WorldWideScience

Sample records for voice radio communication

  1. Voice communications over packet radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, M. M.

    1985-03-01

    The use of packet virtual circuit technique for voice communications in military radio networks was investigated. The work was concerned with various aspects of networking which include network modeling, communications techniques, traffic analysis and network control. An attempt has been made to develop a simple yet efficient time slot assignment algorithm . This was analyzed under a variety of slot depths and networks topologies using computer simulation. The Erlang' B results were used to provide more insight into the channel characteristics of the packet radio networks. The capabilities of implementing TDMA/CDMA hybrid schemes in the system were scrutinized. A method to estimate the transmission capacity of the inter-node links was found. We demonstrate its effectiveness in controlling local congestion by computer simulation. Graphical results were presented to highlight the behavior of the proposed packet radio networks. We concluded that an appropriate link weight function would provide efficient and reliable network services.

  2. Voice Communications Over Packet Radio Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    standpoint, the major difference between telephone networks and packet radio networks concerns the availabilty of time slots over each frame. The...mentioning that simulations require large amounts of detailed knowledge about the structure of the system and about patterns of usage . Simulation is...proposed time slot algorithm adopts. Moreover, the proposed time slot scheme may give more uniform usage of time slots in each time frame. In addition

  3. Voices of Disability on the Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    Background: While much commentary exists in relation to the portrayal of disabled people in the media, very little research examines the talk itself in any detail. This paper examines the how people with communication disabilities and disabled people are dealt with in the talk of a radio programme about disability. Aims: To show how the voices of…

  4. Subjective voice quality, communicative ability and swallowing after definitive radio(chemo)therapy, laryngectomy plus radio(chemo)therapy, or organ conservation surgery plus radio(chemo)therapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuecs, Marcella; Kuhnt, Thomas; Punke, Christoph; Witt, Gabriele; Klautke, Gunther; Kramp, Burkhard; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis focusses on the impact of therapy on perceived long-term post-cancer treatment function. A validated questionnaire including items and components for the assessment of communicative ability, quality of voice and swallowing was sent to 129 patients. All patients were treated between 1998 and 2007. A total of 76 patients (58.9%) with carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx replied to the questionnaire. Data was evaluated retrospectively. Therapy delivered was definitive radio(chemo)therapy (defchRT/RT) (21/76, 28%), laryngectomy + radio(chemo)therapy (LE + chRT/RT) (28/76, 37%), or larynx conservation surgery + radio(chemo)therapy (LCS + chRT/RT) (27/76, 36%). Radiotherapy was administered using 2D- or 3D-conformal planning. The most common concomitant chemotherapy delivered was cisplatin + 5FU. For statistical analyses of the components, averages were calculated and tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the U-test of Mann and Whitney. Differences were assessed by the Monte Carlo method or Fisher's exact test. The single item rates were compared with Fisher's exact test. Mean follow-up was 56.7 months (range, 8-130 months). After defchRT/RT, patients trended towards more substantial-strong hoarseness compared with LCS + chRT/RT (P = 0.2). After LE, patients were dissatisfied with their artificial larynx/electrolarynx and the tone of their voice (P = 0.3, P = 0.07) and communicative ability (P = 0.005, P = 0.008) compared with those treated with defchRT/RT and LCS + chRT/RT, respectively. Dysphagia and additional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding were more frequent after defchRT/RT in comparison with the other two groups (P < 0.05). Voice quality and communicative ability were slightly worse after defchRT/RT and LE + chRT/RT, but satisfying with all treatment modalities. Further development of the therapy approach is necessary to reduce long-term side effects, with measures of post-treatment function as important endpoints.

  5. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  6. The Performing Voice of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    The ongoing international development of opening media archives for researchers as well as for broader audiences calls for a closer discussion of the mediated voice and how to analyse it. Which parameters can be analysed and which parameters are not covered by the analysis? Furthermore, how do we...

  7. The Performing Voice of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    The ongoing international development of opening media archives for researchers as well as for broader audiences calls for a closer discussion of the mediated voice and how to analyse it. Which parameters can be analysed and which parameters are not covered by the analysis? Furthermore, how do we...

  8. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saradi Bora

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's ionosphere consists of plasma produced by thephotoionization of thin upper atmospheric gases by UV raysand photons of short wavelength from the sun. The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the readers to the study of ionosphere in the contextof its use as a radio reflector, with particular reference toIndia.

  9. Albanian: Basic Radio Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been designed as a supplement to a course in Albanian developed by the Defense Language Institute. The emphasis in this text is placed on radio communications instruction. The volume is divided into five exercises, each of which contains a vocabulary, dictation, and an air-to-ground communications procedure conducted in Albanian…

  10. Modeling and analysis of voice and data in cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawardena, Subodha

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief investigates the voice and elastic/interactive data service support over cognitive radio networks (CRNs), in terms of their delay requirements. The increased demand for wireless communication conflicts with the scarcity of the radio spectrum, but CRNS allow for more efficient use of the networks. The authors review packet level delay requirements of the voice service and session level delay requirements of the elastic/interactive data services, particularly constant-rate and on-o? voice tra?c capacities in CRNs with centralized and distributed network coordination. Some gen

  11. Voice Quality Estimation in Combined Radio-VoIP Networks for Dispatching Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality modelling assessment and planning field is deeply and widely theoretically and practically mastered for common voice communication systems, especially for the public fixed and mobile telephone networks including Next Generation Networks (NGN - internet protocol based networks. This article seeks to contribute voice quality modelling assessment and planning for dispatching communication systems based on Internet Protocol (IP and private radio networks. The network plan, correction in E-model calculation and default values for the model are presented and discussed.

  12. Voice Deviations and Coexisting Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the coexistence of other communicative disorders with voice disorders in about 3,400 children in grades 1-12 at 100 sites throughout the United States. The majority of voice-disordered children had coexisting articulation deviations and also differed from controls on two language measures and mean pure-tone hearing thresholds.…

  13. New Voices: Communication through Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The article recalls working with young severely disabled children able to communicate only through eye movements or specially developed communication boards. These children could now be helped by sophisticated computerized technology, standard and specialized forms of which are described. The influence of positioning, portability, and other…

  14. The Global Voice of China Radio International

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    WITH so many excitingnew hotels and businesstowers going up aroundBeijing these days,it is strange tothink that some 30 years ago therather stiff and formal Russian-styleRadio Beijing building,located onthe south side of Chang’an Avenuebeside the Fuxingmen flyover,waslooked upon as absolutely the lastword in modern architecture.Nev-ertheless,lots of foreign friends andoverseas Chinese have a warm spotin their hearts for the building—fans of China Who for years havebeen learning about this“myster-ious”country by way of Radio Bei-jing,which first went on the air in

  15. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  16. Radio communication for motor sports; Motor sports ni okeru musen tsushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K. [Kenwood Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes general radio communication, and radio telephone and data communication for motor sports. The radio communication for racing cars is largely disturbed by car noises and peripheral noises. The adverse effect of noises caused by on-board computer on communication, and that of radio waves on a computer are unavoidable. The radio communication is also disturbed by various radio devices in a racing circuit. As disturbance measures, change of radio frequency and filtering are necessary. For the radio telephone communication between a driver and a manager or a manager and team staffs, a close-talking microphone or a microphone with a noise canceler are used to pick up proper voices from strong roaring. However, although the frequency band of engine noises is nearly equal to that of human voices, separation of voices is extremely difficult. The car data during racing are transmitted rapidly to a pit by microwave communication, and used for the planning of a race strategy in a pit. (NEDO)

  17. Regulation of Wire and Radio Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin reviews early federal regulation of telegraphy, telephone, and radio communications, and the development of the Radio Acts of 1912 and 1927, the Communications Act of 1934, and the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. A large portion of the discussion focuses on the regulatory power and procedures of the Federal Communications…

  18. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  19. 49 CFR 220.45 - Radio communication shall be complete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communication shall be complete. 220.45... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.45 Radio communication shall be complete. Any radio communication which is not fully understood...

  20. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  1. Voice and Communication Therapy for Transgender/Transsexual Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice and Communication Therapy for Clients Who Are Transgender [ en Español ] What does the speech-language pathologist do when working with clients who are transgender? What organizations have more information? What does the ...

  2. Cognitive Radio Networks for Tactical Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    APs work as wireless routers and form a wireless backbone network. The MSs can either access the BSs/APs directly, or use other MSs as multi-hop...Cognitive radio networks for tactical wireless communications Helen Tang; Susan Watson DRDC – Ottawa Research Centre Defence Research and...Development Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-R185 December 2014 Cognitive radio networks for tactical wireless communications Helen Tang

  3. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  4. Intelligent Wireless Communication System Using Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Amraoui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for wireless communication introduces efficient spectrum utilization challenge. To address this challenge, cognitive radio (CR is emerged as the key technology; which enables opportunistic access to the spectrum. CR is a form of wireless communication in which a transceiver can intelligently detect which communication channels are in use and which are not, and instantly move into vacant channels while avoiding occupied ones. This optimizes the use of available radio-frequency (RFspectrum while minimizing interference to other users. In this paper, we present a state of the art onthe use of Multi Agent Systems (MAS for spectrum access using cooperation and competition to solve the problem of spectrum allocation and ensure better management. Then we propose a new approach which uses the CR for improving wireless communication for a single cognitive radio mobile terminal (CRMT.

  5. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  6. 49 CFR 220.51 - Radio communications and signal indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications and signal indications. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.51 Radio communications and signal indications. (a) No information may be...

  7. White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Harris , 117G, communications, White House Communications Agency 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...used by WHCA. The customer desired to upgrade their comms equipment from Harris 117F radios to 117G radios. These radios offer a smaller package with...rack unit (9U) chassis that did not use a fiber optic modem and instead used direct radio frequency (RF) output from the Harris 117F radio. The

  8. Spanish Basic Course: Radio Communications Procedures, USAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This guide to radio communication procedures is offered in Spanish and English as a means of securing a closer working relationship among United States Air Force personnel and Latin American aviators and technicians. Eight dialogues concerning routine flight procedures and aerospace technology are included. It is suggested that two rated students…

  9. Citizen voices performing public participation in science and environment communication

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie

    2012-01-01

    How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...

  10. Synchronous-Voice Computer-Mediated Communication: Effects on Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, Maria Camino

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is the ultimate goal of most learners of a second language and intelligible pronunciation a fundamental part of it. Unfortunately, learners often lack the opportunity to explore how intelligible their speech is for different audiences. Our research investigates whether synchronous-voice computer-mediated communication…

  11. Critical Communicative Methodology: Including Vulnerable Voices in Research through Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia; Christou, Miranda; Holford, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how Critical Communicative Methodology (CCM) has been used successfully to analyse educational inequalities in ways that generate real transformation towards social justice. We begin by arguing that educational research today should employ new methodological approaches that can ensure the inclusion of different voices in…

  12. Speaking in Character: Voice Communication in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Greg; Gibbs, Martin R.

    This chapter summarizes 5 years of research on the implications of introducing voice communication systems to virtual worlds. Voice introduces both benefits and problems for players of fast-paced team games, from better coordination of groups and greater social presence of fellow players on the positive side, to negative features such as channel congestion, transmission of noise, and an unwillingness by some to use voice with strangers online. Similarly, in non-game worlds like Second Life, issues related to identity and impression management play important roles, as voice may build greater trust that is especially important for business users, yet it erodes the anonymity and ability to conceal social attributes like gender that are important for other users. A very different mixture of problems and opportunities exists when users conduct several simultaneous conversations in multiple text and voice channels. Technical difficulties still exist with current systems, including the challenge of debugging and harmonizing all the participants' voice setups. Different groups use virtual worlds for very different purposes, so a single modality may not suit all.

  13. SIP APIs for Voice and Video Communications on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Davids, Carol; Singh, Kundan; Sinnreich, Henry; Wimmreuter, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Existing standard protocols for the web and Internet telephony fail to deliver real-time interactive communication from within a web browser. In particular, the client-server web protocol over reliable TCP is not always suitable for end-to-end low latency media path needed for interactive voice and video communication. To solve this, we compare the available platform options using the existing technologies such as modifying the web programming language and protocol, using an existing web browser plugin, and a separate host resident application that the web browser can talk to. We argue that using a separate application as an adaptor is a promising short term as well as long-term strategy for voice and video communications on the web. Our project aims at developing the open technology and sample implementations for web-based real-time voice and video communication applications. We describe the architecture of our project including (1) a RESTful web communication API over HTTP inspired by SIP message flows, (2)...

  14. Influences on Intercultural Classroom Communication: Student Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    The case study is an attempt to understand how students experience intercultural classroom communication and what kind of competence they need to cope in intercultural classroom communication. The context is a supplementary course in English for university enrolment in Denmark. It is a multinational student body and all the students have finished…

  15. Open Communication: Having Your Voice Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Communication is the use of language to exchange information to one another. African slaves used to embark on communication by means of using common symbols and speech, telling stories, singing spirituals, writing poems. As time revolved, blacks valued education. Education and the ability to read write and effectively would give them the skill or…

  16. Amateur Radio Communication Technology Contingency Communication in Emergency Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johar Azlee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disasters cannot be avoided, but efforts can be made to reduce death, injuries and property damages through better communications and better planning to deal with it before it happen. Thus we need to adopt available technology, like the Amateur Radio Communication Technology (ACT, to face this problem. These include providing awareness, training and support for the communities who adopt the technology for Emergency Communication (EC. Through having more qualified Amateur Radio Communities (ARC in the adoption of the ARCT, we would be able to improve the communication before, during and after the disasters struck. There are many challenges and issues in the adoption of the ARCT that would part of this study. This article also describes several case studies of communication failure during Hurricane Katrina (2005 in the USA, as well as disasters in several other countries and Malaysia. The tragedies led to failure of existing communication infrastructure, and were reprieved by the help of the voluntary ARC to support the relief agencies in the evacuation and assistance the disaster victims. Therefore, this article will highlight the significant issues that influence the adoption of ARCT in EC.

  17. Helping people to keep their voices healthy and to communicate effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, R

    1998-01-01

    Voice is essential for all spoken languages. The mechanism of voice is taken for granted and its potential in human communication is overlooked. The combined expertise of specialist speech and language therapists and voice teachers in the Voice Care Network is focused on disseminating knowledge about care, development and effective use of the speaking voice. They cooperate, exchange ideas and develop practical voice workshops to prevent vocal problems and to support teachers, lecturers and others who depend on voice. A countrywide network of tutors runs workshops in universities and schools. Feedback shows appreciation of the overall benefits.

  18. Radio Science from an Optical Communications Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the capability to deploy deep space optical communications links. This creates the opportunity to utilize the optical link to obtain range, doppler, and signal intensity estimates. These may, in turn, be used to complement or extend the capabilities of current radio science. In this paper we illustrate the achievable precision in estimating range, doppler, and received signal intensity of an non-coherent optical link (the current state-of-the-art for a deep-space link). We provide a joint estimation algorithm with performance close to the bound. We draw comparisons to estimates based on a coherent radio frequency signal, illustrating that large gains in either precision or observation time are possible with an optical link.

  19. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  20. CORA: A direct sequence spread spectrum radio for voice and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, T.

    1989-12-01

    For many years the ordinary FM radio (e.g., the VRC 12 family) was the workhorse in military forces throughout the world. This type of radio has some advantages; it is relatively simple and cheap, it has a low power consumption as a man-pack, and an excellent voice quality. Since the modulation type and details are known by everyone, however, the messages are easily intercepted and even rebroadcasted in order to fool the enemy. Age is also becoming an important argument for introducing a new radio generation on the market. Radios operating in the military VHF band 30 to 88 MHz are discussed. The requirements for such a radio will of course vary from country to country. The most important requirements are given.

  1. Software-Defined Radio for Space-to-Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ken; Jih, Cindy; Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben A.; Fritz, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the Space- to-Space Communications System (SSCS) Software- Defined Radio (SDR) research project to determine the most appropriate method for creating flexible and reconfigurable radios to implement wireless communications channels for space vehicles so that fewer radios are required, and commonality in hardware and software architecture can be leveraged for future missions. The ability to reconfigure the SDR through software enables one radio platform to be reconfigured to interoperate with many different waveforms. This means a reduction in the number of physical radio platforms necessary to support a space mission s communication requirements, thus decreasing the total size, weight, and power needed for a mission.

  2. A new VOX technique for reducing noise in voice communication systems. [voice operated keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. F.; Morgan, W. C.; Shack, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    A VOX technique for reducing noise in voice communication systems is described which is based on the separation of voice signals into contiguous frequency-band components with the aid of an adaptive VOX in each band. It is shown that this processing scheme can effectively reduce both wideband and narrowband quasi-periodic noise since the threshold levels readjust themselves to suppress noise that exceeds speech components in each band. Results are reported for tests of the adaptive VOX, and it is noted that improvements can still be made in such areas as the elimination of noise pulses, phoneme reproduction at high-noise levels, and the elimination of distortion introduced by phase delay.

  3. At the Dawn of Radio Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the history of radio communications, which were used before the advent of humanity tubes, in the context of the essays in the series "At the root of media", published in the "History of Technical Progress" section of the supplement to our journal "Science and Education". The review covers the main stages of the development of spark radio-telegraph systems, the creation of the first powerful arc and electric machine generators of non-stopping oscillations of the carrier frequency for radiotelephony and the detection features. The first experiments of Mahlon Loomis, scientific and technical achievements of James Maxwell, Henry Hertz, Eduard Branly, Alexander Popov, Oliver Lodge, Jagadish Bosch, Karl Brown, Lee de Forest, Louis Austin, Herman Simon, William Duddel, Valdemar Paulsen, Ernst Alexander, Valentin Vologdin, Semyon Eisenstein and other creators of the nascent radio engineering. Particular attention is paid to the intersections of their work with the work of Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Guglielmo Marconi, Reginald Fessenden and other heroes of our essays.

  4. Concept of distributed corporative wireless vehicle voice networks based on radio-over-fiber technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Bukashkin, Sergey A.; Buzov, Alexander V.; Kubanov, Victor P.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.; Tyazhev, Anatoly I.

    2016-03-01

    This work is concerned on description of the concept of corporative wireless vehicle voice networks based on Radioover- Fiber (RoF) technology, which is integration of wireless and fiber optic networks. The concept of RoF means to transport data over optical fibers by modulating lightwave with radio frequency signal or at the intermediate frequency/baseband that provides to take advantage of the low loss and large bandwidth of an optical fiber together with immunity to electromagnetic influence, flexibility and transparence. A brief overview of key RoF techniques as well as comparative analysis and ability of its application for wireless vehicle voice network realization is presented.

  5. Joint Communications Support Element: The Voice Heard Round the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    selected STEP locations. In the airborne domain, JCSE enables mobility through its Joint Airborne Com- munications System ( JACS ) and Joint Air- borne...Communications Center/Command Post (JACC/CP). JACS provides an airborne radio relay connection for VHF and UHF communications range extension and...relay. JACS Version 2 operates from either a C-12 or C-130 airframe. JACS Version 3 (V3) increases operational flexibility by operating from an

  6. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-03-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming.

  7. Voice of the Voiceless: Women Enlightenment, BOU and Community Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Zobaida

    2010-01-01

    The Community broadcasting system poised for start-up in Bangladesh. Long run media-based NGOs, along with other NGOs and the private sector, were attempting to introduce community radio (CR) in Bangladesh. Both the public and private university are also considering a CR station on campus. In CR what will be new and attractive to the learners is…

  8. Rhetorical Perspectives in Radio Communications: The Speaker and the Loudspeaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald G.

    Radio rhetoric is set apart from traditional rhetoric by the efficacy it commands. This study focuses on rhetorical perspective in radio communication, noting 10 identifiable aspects of radio rhetoric noteworthy in undertaking rhetorical criticism: (1) the pressures of federal regulations which require balanced presentation affect preparation; (2)…

  9. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

  10. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  11. Localized radio frequency communication using asynchronous transfer mode protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, Edward L.; Robertson, Perry J.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2007-08-14

    A localized wireless communication system for communication between a plurality of circuit boards, and between electronic components on the circuit boards. Transceivers are located on each circuit board and electronic component. The transceivers communicate with one another over spread spectrum radio frequencies. An asynchronous transfer mode protocol controls communication flow with asynchronous transfer mode switches located on the circuit boards.

  12. Science on air: the role of radio in science communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzagora Matteo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The international symposium “Science on air: the role of radio in science communication” was held inTrieste on 1 and 2 October, 2004. To our knowledge, it is the first conference ever specifically held on science on radio, and it is certainly the first time science radio journalists, researchers, and mediaexperts from 16 different countries met to discuss their journalistic practice and the role of radio in science communication.The main results are presented in this article.

  13. Radio Gaga? Intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football umpires - effect of radio communication on content, structure and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M

    2017-07-31

    Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.

  14. Radio for formal education and for development communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, D T

    1978-09-01

    A substantial body of literature documents the successful use of open radio broadcasting, radio campaigns, and radio-listening groups in nonformal education and other aspects of development communication. The 4 alternative strategies for using radio in formal education -- using radio to enrich learning, direct instruction, extending in-school education, and distance learning -- need to be assessed in terms of users' needs. The use of radio to enrich in-school education holds little promise for major improvements, but the potential for the use of radio in direct instruction in 1 or more subjects is promising and presents a strong challenge to educators. Case studies of 2 Mexican projects to extend school in order to expand the rural population's access to information and schools were disappointing. Both projects showed that radio could teach about as effectively as traditional elementary school teachers, but neither expanded beyond the pilot stage. Better financing and a firmer government commitment might have made a difference. The use of radio in formal education as a component of a distance-learning system has been successful in Kenya and the Dominican Republic, among other places. The best use of open broadcast is to transmit an interesting message; the most appropriate use of listening-group strategies -- radio schools, farm forums, and radio animation -- are to promote more complex and longterm changes. Communication planners need to be aware that radio can be used in numerous ways in response to a variety of goals. 4 projects are reviewed to illustrate instances in which radio has realized its goals with special success -- the Kenyan health broadcasts, the radio program that used nutrition "ads," the Guatemalan agricultural information programs, and the Tanzania radio campaigns. These projects show that the development goals being promoted and the special characteristics of the project determine the strategy, its effects, and its transferability.

  15. Radio as the Voice of God: Peace and Tolerance Radio Programming’s Impact on Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aldrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observers have argued that radio programming can alter norms, especially through hate radio designed to increase animosity between groups. This article tests whether or not radio programming under the Countering Violent Extremism (CVE policy framework can reduce potential conflict and increase civic engagement and positive views of foreign nations. Data from surveys of more than 1,000 respondents in Mali, Chad, and Niger illuminate the ways in which peace and tolerance programming changed perspectives and altered behavior in statistically significant ways. Results show that individuals exposed to multi-level U.S. government programming were more likely to listen to peace and tolerance radio. Further, bivariate, multivariate regression, and propensity score matching techniques show that individuals who listened more regularly to such programs participated more frequently in civic activities and supported working with the West to combat terrorism (holding constant a number of potential confounding economic, demographic, and attitudinal factors. However, higher levels of radio listening had no measurable impact on opposition to the use of violence in the name of Islam or opposition to the imposition of Islamic law. Further, data indicate that women and men have responded to programming in measurably different ways. These mixed results have important implications for current and future “soft-side” programs for countering violent extremism.

  16. Inflatable Reflector For Solar Power And Radio Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercel, Joel; Gilchriest, Carl; Ewell, Rich; Herman, Martin; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes installation of lightweight inflatable reflector structure aboard spacecraft required to both derive power from sunlight and communicate with Earth by radio when apparent position of Earth is at manageably small angle from line of sight to Sun. Structure contains large-aperture paraboloidal reflector aimed toward Sun and concentrates sunlight onto photovoltaic power converter and acts as main reflector of spacecraft radio-communication system.

  17. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  18. 49 CFR 220.43 - Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications consistent with federal... Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.43 Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules. Radio communication shall not be used in connection with a...

  19. 49 CFR 220.37 - Testing radio and wireless communication equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing radio and wireless communication equipment... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.37 Testing radio and wireless communication equipment. (a) Each radio, and...

  20. Integrated Train Ground Radio Communication System Based TD-LTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hongli; CAO Yuan; ZHU Li; XU Wei

    2016-01-01

    In existing metro systems, the train ground radio communication system for different applications are deployed independently. Investing and constructing the communication infrastructures repeatedly wastes substan-tial social resources, and it brings difficulties to maintain all these infrastructures. We present the communication Quality of service (QoS) requirement for different train ground radio applications. An integrated TD-LTE based train ground radio communication system for the metro system (LTE-M) is designed next. In order to test the LTE-M system performance, an indoor testing environment is set up. The channel simulator and programmable attenua-tors are used to simulate the real metro environment. Ex-tensive test results show that the designed LTE-M system performance satisfies metro communication requirements.

  1. Radio communication for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC): A tutorial and survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    industry. We believe that this paper fills the much-needed gap. It aims to present a comprehensive tutorial, as well as a survey of the stateof- the-art, of CBTC and the role of radio communication in it. The operation and fundamental components of a CBTC system are discussed. A summary of the evolution...... of the communication technologies used for modern railway signalling is presented. The benefits and drawbacks of using a radio communication technology, particularly Wi-Fi, and the challenges it introduces, are discussed. Best practices in the design of a CBTC radio network and the measures to optimize its......Over the last decade, railway industry has seen a huge transition from conventional railway signalling systems to modern, communication-based signalling systems. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern communication-based system that uses radio communication to transfer timely...

  2. a Summer at Voice of America: Communicating Science to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to communicate the importance of science to the general public have typically been domestic initiatives: scientific organizations reaching out to American audiences through a variety of media to deepen their appreciation for the many ways science affects our lives. As federal and state budgets shrink, and programs affecting critical issues like the environment and health come under pressure, it becomes even more important that the public understand what is at stake. At the same time, in our increasingly interconnected world, it is becoming more important for science communicators to reach out to people in other countries, especially in parts of the world where science plays a life-or-death role in preventing famine or curing disease. Knowledge of science and technology is vital to understanding and tackling complex development challenges, making informed public policy decisions, and responding to a fast-changing world beyond U.S. borders. That is why the mission of the science desk at the Voice of America (VOA) in Washington DC is so crucial. This team of science journalists reports every day on new developments in science to a global audience, via radio, television and the web. VOA broadcasts both U.S. and international science news to an estimated 123 million listeners, viewers and web visitors in 44 languages. This presentation will discuss the motivation, challenges, experiences and benefits of writing for an international audience on the VOA Science Desk as an American Association for the Advancement in Science Mass Media Fellow, funded by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Towards Ultrahigh Speed Impulse Radio THz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Galili, Michael; Morioka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    THz impulse radio technologies promise a new paradigm of fast wireless access with simplified wireless reception. However, huge loss of propagating broad bandwidth THz impulse radio signals limits THz wireless transmission distance and reduces the achievable link data rates. In this paper, we...... evaluate the realistic throughput and accessible wireless range of a THz impulse radio communication link based on a uni-travelling photodiode (UTC-PD) as THz emitter and a photoconductive antenna (PCA) as THz receiver. The impact of highly frequency-selective THz channel and the noise in the system...

  4. Secure digital voice communications in the Defense Data Network (DDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, M.; Gan, D.; Oesterreicher, C.

    1985-03-01

    This final report has investigated and validated one of the fourteen key features of the future, all-digital World-wide Digital Systems Architecture (WWDSA), namely the enhanced 2.4 Kbps secure voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice (DSN) phase implementation plan in the report, Secure Voice, as provided by the STU-IIs, can be implemented in the DDN in the late 1980s time-frame with no technical and minimum schedule risk. VIUs are proposed to interconnect, the family of secure voice terminals, called STU-IIs, to the DDN. VIUs contain modan, signalling and supervision (S/S), and processor modules and are supported by the implementation model of the protocol architecture that (with the TAC as processor module) was proposed in the report. An optimum system-level architecture employing the VIUs and the proposed in the implementation plan based on an extensive evaluation.

  5. Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, S.

