and harmonicto- noise ratio (HNR are used in the evaluation of the vocal function, and can be indicators of the presence and degree of severity of vocal pathology. Since the respiratory system is the energy source of the phonation process, this raises questions about the effects of VAD on voice production. The purpose of this study was to determine if voice acoustic parameters of VAD patients are different from normative data. Methods: Nine individuals (5 males and 4 females diagnosed with VAD were recorded performing spoken and sung tasks. The spoken tasks included sustaining vowels and fricatives. The sung tasks consisted of maximum phonational frequency range (MPFR. Voice acoustic parameters analysed were: fundamental frequency (F0, jitter, shimmer, HNR and temporal measures. Results: Compared with normative data, both males and females diagnosed with VAD exhibited increased F0, shimmer and HNR. Jitter, MPFR and one temporal measure were reduced. Conclusions: VAD individuals presented voice acoustic parameter differences in spectral, temporal and perturbation measures, which may be indicative of small morphological changes in the phonatory system. Resumo: Enquadramento: A exposição crónica ao ruído de baixa frequência (RBF (≤ 500 Hz, incluindo infra-sons pode conduzir ao desenvolvimento da doença vibroacústica (VAD

  3. Clinical evaluation of a membrane-based voice-producing element for female laryngectomized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, Johannes W.; Qiu, Qingjun; Schutte, Harm K.; Kooijman, Piet G.C.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Mahieu, Hans F.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Background: A newly developed artificial voice source was clinically evaluated in laryngectomized women for voice quality improvements. The prosthesis was placed in a commercially available, tracheoesophageal shunt valve. - Methods: In 17 subjects, voice-producing element (VPE) prototypes were

  4. Objective and subjective analysis of women's voice with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviana Rodrigues das Graças

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the voice quality of women with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and those without it. METHODS: An evaluation was performed including 19 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, with an average age of 66 years, and 27 women with an average of 67 years-old in the Control Group. The assessment was performed by computed acoustic analysis and perceptual evaluation. RESULTS: Parkinson's disease patients presented moderate rough and unstable voice quality. The parameters of grade, roughness, and instability had higher scores in Parkinson's disease patients with statistically significant differences. Acoustic measures of Jitter and period perturbation quotient (PPQ significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinson's disease female individuals showed more vocal alterations compared to the Control Group, when both perceptual and acoustic evaluations were analyzed.

  5. Voice quality in relation to voice complaints and vocal fold condition during the screening of female student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Leo F P; de Jong, Felix I C R S

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptual examination of voice quality with the condition of the vocal folds and voice complaints during voice screening in female student teachers. This research was a cross-sectional study in 214 starting student teachers using the four-point grade scale of the GRBAS and laryngostroboscopic assessment of the vocal folds. The voice quality was assessed by speech pathologists using the ordinal 4-point G-scale (overall dysphonia) of the GRBAS method in a running speech sample. Glottal closure and vocal fold lesions were recorded. A questionnaire was used for assessing voice complaints. More students with an insufficient glottal closure (89%) were rated dysphonic compared with students with sufficient glottal closure (80%). Students with sufficient glottal closure had a significantly lower mean G-score (1.21) compared with the group with insufficient glottal closure (1.52) (P = 0.038). This study showed a larger percentage of students with vocal fold lesions (96%) labeled a dysphonic voice compared to students with no vocal fold problems (81%). Students with no vocal fold lesions had a significantly lower mean G-score (1.20) compared with the group with vocal fold lesions (2.05) (P=0.002). A dysphonic voice (G≥1) was rated in 76% of the students without voice complaints compared with 86% of the students with voice complaints. Students with no voice complaints had a lower mean G-score (1.07) compared with the group with voice complaints (1.41) (P=0.090). The present study showed that perceptual assessment of the voice and voice complaints is not sufficient to check if the future professional is at risk. Therefore, preventive measures are needed to detect students at risk early in their education and this depends on broader assessment: on the one hand, assessing voice quality and voice complaints and on the other hand, examination of the vocal folds of all starting students. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation

  6. Voice problems among Slovenian physicians compared to the teachers: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šereh Bahar

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of voice disorders among outpatients’ physicians in Slovenia is high and is comparable to the incidence of voice problems in Slovenian teachers. URI is the most common cause of these voice problems. GERD, allergies and an age over 40 years were stated as the risk factors for voice disorders. In order to reduce the extent of voice problems, lessons on vocal hygiene, and additional information about diseases causing voice disorders should be included in their postgraduate education.