    2008-06-01

    Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

  6. 75 FR 20951 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur Radio Service Communications During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amendment of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur Radio Service Communications...-based communications for emergency responders, experience has shown that amateur radio has played an... radio communication at its disposal to provide essential communication needs in connection with...

  7. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a)...

  8. Technology Evaluation of Programmable Communicating Thermostats with Radio Broadcast Data System Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth

    2008-10-31

    Programmable Communicating Thermostats are thermostats that can be programmed by the user to respond to signals indicating a grid-level system emergency or pricing event. The California Energy Commission is considering standards that would include a requirement for Programmable Communicating Thermostats in residential and small commercial applications. The current specification for Programmable Communicating Thermostats requires Radio Data System communications to Programmable Communicating Thermostats. This study tested the signal strength and reliability of Radio Data System signals at 40 customer sites within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, which is serviced by 17 radio stations that already transmit Radio Data System signals. The study also tested the functionality of a commercially available Programmable Communicating Thermostat for compliance with California Energy Commission design standards. Test results demonstrated that Radio Data System is capable of reliably sending price and emergency signals. This study also provides evidence that existing Programmable Communicating Thermostats, on receiving a Radio Data System pricing or event signal, are capable of automatically increasing set points to a customer-determined or utility-determined level, thus providing air-conditioning demand response within seconds or just a few (less than 5) minutes.

  9. A cellular-based solution for radio communications in MOUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin, R.

    2005-01-01

    A short-term and potentially cost-effective solution is proposed for tactical radio communications in Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) for the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA). Measurements and computer simulations presented show that on average, outdoor ranges in MOUT as attainable with

  10. Rainfall measurement using radio links from cellular communication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Stricker, J.N.M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the potential of radio links such as employed by commercial cellular communication companies to monitor path-averaged rainfall. We present an analysis of data collected using two 38-GHz links during eight rainfall events over a 2-month period (October¿November 2003) during mostly stra

  11. A cellular-based solution for radio communications in MOUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin, R.

    2005-01-01

    A short-term and potentially cost-effective solution is proposed for tactical radio communications in Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) for the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA). Measurements and computer simulations presented show that on average, outdoor ranges in MOUT as attainable with RNL

  12. MicrobeWorld Radio and Communications Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Hyde

    2006-11-22

    MicrobeWorld is a 90-second feature broadcast daily on more than 90 public radio stations and available from several sources as a podcast, including www.microbeworld.org. The feature has a strong focus on the use and adapatbility of microbes as alternative sources of energy, in bioremediation, their role in climate, and especially the many benefits and scientific advances that have resulting from decoding microbial genomes. These audio features are permanantly archived on an educational outreach site, microbeworld.org, where they are linked to the National Science Education Standards. They are also being used by instructors at all levels to introduce students to the multiple roles and potential of microbes, including a pilot curriculum program for middle-school students in New York.

  13. Speech Communication Via Radio and Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starlin, Glenn; Sherriffs, Ronald

    Designed to serve as a practical introduction to the functions of the broadcast media and as a guide to adjustment to demands imposed by the media on speakers, this book attempts to deal with special problems of the ordinary citizen in preparation for broadcast talks. A first part focuses on the media--changing patterns of communication,…

  14. Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel; Romanofsky, Robert; Pease, Gary; Kacpura, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This is an overview of the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) Project for Space Communication and Navigation Industry Days. The Goal is to develop and demonstrate new, high payoff space technologies that will promote mission utilization of optical communications, thereby expanding the capabilities of NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions. This is an overview that combines the paramount features of select deep space RF and optical communications elements into an integrated system, scalable from deep space to near earth. It will realize Ka-band RF and 1550 nanometer optical capability. The approach is to prototype and demonstrate performance of key components to increase to TRL-5, leading to integrated hybrid communications system demonstration to increase to TRL-5, leading to integrated hybrid communications system demonstration.

  15. Impact of transport layer protocols on the efficiency of special purpose radio-communications

    OpenAIRE

    NEDELJKOVIC LJUBISA S.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of special purpose radio-communications depends on transport layer protocols. Meny factors have an impact on special purpose radio-communications efficiency, as well as TCP and UDP protocols. This paper presents the transport protocols throughput analysis in the HF and VHF radio-communications versus RTT and packet error rate probability. This paper considers a posibility of the application of TCP and UDP protocols in special purpose radio-communications. The following factors ...

  16. Electromagnetic compatibility fundamentals applied to spacecraft radio communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, F.; Celebiler, M.; Weil-Malherbe, C.

    1971-01-01

    A design guide for minimizing electromagnetic interference in aerospace communication equipment for ground stations is presented. Specifically treated are the mechanisms of generating unwanted radio emissions that may affect station operations as well as other communications services, the mechanisms by which sensitive receivers become susceptible to interference, means for reducing interference, standard methods of measurement, and the problems of site selection. The sources of interference are viewed primarily as originating from communications transmitters aboard spacecraft and aircraft, ground transmitters within and outside the ground stations, and other electrical sources on the ground that are not intended to radiate.

  17. Radio propagation for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the most recent information on the effects of the earth's atmosphere on space communications systems. Models and techniques used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission are discussed. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of precipitation on the earth-space path, including rain attenuation, and rain and ice-particle depolarization. Sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence are also discussed. The impact of the various propagation factors on communications system design criteria is presented. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contributions, modulation and polarization factors, channel crosstalk, error-rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  18. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ..., Communications common carriers, Communications equipment, Radio, Telecommunications, Telephone, Television... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land...

  19. Africa’s Voices: Using mobile phones and radio to foster mediated public discussion and to gather public opinions in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Lopes, Claudia; Srinivasan, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a one-year applied research pilot project, Africa’s Voices, run by the University of Cambridge’s Centre of Governance and Human Rights (CGHR). Africa’s Voices developed out of CGHR’s wider research programme on politics, ICTs and interactive media in Africa. That research analyses how audiences interact with radio stations through mobile phones; how different actors including audiences, radio journalists, and governance actors (state officials, but also o...

  20. Introducing Contemporary Voices of Music Therapy: Communication, Culture, and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynjulf Stige

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Essays, reports, and columns from Voices have been collected in an anthology. The book is published by Unipub, and will be possible to purchase in forthcoming international congresses. It will of course also be possible to order the book via the Voices website, to order it from the publisher, or to buy it in an ordinary or Internet bookstore. The editors (Carolyn Kenny and Brynjulf Stige are taking no royalties for this book and all income from the sales will support Voices (which is a non-profit enterprise. National or regional associations of music therapy will be given a special discount rate if they order more than 10 copies. Such arrangements may also be made with universities or other institutions.

  1. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  2. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  3. SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF THE STUDY OF PECULIARITIES OF RADIO COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Pazyura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Flight safety has always been in the center of attention of scientists and practitioners in aviation. That is why in the end of the last century the ICAO assembly recognized inadequate English proficiency among flight crews and controllers as a contributing factor in aviation accidents. It also directed the ICAO’s Air Navigation Commission (ANC to strengthen the provisions for the use of English in aeronautical radiotelephony (air traffic communications in Annex 1 - Personnel Licensing and Annex 10 – Aeronautical Telecommunications. Results. The article is devoted to the study of peculiarities of communication in aviation – radio communication between an air traffic controller and pilot, which is very important for promotion of flight safety. The author pays special attention to the study of social factors influencing the choice of certain lexical units and functional styles. Methods. For our research we used scientific general methods which are main ways of studying scientific sources, and comparative-historical method for synchronic comparison of event in the same region. Discussion. The factors that explain such linguistic choice during communication have been characterized. Similar and different features of professional radio communication and usual every day communication have been revealed. Some examples are given and explained according to specific professional activity.

  4. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2015-01-01

    systems, as well as those communications and navigation systems operated by international space agencies and civilian and government agencies. In this paper, we review the philosophies, technologies, architectural attributes, mission services, and communications capabilities that form the structure of candidate next-generation integrated communication architectures for space communications and navigation. A key area that this paper explores is from the development and operation of the software defined radio for the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed currently on the International Space Station (ISS). Evaluating the lessons learned from development and operation feed back into the communications architecture. Leveraging the reconfigurability provides a change in the way that operations are done and must be considered. Quantifying the impact on the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio architecture provides feedback to keep the standard useful and up to date. NASA is not the only customer of these radios. Software defined radios are developed for other applications, and taking advantage of these developments promotes an architecture that is cost effective and sustainable. Developments in the following areas such as an updated operating environment, higher data rates, networking and security can be leveraged. The ability to sustain an architecture that uses radios for multiple markets can lower costs and keep new technology infused.

  5. Modeling radio communication blackout and blackout mitigation in hypersonic vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Beckwith, Kristian; Stoltz, Peter; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the modeling and analysis of radio communication blackout of hypersonic vehicles is presented. A weakly ionized plasma generated around the surface of a hypersonic reentry vehicle traveling at Mach 23 was simulated using full Navier-Stokes equations in multi-species single fluid form. A seven species air chemistry model is used to compute the individual species densities in air including ionization - plasma densities are compared with experiment. The electromagnetic wave's interaction with the plasma layer is modeled using multi-fluid equations for fluid transport and full Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields. The multi-fluid solver is verified for a whistler wave propagating through a slab. First principles radio communication blackout over a hypersonic vehicle is demonstrated along with a simple blackout mitigation scheme using a magnetic window.

  6. Tunnel radio communications system at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struven, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    A unique single frequency, dual daisy chain tunnel radio communication system has been developed for use in our new Positron-Electron Storage Ring. Communications are possible between portables in the underground ring and between a portable in the ring and all control rooms on the site. The system is designed as a wide band facility and therefore can carry many simplex and duplex transmissions. This system utilizes TV twinlead as a distributed antenna and repeater amplifiers to cover more than 7000 feet of underground tunnel. The design philosophy, tests and initial design are discussed and contrasted with the final implementation of the system. Future uses of the system are discussed.

  7. Implantable radio frequency identification sensors: wireless power and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Chriswell; Rennaker, Robert L; Venkataraman, Srinivasan; Ahmed, Rehan; Liao, Ran; Ibrahim, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    There are significant technical challenges in the development of a fully implantable wirelessly powered neural interface. Challenges include wireless transmission of sufficient power to the implanted device to ensure reliable operation for decades without replacement, minimizing tissue heating, and adequate reliable communications bandwidth. Overcoming these challenges is essential for the development of implantable closed loop system for the treatment of disorders ranging from epilepsy, incontinence, stroke and spinal cord injury. We discuss the development of the wireless power, communication and control for a Radio-Frequency Identification Sensor (RFIDS) system with targeted power range for a 700 mV, 30 to 40 uA load attained at -2 dBm.

  8. Networked Operations of Hybrid Radio Optical Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Alan; Raible, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the increasing communications needs of modern equipment in space, and to address the increasing number of objects in space, NASA is demonstrating the potential capability of optical communications for both deep space and near-Earth applications. The Integrated Radio Optical Communications (iROC) is a hybrid communications system that capitalizes on the best of both the optical and RF domains while using each technology to compensate for the other's shortcomings. Specifically, the data rates of the optical links can be higher than their RF counterparts, whereas the RF links have greater link availability. The focus of this paper is twofold: to consider the operations of one or more iROC nodes from a networking point of view, and to suggest specific areas of research to further the field. We consider the utility of Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and the Virtual Mission Operation Center (VMOC) model.

  9. 25 CFR 169.26 - Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and other communications facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; radio, television, and other communications facilities. (a) The Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. 790... communication purposes, and for radio, television, and other forms of communication transmitting, relay, and... relative positions. (e) Rights-of-way for poles and lines for communication purposes, and for...

  10. The Provision of Feedback Types to EFL Learners in Synchronous Voice Computer Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Synchronous Voice Computer Mediated Communication (SVCMC) interaction and the use of feedback types, especially pronunciation feedback types, in distance tutoring contexts. The participants, divided into two groups (explicit and recast), were twelve beginning/low-intermediate level English as a Foreign…

  11. Individual versus Interactive Task-Based Performance through Voice-Based Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granena, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Interaction is a necessary condition for second language (L2) learning (Long, 1980, 1996). Research in computer-mediated communication has shown that interaction opportunities make learners pay attention to form in a variety of ways that promote L2 learning. This research has mostly investigated text-based rather than voice-based interaction. The…

  12. Communication in Change - Voice over IP in Safety and Security Critical Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Heimo; Sevcik, Berndt; Turek, Thomas; Zucker, Gerhard

    During the last decade communication technology has changed rapidly. Due to its decreasing costs and rising expansion, IP (Internet Protocol) technology has found its way to areas that have long been the domain of public-switched telephone networks (PSTN). Voice over IP (VoIP) applications are widely used not only for phone calls or common Internet conferences, but also tend to be used for safety critical communication applications. Hence security and safety topics arise, which pose new challenges in this area of research. The authors are convinced that new issues on the network layer as well as on the application layer require detailed analysis. Hence this paper gives an overview on latest developments in this area, and states the authors’ view on this topic. Thereby safety and security issues are faced from different abstraction layers. On the one hand the network layer and on the other hand the application layer focusing on middleware systems in the area of service oriented architectures (SOAs).

  13. Rapid Prototyping by 3D Printing for Advanced Radio Communications at 80 GHz and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Adrian Ruiz; Rommel, Simon; Anufriyev, Eldar

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of 3D printing for the manufacturing of spiral phase plates for the generation of radio vortex beams for advanced radio communications. The design and prototyping of a number of phase plates for communications at 80GHz with radio vortex beams is discussed...

  14. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  15. Communication Management Unit : Single Solution of Voice and Data Routing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Challenges faced by present avionics systems are low weight, less power, low volume, high mean time between failure and low mean time to repair. This paper is a feasibility study for single solution of voice and data switching/routing unit. This paper presents a new architecture for voice and data switching unit in the form of communication management unit.  The proposed solution is obtained on integrated modular avionics architecture using commercial-off-the-shelf  hardware. A single board computer is used as a processing engine with add-on audio boards to convert analog voice input and output signals into digital signals.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.181-185, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4261

  16. Voices of the Heart in Small Group Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Leanne O.

    Values can and should be a part of small group communication instruction. Discourse is value laden and to understand the communication process, the role of values must be understood. Many students come to the classroom not understanding values, and not being aware of the role of values in decision-making. Their lack of understanding requires that…

  17. 49 CFR 220.29 - Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.29 Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications. (a) If necessary for... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of letters and numbers in...

  18. Experimental Characterization of Extremely Broadband THz Impulse Radio Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Vidal, Borja; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally characterize a ultrabroadband terahertz (THz) impulse radio system with up to 10 GHz repetition rate. THz generation and radiation are realized in an antenna-integrated uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), and THz reception is implemented based on photoconductive sampling...... by using a photoconductive antenna (PCA). We analyze the performance in terms of bandwidth and the features of the THz pulses. A 15 dB bandwidth of 1 THz confirms that this THz impulse system has a great potential of supporting ultrafast data rates, eventually for Terabit wireless communication era....

  19. Coordination procedure for radio relay and communication satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, J.

    1973-01-01

    A global rain rate statistic model is used to link microwave propagation statistics to measurable rain statistics in order to develop international telecommunication site criteria for radio relay and communication satellite services that minimize interference between receivers and transmitters. This rain coordination procedure utilizes a rain storm cell size, a statistical description of the rainfall rate within the cell valid for most of the earth's surface, approximations between Raleigh scatter and constancy of precipitation with altitude, and an analytic relation between radar reflectivity and rain rate.

  20. Communicating Science in the Capitol: The Graduate Student Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental scientific research, as a majority federally funded initiative, is becoming more deeply embedded in politics. Since the end of the Space Race, funding of basic physical sciences research as a percent GDP has continuously declined, indicating that policy makers see funding scientific research as less of a priority than they once did. A lack of understanding about both science and how science is done amongst members of Congress has led to both reduced prioritization and also to misguided attempts at regulation, such as making peer review a public process and considering Congressional oversight for specific grants. Here we will examine a few current issues in science policy, the effect on graduate students, and why the student voice is effective. We will also consider the positive or negative effects such public engagement may have on our scientific careers and ways in which you can get involved.

  1. Interpole Communication in Radio Pulsars and the Resulting Theoretical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltevrede, P.; Wright, G.; Johnston, S.

    2012-12-01

    Here we discuss some recent, and less recent, radio observations that demonstrate an intimate link between the emission generated by opposite magnetic poles of neutron stars. More specifically, there are examples of pulsars which show quasi-periodic brightening of the emission generated by both poles with a time delay which remains fixed on a timescale of at least years. This implies that the opposite magnetic poles do not operate independently of each other, leading to the question about the nature of the communication channel. In the case of PSR B1055-52 this time delay is very large, corresponding to a light travel distance of many times the light cylinder radius. A number of physical models are explored and significant objections can be made to each model. So the communication channel between the magnetic poles of pulsars remains elusive, although its understanding could prove crucial to understanding the large-scale structure of magnetospheres.

  2. Voice restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Tan, I.B.; Remacle, M.; Eckel, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical prosthetic voice restoration is the best possible option for patients to regain oral communication after total laryngectomy. It is considered to be the present "gold standard" for voice rehabilitation of laryngectomized individuals. Surgical prosthetic voice restoration, in essence, is alwa

  3. 75 FR 46854 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur Radio Service Communications During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... the NPRM, public safety agencies and other emergency first responder entities voiced general support... radio. This integrative activity is essential to allow for a practiced response on the part of the first responder community in the event of an emergency. Because some of those drills and exercises include...

  4. A COTS RF/Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RF/Optical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  5. Familiar Voices: Using Ebonics Communication Techniques in the Primary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Anita Perna

    2003-01-01

    Presents classroom vignettes illustrating an African American first grade teacher's use of selected Ebonics communication techniques that celebrate African American oral traditions while supporting diverse students' academic success. Identifies five common Ebonics rhetorical devices (use of repetitive, rhythmic phrasing for emphasis; call and…

  6. New Voices in the Workplace: Research Directions in Multicultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Marlene G.

    1991-01-01

    Develops a two-step framework (resistance to privileged discourse followed by harmonic discourse) for understanding multicultural communication in organizations based on the assumption of cultural difference. Suggests four directions for future research to create the data base that would allow development of a model of multicultural communication…

  7. Localization and cooperative communication methods for cognitive radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Olivier

    We study localization of nearby nodes and cooperative communication for cognitive radios. Cognitive radios sensing their environment to estimate the channel gain between nodes can cooperate and adapt their transmission power to maximize the capacity of the communication between two nodes. We study the end-to-end capacity of a cooperative relaying scheme using orthogonal frequency-division modulation (OFDM) modulation, under power constraints for both the base station and the relay station. The relay uses amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward cooperative relaying techniques to retransmit messages on a subset of the available subcarriers. The power used in the base station and the relay station transmitters is allocated to maximize the overall system capacity. The subcarrier selection and power allocation are obtained based on convex optimization formulations and an iterative algorithm. Additionally, decode-and-forward relaying schemes are allowed to pair source and relayed subcarriers to increase further the capacity of the system. The proposed techniques outperforms non-selective relaying schemes over a range of relay power budgets. Cognitive radios can be used for opportunistic access of the radio spectrum by detecting spectrum holes left unused by licensed primary users. We introduce a spectrum holes detection approach, which combines blind modulation classification, angle of arrival estimation and number of sources detection. We perform eigenspace analysis to determine the number of sources, and estimate their angles of arrival (AOA). In addition, we classify detected sources as primary or secondary users with their distinct second-orde one-conjugate cyclostationarity features. Extensive simulations carried out indicate that the proposed system identifies and locates individual sources correctly, even at -4 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In environments with a high density of scatterers, several wireless channels experience nonline-of-sight (NLOS

  8. Software-Defined Ultra-wideband Radio Communications: A New RF Technology for Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2009-10-19

    Reliable wireless communication links for local-area (short-range) and regional (long-range) reach capabilities are crucial for emergency response to disasters. Lack of a dependable communication system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. To date, all wireless communications systems such as cell phones and walkie-talkies use narrowband radio frequency (RF) signaling for data communication. However, the hostile radio propagation environment caused by collapsed structures and rubble in various disaster sites results in significant degradation and attenuation of narrowband RF signals, which ends up in frequent communication breakdowns. To address the challenges of reliable radio communication in disaster fields, we propose an approach to use ultra-wideband (UWB) or wideband RF waveforms for implementation on Software Defined Radio (SDR) platforms. Ultra-wideband communications has been proven by many research groups to be effective in addressing many of the limitations faced by conventional narrowband radio technologies. In addition, LLNL's radio and wireless team have shown significant success in field deployment of various UWB communications system for harsh environments based on LLNL's patented UWB modulation and equalization techniques. Furthermore, using software defined radio platform for UWB communications offers a great deal of flexibility in operational parameters and helps the radio system to dynamically adapt itself to its environment for optimal performance.

  9. STS-37 Pilot Cameron uses SAREX to communicate amateur radio operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron, wearing Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) headset (HDST), communicates with amateur radio operators and students while on aft flight deck aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. SAREX provided radio transmissions between ground based amateur radio operators around the world and Cameron (call sign KB5AWP) and the other crewmembers, all of whom are licensed amateur radio operators. SAREX enabled students from all over the United States to have a chance to communicate with an astronaut in space. The cloud-covered surface of the Earth is visible above Cameron framed in the overhead window W8.

  10. AN EFFICIENT VOICE SCRAMBLING TECHNIQUE FOR NEXT GENERATION COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The OFDM scrambler is most widely used for secure communication. In order to eliminate the intelligibility of speech, speech scrambling is used. Many of the scrambling techniques shows poor performance, to improve the efficiency of the scrambler an efficient speech scrambling technique, random permutation with pseudorandom- generator under multipath fading is proposed. The Common Intelligibility Scale (CIS and Speech Transmission Index (STI are used to predict the intelligibility of speech. Also to evaluate the performance of speech the BER (Bit Error Rate and the SINR (Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio was used. By the measurement of PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality the recovered speech quality was observed. The simulations show that OFDM scrambler is a best technique for providing extremely high data security for 4G mobile communication when compared to a conventional technique.

  11. Radio Synthesis Imaging - A High Performance Computing and Communications Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard M.

    The National Science Foundation has funded a five-year High Performance Computing and Communications project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) for the direct implementation of several of the computing recommendations of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the "Bahcall report"). This paper is a summary of the project goals and a progress report. The project will implement a prototype of the next generation of astronomical telescope systems - remotely located telescopes connected by high-speed networks to very high performance, scalable architecture computers and on-line data archives, which are accessed by astronomers over Gbit/sec networks. Specifically, a data link has been installed between the BIMA millimeter-wave synthesis array at Hat Creek, California and NCSA at Urbana, Illinois for real-time transmission of data to NCSA. Data are automatically archived, and may be browsed and retrieved by astronomers using the NCSA Mosaic software. In addition, an on-line digital library of processed images will be established. BIMA data will be processed on a very high performance distributed computing system, with I/O, user interface, and most of the software system running on the NCSA Convex C3880 supercomputer or Silicon Graphics Onyx workstations connected by HiPPI to the high performance, massively parallel Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5. The very computationally intensive algorithms for calibration and imaging of radio synthesis array observations will be optimized for the CM-5 and new algorithms which utilize the massively parallel architecture will be developed. Code running simultaneously on the distributed computers will communicate using the Data Transport Mechanism developed by NCSA. The project will also use the BLANCA Gbit/s testbed network between Urbana and Madison, Wisconsin to connect an Onyx workstation in the University of Wisconsin Astronomy Department to the NCSA CM-5, for development of long

  12. FQPSK techniques for satellite and mobile radio communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yazhuo; Tang, Jing; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2005-11-01

    A continuous phase modulation (CPM) and constant envelope modulation (CEM) alternative of Feher-Patented quadrature phase-shift keying (FQPSK) modulation technique is presented. It is found to provide good spectral efficiencies, power efficiencies, and bit error rate (BER) performance. The modulation schemes of FQPSK are described. The spectral efficiencies, BER performance are also compared with FQPSK and other modulation techniques which are widely used in current mobile and cordless radio standards. The results show that FQPSK modulated signal exhibits much less spectrum spreading than QPSK, OQPSK, and MSK, and the error probability performance of the FQPSK is superior to those in narrow-band nonlinear channels. Based on that, the system capacity and power dissipation are also analyzed for communication systems. It is found that the encoder or receiver for the FQPSK signal to be fully compatible with original I/Q modulated one. FQPSK technique is suitable for nonlinear channels, such as satellite and mobile communications systems reducing the AM/AM and AM/PM adverse effects. At last it is also attempted to extend the application in 3G (CDMA) and 4G (OFDM) mobile communications systems.

  13. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  14. Radio Wave Propagation Handbook for Communication on and Around Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser; Kliore, Arvydas

    2002-01-01

    This handbook examines the effects of the Martian environment on radio wave propagation on Mars and in the space near the planet. The environmental effects include these from the Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, global dust storms, aerosols, clouds, and geomorphologic features. Relevant Martian environmental parameters were extracted from the measurements of Mars missions during the past 30 years, especially from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. The results derived from measurements and analyses have been reviewed through an extensive literature search. The updated parameters have been theoretically analyzed to study their effects on radio propagation. This handbook also provides basic information about the entire telecommunications environment on and around Mars for propagation researchers, system engineers, and link analysts. Based on these original analyses, some important recommendations have been made, including the use of the Martian ionosphere as a reflector for Mars global or trans-horizon communication between future Martian colonies, reducing dust storm scattering effects, etc. These results have extended our wave propagation knowledge to a planet other than Earth; and the tables, models, and graphics included in this handbook will benefit telecommunication system engineers and scientific researchers.

  15. Full Duplex Wireless Communications for Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2011-01-01

    As a key in cognitive radio networks (CRNs), dynamic spectrum access needs to be carefully designed to minimize the interference and delay to the \\emph{primary} (licensed) users. One of the main challenges in dynamic spectrum access is to determine when the \\emph{secondary} (unlicensed) users can use the spectrum. In particular, when the secondary user is using the spectrum, if the primary user becomes active to use the spectrum, it is usually hard for the secondary user to detect the primary user instantaneously, thus causing unexpected interference and delay to primary users. The secondary user cannot detect the presence of primary users instantaneously because the secondary user is unable to detect the spectrum at the same time while it is transmitting. To solve this problem, we propose the full duplex wireless communications scheme for CRNs. In particular, we employ the Antennas Cancellation (AC), the RF Interference Cancellation (RIC), and the Digital Interference Cancellation (DIC) techniques for second...

  16. Npl Ionospheric Model for Radio Communication and Navigational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Dabas, Raj

    In the areas of Radio Communication and Navigation, present day need of the users are to achieve higher performance communication, better navigation, positioning which can only be possible through improved Ionospheric Modeling, its now casting and forecast-ing. Therefore, National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi has develop a user friendly, Empirical Ionospheric Model (NPL Model) for the Indian zone which gives all the F-region Parameters like foF2, NmF2, hmF2, Ne Profiles and the Ionospheric Electron Content (IEC) for different Radio Communication/Navigational applications. Basically, two HF prediction models for short and long term predictions are developed for equatorial and low latitude iono-sphere. Short term HF prediction model is based on Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) for the dependence of F-region parameters namely foF2 and M(3000)F2, on solar 2800 MHz flux (F10), and geomagnetic index Ap whereas for long term prediction, Second Degree (SD) coefficients are generated by fitting monthly median foF2 and M(3000)F2 with corresponding 12 monthly mean sunspot numbers (R12) using data over three solar cycles. For generating MRA coefficients, daily foF2, M(3000)F2 values for each hour, obtained from Delhi (28.6N, 77.1E) digital ionosonde for about half a solar cycle are used. MRA coefficients, separately for quiet (Ap25) periods, for foF2 and M(3000)F2, are obtained for every month over 24 UT times using daily F10 and Ap values. Whereas SD coefficients are obtained each month at all local times for all the 14 stations covering a geographic latitude range from about 0 to 45 N. IEC model is developed in two ways. Firstly, IEC model is also developed using monthly median foF2 and hmF2 values for each hours for all the 14 stations which are feed into IRI 2000 model to calculate respective IEC values for two altitudes namely 1000km and 2000km. Then, second degree coefficients are generated by fitting monthly median IEC with corresponding 12 monthly mean

  17. Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

  18. A Simple Radio Receiver Aids Understanding of Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Orlando, A.

    2012-01-01

    The basic theory of radio broadcasting is discussed from an experimental point of view. First, concepts like wave modulation and tuning are explained with the use of instruments in the physics laboratory. Then, a very basic radio receiver is described and assembled, whose most important feature, like in the old "crystal radios", is the absence of…

  19. Assessing Evaporation Duct Variability In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea In Support Of Radar And Radio Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    EVAPORATION DUCT VARIABILITY IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN SUPPORT OF RADAR AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS by Süleyman C. Gürbüz December 2016...MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN SUPPORT OF RADAR AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Süleyman C. Gürbüz 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN SUPPORT OF RADAR AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS Süleyman C. Gürbüz Lieutenant Junior Grade, Turkish Navy B.S

  20. Future communications satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  1. Estimation of the Potential Interference Immunity of Radio Reception with Spatial Signal Processing in Multipath Radio-Communication Channels. I. Decameter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelev, S. A.; Lvov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a method for estimating potential interference immunity of radio reception in the multipath radio-communication channels. Using this method for the modified Watterson model of the decameter radio channel, we study the achievable interference immunity of devices with spatial signal processing.

  2. Voice of the Church: A Debate about Religious Radio Stations as Community Broadcasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Velics

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on the role of community media in promoting social cohesion and intercultural dialogue passed on 11 February 2009 by the Council of Europe, stations run by religious institutions were explicitly excluded from the community media definition, as being too dependent on the Church. But the reality seems to be far from this definition. In practice, in many countries the religious radio stations officially belong to—or even dominate—this sector. In 2011 a new period began for community broadcasting in Hungary. While most of the former community media broadcasters could not find resources with which to operate, the community media landscape was dramatically overwhelmed by religious broadcasters both on regional and local levels. The legally-recognised third tier of broadcasting in Poland called ‘social broadcasting’ is actively and exclusively used by religious radio—seven stations broadcast locally and one is a powerful nationwide radio station called Radio Maryja. The authors gathered information and points of views from radio experts, organizations and activists living and working in different EU and non-EU states about the place of religious broadcasting in the community media sector. Two case-studies (Hungary and Poland may be of interest for countries considering the introduction or reorganisation of regulations regarding community broadcasting.

  3. [Problems of harmonization of sanitary regulations of the electromagnetic fields of mobile radio communication equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'tsev, Iu P; Pokhodzeĭ, L V; Rubtsova, N B; Bogacheva, E V

    2013-01-01

    In the article there are presented data on the probable adverse effects of electromagnetic fields generated by means of mobile cellulary radio communication equipment, a comparative analysis of hygienic rating and methods of measurement of their parameters in Russia and abroad has been performed, and the ways of harmonizing hygienic rules have been outlined, the necessity of further research to risk assessment of the use of cellular radio communication devices by population and preventive measures have been substantiated.

  4. Radiation effects on communication performance of radio frequency identification tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuyuki; Meng, Zhaowu; Kikuchi, Hirosumi; Kataoka, Yasuhide; Nakazato, Kazuhisa; Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Saze, Takuya; Hirota, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2010-11-01

    Radioactive materials (sources) are managed by bookkeeping and stocktaking. The radiation protection section staffs should check the sources manually. Annual effective dose concerning stocktaking of them are estimated at some mSv concerning fingers. A radio frequency identification (RFID) tag's absorbed dose is estimated at some dozen Gy. RFID for stocktaking automatically was devised. Radiation effects on the communication performance of RFID tags were investigated by using response times and read ranges as indices. The RFID system was composed of a computer, a detector, and transponders (tag) consisting of an integrated circuit chip and an antenna. The tag is joined to the source for identification. The tags were irradiated at doses between 5 and 5,000 Gy by an x-ray irradiator. The response times and the read ranges were tracked from 40 to 23,200 min after irradiation. Relative read ranges fluctuated between 0.9 and 1.1 in the dose region less than 2,000 Gy, but fluctuated greatly in the dose region beyond 2,000 Gy. Malfunctioning tags appeared from 3,000 Gy, and all tags malfunctioned in the dose region over 4,500 Gy. The threshold dose leading to malfunction was determined to be 2,100 Gy. Time variation of relative read ranges was classified into four patterns. The pattern shifted from pattern 1 to 4 when the dose was increased. The relative read ranges lengthened in pattern 1. The relative read rages were approximately 1.0 in pattern 2. The read ranges tentatively shortened, then recovered in pattern 3. The tags malfunctioned in pattern 4. Once the tags malfunctioned, they never recovered their performance. Radiation enhances or deteriorates communication performance depending on dosage. Tags can spontaneously recover from radiation deterioration. The time variation of the read ranges can be illustrated by enhancement, deterioration, and recovery. The mechanism of four patterns is explained based on the variation of the frequency harmonization strength and

  5. When all else fails: 21st century Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century demand for radio spectrum continues to increase with the explosive growth of wireless devices, but authorities reserve slices of the spectrum for licensed Amateur Radio operators, recognizing their value to the public, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications. Blood banking and transfusion medicine are among the specialties that should also recognize the value of Amateur Radio as an emergency communications medium, because blood collection, testing, processing, storage, and transfusion are life-saving activities that in modern times can be separated by considerable distance.

  6. The paraboloidal reflector antenna in radio astronomy and communication theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Baars, Jacob W M

    2007-01-01

    Reflector antennas are widely used in the microwave and millimeter wavelength domain. Radio astronomers have developed techniques of calibration of large antennas with radio astronomical methods. These have not been comprehensively described. This text aims to fill this gap. The Paraboloidal Reflector Antenna in Radio Astronomy and Communication: Theory and Practice takes a practical approach to the characterization of antennas. All calculations and results in the form of tables and figures have been made with Mathematica by Wolfram Research. The reader can use the procedures for the implementation of his/her own input data. The book should be of use to all who are involved in the design and calibration of large antennas, like ground station managers and engineers, practicing radio astronomers, and finally, graduate students in radio astronomy and communication technology.

  7. Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Synchronous Voice-Based Computer-Mediated Communication in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the benefits and drawbacks of synchronous voice-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) in a blended course of English for specific purposes. Quantitative and qualitative data from two groups following the same syllabus, except for the oral component, were compared. Oral tasks were carried out face-to-face with same L1…

  8. Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Synchronous Voice-Based Computer-Mediated Communication in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the benefits and drawbacks of synchronous voice-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) in a blended course of English for specific purposes. Quantitative and qualitative data from two groups following the same syllabus, except for the oral component, were compared. Oral tasks were carried out face-to-face with same L1…

  9. The illusion of nonmediation in telecommunication: voice intensity biases distance judgments to a communication partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Lakens, Daniël; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand A

    2015-05-01

    The illusion of nonmediation is an experience in mediated communication where individuals respond as if the medium is not there. It is frequently associated with advanced media technology, such as virtual environments and teleconference systems. In this paper, we investigate whether people experience an illusion of nonmediation during interactions as simple as making a phone call. In three experiments, participants were asked to listen to someone's voice on a mobile phone (Experiment 1) or through VoIP software (Experiment 2 and 3) before guessing the location of the person and indicating this location on a map. Results consistently demonstrated that louder voices were judged to be closer, as if the technical mediation was ignored. Combining the three experiments, a small-scale meta-analysis yielded an effect size estimate of d=0.37 for the 'louder-as-closer' effect. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating the past into the present. Young voices about communism and communists in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca PETRE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades have passed since the fall of communism; meanwhile, a new generation has come to age in the post-communist countries, with no direct experience of the past, yet still influenced by it. In the pages to follow I try to bring the voice of young Romanians to the fore, for it is a voice which has scarcely been heard. How do young people communicate about a past that they did not experience but which nevertheless influences them? How do they appropriate the past and what does it mean for them? The hypothesis emerging from empirical exploration is that “communist” is the term that the youth uses to mark their distinction and rebellion against the adult generation. It is not as much a political category but an everyday term that would silence the “other” of youth, the adults. “Communists” are described as authoritarian, dictatorial, limited, rigid, and indoctrinated. While “communist” is a term that seems easy to describe, there is no clear and coherent opinion when it comes to “communism”. More often than not, young people adopt the standardised version of history textbooks and combine it with the stories heard from their parents. It is to be pointed out that often the two versions collide, the textbooks presenting the recent past in dark colours as abusive, dictatorial, totalitarian, while many parents emphasise the safety of work and lodgings.

  11. Differing Roles of the Face and Voice in Early Human Communication: Roots of Language in Multimodal Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Jhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking roots of language, we probed infant facial expressions and vocalizations. Both have roles in language, but the voice plays an especially flexible role, expressing a variety of functions and affect conditions with the same vocal categories—a word can be produced with many different affective flavors. This requirement of language is seen in very early infant vocalizations. We examined the extent to which affect is transmitted by early vocal categories termed “protophones” (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls and by their co-occurring facial expressions, and similarly the extent to which vocal type is transmitted by the voice and co-occurring facial expressions. Our coder agreement data suggest infant affect during protophones was most reliably transmitted by the face (judged in video-only, while vocal type was transmitted most reliably by the voice (judged in audio-only. Voice alone transmitted negative affect more reliably than neutral or positive affect, suggesting infant protophones may be used especially to call for attention when the infant is in distress. By contrast, the face alone provided no significant information about protophone categories. Indeed coders in VID could scarcely recognize the difference between silence and voice when coding protophones in VID. The results suggest that partial decoupling of communicative roles for face and voice occurs even in the first months of life. Affect in infancy appears to be transmitted in a way that audio and video aspects are flexibly interwoven, as in mature language.

  12. S3: Smart Session Selection for Voice Communications in Next Generation Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tein-Yaw; Yuan, Fong-Ching; Chen, Yung-Mu; Liu, Baw-Jhiune

    Selecting transparently a proper network connection for voice communication will be a fundamental requirement in future multimode heterogeneous wireless network. This paper presented a smart session selection (S3) scheme to meet this requirement. Instead of selecting a best access network as in conventional Always Best Connected (ABC) paradigm, S3 enables users to select a best network connection, which consists of source and destination access network pair, to satisfy quality constraint and users' preference. To support S3, we develop a user profile to specify network connection priority. Meanwhile IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) is extended to make smart decision for users. Finally, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to recommend a network connection with assistance of user profile and IMS signaling. An example is illustrated to show that AHP can successfully select a good network connection that fulfills the requirement of users.

  13. Voice analysis during bad news discussion in oncology: reduced pitch, decreased speaking rate, and nonverbal communication of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica; Parker, Patricia A; Baile, Walter F; Lenzi, Renato

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the speaking rate and pitch of healthcare providers when discussing bad news versus neutral topics, and to assess listeners' ability to perceive voice differences in the absence of speech content. Participants were oncology healthcare providers seeing patients with cancer of unknown primary. The encounters were audio recorded; the information communicated by the oncologist to the patient was identified as neutral or bad news. At least 30 seconds of both bad news and neutral utterances were analyzed; provider voice pitch and speaking rate were measured. The same utterances were subjected to low pass filtering that maintained pitch contours and speaking rate, but eliminated acoustic energy associated with consonants making the samples unintelligible, but with unchanged intonation. Twenty-seven listeners (graduate students in a voice disorders class) listened to the samples and rated them on three features: caring, sympathetic, and competent. All but one provider reduced speaking rate, the majority also reduced pitch in the bad news condition. Listeners perceived a significant difference between the nonverbal characteristics of the providers' voice when performing the two tasks and rated speech produced with the reduced rate and lower pitch as more caring and sympathetic. These results suggest that simultaneous assessment of verbal content and multiparameter prosodic analysis of speech is necessary for a more thorough understanding of the expression and perception of empathy. This information has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of communication training design and of oncologists' communication effectiveness.

  14. Integrated DoD Voice and Data Networks and Ground Packet Radio Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    also been well-studied. Several algorithms are found in the litera- ture [CHOU, 1973], ( ESAU , 1966], [WOO, 1973]. Typically, the algorithms solve...Data Communications Symposium, St. Peters- burg, Florida, November 13-15, 1973. ( ESAU , 1966] Esau , L.R. and K.C. Williams, "On Teleproces- sing

  15. Implementation of wireless communication based on Software Defined Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In current communication systems, there are many new challenges like various competitive standards, the scarcity of frequency resource, etc., especially the development of personal wireless communication systems result the new system update faster than ever before, the conventional hardware-based wireless communication system is difficult to adapt to this situation. The emergence of SDR enabled the third revolution of wireless communication which from hardware to software and build a flexible...

  16. Next generation wireless communications using radio over fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Nathan J; Gameiro, Atilio

    2012-01-01

    Taking a coherent and logical approach, this book describes the potential use of co-ordinated multipoint systems supported by radio over fiber. It covers an impressive breadth of topics, ranging from components, subsystem and system architecture, to network management and business perspectives. The authors show the importance of radio over fiber in eliminating or mitigating against the current, perceived barriers to the use of co-ordinated multipoint, and the drivers for standardisation activities in future mobile/wireless systems over the next few years. The book brings together the

  17. Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning for Cognitive Radio-Based Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo Victor R.; Paffenroth, Randy; Wyglinski, Alexander M.; Hackett, Timothy M.; Bilen, Sven G.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Mortensen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on cognitive radios has addressed the performance of various machine-learning and optimization techniques for decision making of terrestrial link properties. In this paper, we present our recent investigations with respect to reinforcement learning that potentially can be employed by future cognitive radios installed onboard satellite communications systems specifically tasked with radio resource management. This work analyzes the performance of learning, reasoning, and decision making while considering multiple objectives for time-varying communications channels, as well as different cross-layer requirements. Based on the urgent demand for increased bandwidth, which is being addressed by the next generation of high-throughput satellites, the performance of cognitive radio is assessed considering links between a geostationary satellite and a fixed ground station operating at Ka-band (26 GHz). Simulation results show multiple objective performance improvements of more than 3.5 times for clear sky conditions and 6.8 times for rain conditions.

  18. Advanced Multimode Radio for Wireless & Mobile Broadband Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian

    2009-01-01

    of a digital predistortion (DPD) block is emphasized and an adaptive polynomial approach based on cartesian to polar conversion is then proposed. Such radio architecture has successfully been implemented on a low-cost FPGA family meeting the WiMAX/LTE spectrum and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) requirements....

  19. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain models for path loss exponents and shadowing for the radio channel between airborne Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and cellular networks. In this pursuit, field measurements were conducted in live LTE networks at the 800 MHz frequency band, using...

  20. The distress of voice-hearing: the use of simulation for awareness, understanding and communication skill development in undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Fiona; Kellehear, Kevin; Armari, Elizabeth; Pearson, Arana; Holmes, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Role-play scenarios are frequently used with undergraduate nursing students enrolled in mental health nursing subjects to simulate the experience of voice-hearing. However, role-play has limitations and typically does not involve those who hear voices. This collaborative project between mental health consumers who hear voices and nursing academics aimed to develop and assess simulated voice-hearing as an alternative learning tool that could provide a deeper understanding of the impact of voice-hearing, whilst enabling students to consider the communication skills required when interacting with voice-hearers. Simulated sounds and voices recorded by consumers on mp3 players were given to eighty final year nursing students undertaking a mental health elective. Students participated in various activities whilst listening to the simulations. Seventy-six (95%) students completed a written evaluation following the simulation, which assessed the benefits of the simulation and its implications for clinical practice. An analysis of the students' responses by an external evaluator indicated that there were three major learning outcomes: developing an understanding of voice-hearing, increasing students' awareness of its impact on functioning, and consideration of the communication skills necessary to engage with consumers who hear voices.

  1. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  2. Estimation of Potential Interference Immunity of Radio Reception with Spatial Signal Processing in Mutipath Radio-Communication Channels. Part II. Meter and Decimeter Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, A. V.; Metelev, S. L.

    2016-11-01

    We propose simulation models for estimating the interference immunity of radio reception using the spatial processing of signals in the airborne and ground-based communication channels of the meter and decimeter wavelength ranges. The ultimate achievable interference immunity under various radio-wave propagation conditions is studied.

  3. Keeping Communications Flowing During Large-scale Disasters: Leveraging Amateur Radio Innovations for Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Victor H; Mitz, Andrew R; Arnesen, Stacey J

    2017-09-25

    Medical facilities may struggle to maintain effective communications during a major disaster. Natural and man-made disasters threaten connectivity by degrading or crippling Internet, cellular/mobile, and landline telephone services across wide areas. Communications among staff, between facilities, and to resources outside the disaster area may be lost for an extended time. A prototype communications system created by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides basic communication services that ensure essential connectivity in the face of widespread infrastructure loss. It leverages amateur radio to provide resilient email service to local users, enabling them to reach intact communications networks outside the disaster zone. Because amateur radio is inexpensive, always available, and sufficiently independent of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructure, it has often augmented telecommunications capabilities of medical facilities. NLM's solution is unique in that it provides end-user to end-user direct email communications, without requiring the intervention of a radio operator in the handling of the messages. Medical staff can exchange email among themselves and with others outside the communications blackout zone. The technology is portable, is deployable on short notice, and can be powered in a variety of ways to adapt to the circumstances of each crisis. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 8).

  4. Cooperative device-to-device communication in cognitive radio cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines current research on cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communication as an enhanced offloading technology to improve the performance of cognitive radio cellular networks. By providing an extensive review of recent advances in D2D communication, the authors demonstrate that the quality of D2D links significantly affects offloading performance in cellular networks, which motivates the design of cooperative D2D communication. After presenting the architecture of cooperative D2D communication, the challenges of capacity maximization and energy efficiency are addressed by optimi

  5. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-06-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  6. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L.; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-06-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  7. Underwater Multi-Node Radio Communication Solutions for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawar, Zaid Fares Yousef; Haddad, Sanad Atef Sari; Mestariheh, Feras R. M.; Jonsson, Lars Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of the presumably life harboring subsurface ocean of Europa will provide scientists with extensive new knowledge in the search for extraterrestrial life. A highly miniaturized payload is required to penetrate a narrow passage through the thick ice crust covering Europa's surface. Underwater wireless communications may be the most viable means of communication for such exploratory missions, accounting for size and weight restrictions. This presents a challenge to achieve satisfactory data rates and a range that permits autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to communicate within their region of operation, as well as with a surface lander or orbiter. This work presents thorough prototype experimentation on an underwater communication system established between several nodes using RF signals. During an eight-week internship experience at NASA's Ames Research Center in September-October 2014, our team developed a Europa exploration mission concept, built representative hardware, and carried out tests to assess the feasibility of key aspects of the concept. Experiments demonstrating the viability of RF communication underwater comprised inspecting the effect of depth and horizontal distance on signal strength as well as the optimum positioning of antennas. To test the system's performance, two submersibles were designed and built. A commercially available remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was also modified and used as a main communication node. The two submersibles were wirelessly connected and accommodated sensors capable of characterizing water properties and equipped with 2.4 GHz, 1 mW transceivers to communicate the measured data. The communication procedure is that the main communication node requests the collected data from the two submersibles when in range and receives it instantly through RF. This work models what may take place during an actual mission to Europa. The developed mission concept involved a hybrid communication system consisting of

  8. Executive summary. [application of laser oriented and radio frequency techniques for space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The scope of Technology Forecasting for Space Communications is very wide, covering virtually every technology that can directly or indirectly affect space communications. The assigned effort, however, was directed toward a series of studies which individually examined important aspects of space communications and which collectively was interrelated. The contributions of the individual tasks and their interrelationship are indicated. The total effort of the tasks was fairly evenly divided between laser oriented and radio frequency tasks. The investigations show that laser communications have a current state of the art which would allow operational systems to be implemented in the 1975 to 1980 time frame. Further, these systems, when operated over ranges in the order of synchronous ranges (42,000 km)and transmitting data rates of 10 to the 8th power 10 to the 9th power bits per second will have a smaller total weight impact on a spacecraft than do radio systems.

  9. A New Signaling Architecture THREP with Autonomous Radio-Link Control for Wireless Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Masahiko; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a new signaling architecture for radio-access control in wireless communications systems. Called THREP (for THREe-phase link set-up Process), it enables systems with low-cost configurations to provide tetherless access and wide-ranging mobility by using autonomous radio-link controls for fast cell searching and distributed call management. A signaling architecture generally consists of a radio-access part and a service-entity-access part. In THREP, the latter part is divided into two steps: preparing a communication channel, and sustaining it. Access control in THREP is thus composed of three separated parts, or protocol phases. The specifications of each phase are determined independently according to system requirements. In the proposed architecture, the first phase uses autonomous radio-link control because we want to construct low-power indoor wireless communications systems. Evaluation of channel usage efficiency and hand-over loss probability in the personal handy-phone system (PHS) shows that THREP makes the radio-access sub-system operations in a practical application model highly efficient, and the results of a field experiment show that THREP provides sufficient protection against severe fast CNR degradation in practical indoor propagation environments.

  10. Radio resource management for next generation mobile communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua

    technological novelties. Those technological breaks impose significant challenges on the design of advanced and completely new Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms, such as channel assignments and packet scheduling. Among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access, special attention has been...... paid on IEEE 802.16 based technology, also known as WiMAX, for its capability to support high transmission rates and diverse QoS requirements. The objective of this Ph.D. thesis has two-fold: to design advanced RRM algorithms with different QoS support in single-hop 802.16j relay network, from physical...

  11. A History of Radio Communications in the Baltimore District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-30

    K3AKN AA3AKN WAYNE L. LEITER THOMPSONTOWN, PA. Wayne has been a licensed amateur since 1957 and a member of the Susquehanna Emergency Net since...1959. He is shown here with his radio equipment including a Heathkit m\\1-l2 transceiver, which he uses on the net. Since Wayne retired, he finds...WA3GUB BAeD BALTIMORE COUNTY CIVIL DEFENSE TOWSON , MD. I BALTI110RE COUNTY CD HEADQUARTERS, Towson , Maryland J. Alan Nollmeyer, W3YVQ, RACES

  12. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: Description and design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Chapman, P. D.; Lewison, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  13. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan; Silva, Martha; Koleros, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    This study uses data from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey to assess the reach of selected radio programs about family planning and health in Malawi and their effect on condom use and discussion of family planning. The results show that such radio programs in Malawi reach a broad audience: eight of the 12 programs were heard by at least half of the respondents, although women were less effectively reached than men. For both women and men, the radio programs were found to have a significant impact on family planning discussion with one's partner. The programs' effect on condom use was limited, however. A positive association was found with ever use of condoms, but no association was found with condom use at last intercourse. This limited impact suggests that such radio communication campaigns need to be informed by research identifying the specific constraints to current condom use in Malawi.

  14. Personal communication networks and the effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S

    2001-01-01

    The personal networks of listeners and nonlisteners to an entertainment-education radio soap opera in Tanzania are examined to determine the effects of interpersonal discussion of the soap opera's educational themes of family planning and HIV prevention. Listeners are more likely to discuss these two educational issues in their personal communication networks and are also more likely to have other listeners to the radio program in their personal communication networks. Respondents demonstrate a relatively high degree of homophily with their network partners and are more likely to discuss matters arising from the radio program with their network partners who are of similar tribal membership, religious affiliation, and gender, and those who are equally or more highly educated than themselves.

  15. Is the current level of training in the use of equipment for prehospital radio communication sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jimmy Højberg

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians working in prehospital care are expected to handle radio communication both within their own sector as well as with other divisions of the National Emergency Services. To date, no study has been conducted on the level of training received by physicians in the use of the equ......BACKGROUND: Physicians working in prehospital care are expected to handle radio communication both within their own sector as well as with other divisions of the National Emergency Services. To date, no study has been conducted on the level of training received by physicians in the use...... of the equipment provided or on the level of competency acquired by physicians. METHODS: In order to investigate the self-assessed skill level acquired in the use of the TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked RAdio) authority radio for communication in a prehospital setting, a cross-sectional study was conducted...... setting 38% of physicians reported having received no training in the use of the equipment, while 80% of physicians reported having received one1 hour of training or less. Among the majority of physicians their current level of training was sufficient for their everyday needs for prehospital communication...

  16. Eleanor Roosevelt, the United Nations and the Role of Radio Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya

    Eleanor Roosevelt communicated with the public through a variety of media, both before, during and following her time in the White House. In 1946 she became part of the US delegation to the newly formed United Nations and she used newspaper columns, speeches and radio broadcasts to converse with

  17. Eleanor Roosevelt, the United Nations and the Role of Radio Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Eleanor Roosevelt communicated with the public through a variety of media, both before, during and following her time in the White House. In 1946 she became part of the US delegation to the newly formed United Nations and she used newspaper columns, speeches and radio broadcasts to converse with cit

  18. Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband multi-user wireless communications...

  19. Investigation on possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications; Investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por las radiocomunicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Felipe; Ibarguengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo Hector; Flores Garcia, Andres; Franco Campos, Laura Elena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    This verification procedure is based on a research work on the possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications, cases of study: cellular telephony, radio digital troncalized and wireless telephony IP of Voice on IP (wireless local area network). The revision of all the international standards and the applicable national standardization was included, as well as the verification of fulfillment. [Spanish] Este procedimiento de verificacion esta basado en un trabajo de investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por la radiocomunicaciones, casos de estudio: telefonia celular, radio troncalizado digital y telefonia IP inalambrica de Voz sobre IP (red de area local inalambrica). Se incluyo la revision de todos los estandares internacionales y de la normatividad nacional aplicable, asi como la verificacion de cumplimiento.

  20. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  1. The Sandblaster Software-Defined Radio Platform for Mobile 4G Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Surducan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a tier 2 Software Defined-Radio platform (SDR, built around the latest Sandbridge Technologies' multithreaded Digital Signal Processor (DSP SB3500, along with the description of major design steps taken to ensure the best radio link and computational performance. This SDR platform is capable of executing 4G wireless communication standards such as WiMAX Wave 2, WLAN 802.11 g, and LTE. Performance results for WiMAX are presented in the conclusion section.

  2. Numerical arc segmentation algorithm for a radio conference - A software tool for communication satellite systems planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, W. A.; Heyward, A. O.; Ponchak, D. S.; Spence, R. L.; Zuzek, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed description of a Numerical Arc Segmentation Algorithm for a Radio Conference (NASARC) software package for communication satellite systems planning is presented. This software provides a method of generating predetermined arc segments for use in the development of an allotment planning procedure to be carried out at the 1988 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC - 88) on the use of the GEO and the planning of space services utilizing GEO. The features of the NASARC software package are described, and detailed information is given about the function of each of the four NASARC program modules. The results of a sample world scenario are presented and discussed.

  3. 75 FR 22263 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers... commercial mobile radio service (CMRS carriers), subject to Sections 201 and 202 of the Communications Act... for voice roaming that will encourage carriers of all sizes to reach reasonable commercial...

  4. Survey of Green Radio Communications Networks: Techniques and Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in cellular networks has received significant attention from both academia and industry because of the importance of reducing the operational expenditures and maintaining the profitability of cellular networks, in addition to making these networks “greener.” Because the base station is the primary energy consumer in the network, efforts have been made to study base station energy consumption and to find ways to improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we present a brief review of the techniques that have been used recently to improve energy efficiency, such as energy-efficient power amplifier techniques, time-domain techniques, cell switching, management of the physical layer through multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO management, heterogeneous network architectures based on Micro-Pico-Femtocells, cell zooming, and relay techniques. In addition, this paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each technique to contribute to a better understanding of each of the techniques and thereby offer clear insights to researchers about how to choose the best ways to reduce energy consumption in future green radio networks.