  7. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal lobe is

  8. Who speaks for extinct nations? The Beothuk and narrative voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leggo

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beothuk of Newfoundland were among the first inhabitants of North America to encounter European explorers and settlers. By the first part of the nineteenth century the Beothuk were extinct, exterminated by the fishers and soldiers and settlers of western Europe. The last Beothuk was a woman named Shanadithit. She was captured and lived with white settlers for a few years before she died in 1829. Today all that remains of the Beothuk nation, which once numbered seven hundred to one thousand people, are some bones, arrowheads, tools, written records of explorers and settlers, and copies of drawings by Shanadithit in the Newfoundland Museum. In recent years several writers (all are white and male have written fiction and poetry and drama about the Beothuk, including Peter Such (Riverrun, 1973, Paul O'Neill (Legends of a Lost Tribe, 1976, Sid Stephen (Beothuk Poems, 1976, Al Pittman ("Shanadithit," 1978, Geoffrey Ursell (The Running of the Deer; A Play, 1981, Donald Gale (Sooshewan: A Child of the Beothuk, 1988, and Kevin Major (Blood Red Ochre, 1990. A recurring theme in all these narratives is the theme of regret and guilt. These narrative accounts of the Beothuk raise significant questions about voice and narrative, including: Who can speak for Native peoples? Who can speak for extinct peoples? Are there peoples without voices? How is voice historically determined? What is the relationship between voice and power? How are the effects of voice generated? What is an authentic voice? How is voice related to the illusion of presence? What is the relation between voice and silence? In examining contemporary narrative accounts of the Beothuk my goal is to reveal the rhetorical ways in which the Beothuk are given voice(s and to interrogate the ethical and pedagogical implications of contemporary authors revisiting and revisioning and re-voicing a nation of people long extinct.

  9. Your Voice Counts: Listening to the Voice of High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggers, Beth; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Mercer, K. Louise

    2011-01-01

    Supporting students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in inclusive settings presents both opportunities and significant challenges to school communities. This study, which explored the lived experience of nine students with ASD in an inclusive high school in Australia, is based on the belief that by listening to the voices of students, school…

  10. Voices in Transition: Testosterone, Transmasculinity, and the Gendered Voice among Female-to-Male Transgender People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimman, Lal

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is based on a long-term ethnographic and sociophonetic study of 15 transgender people on the female-to-male (or "transmasculine") identity spectrum. The focus of the study is the way these individuals' voices change during the first 1-2 years of masculinizing hormone therapy, which brings about a drop in vocal…

  11. Preservice Music Teacher Voice Use, Vocal Health, and Voice Function before and during Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2018-01-01

    Preservice music teachers often use their voices differently during the semesters leading up to student teaching as compared to during the semester itself. Vocal demands often increase and change as students move from a student role to full-time teacher role. Consequently, music student teachers frequently experience vocal distress symptoms that…

  12. Shielding voices: The modulation of binding processes between voice features and response features by task representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogon, Johanna; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Landgraf, Steffen; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Vocal events offer not only semantic-linguistic content but also information about the identity and the emotional-motivational state of the speaker. Furthermore, most vocal events have implications for our actions and therefore include action-related features. But the relevance and irrelevance of vocal features varies from task to task. The present study investigates binding processes for perceptual and action-related features of spoken words and their modulation by the task representation of the listener. Participants reacted with two response keys to eight different words spoken by a male or a female voice (Experiment 1) or spoken by an angry or neutral male voice (Experiment 2). There were two instruction conditions: half of participants learned eight stimulus-response mappings by rote (SR), and half of participants applied a binary task rule (TR). In both experiments, SR instructed participants showed clear evidence for binding processes between voice and response features indicated by an interaction between the irrelevant voice feature and the response. By contrast, as indicated by a three-way interaction with instruction, no such binding was found in the TR instructed group. These results are suggestive of binding and shielding as two adaptive mechanisms that ensure successful communication and action in a dynamic social environment.

  13. Keep Your Voice Sound: How to Prevent and Avoid Voice Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Listen Up! Wise Choices Avoid Voice Problems Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day. This helps keep your vocal folds moist and healthy. Limit intake of caffeinated or alcoholic drinks. These can dehydrate your body and make the ...

  14. "Ring" in the solo child singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Williams, Jenevora; Herbst, Christian T

    2014-03-01

    Listeners often describe the voices of solo child singers as being "pure" or "clear"; these terms would suggest that the voice is not only pleasant but also clearly audible. The audibility or clarity could be attributed to the presence of high-frequency partials in the sound: a "brightness" or "ring." This article aims to investigate spectrally the acoustic nature of this ring phenomenon in children's solo voices, and in particular, relating it to their "nonring" production. Additionally, this is set in the context of establishing to what extent, if any, the spectral characteristics of ring are shared with those of the singer's formant cluster associated with professional adult opera singers in the 2.5-3.5kHz region. A group of child solo singers, acknowledged as outstanding by a singing teacher who specializes in teaching professional child singers, were recorded in a major UK concert hall performing Come unto him, all ye that labour, from the aria He shall feed his flock from The Messiah by GF Handel. Their singing was accompanied by a recording of a piano played through in-ear headphones. Sound pressure recordings were made from well within the critical distance in the hall. The singers were observed to produce notes with and without ring, and these recordings were analyzed in the frequency domain to investigate their spectra. The results indicate that there is evidence to suggest that ring in child solo singers is carried in two areas of the output spectrum: first in the singer's formant cluster region, centered around 4kHz, which is more than 1000Hz higher than what is observed in adults; and second in the region around 7.5-11kHz where a significant strengthening of harmonic presence is observed. A perceptual test has been carried out demonstrating that 94% of 62 listeners label a synthesized version of the calculated overall average ring spectrum for all subjects as having ring when compared with a synthesized version of the calculated overall average nonring