  5. Cognitive radio networks efficient resource allocation in cooperative sensing, cellular communications, high-speed vehicles, and smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroductionCognitive Radio-Based NetworksOpportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksCognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative SensingCognitive Radio Networks for Cellular CommunicationsCognitive Radio Networks for High-Speed VehiclesCognitive Radio Networks for a Smart GridContent and OrganizationTransmission Slot Allocation in an Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworkSingle-User Single-Channel System ModelProbabilistic Slot Allocation SchemeOptimal Probabilistic Slot AllocationBaseline PerformanceExponential DistributionHyper-Erlang DistributionPerformance An

  6. Radio propagation and adaptive antennas for wireless communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Blaunstein, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Explores novel wireless networks beyond 3G, and advanced 4G technologies, such as MIMO, via propagation phenomena and the fundamentals of adapted antenna usage.Explains how adaptive antennas can improve GoS and QoS for any wireless channel, with specific examples and applications in land, aircraft and satellite communications.Introduces new stochastic approach based on several multi-parametric models describing various terrestrial scenarios, which have been experimentally verified in different environmental conditionsNew chapters on fundamentals of wireless networks, cellular and non-cellular,

  7. VibeComm: radio-free wireless communication for smart devices using vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Inhwan; Cho, Jungchan; Oh, Songhwai

    2014-11-10

    This paper proposes VibeComm, a novel communication method for smart devices using a built-in vibrator and accelerometer. The proposed approach is ideal for low-rate off-line communication, and its communication medium is an object on which smart devices are placed, such as tables and desks. When more than two smart devices are placed on an object and one device wants to transmit a message to the other devices, the transmitting device generates a sequence of vibrations. The vibrations are propagated through the object on which the devices are placed. The receiving devices analyze their accelerometer readings to decode incoming messages. The proposed method can be the alternative communication method when general types of radio communication methods are not available. VibeComm is implemented on Android smartphones, and a comprehensive set of experiments is conducted to show its feasibility.

  8. VibeComm: Radio-Free Wireless Communication for Smart Devices Using Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhwan Hwang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes VibeComm, a novel communication method for smart devices using a built-in vibrator and accelerometer. The proposed approach is ideal for low-rate off-line communication, and its communication medium is an object on which smart devices are placed, such as tables and desks. When more than two smart devices are placed on an object and one device wants to transmit a message to the other devices, the transmitting device generates a sequence of vibrations. The vibrations are propagated through the object on which the devices are placed. The receiving devices analyze their accelerometer readings to decode incoming messages. The proposed method can be the alternative communication method when general types of radio communication methods are not available. VibeComm is implemented on Android smartphones, and a comprehensive set of experiments is conducted to show its feasibility.

  9. Voice and endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    KVS Hari Kumar; Anurag Garg; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Rakesh Datta

    2016-01-01

    Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consistin...

  10. Modeling of Reverberation Effects for Radio Localization and Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    in indoor environments. We show that this component carries a significant portion of the total received power. Thus, the accurate modeling of it is of prime importance for both communication and positioning. To clarify the cause of the diffuse component we first experimentally investigate the spread...... into a distance dependent model of the delay power spectrum, which we then validate experimentally. From this model we derive secondary models that predict the received power, the mean delay, the rms delay spread and the kurtosis versus distance. The behavior of the diffuse component versus distance in indoor...... in the diffuse power due to opening windows, the presence of people or by changing the size of the room. As an example of the benefits of modeling the diffuse component in indoor environments we present a study of the performance of a positioning estimator that jointly utilizes the secondary models of received...

  11. Mobile satellite communications for consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-11-01

    The RadioSat system based on MSAT satellites and scheduled for launch in 1994 is described. The RadioSat system will provide integrated communications and navigation services to consumers, including nationwide digital audio broadcasts, data broadcasts, precision navigation, and two-way voice and data communications. Particular attention is given to the MSAT satellite system capabilities and economics. It is concluded that the RadioSat system will be capable of providing a low-cost, highly flexible two-way communications for consumers that can be adapted to various applications.

  12. Experimental implant communication of high data rate video using an ultra wideband radio link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santiago, Raúl; Balasingham, Ilangko; Bergsland, Jacob; Zahid, Wasim; Takizawa, Kenichi; Miura, Ryu; Li, Huan-Bang

    2013-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) is one of the radio technologies adopted by the IEEE 802.15.6™-2012 standard for on-body communication in body area networks (BANs). However, a number of simulation-based studies suggest the feasibility of using UWB for high data rate implant communication too. This paper presents an experimental verification of said predictions. We carried out radio transmissions of H.264/1280×720 pixels video at 80 Mbps through a UWB multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) interface in a porcine chirurgical model. The results demonstrated successful transmission up to a maximum depth of 30 mm in the abdomen and 33 mm in the thorax within the 4.2-4.8 GHz frequency band.

  13. RFID Transponders' RF Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen Sandra V.; Fersch, Mariatheresa S.

    2008-01-01

    Radiated emission data in aircraft communication and navigation bands are presented for several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design, operation and transmitting frequencies. The process for measuring the tags emissions in a reverberation chamber is discussed. Measurement issues dealing with tag interrogation, low level measurement in the presence of strong transmissions, and tags low duty factors are discussed. The results show strong emissions, far exceeding aircraft emission limits and can be of potential interference risks.

  14. Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

  15. Control and Non-Payload Communications Generation 1 Prototype Radio Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Young, Daniel P.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Walker, Steven H.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft (UA) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the Government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized because of the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System (UAS in the NAS). The desire and ability to fly UA is of increasing urgency. The application of UA to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UA to the NAS. Existing Federal Aviation Regulations, procedures, and technologies do not allow routine UA access to the NAS. Access to the NAS is hampered by challenges such as the lack of an onboard pilot to see and avoid other aircraft; the ability of a single pilot or operator to control multiple UA; the reliance on command and control (C2) links; the altitudes, speeds, and duration at which the aircraft fly; and the wide variation in UA size and performance. NASA is working with other Government agencies to provide solutions that reduce technical barriers and make access to the NAS routine. This goal will be accomplished through system-level integration of key concepts, technologies, or procedures and through demonstrations of these integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. This project provides an opportunity to transition the acquired empirical data and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements for routine UA access to the NAS.Radio communications channels for UA are currently managed through exceptions and use either Department of Defense frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Industrial/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for safety and

  16. Communications, Navigation, and Timing Constraints for the Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. A.; Byler, E. A.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA) is a proposed NASA mission to measure solar radio emissions in the 30kHz to 30MHz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The baseline design consists of 16 separated spacecraft in an irregular pattern several kilometers across. Each spacecraft is equipped with a pair of crossed dipole antennas that together form a 16-element radio interferometer for Fourier-type image reconstruction (120 baselines in the UV-plane). The required close coordination between this formation of spacecraft places many unique constraints on the SIRA communications, navigation, control, and timing architectures. Current specifications call for knowledge of the relative locations of the spacecraft to approximately meter-level accuracy in order to maintain primary instrument resolution. Knowledge of the relative timing differences between the clocks on the spacecraft must likewise be maintained to tens of nanoseconds or better. This in turn sets a minimum bound on the regularity of communications updates between spacecraft. Although the actual positions of the spacecraft are not tightly constrained, enough control authority and system autonomy must be present to keep the spacecraft from colliding due to orbital perturbations. Each of these constraints has an important effect on the design of the architecture for the entire array. This paper examines the engineering requirements and design tradeoffs for the communications, navigation, and timing architectures for SIRA. Topics include the choice of navigation sensor, communications methodology and modulation schemes, and clock type to meet the overall system performance goals while overcoming issues such as communications dynamic range, bandwidth limitations, power constraints, available antenna beam patterns, and processing limitations. In addition, this paper discusses how the projected use of smaller spacecraft buses with their corresponding payload and cost limits has important consequences for the

  17. Reconfigurable Transceiver and Software-Defined Radio Architecture and Technology Evaluated for NASA Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the development and suitability of a software-based open-architecture for space-based reconfigurable transceivers (RTs) and software-defined radios (SDRs). The main objectives of this project are to enable advanced operations and reduce mission costs. SDRs are becoming more common because of the capabilities of reconfigurable digital signal processing technologies such as field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors, which place radio functions in firmware and software that were traditionally performed with analog hardware components. Features of interest of this communications architecture include nonproprietary open standards and application programming interfaces to enable software reuse and portability, independent hardware and software development, and hardware and software functional separation. The goals for RT and SDR technologies for NASA space missions include prelaunch and on-orbit frequency and waveform reconfigurability and programmability, high data rate capability, and overall communications and processing flexibility. These operational advances over current state-of-art transceivers will be provided to reduce the power, mass, and cost of RTs and SDRs for space communications. The open architecture for NASA communications will support existing (legacy) communications needs and capabilities while providing a path to more capable, advanced waveform development and mission concepts (e.g., ad hoc constellations with self-healing networks and high-rate science data return). A study was completed to assess the state of the art in RT architectures, implementations, and technologies. In-house researchers conducted literature searches and analysis, interviewed Government and industry contacts, and solicited information and white papers from industry on space-qualifiable RTs and SDRs and their associated technologies for space-based NASA applications. The white papers were evaluated, compiled, and

  18. High-Sensitivity Phased Arrays for Radio Astronomy and Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Junming

    Radio astronomy is used to study stars, galaxies, black holes and gas clouds radiation at radio frequencies. Detecting extremely weak signals from deep space radio sources requires high sensitive feed system associated with large dish antennas. The key figure of merit is survey speed, or the time required to map a region of the sky to a given source flux density. Survey speed is proportional to the frequency bandwidth, the field of view or observable region of the sky, and the squared sensitivity, where sensitivity is related to reflector aperture efficiency and system noise temperature. Compared to the traditional single feed, phased array feeds with significantly expanded field of view are considered as the next generation feed for radio telescope. This dissertation outlines the design, analysis and measurement of high sensitivity L-band and mm-wave phased array feeds for the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope. Theoretical works for radio astronomy includes design guideline for high sensitivity phased array feed, fundamental frequency bandwidth limit, array antenna loss influenced by mutual coupling and beamformer coefficients and possibility of superdirectivity for radio telescopes and other antennas. These study are helpful to understand and guide the design of a phased array feed system. In the absence of dish antennas, sparse phased arrays with aperiodic structure have been developed for satellite communications. A compromise between the peak side lobe level, array element density, directivity and design complexity is studied. We have found that the array peak side lobe level can be reduced by enhancing the array element direction at the main lobe direction, increasing the array element density and enlarging the array size. A Poynting streamline approach develops to understand the properties of a receiving antenna and the mutual coupling effects between array elements. This method has been successfully used to generate effective area shape for many types of

  19. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  20. Resource Dependent Radio Allocation For Battlefield Communications - A Data Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Thomeczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Network Enabled Capability (NEC and the Land Open Systems Architecture (LOSA are novel approaches to enable interoperability between a heterogeneous collection of assets in the battlefield. These paradigms utilise an underlying network for cooperation between deployed battlefield equipment. NEC and LOSA have great potential to transform military communications and enhance integrated survivability as well as situational awareness, but the Achilles’ heel of NEC and LOSA is the wireless spectrum over which they must communicate. A noisy and dynamic battlefield wireless spectrum as well as an array of heterogeneous wireless communications equipment handling multiple types of data with different Quality of Service (QoS requirements requires a system which manages and allocates these communication resources effectively. This paper presents the High Availability Wireless Communications (HAWC system, a hardware agnostic communications controller middleware to manage any combination of existing and future multiband wireless resources. The system utilises a vehicle’s data model to gather information about available radio resources and enable LOSA by meeting communications data requirements and delivering appropriate QoS to the appropriate traffic in a fleet of vehicles. The functionality of the system is verified by using behavioural simulation on a virtual battlefield.

  1. Transgender Voice and Communication Treatment: A Retrospective Chart Review of 25 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B.; Garabedian, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People transitioning from male to female (MTF) gender seek speech-language pathology services when they feel their voice is betraying their genuine self or perhaps is the last obstacle to representing their authentic gender. Speaking fundamental frequency (pitch) and resonance are most often targets in treatment because the combination…

  2. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  3. A Modified Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing Algorithm for Green Cognitive Radio Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Rajput

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum Sensing is the first and fundamental function of Cognitive Cycle which plays a vital role in the success of CRs (Cognitive Radios. Spectrum Sensing indicate the presence and absence of PUs (Primary Users in RF (Radio Frequency spectrum occupancy measurements. In order to correctly determine the presence and absence of Primary Users, the algorithms in practice include complex mathematics which increases the computational complexity of the algorithm, thus shifted the CRs to operate as ?green? communication systems. In this paper, an energy efficient and computationally less complex, energy detection based Spectrum Sensing algorithm have been proposed. The design goals of the proposed algorithm are to save the processing and sensing energies. At first, by using less MAC (Multiply and Accumulate operation, it saves the processing energy needed to determine the presence and absence of PUs. Secondly, it saves the sensing energy by providing a way to find lowest possible sensing time at which spectrum is to be sensed. Two scenarios have been defined for testing the proposed algorithm i.e. simulate detection capability of Primary Users in ideal and noisy scenarios. Detection of PUs in both of these scenarios have been compared to obtain the probability of detection. Energy Efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been proved by making performance comparison between the proposed (less complex algorithm and the legacy energy detection algorithm. With reduced complexity, the proposed spectrum sensing algorithm can be considered under the paradigm of Green Cognitive Radio Communication

  4. Development of data communication system with ultra high frequency radio wave for implantable artificial hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Hiroto; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    In order to minimize infection risks of patients with artificial hearts, wireless data transmission methods with electromagnetic induction or light have been developed. However, these methods tend to become difficult to transmit data if the external data transmission unit moves from its proper position. To resolve this serious problem, the purpose of this study is to develop a prototype wireless data communication system with ultra high frequency radio wave and confirm its performance. Due to its high-speed communication rate, low power consumption, high tolerance to electromagnetic disturbances, and secure wireless communication, we adopted Bluetooth radio wave technology for our system. The system consists of an internal data transmission unit and an external data transmission unit (53 by 64 by 16 mm, each), and each has a Bluetooth module (radio field intensity: 4 dBm, receiver sensitivity: -80 dBm). The internal unit also has a micro controller with an 8-channel 10-bit A/D converter, and the external unit also has a RS-232C converter. We experimented with the internal unit implanted into pig meat, and carried out data transmission tests to evaluate the performance of this system in tissue thickness of up to 3 mm. As a result, data transfer speeds of about 20 kbps were achieved within the communication distance of 10 m. In conclusion, we confirmed that the system can wirelessly transmit the data from the inside of the body to the outside, and it promises to resolve unstable data transmission due to accidental movements of an external data transmission unit.

  5. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a series of flight tests for the purpose of evaluating air-to-ground communications links for future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The primary objective of the test effort was to evaluate the transition of the aircraft communications from one ground station to the next, and to monitor data flow during the "hand-off" event. To facilitate the testing, ground stations were installed at locations in Cleveland, Ohio and Albany, Ohio that each provides line-of-sight radio communications with an overflying aircraft. This report describes results from the flight tests including flight parameters, received signal strength measurements, data latency times, and performance observations for the air-to-ground channel.

  6. OptoRadio: a method of wireless communication using orthogonal M-ary PSK (OMPSK) modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sunil Kumar; Faruque, Saleh; Ahamed, Md. Maruf

    2016-09-01

    Laser based radio communication system, i.e. OptoRadio, using Orthogonal M-ary PSK Modulation scheme is presented in this paper. In this scheme, when a block of data needs to be transmitted, the corresponding block of biorthogonal code is transmitted by means of multi-phase shift keying. At the receiver, two photo diodes are cross coupled. The effect is that the net output power due to ambient light is close to zero. The laser signal is then transmitted only into one of the receivers. With all other signals being cancelled out, the laser signal is an overwhelmingly dominant signal. The detailed design, bit error correction capabilities, and bandwidth efficiency are presented to illustrate the concept.

  7. Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Communication Over Free-Space Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Davaslioglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    A composite impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) communication system is presented. The proposed system model aims to transmit UWB pulses over several kilometers through free-space optical (FSO) links and depending on the link design, the electrical estimates of the FSO system can be directly used or distributed to end-user through radio-frequency (RF) links over short ranges. However, inhomogeneities on the FSO transmission path cause random fluctuations in the received signal intensity and these effects induced by atmospheric turbulence closely effect the system performance. Several distinct probability distributions based on experimental measurements are used to characterize FSO channels and using these probabilistic models, detection error probability analysis of the proposed system for different link designs are carried out under weak, moderate and strong turbulence conditions. The results of the analysis show that depending on the atmospheric conditions, system performance of the composite link can hav...

  8. Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

  9. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  10. The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes: Upgrade of the antennas from satellite communication to radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Yoshinori; Saito, Yu; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Soon, Kang Lou; Momose, Munetake; Yokosawa, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Fujisawa, Kenta; Ohyama, Tomoaki; Kono, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Ueno, Yuji; Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sorai, Kazuo; Takaba, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Sekido, Mamoru; Murata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Naomasa; Omodaka, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes (former satellite communication antennas) were so upgraded as to work at 6, 8, and 22 GHz. We developed the receiver systems, IF systems, back-end systems (including samplers and recorders), and reference systems. We measured the performance of the antennas. The system temperature including the atmosphere toward the zenith, T_sys^{ast }, is measured to be ˜30-40 K for 6 GHz and ˜25-35 K for 8 GHz. T_sys^{ast } for 22 GHz is measured to be ˜40-100 K in winter and ˜150-500 K in summer seasons, respectively. The aperture efficiency is 55%-75% for Hitachi at 6 GHz and 8 GHz, and 55%-65% for Takahagi at 8 GHz. The beam sizes at 6 GHz and 8 GHz are ˜4.6° and ˜3.8°, respectively. The side-lobe level is less than 3%-4% at 6 and 8 GHz. Pointing accuracy was measured to be better than ˜0.3° for Hitachi and ˜0.6° for Takahagi. We succeeded in VLBI observations in 2010 August, indicating good performance of the antenna. We started single-dish monitoring observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources in 2012 December, and found several new sources showing short-term periodic variation of the flux density.

  11. Wearable ECG Based on Impulse-Radio-Type Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Takuya; Kato, Taku; Anzai, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Human body communication (HBC) provides a promising physical layer for wireless body area networks (BANs) in healthcare and medical applications, because of its low propagation loss and high security characteristics. In this study, we have developed a wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) which employs impulse radio (IR)-type HBC technology for transmitting vital signals on the human body in a wearable BAN scenario. The HBC-based wearable ECG has two excellent features. First, the wideband performance of the IR scheme contributed to very low radiation power so that the transceiver is easy to satisfy the extremely weak radio laws, which does not need a license. This feature can provide big convenience in the use and spread of the wearable ECG. Second, the realization of common use of sensing and transmitting electrodes based on time sharing and capacitive coupling largely simplified the HBC-based ECG structure and contributed to its miniaturization. To verify the validity of the HBC-based ECG, we evaluated its communication performance and ECG acquisition performance. The measured bit error rate, smaller than 10 (-3) at 1.25 Mb/s, showed a good physical layer communication performance, and the acquired ECG waveform and various heart-rate variability parameters in time and frequency domains exhibited good agreement with a commercially available radio-frequency ECG and a Holter ECG. These results sufficiently showed the validity and feasibility of the HBC-based ECG for healthcare applications. This should be the first time to have realized a real-time ECG transmission by using the HBC technology.

  12. Radio over fiber for wireless communications from fundamentals to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Fernando, Xavier N

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of Fi-Wi,  enabling readers to design links using channel estimation and equalization algorithms  This book provides a detailed study of radio over fiber (ROF) based wireless communication systems, otherwise called fiber wireless (Fi-Wi) systems. This is an emerging hot topic where the abundant bandwidth of optical fiber is directly combined with the flexibility and mobility of wireless networks to provide broadband connectivity.  Its application is increasing because of the growing demand for broadband wireless services. In such a system the transmission of the ra

  13. A MATLAB Library for Rapid Prototyping of Wireless Communications Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) Radio Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral (USRP) family of radio hardware using MATLAB. This library enables fast prototyping of algorithms on SDRs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS USRP, MATLAB, GNU ...code) (301) 394-3102 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Challenges of GNU Radio ...multiply conjugate cc block (conjugate multiply) in GNU Radio . Arrows denote inheritance from the target block. Note the complexity of the hierarchy

  14. Communicative interactions between visually impaired mothers and their sighted children: analysis of gaze, facial expressions, voice and physical contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S; Galati, D; Schmidt, S

    2015-11-01

    Social and emotional development of infants and young children is largely based on the communicative interaction with their mother, or principal caretaker (Trevarthen ). The main modalities implied in this early communication are voice, facial expressions and gaze (Stern ). This study aims at analysing early mother-child interactions in the case of visually impaired mothers who do not have access to their children's gaze and facial expressions. Spontaneous play interactions between seven visually impaired mothers and their sighted children aged between 6 months and 3 years were filmed. These dyads were compared with a control group of sighted mothers and children analysing four modalities of communication and interaction regulation: gaze, physical contacts, verbal productions and facial expressions. The visually impaired mothers' facial expressions differed from the ones of sighted mothers mainly with respect to forehead movements, leading to an impoverishment of conveyed meaning. Regarding the other communicative modalities, results suggest that visually impaired mothers and their children use compensatory strategies to guaranty harmonic interaction despite the mother's impairment: whereas gaze results the main factor of interaction regulation in sighted dyads, physical contacts and verbal productions assume a prevalent role in dyads with visually impaired mothers. Moreover, visually impaired mother's children seem to be able to differentiate between their mother and sighted interaction partners, adapting differential modes of communication. The results of this study show that, in spite of the obvious differences in the modes of communication, visual impairment does not prevent a harmonious interaction with the child. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of the integrated Radio Communication Project in Nepal, 1994-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, D; Boulay, M; Karki, Y; Heckert, K; Karmacharya, D M

    1999-01-01

    The Radio Communication Project (RCP) in Nepal is an ongoing, theory-based, multimedia reproductive health campaign which began in 1995. It consists of two entertainment-education radio serials (a soap opera for the general public and a dramatized distance education serial for health workers), additional radio spot advertisements and promotions, and complementary print materials. This paper examines impact data from a variety of sources, including a pre- and postpanel survey of currently married women (N = 1905), three waves of clinic-based observations of client-provider interactions (N = 240 per wave) and client exit interviews (N = 240 per wave), and 2 years of clinic service statistics, in order to draw inferences about the separate and combined effects of the RCP components. The study found increased health worker interpersonal interaction skills, improved quality of client-provider interactions, increased client self-efficacy in dealing with health workers, improved client attitudes toward health services and toward the practice of family planning, increased adoption of family planning, and increased family planning service utilization, all attributable to the RCP. The panel data allowed statistical control of the influence of predisposing factors before the campaign on postcampaign ideation and behavior. The effect of the RCP on contraceptive behavior was largely indirect through its influence on ideation. Implications for the design of integrated, multimedia, entertainment-education campaigns and integrated evaluation designs are discussed.

  16. Software Defined Electronics: A Revolutionary Change in Design and Teaching Paradigm of RF Radio Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kolumbán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Band-pass signals are used everywhere in radio communications. The band-pass property makes the substitution of each RF/microwave/ optical analog signal processing possible with a low-frequency digital one in Software Defined Electronics (SDE. In SDE, the high frequency band-pass signals are transformed into the BaseBand (BB by a universal HW device and every application is implemented in BB, entirely in software. SDE concept uses (i the lowest sampling rate attainable theoretically and (ii the same universal HW device in every application. The huge level of flexibility offered by the SW implementation is essential in many applications from cognitive radio to adaptive reconfigurable systems. This tutorial, written for interested readers who have no solid background in software defined radio, virtual instrumentation and SoC technology, surveys the SDE theory, uses a step-by-step approach for the derivation of BB equivalents and demonstrates the application of SDE concept in scientific research, prototyping and education.

  17. A Lightweight Radio Propagation Model for Vehicular Communication in Road Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ahsan; Noor, Rafidah Md; Shamim, Azra; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Raymond Choo, Kim-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Radio propagation models (RPMs) are generally employed in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) to predict path loss in multiple operating environments (e.g. modern road infrastructure such as flyovers, underpasses and road tunnels). For example, different RPMs have been developed to predict propagation behaviour in road tunnels. However, most existing RPMs for road tunnels are computationally complex and are based on field measurements in frequency band not suitable for VANET deployment. Furthermore, in tunnel applications, consequences of moving radio obstacles, such as large buses and delivery trucks, are generally not considered in existing RPMs. This paper proposes a computationally inexpensive RPM with minimal set of parameters to predict path loss in an acceptable range for road tunnels. The proposed RPM utilizes geometric properties of the tunnel, such as height and width along with the distance between sender and receiver, to predict the path loss. The proposed RPM also considers the additional attenuation caused by the moving radio obstacles in road tunnels, while requiring a negligible overhead in terms of computational complexity. To demonstrate the utility of our proposed RPM, we conduct a comparative summary and evaluate its performance. Specifically, an extensive data gathering campaign is carried out in order to evaluate the proposed RPM. The field measurements use the 5 GHz frequency band, which is suitable for vehicular communication. The results demonstrate that a close match exists between the predicted values and measured values of path loss. In particular, an average accuracy of 94% is found with R2 = 0.86.

  18. Pulsed radio frequency interference effects on data communications via satellite transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A.; Hong, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Power-limited communication links may be susceptible to significant degradation if intentional or unintentional pulsed high level radio frequency interference (RFI) is present. Pulsed RFI is, in fact, of current interest to NASA in studies relating to its Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The present paper examines the impact of pulsed RFI on the error probability performance of a power-limited satellite communication link: the assumed modulation scheme is PN coded binary PSK. The composite effects of thermal noise, pulsed CW and pulsed Gaussian noise are analyzed, where RFI arrivals are assumed to follow Poisson statistics. Under the assumption that the satellite repeater is ideal and that integrate and dump filtering is employed at the ground receiver, an exact error probability expression and associated approximations are derived. Computed results are generated using an arbitrarily specified RFI model.

  19. Characterization of Impulse Radio Intrabody Communication System for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zibo; Seyedi, MirHojjat; Zhang, Weiwei; Rivet, Francois; Lai, Daniel T H

    2017-01-01

    Intrabody communication (IBC) is a promising data communication technique for body area networks. This short-distance communication approach uses human body tissue as the medium of signal propagation. IBC is defined as one of the physical layers for the new IEEE 802.15.6 or wireless body area network (WBAN) standard, which can provide a suitable data rate for real-time physiological data communication while consuming lower power compared to that of radio-frequency protocols such as Bluetooth. In this paper, impulse radio (IR) IBC (IR-IBC) is examined using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of an IBC system. A carrier-free pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme is implemented using an IBC transmitter in an FPGA board. PPM is a modulation technique that uses time-based pulse characteristics to encode data based on IR concepts. The transmission performance of the scheme was evaluated through signal propagation measurements of the human arm using 4- and 8-PPM transmitters, respectively. 4 or 8 is the number of symbols during modulations. It was found that the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases approximately 8.0 dB for a range of arm distances (5-50 cm) between the transmitter and receiver electrodes with constant noise power and various signal amplitudes. The SNR for the 4-PPM scheme is approximately 2 dB higher than that for the 8-PPM one. In addition, the bit error rate (BER) is theoretically analyzed for the human body channel with additive white Gaussian noise. The 4- and 8-PPM IBC systems have average BER values of 10(-5) and 10(-10), respectively. The results indicate the superiority of the 8-PPM scheme compared to the 4-PPM one when implementing the IBC system. The performance evaluation of the proposed IBC system will improve further IBC transceiver design.

  20. Army Communicator. Voice of the Signal Regiment. Volume 31 Number 4, Fall 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    consists of radios mounted on mobile plat- forms such as the Abrams , Bradley, and Stryker vehicles. The Handheld, Manpack, and Small-form-factor PdM is...herald in the completion of the 4th Fires 50 Fall 2006 WO1 Paul Gonzalez and SPC Floyd Telford work in a Line of Sight transmission to improve the

  1. Chaotic communication in radio-over-fiber transmission based on optoelectronic feedback semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Yi; Tsai, Meng-Chiao

    2007-01-22

    Performance of chaotic communication in radio-over-fiber (ROF) transmission based on optoelectronic feedback semiconductor lasers is studied numerically. The chaotic carrier is generated by optoelectronic feedback semiconductor lasers, where chaotic communication is realized by synchronizing a receiver laser with a transmitter laser. Transmission quality of different message encoding schemes, including additive chaos modulation (ACM) and on-off shift keying (OOSK), are investigated and compared. In this study, the dispersion and nonlinearity effects in the fiber transmission module and the amplified spontaneous emission noise from the optical amplifiers are considered. In the wireless channel, effects of additive white Gaussian noise, multipath, and path loss are included. To quantitatively study the performance of this chaotic communication system in the ROF transmission, bit-error-rates (BER) of different transmission lengths, message bit-rates, and signal-to-noise ratios are studied. The optimal launched power and message strength that minimize the BER while assuring effective communication security are discussed. While the ACM scheme is shown to perform better in a fiber only configuration, the OOSK scheme shows better immunity to the random effects and waveform distortions presented in the wireless channel.

  2. Radios in the Classroom: Curriculum Integration and Communication Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninno, Anton

    Teachers have explored the use of radio in the classroom almost since radio technology entered into the mainstream of society, yet radio remains a relatively unused mode of instruction. This Digest describes several radio applications and summarizes various radio activities to assist teachers in integrating technology into the curriculum.…

  3. Dialogue on dialogues Multi-voiced dialogues (dialogism) as means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The article elaborates on a theoretical understanding of dialogue as a means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices through ongoing research collaboration that involves leaders, researchers and master students at Aalborg University. Dialogue is viewed from...... a dissensus perspective, which draws on Bakhtin’s dynamic thoughts on the heteroglossic nature of interaction and on multi-voiced dialogues as battles between centrifugal and centripetal forces. The concept multi-voiced dialogues is posited as a means for opening up dialogical moments of change in order...... to cultivate the creative and transformational powers of dialogues in which new meanings, voices and forms of knowledge emerge. I discuss how this way of framing the dialogical co-production of knowledge challenges the mainstream understanding of dialogical practices by embracing relational, conflictual...

  4. Flow Control and Routing in an Integrated Voice and Data Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    arbitrarily small values since this is one way of avoiding congestion. Recall that the voice flow control algorithm operates as follows: nif (i) if Pm (,n...dvn(m) , it increases m if m < am; (ii) if pm( n) < dvn(m), it decreases nif En > 0 ; mm m m n ivn n and (iii) if pm(m) v d(m), it leaves unchanged.m m...n.zn if 0 <t - Za < ai aa t if Oa ni Za j An a1 if. n _~ z n> a. Zf a Z a- ɘ n0n ifO< n < ra-nr Xa ra-r xa <r rn rd if rn -n Xa> rda a a a r a-a

  5. WiFi Voice Communication System Based on QT%基于QT的WiFi语音通信系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵付轩; 杨斌

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at speech signal acquisition in embedded system, the design uses UDP protocol for data transmission, uses Socket programming to ensure the reliability of data transmission and realizes LAN speech communication from end to end. This paper describes how to design and develop LAN real-time voice communication software based on QT and Linux development platform by using existing audio programming and network programming knowledge.%针对嵌入式系统语音信号的采集,采用UDP协议进行数据传输,运用Socket编程保证数据传输的可靠性,实现局域网里端到端的语音通信.主要阐述了如何在Linux开发平台上,利用现有的音频编程和网络编程知识,设计和开发局域网里基于QT的实时语音通信软件.

  6. Temporary threshold shifts at 1500 and 2000 Hz induced by loud voice signals communicated through earphones in the pinball industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idota, Nozomi; Horie, Seichi; Tsutsui, Takao; Inoue, Jinro

    2010-10-01

    To assess the risk of hearing loss among workers using earphones as communication devices at noisy worksites, we compared temporary threshold shifts (TTS) between ears on which workers wore earphones and ears on which no earphones were worn. We measured ambient noise and personal noise exposure as well as noise generated by and passed through earphones by applying frequency analysis at three pinball facilities during their hours of actual operation. We assessed hearing levels before and after a work shift (prework and postwork) of 54 workers by pure tone audiometry at six frequencies. The time-weighted averages for ambient noise and personal noise exposure exceeded 85 dB(A) and 90 dB(A), respectively. Overall sound pressure levels generated by and passing through earphones reached 109 dB(A). The one-third octave band spectrum of the earphone noise during the shift exceeded 90 dB(SPL) in the range of 315-2000 Hz. The number of ears demonstrating a TTS, defined as a shift of 10 dB or more in postwork over prework hearing thresholds, was significantly greater at 1500 and 2000 Hz among ears with earphones (P communication devices in noisy environments are exposed to high risk of hearing loss, particularly at the frequencies of 1500 and 2000 Hz. Ideally, hearing conservation programs for such workers should account for potential hearing losses at frequencies of 2000 Hz or lower frequencies induced by amplified voice signals.

  7. Introduction to digital mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduces digital mobile communications with an emphasis on digital transmission methods This book presents mathematical analyses of signals, mobile radio channels, and digital modulation methods. The new edition covers the evolution of wireless communications technologies and systems. The major new topics are OFDM (orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing), MIMO (multi-input multi-output) systems, frequency-domain equalization, the turbo codes, LDPC (low density parity check code), ACELP (algebraic code excited linear predictive) voice coding, dynamic scheduling for wireless packet data t

  8. The Voice of Silence in Communication-from cross-culture perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琪雯

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a study of silence from cross-culture perspective and holds that silence is an indispensable compo-nent of human communication without which the proper decoding of the information would be impossible.

  9. Experimental evaluation of a radio-on-FSO communication system for multiple RF signal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaura, Kamugisha; Dat, Pham; Bekkali, Abdelmoula; Shah, Alam; Suzuki, Toshiji; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Nakamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Higashino, Takeshi; Aburakawa, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present the design concept plus experimental results and evaluation of a newly developed advanced DWDM Radio-on-Free-Space Optical (RoFSO) communication system capable of simultaneous transmission of multiple RF signals. The RoFSO system is evaluated based on the performance metric parameters defined for the various RF signals comprising of different wireless services including terrestrial digital broadcasting signals, cellular 3GPP W-CDMA signals, IEEE 802.11 WLAN based signals etc being transmitted over the RoFSO link. The performance metric parameters being considered include standard optical received power, CNR and BER characteristics, W-CDMA signal transmission metric parameters like Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), modulation error ratio (MER) for digital terrestrial television broadcasting signals as well as spectrum mask and EVM for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN signal transmission.

  10. A paid radio advertising campaign to promote parent-child communication about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Dejong, William; Herr-Zaya, Kathleen M; Rodriguez-Howard, Mayra; Fay, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a paid radio commercial designed to promote parent-child communication about alcohol use and sponsored by the Bureau of Substance Abuse Services, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians of children ages 10-17 years was conducted after a four-week advertising flight. Respondents with unassisted recall of the commercial more often disagreed that parent-child discussion is useful only if children have begun to experiment with alcohol, and more often reported having three or more parent-child discussions about alcohol compared to those who did not recall the commercial. Findings suggest the potential benefit of paid media campaigns to encourage parents to talk with their children about alcohol.

  11. Concurrent communication and sensing in cognitive radio devices: challenges and an enabling solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Radios (CRs) need to continuously monitor the availability of unoccupied spectrum. Prior work on spectrum sensing mainly focused on time-slotted schemes where sensing and communication take place on different time periods in the same frequency. This however leads to a) limited CR...... throughput as data transmissions need to be interrupted for the sensing task, and b) unreliable detection performance since sensing happens in specific confined time durations. The paper describes the basic design challenges and hardware requirements that restrain CRs from simultaneously and continuously...... sensing the spectrum while transmitting in the same frequency band. The paper then describes a novel approach based on spatial filtering that promises to empower CRs with concurrent transmission and sensing capabilities. The idea is to equip the CR with redundant transmit antennas for forming an adaptive...

  12. THE EU’S VOICE BEYOND ITS BORDERS: THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita SOPRONI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s developing global role demands a new approach to communications outside the Union. Besides communicating its policies to its citizens in order to enhance their trust in the idea of the United Europe, it is also extremely important to provide information regarding its policies and actions beyond its borders, to non-member countries and also to various international entities and organizations. This approach is necessary because the strength of an organization’ (in our case the European Union’s external reputation depends not only on the core values embedded in its domestic culture, but also on the way how it communicates them to various target publics.The paper analyses the external communication of the European Union (lines of action, actors involved, and communication realized through different policies and how it affects the external image of the region, demonstrating the need for a coherent communication strategy that combines the interests of Member States with those of the European institutions and the needs of internal public with those of external public.

  13. Design and Experimental Investigation for Improving the High Frequency Radio Communication Links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have experimentally planned to replicate the positive results of the application of ionospheric prediction method to design and improve the high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia. The central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in the calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of a frequency 17.500 Megahertz (MHz, which was transmitted with a power of 100 Kilowatt (KW from the Tunis Republic Broadcasting station in SFAX city, directed to the east region. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  14. Transmit-reference methods in software defined radio platforms for communication in harsh propagation environments and systems thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2017-01-03

    A method for adaptive Radio Frequency (RF) jamming according to one embodiment includes dynamically monitoring a RF spectrum; detecting any undesired signals in real time from the RF spectrum; and sending a directional countermeasure signal to jam the undesired signals. A method for adaptive Radio Frequency (RF) communications according to another embodiment includes transmitting a data pulse in a RF spectrum; and transmitting a reference pulse separated by a predetermined period of time from the data pulse; wherein the data pulse is modulated with data, wherein the reference pulse is unmodulated. A method for adaptive Radio Frequency (RF) communications according to yet another embodiment includes receiving a data pulse in a RF spectrum; and receiving a reference pulse separated in time from the data pulse, wherein the data pulse is modulated with data, wherein the reference pulse is unmodulated; and demodulating the pulses.

  15. United States Army Land Mobile Radio Communication System: Impacts of Information Assurance on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Manager; Program Manager PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network RF Radio Frequency SME Subject Matter Expert SBU Sensitive But Unclassified TDMA...Non-tactical LMRs likely to be used for communicating Sensitive But Unclassified ( SBU ) information shall meet medium or basic robustness…50

  16. Community Participation, Cultural Discourse, and Health Education Projects in Developing Areas: The Case of the Radio Communication Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, J. Gary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on the article by Dutta and Basnyat (see EJ802883) that provides an insightful and comprehensive critique of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) entertainment-education program, The Radio Communication Program (RCP) in Nepal, which has been reported to be highly participatory. Despite…

  17. Radio Wave Propagation for Communication on and around Mars. Part 1; Highlights: Propagation Through Mars Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser

    1999-01-01

    We recommend to use the dayside Martian ionosphere as a reflector for global communication, because the dayside ionosphere has stable density peak and usable critic frequency. This is very crucial for the future Mars ground to around communication. The dayside ionosphere has been well modeled as a Chapman layer. We suggest to perform the Martian nightside ionospheric modeling study. Because the nightside ionosphere has very little measurements available, we propose to drop a digital ionosond instrument into the Mars surface for data collection. Even though the Martian tropospheric radio refractivity has small value, it still can cause the ray bending and multipath effects. We recommend to perform an accurate calculation on excess phase and group delays (range and time delays). Other effects, such as range rate errors, appearance angle deviation, defocusing loss on Mars, etc. are also needed to be estimated. Ice depolarization effects due to Martian clouds on radio waves is unknown yet, which is expected to be small, because lower optical depth and thinner layer of cloud: Total Martian atmospheric gaseous attenuation is expected to be less than 1 dB on microwaves band, because the Martian atmosphere has very low concentration in uncondensed H2O and O2. An accurate calculation for zenith opacity requires the information about scale heights of H2O and O2 distribution. An accurate water vapor altitude profile at Mars is not available yet. Under the normal condition, CO2 and N2 gases do not have electric or magnetic dipoles and do not absorb electromagnetic energy from the waves. However, they may generate the dipoles through a collision and interact with waves under a high density condition and absorb electromagnetic waves in the infrared and visible band. Dust storm is most dominant factor to the radio wave attenuation. Large Martian dust storm can cause at least 3 dB or higher loss to Ka band wave. For a normal dust storm, the attenuation is about 1 dB. The

  18. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  19. Opportunistic Communication (Cognitive Radio over Primary Discarded Subchannels by Applying a Double Power Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Medina-Acosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the establishment of a simultaneous cognitive radio communication based on a subdistribution of power made over unselected subchannels which were discarded by the primary user through an initial optimal power allotment. The aim of this work is to show the possibility of introducing an opportunistic communication into a licensed transmission where the total power constraint is shared. The analysis of the proposed transmission scheme was performed by considering 128 and 2048 independent subchannels affected by Rayleigh fading, over 10,000 channel realizations, and three different signal-to-noise ratios (8 dB, 16 dB, and 24 dB. From the system evaluation it was possible to find the optimal power allotment for the primary user, the subdistribution of power for the secondary user, as well as the attenuation and the capacity per subchannel for every channel realization. Moreover, the PDF and CDF of the total obtained capacities, as well as the generation of empirical capacity regions, were estimated as complementary results.

  20. An Analysis of Voice Communication in a Simulated Approach Control Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    elements involved the Request speech act. 3.3 Analysis of Irregular Communications. The Wald - Wolfowitz Runs Test9, a nonparametric test of the null...0% 3% 28% 52% 17% 3% 0% 0% For brevity, the Wald -Walfowitz Runs Test will be referred to as The Runs Test. " Runs are defined as: any

  1. Connecting Classrooms and Community: Engaged Scholarship, Nonacademic Voices, and Organizational Communication Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Johny T.; Barnes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Organizations have changed dramatically over the last decade as globalization, new technology, and generational shifts shape almost every aspect of twenty-first century American society. Ideally, communication education would prepare students for experiences in the workplaces they will join after they graduate, but some have suggested that…

  2. Voice over IP: how computing technology is being used in mobile communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how computing technology was used to address the need for mobile communications among nursing staff. In 2004, nursing staff at Fauquier Hospital relocated from one nursing floor in an older building to two floors in a new structure. This resulted in complaints and supervision issues as nursing managers, who had previously been relatively sedentary, now became quite mobile as they attempted to control nursing operations on two separate floors. Complaints arose from several sources. Nursing staff and managers both complained about the increased difficulty in communicating with each other Physicians expressed frustration to hospital administration at playing "telephone tag" with managers. The solution involved Internet Protocol technology that is in widespread use on most computer networks. The article details how this technology was selected over several other communications technologies and used to implement wireless telephony over the hospital's existing computer network. It reviews key standards and technologies and issues surrounding their use. Finally, the article demonstrates how this computing technology improved patient care by facilitating mobile communications.

  3. Reflecting on Western TESOL Training and Communicative Language Teaching: Bangladeshi Teachers' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for competent users of English in the era of globalisation has had a significant impact on English Language Teaching (ELT) in Bangladesh. Among a number of changes to improve the quality of ELT, teachers of English have been encouraged, even required, to adopt a communicative language teaching (CLT) approach. To facilitate…

  4. Social Network Sites and Student-Lecturer Communication: An Academic Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joanna; Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth; Jones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of existing ideas relating to the use of social network sites by faculty within higher education institutions (HEIs) to communicate with the student body. As previous research has been from a student-centric perspective, importantly this study explores the use of social networks for student-faculty communication…

  5. Collective Review: Catalyzing Sustainable Social Change through Public Communication, Radio for Development, and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Zeleza Manda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews three recent books by four authors (two single, one joint from Australia and Africa. The three books are related in that they all discuss the need to acknowledge the role of dialogic communication and popular participation as catalysts for sustainable social development in the developing world. Specifically, "Public Relations, Activism and Social Change" proposes that public relations (PR needs to transform itself into public communication (PC, where people are made to make decisions based on dialogue and the correctness of the information rather than out of manipulative propaganda. "People's Radio" argues that radio can lead to tangible and long-lasting social change if it engages the primary beneficiaries in the planning, production presentation of the programs and management of (community radio stations. "Evaluating Communication for Development" argues that through indicators defined by the local people themselves, evaluators can find evidence of social change brought about by communication for development activities. The book suggests that to be effective, monitoring and evaluation of communication for development ought to be participatory and use qualitative data collection tools such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, and most significant change (MSC evaluations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140383

  6. Cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier for radio-astronomical observations and centimeter-wave deep-space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, V. F.; Grachev, V. G.; Dryagin, S. Yu.; Eliseev, A. I.; Kamaletdinov, R. K.; Korotaev, D. V.; Lesnov, I. V.; Mansfeld, M. A.; Pevzner, E. L.; Perminov, V. G.; Pilipenko, A. M.; Sapozhnikov, B. D.; Saurin, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a design solution for a highly reliable, low-noise and extremely efficient cryogenically cooled transmit/receive unit for a large antenna system meant for radio-astronomical observations and deep-space communications in the X band. We describe our design solution and the results of a series of laboratory and antenna tests carried out in order to investigate the properties of the cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier developed. The transmit/receive unit designed for deep-space communications (Mars missions, radio observatories located at Lagrangian point L2, etc.) was used in practice for communication with live satellites including "Radioastron" observatory, which moves in a highly elliptical orbit.

  7. Software-Defined Radio Global System for Mobile Communications Transmitter Development for Heterogeneous Network Vulnerability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    48  3.  Results .................................................................................................48  a.  GNU Radio ...56  b.  GNU Radio Collection...by GNU Radio of the baseband signal created by the GSM transmitter code mimicking the GSM BTS BCH prior to USRP transmission. The blue signal shows

  8. Talk radio as the soundtrack of our lives: Participatory HIV/AIDS communication, public self-expression and Positive Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Mariekie

    2015-01-01

    Despite the many HIV/AIDS communication initiatives, combined with support and infrastructural support in South Africa, risky behaviour associated with the spread of the epidemic is increasing amongst many groups. This calls for a re-evaluation of endeavours aimed at curbing the spread of the epidemic. This article is only concerned with the communicational aspects of the epidemic, but does not negate the interaction of these with other measures taken to address the epidemic. As is the case with most health communication initiatives, HIV/AIDS communication initiatives have evolved to favour the participatory approach above one-directional transmission of information to the public. The participatory approach rests on the assumption that an HIV/AIDS communication initiative stands the best chance of resulting in behaviour change if members of the target community participate in the communication initiative. The assumption is that as many people as possible should be involved in the maximum number of phases of the communicative initiative (such as initial research, planning, implementation and evaluation of the project). Some research has recently started to explore new forms of community participation, including inviting community participation through, for example, internet-based platforms such as social media, and mobile phone platforms such as WhatsApp and BBM. However, the reality broadcast genre--more specifically, talk radio--has been neglected, as only a few research investigations focused on talk radio and most of these are not exclusively about HIV/AIDS communication but focus on other health topics. From a participatory communication perspective, two sets of critique against the existing HIV/AIDS communication projects hold water: firstly, they do not make the maximum use of participatory communication principles and, secondly, they are externally initiated projects and emanate from outside the target community. To address both of these concerns, this

  9. Dual-Stack Single-Radio Communication Architecture for UAV Acting As a Mobile Node to Collect Data in WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, Ali; Medeiros de Araújo, Gustavo; Bodanese, João Paulo; Buss Becker, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile nodes to collect data in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has gained special attention over the last years. Some researchers explore the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as mobile node for such data-collection purposes. Analyzing these works, it is apparent that mobile nodes used in such scenarios are typically equipped with at least two different radio interfaces. The present work presents a Dual-Stack Single-Radio Communication Architecture (DSSRCA), which allows a UAV to communicate in a bidirectional manner with a WSN and a Sink node. The proposed architecture was specifically designed to support different network QoS requirements, such as best-effort and more reliable communications, attending both UAV-to-WSN and UAV-to-Sink communications needs. DSSRCA was implemented and tested on a real UAV, as detailed in this paper. This paper also includes a simulation analysis that addresses bandwidth consumption in an environmental monitoring application scenario. It includes an analysis of the data gathering rate that can be achieved considering different UAV flight speeds. Obtained results show the viability of using a single radio transmitter for collecting data from the WSN and forwarding such data to the Sink node. PMID:26389911

  10. Dual-Stack Single-Radio Communication Architecture for UAV Acting As a Mobile Node to Collect Data in WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, Ali; de Araújo, Gustavo Medeiros; Bodanese, João Paulo; Becker, Leandro Buss

    2015-09-16

    The use of mobile nodes to collect data in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has gained special attention over the last years. Some researchers explore the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as mobile node for such data-collection purposes. Analyzing these works, it is apparent that mobile nodes used in such scenarios are typically equipped with at least two different radio interfaces. The present work presents a Dual-Stack Single-Radio Communication Architecture (DSSRCA), which allows a UAV to communicate in a bidirectional manner with a WSN and a Sink node. The proposed architecture was specifically designed to support different network QoS requirements, such as best-effort and more reliable communications, attending both UAV-to-WSN and UAV-to-Sink communications needs. DSSRCA was implemented and tested on a real UAV, as detailed in this paper. This paper also includes a simulation analysis that addresses bandwidth consumption in an environmental monitoring application scenario. It includes an analysis of the data gathering rate that can be achieved considering different UAV flight speeds. Obtained results show the viability of using a single radio transmitter for collecting data from the WSN and forwarding such data to the Sink node.

  11. Dual-Stack Single-Radio Communication Architecture for UAV Acting As a Mobile Node to Collect Data in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sayyed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile nodes to collect data in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has gained special attention over the last years. Some researchers explore the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs as mobile node for such data-collection purposes. Analyzing these works, it is apparent that mobile nodes used in such scenarios are typically equipped with at least two different radio interfaces. The present work presents a Dual-Stack Single-Radio Communication Architecture (DSSRCA, which allows a UAV to communicate in a bidirectional manner with a WSN and a Sink node. The proposed architecture was specifically designed to support different network QoS requirements, such as best-effort and more reliable communications, attending both UAV-to-WSN and UAV-to-Sink communications needs. DSSRCA was implemented and tested on a real UAV, as detailed in this paper. This paper also includes a simulation analysis that addresses bandwidth consumption in an environmental monitoring application scenario. It includes an analysis of the data gathering rate that can be achieved considering different UAV flight speeds. Obtained results show the viability of using a single radio transmitter for collecting data from the WSN and forwarding such data to the Sink node.

  12. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

    The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

  13. Redes de participación e intercambios en la radio pública: los podcasting Networks of Participation and Communicative Interchanges in Public Radio: Podcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Salgado Santamaría

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de los podcasting, como sistema añadido de la ciberradio, impulsa a las redes de participación e intercambios comunicativos de interés social, que exhiben numerosas ventajas frente a las prácticas radiofónicas conocidas. La difusión que la radio pública realiza de los podcasts, la colocan en el actual proceso de convergencia tecnológica, y la sitúan en una sociedad de la información y del conocimiento, capaz de ofrecer diferentes servicios al alcance de todos los ciudadanos. Sólo la introducción de nuevos contenidos y servicios que aporten valor añadido a los existentes y satisfagan las necesidades de sus usuarios, procurarán la rentabilidad de este sistema. The development of podcasting as an additional system of cyberradio stimulates the appearance of networks of participation and communicative interchanges of social interest, and has numerous advantages over conventional radio practices. The spreading of podcasts through public radio situates it within the process of technological convergence and in an Information and Knowledge society which is able to offer different services within reach of all citizens. Only the introduction of new contents and services that contribute added value to the existing ones and satisfy the needs of users will make this system profitable.

  14. Conversion of a 30-m former satellite communications antenna to a radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, David R.; Steffes, Paul G.; Glowacki, John M.

    1998-05-01

    A class of large satellite communication antennas built in the mid-1970's comprise a potential set of large antennas available for use by radio astronomers upon upgrade. With the advent of low noise technology these facilities have been superseded in the communications industry by smaller, more manageable facilities. Although many have sat idle and decaying over the intervening years, these facilities remain a potential resource for research and education. A pair of such dishes has been acquired by Georgia Tech and one of the 30 meter antennas has been completely mechanically and electrically stripped and new mechanical, control, RF, and electrical systems installed. The antenna is now driven by four continuous-speed vector-controlled three-phase AC induction motors with variable frequency vector motor drives. Sixteen bit resolution optical absolute position encoders on each axis provide telescope pointing data. Sixteen bit resolution optical absolute position encoders on each axis provide telescope pointing data. A programmable logic controller provides interlock monitoring and control. The antenna is controllable both manually via a portable remote control unit and via a Pentium PC running control software on a real-time UNIX-based platform. The manual unit allows limited control at two user-selectable speeds while computer control allows full tracking capability with accuracies of better than 0.3 arcminutes. The facility can be remotely controlled via the internet, although currently only a dedicated line is used. The antenna has been refitted with an ultra-broadband feed system capable of operating from 1-7 GHz.

  15. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The proposed security controls were integrated into the GRC flight test system aboard our S-3B Viking surrogate aircraft and several network tests were conducted during a flight on November 15th, 2014 to determine whether the controls were working properly within the flight environment. The flight test was also the first to integrate Robust Header Compression (ROHC) as a means of reducing the additional overhead introduced by the security controls and Mobile IPv6. The effort demonstrated the complete end-to-end secure CNPC link in a relevant flight environment.

  16. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, Maher; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with a system of integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system. RFID, GPS, GPRS and GIS along with camera technologies have been integrated and developed the bin and truck intelligent monitoring system. A new kind of integrated theoretical framework, hardware architecture and interface algorithm has been introduced between the technologies for the successful implementation of the proposed system. In this system, bin and truck database have been developed such a way that the information of bin and truck ID, date and time of waste collection, bin status, amount of waste and bin and truck GPS coordinates etc. are complied and stored for monitoring and management activities. The results showed that the real-time image processing, histogram analysis, waste estimation and other bin information have been displayed in the GUI of the monitoring system. The real-time test and experimental results showed that the performance of the developed system was stable and satisfied the monitoring system with high practicability and validity.

  17. Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M. K.; Harcke, L. J.; Wilhelm, M.; Chen, C.-C.; Lesh, J.; Feria, Y.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a study on telecommunication systems for a hypothetical mission to Mars. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the benefits that microwave-X-band (8.4 GHz) and Ka-band (32 GHz) - and optical communications technologies a afford to future missions. The telecommunication systems were required to return data after launch and in orbit at 2.7 AU with daily data volumes of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 Gbits (Gb). Spacecraft terminals capable of delivering each of the three data volumes were proposed and characterized in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost. The estimated parameters for X-band, Ka-band, and optical frequencies are compared and presented here. For all cases, the optical light terminal exhibits about 60 percent of the mass of the corresponding radio frequency (RF) subsystem. Power consumption is comparable for all three technologies at a 0.1 Gb/day data volume, but the power required at either Ka-band or optical is less than half of the X-band requirement at 10 Gb/day. These benefits can be obtained only with a suitable investment in reception facilities for Ka-band or optical frequencies.

  18. Energy Efficiency in MIMO Underlay and Overlay Device-to-Device Communications and Cognitive Radio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappone, Alessio; Matthiesen, Bho; Jorswieck, Eduard Axel

    2017-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of resource allocation for systems in which a primary and a secondary link share the available spectrum by an underlay or overlay approach. After observing that such a scenario models both cognitive radio and D2D communications, we formulate the problem as the maximization of the secondary energy efficiency subject to a minimum rate requirement for the primary user. This leads to challenging non-convex, fractional problems. In the underlay scenario, we obtain the global solution by means of a suitable reformulation. In the overlay scenario, two algorithms are proposed. The first one yields a resource allocation fulfilling the first-order optimality conditions of the resource allocation problem, by solving a sequence of easier fractional problems. The second one enjoys a weaker optimality claim, but an even lower computational complexity. Numerical results demonstrate the merits of the proposed algorithms both in terms of energy-efficient performance and complexity, also showing that the two proposed algorithms for the overlay scenario perform very similarly, despite the different complexity.