  15. Nonlinear Analysis of Auscultation Signals in TCM Using the Combination of Wavelet Packet Transform and Sample Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation signals are nonstationary in nature. Wavelet packet transform (WPT has currently become a very useful tool in analyzing nonstationary signals. Sample entropy (SampEn has recently been proposed to act as a measurement for quantifying regularity and complexity of time series data. WPT and SampEn were combined in this paper to analyze auscultation signals in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. SampEns for WPT coefficients were computed to quantify the signals from qi- and yin-deficient, as well as healthy, subjects. The complexity of the signal can be evaluated with this scheme in different time-frequency resolutions. First, the voice signals were decomposed into approximated and detailed WPT coefficients. Then, SampEn values for approximated and detailed coefficients were calculated. Finally, SampEn values with significant differences in the three kinds of samples were chosen as the feature parameters for the support vector machine to identify the three types of auscultation signals. The recognition accuracy rates were higher than 90%.

  16. Voice Range Profiles of Singing Students: The Effects of Training Duration and Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Hugo; Siupsinskiene, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in voice parameters measured by the physiological voice range profile (VRP) in groups of vocally healthy subjects differentiated by the duration of vocal training and the training institution. Six basic frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters and the frequency dip of the register transition zone were determined from VRP recordings of 162 females studying in individual singing lessons (1st-5th level) in Dutch, Belgian, English, and French public or private training facilities. Sixty-seven nonsinging female students served as controls. Singing students in more advanced singing classes demonstrated a significantly greater frequency range, particularly at high frequencies, than did first-year students. Students with private training showed a significantly increased mean intensity range in comparison to those in group classes, while students with musical theater training exhibited significantly increased frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters in comparison to the students with classical training. When compared to nonsingers, all singing student subgroups showed significant increases in all basic VRP parameters. However, the register transition parameter was not influenced by training duration or institution. Our study suggests that the extension of physiological vocal limits might depend on training duration and institution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Translation Studies now recognizes that translators are not the only agents involved in translation. Authors and editors provide suggestions and instructions. Publishers have considerable power over the final text and how it is presented to the public. While it is well-known that translations...... understanding of the processes through which authors, publishers, editors, directors, and critics can affect translation. Empirical studies from historical and contemporary settings examine forms of collaboration and negotiation, or conflict, with special attention to the multiple voices in theatre translation....

  18. Acoustic cues for the recognition of self-voice and other-voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdi eXu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-recognition, being indispensable for successful social communication, has become a major focus in current social neuroscience. The physical aspects of the self are most typically manifested in the face and voice. Compared with the wealth of studies on self-face recognition, self-voice recognition (SVR has not gained much attention. Converging evidence has suggested that the fundamental frequency (F0 and formant structures serve as the key acoustic cues for other-voice recognition (OVR. However, little is known about which, and how, acoustic cues are utilized for SVR as opposed to OVR. To address this question, we independently manipulated the F0 and formant information of recorded voices and investigated their contributions to SVR and OVR. Japanese participants were presented with recorded vocal stimuli and were asked to identify the speaker—either themselves or one of their peers. Six groups of 5 peers of the same sex participated in the study. Under conditions where the formant information was fully preserved and where only the frequencies lower than the third formant (F3 were retained, accuracies of SVR deteriorated significantly with the modulation of the F0, and the results were comparable for OVR. By contrast, under a condition where only the frequencies higher than F3 were retained, the accuracy of SVR was significantly higher than that of OVR throughout the range of F0 modulations, and the F0 scarcely affected the accuracies of SVR and OVR. Our results indicate that while both F0 and formant information are involved in SVR, as well as in OVR, the advantage of SVR is manifested only when major formant information for speech intelligibility is absent. These findings imply the robustness of self-voice representation, possibly by virtue of auditory familiarity and other factors such as its association with motor/articulatory representation.

  19. [Hearing voices does not always constitute a psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, I E C; van der Spek, D W

    2016-01-01

    Hearing voices (i.e. auditory verbal hallucinations) is mainly known as part of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, hearing voices is a symptom that can occur in many psychiatric, neurological and general medical conditions. We present three cases of non-psychotic patients with auditory verbal hallucinations caused by different disorders. The first patient is a 74-year-old male with voices due to hearing loss, the second is a 20-year-old woman with voices due to traumatisation. The third patient is a 27-year-old woman with voices caused by temporal lobe epilepsy. Hearing voices is a phenomenon that occurs in a variety of disorders. Therefore, identification of the underlying disorder is essential to indicate treatment. Improvement of coping with the voices can reduce their impact on a patient. Antipsychotic drugs are especially effective when hearing voices is accompanied by delusions or disorganization. When this is not the case, the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs will probably not outweigh the side-effects.

  20. Investigations of Hemispheric Specialization of Self-Voice Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Christine; Lassonde, Maryse; Pinard, Claudine; Keenan, Julian Paul; Belin, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated functional asymmetries related to self-recognition in the domain of voices. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to identify one of three presented voices (self, familiar or unknown) by responding with either the right or the left-hand. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with auditory morphs between the…