  19. Jitter-Robust Orthogonal Hermite Pulses for Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kohno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a class of jitter-robust, Hermite polynomial-based, orthogonal pulses for ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR communications systems is presented. A unified and exact closed-form expression of the auto- and cross-correlation functions of Hermite pulses is provided. Under the assumption that jitter values are sufficiently smaller than pulse widths, this formula is used to decompose jitter-shifted pulses over an orthonormal basis of the Hermite space. For any given jitter probability density function (pdf, the decomposition yields an equivalent distribution of N-by-N matrices which simplifies the convolutional jitter channel model onto a multiplicative matrix model. The design of jitter-robust orthogonal pulses is then transformed into a generalized eigendecomposition problem whose solution is obtained with a Jacobi-like simultaneous diagonalization algorithm applied over a subset of samples of the channel matrix distribution. Examples of the waveforms obtained with the proposed design and their improved auto- and cross-correlation functions are given. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the superior performance of a pulse-shape modulated (PSM- UWB-IR system using the proposed pulses, over the same system using conventional orthogonal Hermite pulses, in jitter channels with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN.

  20. The Technology of ZigBee for Builiding Wireless Voice Communications Network%ZigBee无线语音通信组网技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 张晨

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most of the low security intercom equipment, signal instability, conflict-prone, frequency of use license and other issues, the paper design of a ZigBee as communication technology to voice intercom system, significantly improved the above-mentioned problems. Terminal to the system microcontroller MSP430F149 microprocessor, provided through the use of TI CC2430 RF chip, ZigBee wireless communication standard, application technology related to the node in design, hardware test platform, the formation of ZigBee star network realization voice communication, of the entire system tests. Test results show that, using the ZigBee wireless technology has the advantages of voice communication, and meet the WSN network of power and transmission requirements.%鉴于目前多数对讲设备安全性低、信号不稳定、易冲突、使用频率许可等问题,设计了一种以ZigBee为通信技术的语音对讲系统.明显改善了上述问题.该系统终端以单片机MSP430F149为微处理器,通过使用TI公司提供的CC2430射频芯片,应用ZigBee无线通信标准相关技术,在所设计的节点硬件试验平台上,组建ZigBee星型网络实现语音通信,并且对整个系统进行测试.测试结果表明,利用ZigBee技术进行无线语音通信是具有优越性的,并且满足了无线个域网网络对功耗和传输的要求.

  1. Voice and endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders.

  2. Finding a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  3. A staged model of communication effects: evidence from an entertainment-education radio soap opera in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, P W; Rogers, E M

    2000-01-01

    The authors draw on (1) the hierarchy-of-effects (HOE) model, (2) the stages-of-change (SOC) model, (3) social learning theory (SLT), and (4) the diffusion of innovations (DOI) to synthesize a staged model through which communication messages have effects on individual behavior change by stimulating (1) involvement with media characters and role modeling of their actions, and (2) interpersonal communication. Data from a field experiment in Tanzania on the effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera, Twende na Wakati (Let's Go With the Times), on the adoption of family planning, are analyzed in light of a six-staged model of communication effects. It is found that (1) the model provides a useful framework for understanding the effects of an entertainment-education program, and (2) the radio soap opera promoted progress through the stages for family planning adoption in the treatment area in three of the four years of broadcast, and in the comparison area after broadcasts of the radio program began there.

  4. SMS versus voice messaging to deliver MNCH communication in rural Malawi: assessment of delivery success and user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jessica; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Jezman, Zachariah; Cunningham, Stacey C; Bancroft, Emily

    2014-02-01

    To determine the difference in delivery success of health messages delivered through pushed SMS, pushed voice messages sent to personal phones, and voice messages retrieved from a community phone ("retrieved voice messaging"), as well as the difference in quality of the user experience. We analyzed the project's electronic monitoring data between September 2011 and June 2013, including demographics, enrollment data, and messages sent and successfully delivered. We also collected and analyzed information from quarterly phone-based surveys with users to assess quality of the user experience, including acceptability, comprehension, new information learned, and reported behavior change. More than half of subscribers enrolled in the retrieved voice messaging service while nearly one-third enrolled in the pushed SMS service and less than 10% in pushed voice messaging. Message delivery success was highest among pushed SMS subscribers and lowest among retrieved voice subscribers. Overall, 99% of survey respondents reported trusting messages they received, and about 75% of respondents recalled the last message they received and learned something new. Almost 75% of respondents reported that they had already changed or intended to change their behavior based on received messages. Intended or actual behavior change was significantly higher among pushed SMS enrollees than among pushed or retrieved voice messaging enrollees (P = .01). All message modalities led to high levels of satisfaction, comprehension, and new information learned. Due to lower cost, higher delivery success, and higher levels of intended or actual behavior change, SMS is the preferred delivery modality. However, the majority of users included in this study did not have access to a personal phone, and retrieved voice messages provided an opportunity to access a population that otherwise could not be served. Providing multiple methods by which users could access the service was crucial in extending reach

  5. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  6. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a SISO UWB radio channel model for short-range radio link scenarios between a fixed device and a dynamic user hand-held device. The channel model is derived based on novel experimental UWB radio propagation investigations carried out in typical indoor PAN scenarios...... including realistic device and user terminal antenna configurations. The radio channel measurements have been performed in the lower UWB frequency band of 3GHz to 5GHz with a 2x4 MIMO antenna configuration. Several environments, user scenarios and two types of user terminals have been used. The developed...

  7. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Architecture Lab Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; McKim, James H.; Stewart, David H.; Thadhani, Suresh K.; Young, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the FAA and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the current GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The security controls were integrated into a lab test bed mock-up of the Mobile IPv6 architecture currently being used for NASA flight testing, and a series of network tests were conducted to evaluate the security overhead of the controls compared to the baseline CNPC link without any security. The aim of testing was to evaluate the performance impact of the additional security control overhead when added to the Mobile IPv6 architecture in various modes of operation. The statistics collected included packet captures at points along the path to gauge packet size as the sample data traversed the CNPC network, round trip latency, jitter, and throughput. The effort involved a series of tests of the baseline link, a link with Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and without security controls, a link with security controls and without ROHC, and finally a link with both ROHC and security controls enabled. The effort demonstrated that ROHC is both desirable and necessary to offset the additional expected overhead of applying security controls to the CNPC link.

  8. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  9. LEOcom: communication system for low earth orbit satellites for voice, data and facsimile; LEOcom - sistema de comunicacao por satelites de orbita terrestre baixa para voz, dados e facsimile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacaglia, G.E.O.; Lamas, W.Q. [Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: giorgio@unitau.br; Ceballos, D.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, J.J. [Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a basic description of a Communication System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites that can provide voice, data and facsimile to hundreds of countries located in equatorial land between + and - 20 deg latitude, reaching higher latitudes, depending on the location of the onshore terminal. As a point high, it emphasizes its opportunity to support the control of networks transmission of electricity, in any area, and plants generation, located in remote areas, and support any type of operation in these regions. It is the aim of this work to reactivate a good project for Brazil and the tropical world.

  10. Dialogue on dialogues Multi-voiced dialogues (dialogism) as means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The article elaborates on a theoretical understanding of dialogue as a means for the co-production of knowledge in and on leadership communicative practices through ongoing research collaboration that involves leaders, researchers and master students at Aalborg University. Dialogue is viewed from...... to cultivate the creative and transformational powers of dialogues in which new meanings, voices and forms of knowledge emerge. I discuss how this way of framing the dialogical co-production of knowledge challenges the mainstream understanding of dialogical practices by embracing relational, conflictual...

  11. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    researchers improve our practices and how could digital online video help offer more positive stories about research and higher education? How can academics in higher education be better to tell about our research, thereby reclaiming and leveraging our voice in a post-factual era? As higher education......This paper speculates on how researchers share research without diluting our credibility and how to make strategies for the future. It also calls for consideration of new traditions and practices for communicating knowledge to a wider audience across multiple media platforms. How might we...... continues to engage with digital and networked technologies it becomes increasingly relevant to question why and how academics could (re) position research knowledge in the digital and online media landscape of today and the future. The paper highlights methodological issues that arise in relation...

  12. Performance Analysis of Power Saving Class of Type I for Voice Service in Two-Way Communication in IEEE 802.16e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunju; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Bong Dae

    In IEEE 802.16e, power saving is one of the important issues for battery-powered mobile stations (MSs). We present a performance analysis of power saving class (PSC) of type I in IEEE 802.16e standard for voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with silence suppression in two-way communication. On-off pattern of a voice user in two-way communication is characterized by the modified Brady model, which includes short silence gaps less than 200ms and talkspurt periods shorter than 15ms, and so differs from the Brady model. Our analysis of PSC I follows the standard-based procedure for the deactivation of the sleep mode, where a uplink packet arrival during a mutual silence period wakes up the MS immediately while a downlink packet arrival waits to be served until the next listening window. We derive the delay distribution of the first downlink packet arriving during a mutual silence period, and find the dropping probability of downlink packets since a voice packet drops if it is not transmitted within maximum delay constraint. In addition, we calculate the average power consumption under the modified Brady model. Analysis and simulation results show that the sleep mode operation for the MS with VoIP service yields 32 ∼ 39% reduction in the power consumption of the MS. Finally we obtain the optimal initial/final-sleep windows that yield the minimum average power consumption while satisfying QoS constraints on the packet dropping probability and the maximum delay.

  13. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems. I. Radio Broadcasting in Austria. Communication and Society, 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signitzer, Benno; Luger, Kurt

    The first in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Austria. It deals with the cultural implications of broadcasting structures and their ownership…

  14. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: II. Radio Broadcasting in Czechoslovakia. Communication and Society, 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzlova, Alice; Slovak, Leopold

    The second in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Czechoslovakia. It deals with the cultural implications of broadcasting structures and their…

  15. MF-CRA: Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EpiSys Science, Inc. and University of Arizona propose to develop, implement, and demonstrate Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture (MF-CRA) for Space...

  16. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  17. Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice is the sound made by air passing from your lungs through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, ... to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, ...

  18. Every Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  19. Every Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  20. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  1. UAS in the NAS Project: Large-Scale Communication Architecture Simulations with NASA GRC Gen5 Radio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a description and performance characterization of the large-scale, Relay architecture, UAS communications simulation capability developed for the NASA GRC, UAS in the NAS Project. The system uses a validated model of the GRC Gen5 CNPC, Flight-Test Radio model. Contained in the report is a description of the simulation system and its model components, recent changes made to the system to improve performance, descriptions and objectives of sample simulations used for test and verification, and a sampling and observations of results and performance data.

  2. L'arrivée du WiFi, technologie de télécommunication radio

    OpenAIRE

    Dumé, Bel; Ubéda, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    National audience; La technologie radio 802.11, désormais bien connue sous le nom de Wi-Fi, est développée à la fin des années 1990, mais sa mise en oeuvre est assez compliquée et il faudra attendre les années 2002-2003 pour que les vraies cartes Wi-Fi arrivent sur le marché et ouvrent le champ des applications d'objets mobiles communicants.

  3. Mechanics of human voice production and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed. PMID:27794319

  4. What the voice reveals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted voca

  5. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted voca

  6. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  7. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  8. The impact of voice on speech realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Breznik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses spoken literary language and the impact of voice on speech realization. The voice consists of a sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming… The human voice is specifically the part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords are the primary sound source. Our voice is our instrument and identity card. How does the voice (voice tone affect others and how do they respond, positively or negatively? How important is voice (voice tone in communication process? The study presents how certain individuals perceive voice. The results of the research on the relationships between the spoken word, excellent speaker, voice and description / definition / identification of specific voices done by experts in the field of speech and voice as well as non-professionals are presented. The study encompasses two focus groups. One consists of amateurs (non-specialists in the field of speech or voice who have no knowledge in this field and the other consists of professionals who work with speech or language or voice. The questions were intensified from general to specific, directly related to the topic. The purpose of such a method of questioning was to create relaxed atmosphere, promote discussion, allow participants to interact, complement, and to set up self-listening and additional comments.

  9. The Radio Communication Project in Nepal: A Culture-Centered Approach to Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted on the topic of entertainment-education (EE), the method of using entertainment platforms such as popular music, radio, and television programming to diffuse information, attitudes, and behaviors via role modeling. A significant portion of the recently published EE literature has used the case of the Radio…

  10. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The nature of human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars demands a frequency-agile, reconfigurable, durable digital radio delivering telemetry, ranging, voice,...

  11. Considerations about the Modeling of Software Defined Radio for Mobile Communications Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Morgos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the modeling of a software definedradio - SDR. The digital radios are base on ADCinterfaces that convert the base band signal in a digitalformat and a DSP that accomplish the demodulationaccording to a suitable digital processing algorithm. Totest the model the authors chosen a radio signal with aWeibull distribution quadrature amplitude modulationQAM that pass through a scattering medium till the RFfront end of the SDR. The fading effect was also takeninto consideration. The results of the demodulation usingthe proposed model of SDR were compared with aRayleigh distribution. The simulation results made by thehelp of MATLAB program emphasize the effects of thequantization levels of the ADC circuit.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  13. Deep Null Antennas and Their Applications to Tactical VHF Radio Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    simulations must be carried out over less than perfect grounds. Reviev; of the Antenna Engineering Handbook . Vol. I [Ref. 6] provided the needed...means of getting the desired phase and magnitude relationships was not found, and as mentioned in the ARRL Antenna Book [Ret: 3: pp. 8-l-l], a number of...Englewood Cliffs, ::\\J, 1968. 3. American Radio Relay League, The ARRL Antenna Book, 15th ed., American Ra- dio Relay League, ~e,Yington, CT, 1988. 4

  14. Impact of the Use of Object Request Broker Middleware for Inter-Component Communications in C6416 Digital Signal Processor Based Software Communications Architecture Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an in-depth analysis of the performance of Software Communications Architecture (SCA component-based waveform applications in terms of inter-component communications. The main limitation with SCA, in the context of embedded systems, is the additional cost introduced by the use of Object Request Broker (ORB middleware. The ORB middleware handles the interaction between components and objects in SCA distributed environment. This interaction should be highly efficient, due to the real time nature of SCA systems and transparent to the application programmer. Approach: We can achieve high efficiency in SCA systems by enhancing the Inter-Process Communications (IPC mechanisms in Operating systems (OS micro kernels, while we achieve transparency through Interface Definition Language (IDL. Different encoding mechanisms like “External Data Representation (XDR, Network Data Representation (NDR and Common Data Representation (CDR facilitate inter-component communication transparently and efficiently”. Marshalling procedures format data from the local machine representation to common network representations. A most common encoding mechanism for Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA systems is CDR representation. Measurements have been performed with ORBExpress DSP as a CORBA distribution and Open Source SCA Implementation Embedded (OSSIE for SCA implementation. In order to perform these measurements we proposed two metrics for profiling the ORB that are invocation and marshalling. In addition, we propose three elements of data types to evaluate the performance of ORB middleware that are, Basic, Array and Sequence data types. Results: The CORBA bus is really the part, which brings an overhead to the SCA radio systems. This overhead is due to method invocations that have been carried out by ORB middleware. Conclusion: Performance benchmarks of ORBExpress DSP middleware show that, although using CORBA for

  15. Antenna Technology and other Radio Frequency (RF) Communications Activities at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA's Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Vision for Space Exploration outlines a very ambitious program for the next several decades of the Space Agency endeavors. Ahead is the completion of the International Space Station (ISS); safely flight the shuttle (STS) until 2010; develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) by no later than 2014; return to the moon by no later than 2020; extend human presence across the solar system and beyond; implement a sustainable and affordable human and robotic program; develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge and infrastructure; and promote international and commercial participation in exploration. To achieve these goals, a series of enabling technologies must be developed or matured in a timely manner. Some of these technologies are: spacecraft RF technology (e.g., high power sources and large antennas which using surface receive arrays can get up to 1 Gbps from Mars), uplink arraying (reduce reliance on large ground-based antennas and high operation costs; single point of failure; enable greater data-rates or greater effective distance; scalable, evolvable, flexible scheduling), software define radio (i.e., reconfigurable, flexible interoperability allows for in flight updates open architecture; reduces mass, power, volume), and optical communications (high capacity communications with low mass/power required; significantly increases data rates for deep space). This presentation will discuss some of the work being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in antenna technology as well as other on-going RF communications efforts.

  16. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing via a Novel User-Classification Scheme in Cognitive Radios for Future Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Future communication networks would be required to deliver data on a far greater scale than is known to us today, thus mandating the maximal utilization of the available radio spectrum using cognitive radios. In this paper, we have proposed a novel cooperative spectrum sensing approach for cognitive radios. In cooperative spectrum sensing, the fusion center relies on reports of the cognitive users to make a global decision. The global decision is obtained by assigning weights to the reports received from cognitive users. Computation of such weights requires prior information of the probability of detection and the probability of false alarms, which are not readily available in real scenarios. Further, the cognitive users are divided into reliable and unreliable categories based on their weighted energy by using some empirical threshold. In this paper, we propose a method to classify the cognitive users into reliable, neutral and unreliable categories without using any pre-defined or empirically-obtained threshold. Moreover, the computation of weights does not require the detection, or false alarm probabilities, or an estimate of these probabilities. Reliable cognitive users are assigned the highest weights; neutral cognitive users are assigned medium weights (less than the reliable and higher than the unreliable cognitive users’ weights; and unreliable users are assigned the least weights. We show the performance improvement of our proposed method through simulations by comparing it with the conventional cooperative spectrum sensing scheme through different metrics, like receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and mean square error. For clarity, we also show the effect of malicious users on detection probability and false alarm probability individually through simulations.

  17. Code-expanded radio access protocol for machine-to-machine communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    The random access methods used for support of machine-to-machine, also referred to as Machine-Type Communications, in current cellular standards are derivatives of traditional framed slotted ALOHA and therefore do not support high user loads efficiently. We propose an approach that is motivated...... subframes and orthogonal preambles, the amount of available contention resources is drastically increased, enabling the massive support of Machine-Type Communication users that is beyond the reach of current systems....

  18. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.1 radio interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  19. Effects of personality on territory defence in communication networks: a playback experiment with radio-tagged great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, Mathieu; Sprau, Philipp; de Goede, Piet; Naguib, Marc

    2010-12-07

    Individuals often differ consistently in behaviour across time and contexts, and such consistent behavioural differences are commonly described as personality. Personality can play a central role in social behaviour both in dyadic interactions and in social networks. We investigated whether explorative behaviour, as proxy of personality of territorial male great tits (Parus major), predicts their own and their neighbours' territorial responses towards simulated intruders. Several weeks prior to playback, subjects were taken from the wild to test their exploratory behaviour in a standard context in the laboratory. Exploratory behaviour provides a proxy of personality along a slow-fast explorer continuum. Upon release, males were radio-tracked and subsequently exposed to interactive playback simulating a more or a less aggressive territorial intruder (by either overlapping or alternating broadcast songs with the subjects' songs). At the same time, we radio-tracked a neighbour of the playback subject. Male vocal responses during playback and spatial movements after playback varied according to male explorative behaviour and playback treatment. Males with lower exploration scores approached the loudspeaker less, and sang more songs, shorter songs and songs with slower element rates than did males with higher exploration scores. Moreover, neighbour responses were related to the explorative behaviour of the subject receiving the playback but not to their own explorative behaviour. Our overall findings reveal for the first time how personality traits affect resource defence within a communication network providing new insights on the cause of variation in resource defence behaviour.

  20. Enhancing Radio Access Network Performance over LTE-A for Machine-to-Machine Communications under Massive Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Alsewaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expected tremendous growth of machine-to-machine (M2M devices will require solutions to improve random access channel (RACH performance. Recent studies have shown that radio access network (RAN performance is degraded under the high density of devices. In this paper, we propose three methods to enhance RAN performance for M2M communications over the LTE-A standard. The first method employs a different value for the physical RACH configuration index to increase random access opportunities. The second method addresses a heterogeneous network by using a number of picocells to increase resources and offload control traffic from the macro base station. The third method involves aggregation points and addresses their effect on RAN performance. Based on evaluation results, our methods improved RACH performance in terms of the access success probability and average access delay.

  1. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  2. Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careless, James; Erich, John

    2008-08-01

    Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding.

  3. Studying integrated silicon-lens antennas for radio communication systems operated in the 60 GHz frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, A. A.; Mal'tsev, A. A.; Maslennikov, R. O.; Sevastyanov, A. G.; Ssorin, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the development of an integrated lens antenna for LAN radio communication systems operated in the 60 GHz frequency band. The antenna is an extended hemispherical silicon lens. On its flat surface, a microstrip antenna element is located. The use of silicon, which has a dielectric permittivity ɛ = 11.7, as the lens material ensures the maximum range of scanning angles for the minimum axial size of the lens. The approximate analytical formulas, which are used for initial calculations of the lens parameters, allow one to evaluate the basic parameters of the lens antenna integrated with the microstrip antenna element. For further optimizing the parameters of the lens and the antenna element, 3D simulation of the electromagnetic-field distribution was performed. Based on its results, we have developed and manufactured extended hemispherical silicon lenses, which had radii of 6 and 12 mm. The planar microstrip antenna element was manufactured by the low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology. The results of simulation and experimental studies of the manufactured prototypes demonstrate that the developed lens antennas has directivities of 17.6 and 23.1 dBi for lenses with radii of 6 and 12 mm, respectively. In this case, the maximum beam deflection angle is achieved, which is equal to 55°, while the permissible decrease in the directivity is no more than 6 dBi compared with the case of a non-deflected beam. The obtained results show that the developed integrated lens antennas can find applications in high-speed radio communication systems operated in the millimeter-wave range.

  4. Temporal voice areas exist in autism spectrum disorder but are dysfunctional for voice identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Kamila; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently, it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results refute the earlier report that individuals with ASD have no responses in voice-sensitive regions: Passive listening to vocal, compared to non-vocal, sounds elicited typical responses in voice-sensitive regions in the high-functioning ASD group and controls. In contrast, the ASD group had a dysfunction in voice-sensitive regions during voice identity but not speech recognition in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG)—a region implicated in processing complex spectrotemporal voice features and unfamiliar voices. The right anterior STS/STG correlated with voice identity recognition performance in controls but not in the ASD group. The findings suggest that right STS/STG dysfunction is critical for explaining voice recognition impairments in high-functioning ASD and show that ASD is not characterised by a general lack of voice-sensitive responses. PMID:27369067

  5. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Numerical arc segmentation algorithm for a radio conference: A software tool for communication satellite systems planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, W. A.; Heyward, A. O.; Ponchak, D. S.; Spence, R. L.; Zuzek, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The Numerical Arc Segmentation Algorithm for a Radio Conference (NASARC) provides a method of generating predetermined arc segments for use in the development of an allotment planning procedure to be carried out at the 1988 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) on the Use of the Geostationary Satellite Orbit and the Planning of Space Services Utilizing It. Through careful selection of the predetermined arc (PDA) for each administration, flexibility can be increased in terms of choice of system technical characteristics and specific orbit location while reducing the need for coordination among administrations. The NASARC software determines pairwise compatibility between all possible service areas at discrete arc locations. NASARC then exhaustively enumerates groups of administrations whose satellites can be closely located in orbit, and finds the arc segment over which each such compatible group exists. From the set of all possible compatible groupings, groups and their associated arc segments are selected using a heuristic procedure such that a PDA is identified for each administration. Various aspects of the NASARC concept and how the software accomplishes specific features of allotment planning are discussed.

  7. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.

  8. PatientVOICE: development of a preparatory, pre-chemotherapy online communication tool for older patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Driesenaar, J.A.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Osch, M. van; Noordman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Good communication around cancer treatment is essential in helping patients cope with their disease and related care, especially when this information is tailored to one’s needs. Despite its importance, communication is often complex, in particular in older patients (aged 65 years or

  9. PatientVOICE: Development of a preparatory, pre-chemotherapy online communication tool for older patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dulmen, S.; Driesenaar, J.A.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Osch, M.; Noordman, J.

    Background: Good communication around cancer treatment is essential in helping patients cope with their disease and related care, especially when this information is tailored to one’s needs. Despite its importance, communication is often complex, in particular in older patients (aged 65 years or

  10. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  11. Discourse segmentation and the management of multiple tasks in single episodes of air traffic controller-pilot spoken radio communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Falzon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of VHF radio-mediated pilot-controller spoken communication in which multiple tasks are conducted are engendered in and through the skilful deployment and combination, by the parties to the talk, of multiple orders of discourse segmentation. These orders of segmentation are manifest at the levels of transmission design and sequential organisation. Both of these features are analysed from a Conversation Analytic standpoint in order to track their segment by segment genesis, development and completion. From the analysis it emerges that in addition to the serial type of sequential organisations described by Schegloff (1986, there exists an alternative form of organisation that enables tasks to be managed in a quasi-parallel manner, and which affords controllers and pilots a number of practical advantages in the conduct of their radio-mediated service encounters.Cet article présente des extraits d’échanges oraux entre pilots et contrôleurs du ciel via la radio VHF. On peut y voir comment le déploiement et la combinaison habile de plusieurs ordres de segmentation discursive, engageant les deux coénonciateurs de la conversation, leur permet d’accomplir des tâches multiples. Ces ordres de segmentation se manifestent aux niveaux du plan de la transmission et de l’organisation séquentielle. Ces deux niveaux sont envisagées du point de vue de l’analyse conversationnelle dans le but d’examiner, segment après segment, comment ils se mettent en place, se développent puis prennent fin. Notre étude montre que, outre le type sériel d’organisations séquentielles décrit par Schegloff (1986, il existe une forme alternative d’organisation qui permet de gérer les tâches de manière quasi parallèle, et qui fournit aux contrôleurs aériens ainsi qu’aux pilotes de nombreux avantages pratiques dans la conduite de leurs radio.

  12. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.;

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  13. Reliable Radio Access for Massive Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is a term that identifies the emerging paradigm of interconnected systems, machines, and things that communicate and collaborate without human intervention. The characteristics of M2M Communications are small payloads and sporadic transmissions, while...... the service requirements can range from massive number of devices to ultra-reliable. This PhD thesis focuses on novel mechanisms to meet these requirements in a variety of wireless systems, from well-established technologies such as cellular networks, to emerging technologies like IEEE 802.11ah. Today...... an overwhelming 89% of the deployed M2M modules are GPRS-based. This motivates us to investigate the potential of GPRS as a dedicated M2M network. We show that by introducing minimal modifications to GPRS operation, a large number of devices can be reliably supported. Surprisingly, even though LTE is seen...

  14. Work-related voice disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny; Luciana Tironi Sanson Przysiezny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia), vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related...

  15. A Novel Pulse Shaping for UWB Impulse Radio IEEE 802.15.4a Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARRAJ Imen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel pulse shape which we call modified triangular pulse (MTri for Impulse Radio-Ultra Wide Band (IR-UWB IEEE 802.15.4a systems. The MTri pulse and UWB shapes previously proposed for low power IR-UWB transceivers topologies are studied and compared. The performance measures considered are compliance with required spectral emission constrains, Mask Loss (ML power and pulse energy. Our theoretical and simulations results show the advantages of the MTri pulse over studies UWB pulses. It presents the lower ML power about 0.45dB and the higher pulse energy of 0.45nJ/p.

  16. Modeling and performance analysis of cooperative communications in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a network comprised of a primary user and a secondary user with the latter having cognitive radio capabilities. The secondary node uses the empty slots of the primary user to transmit its own traffic as well as to relay the primary\\'s traffic in a cooperative fashion. Taking a queuing theory approach, we find the probability generating functions of the numbers of packets in the queues of the primary and secondary users. Subsequently, we determine a number of performance measures such as the average queues\\' lengths, average packet transmission delays and secondary user\\'s queue surcharge due to cooperation. The numerical results along with the simulations show the importance of controlling the number of primary user packets admitted by the secondary user for cooperation and its impacts on the other performance measures. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Evolution of Monolithic Technology for Wireless Communications: GaN MMIC Power Amplifiers For Microwave Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Camarchia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the progress of monolithic technology for microwaveapplication, focusing on gallium nitride technology advances in the realization of integratedpower amplifiers. Three design examples, developed for microwave backhaul radios, areshown. The first design is a 7 GHz Doherty developed with a research foundry, while thesecond and the third are a 7 GHz Doherty and a 7–15 GHz dual-band combined poweramplifiers, both based on a commercial foundry process. The employed architectures, themain design steps and the pros and cons of using gallium nitride technology are highlighted.The measured performance demonstrates the potentialities of the employed technology, andthe progress in the accuracy, reliability and performance of the process.

  18. Code-expanded radio access protocol for machine-to-machine communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    The random access methods used for support of machine-to-machine, also referred to as Machine-Type Communications, in current cellular standards are derivatives of traditional framed slotted ALOHA and therefore do not support high user loads efficiently. We propose an approach that is motivated b...

  19. Radio Interoperability: Addressing the Real Reasons We Don’t Communicate Well During Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    This is an issue we cannot simply “ buy ” our way out of by merely deploying more equipment. 4 Newsday...platforms, thus enabling agency-specific communications to continue?) First responders will tend to revert to daily habits in times of crisis, instead of...recognition of the need for improved human interoperability 16 Y2K refers to millennial change of

  20. Towards Implantable Body Sensor Networks - Performance of MICS Band Radio Communication in Animal Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zhang, Kui; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Reliable wireless communication inside the human body is crucial for the design of implantable body sensor networks (IBSN). The tissues in human body are heterogeneous and have dierent conductivity and permitivity, which make the modeling of the wireless channel challenging. The design of upper

  1. A Study of EL2 Pilots' Radio Communication in the General Aviation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estival, Dominique; Molesworth, Brett

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary stages of a project designed to investigate communication problems in General Aviation and assess the utility of language technologies as a means of mitigation. The study presented in this paper is the first of a three-part study, in which we aim to investigate the extent to which the English language…

  2. Advanced communication infrastructure for pre-hospital EMS care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mazza, Giovanni; Mazza, Giovanni Giorgio; Shenvi, Rohit; Battles, Marcie

    2008-11-06

    The traditional communication infrastructure of the pre-hospital Emergency Medical System (EMS) is limited to voice communication using radio or cell phone technologies. With the emergence of 3rd Generation wireless networks (3G) and enhanced mobile devices capable of data communication (e.g., mobile tablets, PDAs with cell phones, or cell phones with PDA capabilities), the voice communication can be enhanced with interactive data messaging and perhaps even with interactive video communication. However, video requires substantially more bandwidth which 4th Generation (4G) systems are promising. However, their availability is limited. We present an infrastructure that allows dynamic selection of the best data transport mode in the pre-hospital EMS environment.

  3. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  4. 76 FR 67397 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez,...

  5. 77 FR 59882 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Tignall, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Tignall, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief,...

  6. 76 FR 37049 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Bastrop, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Bastrop, LA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa...

  7. 78 FR 32 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission.... 8. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications...

  8. 77 FR 58799 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Roaring Springs, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez,...

  9. 77 FR 64758 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief,...

  10. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga-Rosales Hector; Reyes-Ayala Mario; Hernandez-Valdez Genaro; Andrade-Gonzalez Edgar Alejandro; Miranda-Tello Jose Raul; Cruz-Perez Felipe Alejandro; Castellanos-Lopez Sandra Lirio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA) for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation e...

  11. Interconnection between packet switching national networks and local packet radio communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talone, P.; Trigila, S.

    1985-07-01

    Multipoint topology networks based on a single statistically distributed radiocommunication channel are considered, referring only to restricted area networks with line of sight type links. The architecture and protocols of such networks are reviewed. The problems related to the interconnection of such networks with large public packet switching communication networks are examined. Several hypothesis are studied concluding that mainly in the case of emergencies or catastrophic events these networks are an extremely useful resource.

  12. Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.

  13. 物联网无线技术分析及相关商业应用%Radio Communication Technology and Related Business Applications of Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明; 司文

    2015-01-01

    Radio communication technology is the core of Internet of things . It includes radio frequency technology ,NFC technology ,Infrared technology ,Wifi technology ,Bluetooth and ZigBee . T his paper analyzes technical characteristics and commercial prospects of these technologies .%无线传输技术是物联网技术的核心。本文以无线射频技术、NFC技术、红外技术、Wifi技术、蓝牙技术、ZigBee技术为切入点,分析了它们的技术特点及在物联网应用中的商业前景。

  14. Keeping Your Voice Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Keeping Your Voice Healthy Keeping Your Voice Healthy Patient Health Information ... heavily voice-related. Key Steps for Keeping Your Voice Healthy Drink plenty of water. Moisture is good ...

  15. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  16. Design of Explosion-proof Non-central Switch Voice Communication System in Coal Mine%煤矿井下防爆型无主机语音通信系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春华

    2012-01-01

    An explosion-proof non-central switch voice communication systems is introduced in this article for the disadvantage of the slow rate of communication, the small bandwidth, the bad tone and the big SNR. The system consist of high voice encode and de- code chip CMX618 based on Robust Advanced Low Complexity Waveform Interpolation. The main system adopts the low power STM32FI03RE controller and the communication bus of far distance uses the CAN bus. Experimental results indicate that the tone of the system is acceptable better and the stability and reliability of the system is good when the compression rate mode is 2400b/s. The designed system can satisfy the demand of voice communication bandwidth, the quality of voice, the system stability and reliability. It can be Popularized in the coal mine.%针对煤矿井下语音通信速率低,带宽小,音质差,噪声大等缺点,设计了一种煤矿井下防爆型低功耗无主机语音通信系统。该系统的语音编解码采用高压缩率算法RALCWI的CMX618,系统控制采用低功耗STM32F103RE控制器,语音的远距离通信采用CAN总线方式。试验结果表明,语音的压缩速率模式2400b/s时,音质较好,通信稳定可靠,满足煤矿井下语音通信带宽要求,语音质量,系统稳定与可靠性高的要求,易于在煤矿系统中推广。

  17. Differences in Access to Information and Communication Technologies: Voices of British Muslim Teenage Girls at Islamic Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah; Qazi, Atika; Iqbal, Javed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Most research on information and communication technologies (ICT) differences has been related to gender and ethnicity, and to a lesser extent religious affiliation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this field of research by situating the discussion in the context of British Muslims and extending current research into ICT…

  18. Ultra Low Power, Radiation Tolerant UHF Radio Technologies for In Situ Communication Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    For future deep space missions, significant reductions in the mass and power requirements for short-range telecommunication systems will be critical in enabling a wide variety of new mission concepts. These possibilities include penetrators, gliders, miniature rovers, and sensor networks. Under joint funding from NASA's Cross Enterprise and JPL's Telecommunications and Mission technology programs, recent development activity has focused on the design of ultralow mass and power transceiver systems and subsystems suitable for operation in a flight environment. For these efforts, the functionality of the transceiver has been targeted towards a specific Mars communications scenario. However, the overall architecture is well suited to any short or medium range application where a remote probe will aperiodically communicate with a base station, possibly an orbiter, for the eventual purpose of relaying science information back to Earth. In 2001, these sponsors have been augmented with collaborative expertise and funding from JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems in order to migrate existing concepts and designs to a System on a Chip (SOAC) solution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Ultra Low Power, Radiation Tolerant UHF Radio Technologies for In Situ Communication Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    For future deep space missions, significant reductions in the mass and power requirements for short-range telecommunication systems will be critical in enabling a wide variety of new mission concepts. These possibilities include penetrators, gliders, miniature rovers, and sensor networks. Under joint funding from NASA's Cross Enterprise and JPL's Telecommunications and Mission technology programs, recent development activity has focused on the design of ultralow mass and power transceiver systems and subsystems suitable for operation in a flight environment. For these efforts, the functionality of the transceiver has been targeted towards a specific Mars communications scenario. However, the overall architecture is well suited to any short or medium range application where a remote probe will aperiodically communicate with a base station, possibly an orbiter, for the eventual purpose of relaying science information back to Earth. In 2001, these sponsors have been augmented with collaborative expertise and funding from JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems in order to migrate existing concepts and designs to a System on a Chip (SOAC) solution. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Radio Frequency (RF) Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Switches for Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximillian C.; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology for radio frequency (RF) systems because it has the potential to dramatically decrease loss and improve efficiency. In this paper, we address the design and fabrication of novel MEMS switches being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. Two types of switches are being developed: a microstrip series single pole single throw (SPST) switch and a coplanar waveguide (CPW) series SPST and single pole double throw (SPDT) switches. These are being fabricated as an integral part of 50 Ohm microstrip and CPW RF integrated circuits using microfabrication techniques. The construction of the switch relies on a cantilever beam that is partially supported by a dielectric post. The cantilever beam is electro-magnetically actuated. To decrease stiction, a Si3N4 thin film is deposited over the contact area. Thus, when the switch is closed, the ON-state insertion loss is governed by the parallel plate capacitance formed by the two contacts. The isolation in the OFF-state is governed by the parasitic capacitance when the cantilever is in the up position. RF MEMS switches have been demonstrated with 80% lower insertion loss than conventional solid state devices (GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) and Silicon PIN diodes) based switches. For example, a conventional GaAs five-bit phase shifter which is required for beam steering in a phased array antenna has approximately 7 dB of insertion loss at 26.5 GHz where as a comparable MEMS based phase shifter is expected to have only 2 dB of insertion loss. This translates into 56% lower power dissipation and therefore decreases the thermal load on the spacecraft and also reduces the power amplifier requirements. These benefits will enable NASA to build the next generation of deep space science crafts and micro/nano satellites.

  1. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  2. Android在数字集群通信终端中的应用%Application of Android in digital trunked radio communication terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢拥军; 鄢楚平; 汪涵

    2012-01-01

    为了使数字集群通信终端智能化并兼容Android平台丰富的应用,对如何将目前流行的智能操作系统Android应用到数字集群通信终端中进行了研究和实现.对于数字集群通信终端的重要组成部分——电话系统,详细地分析了Android自带的Telephony框架,然后根据TETRA数字集群系统的特点对Telephony框架进行了修改,最后对已修改的Android系统在TI的OMAP3530平台上进行了验证,实现了数字集群通信终端特有的功能.%To intelligentize the digital trunked radio communication terminal and make it compatible with the abundant applications of Android platform, the problemon how to apply the current popular smartphone's Android operating system is researched and implemented to digital trunked radio communication terminal. For the important part of digital trunked radio communication terminal, the telephony framework is analyzed in detail. Then, the telephony system is modified according to the characteristics of the TETRA digital trunked system. At last, the modified Android system is verified on the OMAP3530 platform of texas instruments, and achieved the specific features of the digital trunked communication terminal.

  3. An Implementation of Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Real-time Voice Communication System%一种移动无线自组网即时语音通信系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现涛; 郭达伟; 李杨

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc has been quickly developed recently, requirement for real - time voice communication based on the platform is increasingly shown. This paper gives out a way to realize the multi - hop real - time voice communication system, with the technology VOIP, RTP and so on. Through mobile tests, the system has shown a good performance,which is sentenced to be more than 3.5 by MOS standard under low speed mobile condition, this system could support instant voice communication.%近年来,移动无线自组织网络迅速发展,在该平台上实时语音通信的需求也日益显现.在linux平台下,利用VOIP和RTP等技术实现了无线移动自组织网络的多跳即时语音通信系统.并通过上网本组成的硬件实验平台进行了移动实验,在低速移动条件下的实时语音通信效果MOS评分在3.5以上,能够满足即时语音通信的需求.

  4. Radio frequency fields generated by the S-band communication link on OV102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, G. B.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle STS-3 mission carried a Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) whose instrumentation included an S-band antenna and detector. The PDP was maneuvered by the Remote Manipulator System arm through a computer controlled sequence in the Orbiter's X-Z plane, above the quad and hemi S-band communications antennas. Antenna field strength measurements were conducted during transmitter high power modes, and the results were compared to ground full scale measurements and predictions. A field strength 4.8 + or - 3 dB higher than predicted is noted. This RF field is primarily due to the quad PM transmitter, whose power output of 115 W compares with 15 W for the hemi.

  5. Citizens’ Radio in North Africa and the Middle East: Meaningful Change through Citizen Empowerment? – An Experience from Tunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fostering a participatory political culture is a crucial part of the on-going transformation processes which we witness across North African and Middle Eastern countries since 2011. This paper considers which role participatory communication plays in these processes, by examining the potential of citizens’ radios to accompany Tunisia’s transition at a grassroots level. Analysing the case of Radio 6 Tunis – a local, non-commercial Internet-radio founded by Tunisian journalists under the rule of Ben Ali in 2007 – citizens’ radios are discussed as sites of political contestation and cultivation of critical consciousness. While they empower citizens to reclaim both their voice and public space, their influence is however limited. The manifold challenges which citizens' radios face in the transitional context of post-autocratic Tunisia, may well impede nascent democratisation dynamics.

  6. An implementation of Software Defined Radios for federated aerospace networks: Informing satellite implementations using an inter-balloon communications experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtyamov, Rustam; Cruz, Ignasi Lluch i.; Matevosyan, Hripsime; Knoll, Dominik; Pica, Udrivolf; Lisi, Marco; Golkar, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Novel space mission concepts such as Federated Satellite Systems promise to enhance sustainability, robustness, and reliability of current missions by means of in-orbit sharing of space assets. This new paradigm requires the utilization of several technologies in order to confer flexibility and re-configurability to communications systems among heterogeneous spacecrafts. This paper illustrates the results of the experimental demonstration of the value proposition of federated satellites through two stratospheric balloons interoperating with a tracking ground station through Commercial Off-The-Shelf Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The paper reports telemetry analysis and characterizes the communications network that was realized in-flight. Furthermore, it provides details on an in-flight anomaly experienced by one of the balloons, which was recovered through the use of the federated technology that has been developed. The anomaly experienced led to the early loss of the directional link from the ground station to the affected stratospheric balloon node after 15 min in flight. Nevertheless, thanks to the federated approach among the systems, the ground station was still able to retrieve the balloon's data in real time through the network system, for which the other balloon operated as a federated relay for 45 min in flight, uninterrupted. In other words, the federated approach to the system allowed triplicating the useful lifetime of the defective system, which would have not been possible to realize otherwise. Such anomaly coincidentally demonstrated the value of the federated approach to space systems design. The paper paves the way for future tests on space assets.

  7. Invisible voices : understanding the sociocultural influences on adult migrantsʼ second language learning and communicative interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative study exploring the sociocultural influences on adult migrants’ second language learning and the communicative interaction through which they use the language. Guided by a theoretical perspective based on the concepts of life-world, habitus, social capital, symbolic honor, game, and the idea of the interrelatedness of learning and using a second language, this study aims to understand how migrants’ everyday life context, attachments to the home country, and ...

  8. [Effects of radio- and microwaves emitted by wireless communication devices on the functions of the nervous system selected elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politański, Piotr; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Zmyślony, Marek

    Nervous system is the most "electric" system in the human body. The research of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of different frequencies on its functioning have been carried out for years. This paper presents the results of the scientific literature review on the EMF influence on the functioning of the human nervous system with a particular emphasis on the recent studies of the modern wireless communication and data transmission systems. In the majority of the analyzed areas the published research results do not show EMF effects on the nervous system, except for the influence of GSM telephony signal on resting EEG and EEG during patients' sleep and the influence of radiofrequency EMF on the cardiovascular regulation. In other analyzed areas (EMF impact on sleep, the evoked potentials and cognitive processes), there are no consistent results supporting any influence of electromagnetic fields. Neurophysiological studies of the effect of radio- and microwaves on the brain functions in humans are still considered inconclusive. This is among others due to, different exposure conditions, a large number of variables tested, deficiencies in repeatability of research and statistical uncertainties. However, methodological guidelines are already available giving a chance of unifying research that definitely needs to be continued in order to identify biophysical mechanisms of interaction between EMFs and the nervous system. One of the EMF research aspects, on which more and more attention is paid, are inter-individual differences. Med Pr 2016;67(3):411-421.

  9. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  10. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, Jaap C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio co

  11. Perencanaan dan analisis kehandalan sistem komunikasi radio microwave tampak pandang pada pita frekuensi 12750-13250 MHz [Planning and analysis of the reliability of line of sight microwave radio communication system on 12750-13250 MHz band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasyim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Propagasi gelombang radio dapat diartikan sebagai proses perambatan gelombang radio dari pemancar ke penerima. Gelombang ini akan merambat melalui udara bebas menuju antena penerima dan mengalami redaman di sepanjang lintansannya,  redaman perangkat dan saluran transmisi, sehingga ketika sampai di antena penerima, energi sinyal sudah sangat lemah. Line of sight    (LOS merupakan salah satu jenis propagasi di mana diantara stasiun pengirim dan stasiun penerima  tidak terdapat penghalang. Kendala geografis dan kelengkungan bumi menyebabkan adanya keterbatasan untuk transmisi line of sight, namun masalah ini secara umum dapat dikurangi melalui perencanaan, perhitungan dan penggunaan teknologi tambahan. Dalam perencanaan sistem komunikasi radio, kinerja LOS perlu direncanakan cadangan daya akibat fluktuasi sinyal serta analisis kehandalannya. Sistem radio gelombang mikro digital antar titik yang menggunakan  frekuensi 13 GHz dengan modulasi 16 QAM, bit rate 140 MBps,dan  noise figure 0,7 dB memerlukan daya pancar -4,488 dBm, fading margin sebesar 85,51 dB dan kehandalannya sebesar 99,9999999%.*****Radio wave propagation can be defined as the process of propagation of radio waves from the transmitter to the receiver. These waves will propagate through free air towards the receiver antena with experienced curbs along the tracks, so when it arrive at the receiver antena, the signal energy is very slow. Line of sight (LOS is one kind of propagation where no obstacles found between the transmitter and the receiver station. Geographical constraints and the curvature of the earth bring limitations to the line of sight transmission, but this problem can generally be reduced through planning, calculation and use of additional technologies. In a radio communication system planning, LOS performance needs to be planned caused by signal fluctuations and reliability. Digital microwave point to point radio systems using 13 GHz of spectrum, 16 QAM of

  12. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga-Rosales Hector

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation employing near-field equipment. The experimental results are described in detail intending to agree well with the simulated predictions. The antenna was designed, measured and built and its far field performance was evaluated with a 2.11 GHz resonant frequency. The azimuth and elevation antenna patterns, antenna gain and, the matching frequency were the main parameters obtained to analyze the antenna behaviour. The antenna has a gain approximately equal to 8.77 dBi and its beam-widths are higher than 100° in E plane.

  13. A new wideband HF technique for MHz-bandwidth spread-spectrum radio communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B. D.

    1983-09-01

    The one-way results are seen as demonstrating that equalized MHz-bandwidth skywave HF channels can be achieved using long-range one-hop F-layer propagation paths. It has thus become possible to use direct-sequence pseudo-noise or coherent fast-frequency-hop signaling at HF with processing gains of several orders of magnitude for teletype data rates. Possibilities are seen for using the spread spectrum in covert and/or jam-resistant communications. What is more, the equalized wideband HF channel is not subject to the fading caused by multiple propagation modes; as a consequence, it is substantially more reliable than the traditional narrow-band HF channel. Conversely, reliability comparable to traditional HF can be attained at greatly reduced signal margins. Since the time stability of the wideband HF channel is of the order of 10 s, very little channel-transmission time is needed for initializing and maintaining the equalizer. It is noted that probe signals similar to the channel-measuring waveform described here or spread-spectrum training sequences at the beginning of each message are adequate. Results from the 1982 two-way experimentation show that N(omega) is not reciprocal between terminals 2000 km apart.

  14. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; Jong, F. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being. METH

  15. Voice Compression Technology in Wireless Through-the-earth Communication in Mines%矿井无线透地通信中语音压缩技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红玉; 彭慧

    2015-01-01

    针对矿井透地无线通信中语音传输存在的噪声干扰大、传输信道窄、实际传输距离有限等特点,通过比较现阶段的语音压缩技术,提出增量调制(delta modulation,DM)及其改进方案自适应增量调制(adaptive delta modulation,ADM)不适宜作为透地无线通信语音压缩的压缩编码方案;语音压缩感知(Compressed Sensing)作为一种新近提出的压缩编码方案,能够以远低于奈奎斯特采样速率采样压缩信号,虽然语音重建质量有限,编码复杂,技术难度高,目前不适宜作为透地无线通信语音压缩编码的方案,但是可能成为未来无线通信压缩技术;码激励线性预测CELP(Code Excited Linear Prediction coding)比较适合作为透地无线通信语音压缩编码方案。%Voice transmission in wireless through-the-earth communication in mines has problems as high noise, narrow channel, and limited real transmission distance. Compared with the present voice compression technology, the study proposes delta modulation (DM) and its improvement scheme. Adaptive delta modulation (ADM) is not suitable for the compression coding in the voice compression. Compressing sensing of voice, as a new coding, could compress the signal with sampling rate much less than Nyquist rate, but it is not appropriate to be the voice compression coding in the wireless through-the-earth communication for the time being, with limited quality of reconstructed speech, complex coding, and difficult technology. However, it is promising in the future. Code excited linear prediction coding (CELP) is more appropriate to be the voice compression coding scheme for wireless through-the-earth communication.

  16. Cognitive radio technology and its application in military communication%认知无线电技术及在军事通信中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费利军; 王亚鸽

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive radio(CR)is a new concept following the software radio in the communication field,and it focu-ses on the adjusting the system running parameters on the basis of sensing surrounding. The concept of CR and its relation with software radio are described in this paper. Its structure and key technologies are introduced. The advantages of CR in the mili-tary communication and the challenge it is facing are analyzed. It has a positive role in upgrade construction of the communica-tion systems in China.%认知无线电是通信领域在软件无线电概念之后出现的又一新概念,其主要关注于系统通过感知操作环境的变化调整系统工作参数。叙述了认知无线电的概念及与软件无线电的关系,对其构架和关键技术进行了介绍,并分析了认知无线电在军事通信领域的优势及面临的挑战,对于我军通信系统的升级建设具有积极作用。

  17. Control, Communication, and the Voice of the Leader. A ControlCharacter Analysis of the 2016 US Presidential Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Demeter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, we showed the strongest parts and the clouds of the speeches of the 2016 presidential candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. A communication control analysis of this type could reveal the role control-characters play in assessing the performance of the actors of political communication. We also concluded that people want to be controlled in an easy but still total way. To make people think that there is a man who is able to do this: it was Donald Trump’s greatest asset. He was able to utter up to 37% more assertions than his opponent, clearly stressed the boundaries between ‘Us’ and ‘They’, and showed greater integrative complexity and objective control. As the result of our peculiar and detailed linguistic analyses, control direction and thematic role tests show that Trump was a man of ‘know’, ‘say’ and ‘take’, while Clinton was full of ‘think’ and ‘want.’

  18. The electrolarynx: voice restoration after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Rachel; Tang, Christopher G; Sinclair, Catherine F

    2017-01-01

    The ability to speak and communicate with one's voice is a unique human characteristic and is fundamental to many activities of daily living, such as talking on the phone and speaking to loved ones. When the larynx is removed during a total laryngectomy (TL), loss of voice can lead to a devastating decrease in a patient's quality of life, and precipitate significant frustration over their inability to communicate with others effectively. Over the past 50 years there have been many advances in techniques of voice restoration after TL. Currently, there are three main methods of voice restoration: the electrolarynx, esophageal speech, and tracheoesophageal speech through a tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) with voice prosthesis. Although TEP voice is the current gold standard for vocal rehabilitation, a significant minority of patients cannot use or obtain TEP speech for various reasons. As such, the electrolarynx is a viable and useful alternative for these patients. This article will focus on voice restoration using an electrolarynx with the following objectives: 1) To provide an understanding of the importance of voice restoration after total laryngectomy. 2) To discuss how the electrolarynx may be used to restore voice following total laryngectomy. 3) To outline some of the current electrolarynx devices available, including their mechanism of action and limitations. 4) To compare pros and cons of electrolaryngeal speech to TEP and esophageal speech.

  19. 47 CFR 95.193 - (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information, transmit a brief text message, make a voice page, or to conduct a brief test. (b) Non-voice... of communications. (a) You may use an FRS unit to conduct two-way voice communications with another person. You may use an FRS unit to transmit one-way voice or non-voice communications only to...

  20. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the Commission's... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce...

  1. Sex-specific responses to territorial intrusions in a communication network: Evidence from radio-tagged great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Lysanne; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Signals play a key role in the ecology and evolution of animal populations, influencing processes such as sexual selection and conflict resolution. In many species, sexually selected signals have a dual function: attracting mates and repelling rivals. Yet, to what extent males and females under natural conditions differentially respond to such signals remains poorly understood, due to a lack of field studies that simultaneously track both sexes. Using a novel spatial tracking system, we tested whether or not the spatial behavior of male and female great tits (Parus major) changes in relation to the vocal response of a territorial male neighbor to an intruder. We tracked the spatial behavior of male and female great tits (N = 44), 1 hr before and 1 hr after simulating territory intrusions, employing automatized Encounternet radio-tracking technology. We recorded the spatial and vocal response of the challenged males and quantified attraction and repulsion of neighboring males and females to the intrusion site. We additionally quantified the direct proximity network of the challenged male. The strength of a male's vocal response to an intruder induced sex-dependent movements in the neighborhood, via female attraction and male repulsion. Stronger vocal responders were older and in better body condition. The proximity networks of the male vocal responders, including the number of sex-dependent connections and average time spent with connections, however, did not change directly following the intrusion. The effects on neighbor movements suggest that the strength of a male's vocal response can provide relevant social information to both the males and the females in the neighborhood, resulting in both sexes adjusting their spatial behavior in contrasting ways, while the social proximity network remained stable. This study underlines the importance of "silent" eavesdroppers within communication networks for studying the dual functioning and evolution of sexually

  2. Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series...

  3. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  4. Transformations of Radio Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Stachyra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some remarks upon the nature of contemporary radio communications in the context of the terms “aesthetics” and “aesthetisation”. The latter, denoting a process of turning aesthetic phenomena into unaesthetic ones, becomes the dominant strategy of formatted radio. The “surface aesthetisation,” which provides mainly pleasure and entertainment, transcends the simple styling of objects or environment and appears to be a more significant strand of contemporary culture. The article shows several examples of “surface” modelling of radio programming and explains their purpose in radio communication.

  5. Radio and the educational needs of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmyne, A T

    1985-01-01

    Democratization of education is the first priority need as defined by African Ministers of Education and economic planners and voiced at a conference held in Zimbabwe in 1982. This democratization depends principally on the spread and maintenance of the education delivery system. The traditional mechanisms of education, mainly schools, are structurally incapable of carrying out the task of democratization. Education of the scale and type required by Africa cannot be realized through and in the classroom alone. Radio, 1 of Africa's great wasted resources, was enthusiastically hailed by African governments at independence as a powerful instrument for education both in its broadest and more limited sense. It was the perfect medium for an impoverished, disadvantaged continent. National development plans have consistently provided for improvement of the broadcasting transmission infrastructure. Most African countries currently are able to distribute radio programs to over 90% of their populations and at least 7 countries have 100% radio coverage. A total solution to the once most difficult problem of reception facilities is now within reach. From the results of many educational radio projects around the world and other studies, it is now generally accepted that, particularly in situations where educational radio does not imply the creation of separate networks of production and transmission facilities, much higher cost effectiveness over traditional classroom teaching can be graranteed. It is also clearly established that the cost effectiveness of radio in education can be as high as 5 times that of television. Reviewing a list of some 23 projects which have been labeled as educational radio projects in Africa over the past 2 decades, only 5 can be identified as having successfully fulfilled their objectives or as being in process of doing so. This is not an impressive score. Experience with the 5 truly successul projects indicates that it is not only a particular type

  6. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  7. Evaluation of Voice Disorders: Dysphonia Severity Index and Voice Handicap Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Hakkesteegt (Marieke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe voice is arguable still the most important tool of communication despite the growing importance of e-mails and text messaging (SMS) in daily contact. Indeed in modern society people are probably even more dependent on their voice than in the rural societies of old. Approximately one

  8. Remote Tropospheric Radio Communication,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-19

    large F ricd cbservazicns. 7rkm the same distribution they find Thus, V’e= - this median valie cf five minute : ms values. PFge 15. qunning in forward... multipla -prongel tropcsEleric cnanrel; te .Feed cf these changes is from the pcrtions of tle hertz tc several hertz. Characteristic VOC = 30025107 PAGE...not exceed 0.2-0.3 vs. Therefore vith the pulsp sethcd cf mcasurenent trinsmitter must emni Fulsas on tle crier of 0.1 and even 0.05 ms . Cnly than at

  9. Experimental Investigation Related To Some Predicted Results Of Reliable High Frequency Radio Communication Links Between Benghazi-Libya And Cairo-Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 11.785 MHz which were transmitted with a power of 250 KW, 100 KW respectively from the Egypt Arabic Republic Broadcasting station in Cairo city, directed to the North Africa and South Europe regions. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  10. Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

  11. The Cognition of Multiaircraft Control (MAC): Cognitive Ability Predictors, Working Memory, Interference, and Attention Control in Radio Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    throughout this process and to my committee members Dr. Elshaw and Dr. Finomore for their feedback and help. I couldn’t have done it without all of you...to them when they are spoken in the form of radio calls. They also have to perform this task in the presence of distracting, and sometimes...amount of time lapse between the time when the radio call was spoken and the time the participant pressed enter after typing their numerical response

  12. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinlu; Huang, Shanguo; Wei, Yongfeng; Zhai, Wensheng; Xu, Wenjing; Yin, Shan; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Wanyi

    2014-12-01

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  13. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  14. Real-Time Talking Avatar on the Internet Using Kinect and Voice Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nose

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have more chances to communicate via the in-ternet. We often use text/video chat, but there are some problems, such as a lack of communication and anonymity. In this paper, we propose and implement a real-time talking avatar, where we can communicate with each other by synchronizing character’s voice and motion from ours while keeping anonymity by using a voice conversion technique. For the voice conversion, we improve accuracy of the voice conversion by specializing to the target character’s voice. Finally, we conduct subjective experiments and show the possibility of a new style of communication on the internet.

  15. 47 CFR 95.181 - Permissible communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a voice communication. If the tone is subaudible (300 Hertz or less) it may be communicated during the entire voice message. If the tone is audible (more than 300 Hertz) it may be communicated for no... receiver. A selective calling tone or tone operated squelch may be used in conjunction with a voice...

  16. Cognitive Wireless Communications - A paradigm shift in dealing with radio resources as a prerequisite for the wireless network of the future - An overview on the topic of cognitive wireless technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Thomas; Stanczak, Slawomir; Wolisz, Adam; Jondral, Friedrich; Schotten, Hans; Kraemer, Rolf; Mück, Markus; Mennenga, Horst; Bender, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Wireless radio communications systems form the basis for mobile network connections in the digital society. A limited amount of radio spectrum and a spatially densified use of wireless communications systems require a resource-efficient use of the spectrum. Mechanisms of cognitive radio may hold the key to a more efficient use of the available spectrum under consideration of quality of service requirements. These mechanisms take advantage of location-specific knowledge of the wireless channel occupation in the dimensions of frequency, time, location and direction in space and therefore enable co-existent and reliable wireless communication. The authors give an introduction to the status of cognitive wireless communication technology, which represents the starting point of a series of research projects promoted by BMBF during 2012-2014.

  17. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  18. A Review on Radio-Over-Fiber Technology-Based Integrated (Optical/Wireless) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shivika; Goyal, Rakesh

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology has been proposed, which is the integration of the optical and radio networks. With a high transmission capacity, comparatively low cost and low attenuation, optical fiber provides an ideal solution for accomplishing the interconnections. In addition, a radio system enables the significant mobility, flexibility and easy access. Therefore, the system integration can meet the increasing demands of subscribers for voice, data and multimedia services that require the access network to support high data rates at any time and any place inexpensively. RoF has the potentiality to the backbone of the wireless access network and it has gained significant momentum in the last decade as a potential last-mile access scheme. This paper gives the comprehensive review of RoF technology used in the communication system. Concept, applications, advantages and limitations of RoF technology are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Voice health of teachers in the north of Portugal: epidemiological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Marisa; Araújo, André; Andrade,Ana; Amaro, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is a fundamental requisite for teachers and other professionals in the education field. Teachers are considered professional voice users, as voice quality is central to their speech and communicative profile. In the last decades, teachers have been shown to be a risk group concerning voice disorders. Several studies have already identified specific risk factors within this population, and proposed voice health promotion measures, including prevention actions, and labou...

  20. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  1. 76 FR 13579 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications...

  2. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio...

  3. 76 FR 67375 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio...

  4. 77 FR 16800 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio...

  5. 78 FR 27342 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Moran, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Moran, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission..., Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio...

  6. Space-Based Voice over IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Okino, Clayton; Walsh, William; Clare, Loren

    2007-01-01

    In human space exploration missions (e.g. a return to the Moon and for future missions to Mars), there will be a need to provide voice communications services. In this work we focus on the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP) techniques applied to space networks, where long range latencies, simplex links, and significant bit error rates occur. Link layer and network layer overhead issues are examined. Finally, we provide some discussion on issues related to voice conferencing in the space network environment.

  7. Delay analysis of an integrated voice and data access protocol with collision detection for multimedia satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Charles C. K.; Suda, Tatsuya

    1992-03-01

    The novel multiple-access scheme for multimedia satellite networks presented is based on a combination of FDMA and TDMA, integrating both circuit and packet-switching techniques. While the circuit-switching method is used to transmit such stream-type traffic as real-time voice communications, packet-switching is used to transmit such 'bursty' traffic as interactive data. A ground radio network is assumed for control signaling; the tone sense multiple access/partial collision detection scheme is implemented on this network to enhance the integrated access scheme's performance.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Subject-Specific On-Body Radio Propagation Channels for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, subject-specific narrowband (2.45 GHz and ultra-wideband (3–10.6 GHz on-body radio propagation studies in wireless body area networks (WBANs were performed by characterizing the path loss for eight different human subjects of different shapes and sizes. The body shapes and sizes of the test subjects used in this study are characterised as thin, medium build, fatty, shorter, average height and taller. Experimental investigation was made in an indoor environment using a pair of printed monopoles (for the narrowband case and a pair of tapered slot antennas (for the ultra-wideband (UWB case. Results demonstrated that, due to the different sizes, heights and shapes of the test subjects, the path loss exponent value varies up to maximum of 0.85 for the narrowband on-body case, whereas a maximum variation of the path loss exponent value of 1.15 is noticed for the UWB case. In addition, the subject-specific behaviour of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between narrowband and UWB systems, and it was deduced that the on-body radio channels are subject-specific for both narrowband and UWB system cases, when the same antennas (same characteristics are used. The effect of the human body shape and size variations on the eight different on-body radio channels is also studied for both the narrowband and UWB cases.

  9. Speaking and Nonspeaking Voice Professionals: Who Has the Better Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitguppi, Chandala; Raj, Anoop; Meher, Ravi; Rathore, P K

    2017-04-18

    Voice professionals can be classified into two major subgroups: the primarily speaking and the primarily nonspeaking voice professionals. Nonspeaking voice professionals mainly include singers, whereas speaking voice professionals include the rest of the voice professionals. Although both of these groups have high vocal demands, it is currently unknown whether both groups show similar voice changes after their daily voice use. Comparison of these two subgroups of voice professionals has never been done before. This study aimed to compare the speaking voice of speaking and nonspeaking voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology or voice-related complaints on the day of assessment. After obtaining relevant voice-related history, voice analysis and videostroboscopy were performed in 50 speaking and 50 nonspeaking voice professionals. Speaking voice professionals showed significantly higher incidence of voice-related complaints as compared with nonspeaking voice professionals. Voice analysis revealed that most acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter percent, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in speaking voice professionals, whereas videostroboscopy did not show any significant difference between the two groups. This is the first study of its kind to analyze the effect of daily voice use in the two subgroups of voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology. We conclude that voice professionals should not be considered as a homogeneous group. The detrimental effects of excessive voice use were observed to occur more significantly in speaking voice professionals than in nonspeaking voice professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology, Empowerment and Community Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Scifo, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    This article will provide an overview of the conceptual contours of community media and community radio, highlighting some of the key questions shaping the debate and, with the help of a case study, show how digital media in the context of community radio can help local groups to get a voice in their local media systems, and how a university-based radio station, and its students and volunteers, play an important role for a more diverse and vibrant media content available in their area.

  11. Feeling voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ammirante

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated deaf individuals' ability to discriminate between same-sex talkers based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Nineteen participants made same/different judgments on pairs of utterances presented to the lower back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination of stimuli matched for F0, duration, and perceived magnitude was successful for pairs of spoken sentences in Experiment 1 (median percent correct = 83% and pairs of vowel utterances in Experiment 2 (median percent correct = 75%. Greater difference in spectral tilt between "different" pairs strongly predicted their discriminability in both experiments. The current findings support the hypothesis that discrimination of complex vibrotactile stimuli involves the cortical integration of spectral information filtered through frequency-tuned skin receptors.

  12. 77 FR 75946 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, CO AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant... Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1....

  13. The coexistence of cognitive radio and radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An increase of the efficiency of spectrum usage requires the development of new communication techniques. Cognitive radio may be one of those new technique, which uses unoccupied frequency bands for communications. This will lead to more power in the bands and therefore an increasing level of Radio

  14. The coexistence of cognitive radio and radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An increase of the efficiency of spectrum usage requires the development of new communication techniques. Cognitive radio may be one of those new technique, which uses unoccupied frequency bands for communications. This will lead to more power in the bands and therefore an increasing level of Radio

  15. Hargrave's communications dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Hargrave, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Communications terms, definitions, acronyms, charts, equations and related information important to readers in industry, government and academia. Voice and data communications terms are included as well as terminology from peripheral disciplines including optics, computer science, data networks and the Internet.

  16. Delay related issues in integrated voice and data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, J. G.

    1981-06-01

    The described investigation is concerned with the problem of transmitting voice with data in a computer communications network. The motivations for considering mixed voice and data traffic in such a shared network environment include the advent of new voice related applications with the technology now existing to economically support them, and the desire to plan for and design future integrated networks for reasons of economy and flexibility. Attention is given to the problem of variable delays in a shared network environment handling voice traffic. Previous work in packetized voice, as well as various approaches to integrated voice and data transmission, are reviewed. These approaches may be regarded as enhanced versions of circuit, packet, and hybrid switching. The impact of network interfacing and delay considerations for voice traffic is discussed.

  17. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  18. 77 FR 50053 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Peter H. Doyle, Chief, Audio.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Wagner, Media Bureau, (202) 418-2700 or Rolanda F. Smith...

  19. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service...

  20. Messaging and Voice Conferencing through Wi-Fi Network

    OpenAIRE

    Miss. Nayana H S,; Dr. M C Padma

    2014-01-01

    The use of Wi-Fi enabled android phones as IP phones, and their communication within a local wireless LAN is discussed in this paper. This proposed model is a form of telecommunication that allows exchange of data and voice via Wi-Fi network. The phones, which are Wi-Fi enabled and have android operating system, can be used to communicate with each other through the Wi-Fi communication channel. Proposed system incorporates messaging (Text and voice), conferencing (group conver...

  1. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  2. Values and options in cancer care (VOICE): study design and rationale for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for physicians, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Epstein, Ronald M; Winters, Paul C; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul R; Gramling, Robert; Butow, Phyllis N; Mohile, Supriya G; Kaesberg, Paul R; Tang, Wan; Plumb, Sandy; Walczak, Adam; Back, Anthony L; Tancredi, Daniel; Venuti, Alison; Cipri, Camille; Escalera, Gisela; Ferro, Carol; Gaudion, Don; Hoh, Beth; Leatherwood, Blair; Lewis, Linda; Robinson, Mark; Sullivan, Peter; Kravitz, Richard L

    2013-04-09

    Communication about prognosis and treatment choices is essential for informed decision making in advanced cancer. This article describes an investigation designed to facilitate communication and decision making among oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers. The Values and Options in Cancer Care (VOICE) Study is a National Cancer Institute sponsored randomized controlled trial conducted in the Rochester/Buffalo, NY and Sacramento, CA regions. A total of 40 oncologists, approximately 400 patients with advanced cancer, and their family/friend caregivers (one per patient, when available) are expected to enroll in the study. Drawing upon ecological theory, the intervention uses a two-pronged approach: oncologists complete a multifaceted tailored educational intervention involving standardized patient instructors (SPIs), and patients and caregivers complete a coaching intervention to facilitate prioritizing and discussing questions and concerns. Follow-up data will be collected approximately quarterly for up to three years. The intervention is hypothesized to enhance patient-centered communication, quality of care, and patient outcomes. Analyses will examine the effects of the intervention on key elements of physician-patient-caregiver communication (primary outcomes), the physician-patient relationship, shared understanding of prognosis, patient well-being, and health service utilization (secondary outcomes). Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT01485627.

  3. Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Singh, N.N.; Didden, H.C.M.; Green, V.A.; Marschik, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Communication disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities. Consequently, enhancing the communication skills of such individuals is a major intervention priority. This chapter reviews the nature and prevalence of the speech, language, and communication problems associated with

  4. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  5. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  6. Résonateurs à ondes acoustiques guidées sur miroir de Bragg pour communications radio-fréquences

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    National audience; Les résonateurs à ondes acoustiques de volumes (appelés résonateurs BAW pour Bulk Acoustic Wave) sont des composants particulièrement attractifs pour les communications radio-fréquences (f > 1 GHz). Ils permettent de réaliser des filtres aux performances accrues et aux encombrements et coûts réduits, ou d'intégrer des oscillateurs de référence à faible consommation. Les résonateurs BAW classiques possèdent une fréquence de fonctionnement fixe déterminée principalement par l...

  7. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included.

  8. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  9. Voice and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dramatic voice changes are those during childhood and adolescence. The larynx (or voice box) and vocal cord tissues do not fully mature until late teenage years. Hormone-related changes during adolescence are ...

  10. Correlation radio range finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  11. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  12. DLMS Voice Data Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    between operator and computer displayed on ADM-3A 20c A-I Possible Hardware Configuration for a Multistation Cartographic VDES ...this program a Voice Recognition System (VRS) which can be used to explore the use of voice data entry ( VDE ) in the DIMS or other cartographic data...Multi-Station Cartographic Voice Data Entry System An engineering development model voice data entry system ( VDES ) could be most efficiently

  13. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  14. 46 CFR 32.30-1 - Voice tubes or telephone equipment-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Sound Powered Telephone, Voice Tube, and Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 32.30-1 Voice tubes or telephone equipment—T/ALL. Each tankships must have communication equipment... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voice tubes or telephone equipment-T/ALL....

  15. Can You Hear Me Now? The Impact of Voice in an Online Gaming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dmitri; Caplan, Scott; Xiong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a controlled field experiment in which voice communication was introduced into an existing online community (online gaming guilds within the popular game "World of Warcraft"), comparing a mix of voice and text with text only. Quantitative results suggest increases in liking and trust due to the addition of voice,…

  16. Voice Range Profiles of Middle School and High School Choral Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are significant, and this challenge is compounded for choral directors who depend on the voice for communicating information or demonstrating music concepts. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and intensity of middle and high school choral directors' voices and to compare choral directors' voices with…

  17. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  18. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex.

  19. Farmer participation in radio campaigns for technology adoption:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Berglez

    Key words: radio campaign, participation, radio production, adoption, ... from the AFRRI hybrid maize campaign in Mangochi, Malawi, Journal of ... communication action research project whose goal was to investigate how radio and modern.

  20. National Strategic Research Plan, 1994-1995: Language and Language Impairments, Balance and Balance Disorders, Voice and Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This report is the result of three expert panels (on language and language impairments, balance and balance disorders, and voice and voice disorders) which met in 1994 and 1995 and reported research accomplishments, federal program goals, and research opportunities to the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board. For…

  1. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  2. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social interaction as well as for most people’s occupation. Proper care and use of your voice will give you the best chance for having a healthy voice for your entire lifetime. Hoarseness or roughness in your voice is often ...

  3. Flight deck benefits of integrated data link communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Marvin C.

    1992-01-01

    A fixed-base, piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the operational benefits that result when air traffic control (ATC) instructions are transmitted to the deck of a transport aircraft over a digital data link. The ATC instructions include altitude, airspeed, heading, radio frequency, and route assignment data. The interface between the flight deck and the data link was integrated with other subsystems of the airplane to facilitate data management. Data from the ATC instructions were distributed to the flight guidance and control system, the navigation system, and an automatically tuned communication radio. The co-pilot initiated the automation-assisted data distribution process. Digital communications and automated data distribution were compared with conventional voice radio communication and manual input of data into other subsystems of the simulated aircraft. Less time was required in the combined communication and data management process when data link ATC communication was integrated with the other subsystems. The test subjects, commercial airline pilots, provided favorable evaluations of both the digital communication and data management processes.

  4. Book Review: Pavarala, Vinod and Malik, Kanchan K., Other Voices. The Struggle for Community Radio in India, 2007, London/New Delhi/Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, ISBN 978-0-761-93602-2

    OpenAIRE

    Stiernstedt, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Community radio broadcasts fill the air in countries around the world, and in many places, not least in the so-called developing countries, it has played a significant role in development and in social- , as well as media, change. Southern Asia, however, has long lacked community radio, even though some stumbling attempts have been made in, for example Nepal, Indonesia and most recently in Bangladesh, just to mention a few. The same goes for India, which did not have community radio until Nov...

  5. Qos and Voice Over IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian GHENCEA

    Full Text Available As Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP technology matures, companies are increasingly adopting it to cut costs, improve efficiency and enhance customer service. Using the Internet as an existing network for integrating data and telecom systems through intelligent VoIP, a range of benefits results: lower long distance costs, cost cuts in cabling processes and more flexible telephony management. However, as voice over IP services grow in popularity, major threats arise: this rapid growth leads to traffic congestion, security is jeopardizedand the poor quality of calls affects communication. The objective of this article is to present all the elements that can affect voicequality in a VoIP network and to provide methods for solving them. A detailed analysis to minimize the impact of implementation of QoS will be made, and at the end solutions to management strategies will be proposed.

  6. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  7. Recent advances in high-capacity free-space optical and radio-frequency communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Ashrafi, Solyman

    2017-02-01

    There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed. A potential modal basis set to achieve MDM is to use orbital angular momentum (OAM) of EM waves. In such a system, multiple OAM beams each carrying an independent data stream are multiplexed at the transmitter, propagate through a common medium and are demultiplexed at the receiver. As a result, the total capacity and spectral efficiency of the communication system can be multiplied by a factor equal to the number of transmitted OAM modes. Over the past few years, progress has been made in understanding the advantages and limitations of using multiplexed OAM beams for communication systems. In this review paper, we highlight recent advances in the use of OAM multiplexing for high-capacity free-space optical and millimetre-wave communications. We discuss different technical challenges (e.g. atmospheric turbulence and crosstalk) as well as potential techniques to mitigate such degrading effects. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  8. Recent advances in high-capacity free-space optical and radio-frequency communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Ashrafi, Solyman

    2017-02-28

    There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed. A potential modal basis set to achieve MDM is to use orbital angular momentum (OAM) of EM waves. In such a system, multiple OAM beams each carrying an independent data stream are multiplexed at the transmitter, propagate through a common medium and are demultiplexed at the receiver. As a result, the total capacity and spectral efficiency of the communication system can be multiplied by a factor equal to the number of transmitted OAM modes. Over the past few years, progress has been made in understanding the advantages and limitations of using multiplexed OAM beams for communication systems. In this review paper, we highlight recent advances in the use of OAM multiplexing for high-capacity free-space optical and millimetre-wave communications. We discuss different technical challenges (e.g. atmospheric turbulence and crosstalk) as well as potential techniques to mitigate such degrading effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Acquisition and Development of a Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Monitoring and Surveillance Testbed for Future Battlefield Communications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    controllability compared to WiFi -based solutions. In addition, the testbed is a programmable yet fully controlled setup for implementation and testing...processing, communication range extension and using the USRP2’s wideband nature to capture multiple IEEE 802.15.4 channels simultaneously. We faced several

  10. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  11. Voice handicap in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  12. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  13. 78 FR 37474 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for...

  14. 78 FR 71557 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Tohatchi, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications... Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio... proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority...

  15. 75 FR 82279 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCASTING SERVICES 0 1....

  16. 76 FR 42573 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma and Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review filed by Rawhide Radio, LLC, Capstar TX Limited Partnership, Clear Channel Broadcasting...

  17. 47 CFR 90.185 - Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service. 90.185 Section 90.185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES...

  18. Radio Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.; Bittner, Denise A.

    This book, a how-to-do-it guide for the novice and the professional alike, deals with several aspects of radio journalism: producing documentaries, preparing and announcing radio news, ethics and responsibility, regulation of radio journalism, and careers. It traces the history and growth of radio news, shows its impact on the public, and…

  19. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E; Macdonald, Ewen N; Falk, Tiago H; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded quiet condition. This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear.

  20. Design of Discrete Time Radio Receiver for the Demodulation of Power-Separated Co-Channel Satellite Communication Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    video broadcasting [7]. ViaSat-1 (pictured in Figure 1), a high capacity Ka - band communications satellite went into service on 16 January 2012 as the...Video Broadcasting- satellite , Second Generation 8PSK 8- Phase Shift Keying GTED Gardner Timing Error Detector HP High Power signal, in layered...Spectral Density QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SNR Signal to Noise Ratio SRRC Squared Raised

  1. Smart Radio Spectrum Management for Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Bhattacharya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are characterized by fixed spectrum assignment policy. The limited availablespectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage necessitate a new communication paradigm toexploit the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wirelesscommunication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or receptionparameters to communicate efficiently avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. It cancapture best available spectrum to meet user communication requirements (spectrum management. Inthis work, a fuzzy logic based system for spectrum management is proposed where the radio can shareunused spectrum depending on parameters like distance, signal strength, node velocity and availabilityof unused spectrum. The system is simulated and is found to give satisfactory results.

  2. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show......, which can be used for providing bandwidth-demanding applications, such as video surveillance. All in all, this thesis presents a feasible evolution in the field of railway communications. LTE technology together with the novel heterogeneous architecture may transform railway mobile networks from being......GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...

  3. Teaching Listening: Voices from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Nikki, Ed.; Tran, Anh, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Listening is the most important of the four language skills and is used most often in everyday communication. Teachers need innovative ways to address the particular listening problems emerging in their own contexts. "Teaching Listening: Voices From the Field" shares successful practices employed by teachers at different levels of education around…

  4. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  5. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  6. Efficient Control Channel Resource Allocation for VoIP in OFDMA-Based Packet Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient control channel resource allocation approach to enhance the performance of voice-over-IP (VoIP in orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA- based next generation mobile communication systems. As the long-term evolution (LTE of universal terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN, evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN is the first OFDMA-based packet radio network and thus selected in this paper as an application example. Our proposed physical downlink control channel (PDCCH resource allocation approach for E-UTRAN is composed of bidirectional power control, inner loop link adaptation (ILLA, and outer loop link adaptation (OLLA algorithms. Its effectiveness is validated through large-scale radio system level simulations, and simulation results confirm that VoIP capacity with dynamic scheduling can be further enhanced with this PDCCH resource allocation approach. Moreover, the VoIP performance requirements for international mobile telecommunications-advanced (IMT-Advanced radio interface technologies can be met with dynamic scheduling together with proposed PDCCH resource allocation. Besides E-UTRAN, this approach can be introduced to other OFDMA-based mobile communication systems for VoIP performance enhancement as well.

  7. e-POP Radio Science Using Amateur Radio Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Perry, G. W.; Miller, E. S.; Shovkoplyas, A.; Moses, M. L.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    A major component of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) mission is to utilize artificially generated radio emissions to study High Frequency (HF) radio wave propagation in the ionosphere. In the North American and European sectors, communications between amateur radio operators are a persistent and abundant source source of HF transmissions. We present the results of HF radio wave propagation experiments using amateur radio transmissions as an HF source for e-POP RRI. We detail how a distributed and autonomously operated amateur radio network can be leveraged to study HF radio wave propagation as well as the structuring and dynamics of the ionosphere over a large geographic region. In one case, the sudden disappearance of nearly two-dozen amateur radio HF sources located in the midwestern United States was used to detect a enhancement in foF2 in that same region. We compare our results to those from other more conventional radio instruments and models of the ionosphere to demonstrate the scientific merit of incorporating amateur radio networks for radio science at HF.

  8. Satellite augmentation of cellular type mobile radio telephone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy E.

    NASA's ATS-6 satellite relayed voice bandwidth communications between five trucks and the trucking company dispatchers as the trucks traveled throughout the north-eastern quarter of the contiguous United States. The experiment, conducted over a seven month period, demonstrated that propagation characteristics are much different for the satellite-mobile links than for terrestrial-mobile links. A properly designed satellite system can provide high quality, reliable voice and data communications except where the vehicle-satellite path is shadowed by a structure or terrain feature. Mobile equipment in the experiment was adapted from commercial mobile radios. The vehicle antennas were 75 cm tall, 2 cm diam. Another experiment proved the feasibility of vehicle position surveillance using active two-way tone-code ranging through ATS-6 to provide one line of position and passive one-way ranging by measuring the time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite. A position fix was printed out at an earth station 1 sec after it sent the interrogation signal to the distant vehicle, a towboat on the Mississippi River. The line of position from ATS-6 was accurate to 0.1 nautical mile using a voice bandwidth ranging signal. The line of position from the NOAA GOES satellite was accurate to 2 miles, using 100 Hz signal bandwidth. If the signal from the independent satellite had the same bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio as ATS-6, the fixes would have been accurate to about 0.1 nautical mile. A concept study concluded that satellites might be a cost effective augmentation of terrestrial cellular type mobile radio telephone systems. The satellites would serve thinly populated areas where terrestrial systems are not cost effective. In the United States, the satellites would serve about 90% of the land area where 20% of the population resides. A multibeam satellite with many channels in each beam would be compatible with the urban terrestrial systems and together they would

  9. Polar Voices: Relaying the Science and Story of Polar Climate Change through Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, M.; Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000's spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. Now entering its third season of production, PoLAR Voices has facilitated the communication of scientific knowledge regarding the impact of climate change on the Arctic and Antarctic from the perspectives of both scientific researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. We present a holistic program detailing both data and research related to climate change in addition to personal stories from those people and communities most affected. An evaluation of the program has been conducted by the Goodman Research Group to assess the effectiveness of the program for relaying the whole story of climate change to the public. The results of this assessment will be used to further develop the program to effectively reach larger and more diverse audiences. The series is currently available on thepolarhub.org and iTunes, and we are exploring opportunities to air the program on radio to reach as many people as possible.

  10. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. 基于安全性评估的民用客机VHF通信电台架构*%Civil Airliner VHF Communication Radio Architecture Based on Safety Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力; 廖祯林

    2013-01-01

    The airworthiness certification for civil airliner VHF communication radio requires device-level safety assessment . This paper briefly outlines the airborne systems and equipment safety assessment guidelines,meth-ods and process . Then it describes the failure modes for each module to compose a VHF communication radioand modular failure rate,and figures out the failure probability of single-channel architecture VHF communica-tion radio with the fault tree method recommended by SAE ARP 4761 . The estimation result indicates that itdoes not meet the fail probability requirements allocated by aircraft grade PSSA (Preliminary System Safety As-sessment). Finally,the non-similar multi-channel architecture of VHF communication radio is proposed in order to reduce the failure probability of the radio . Analysis shows that VHF communication radio with this implemen-tation architecture can achieve lower failure probability than ordinary single-channel implementation architecture VHF communication radio.%  进行设备级的安全性评估是民用客机VHF通信电台适航审定的要求。简述了机载系统和设备的安全性评估指南、方法及过程,描述了VHF通信电台各组成模块的失效模式及失效率,并运用SAE ARP 4761所推荐的故障树方法估算出了单通道架构VHF通信电台的失效概率,估算结果说明单通道架构VHF通信电台不能满足飞机级PSSA(Preliminary System Safety Assessment)分配的失效概率要求。最后,为了降低VHF通信电台的失效概率,提出了VHF通信电台的非相似多通道实现架构。分析表明,与单通道架构相比,非相似多通道实现架构的VHF通信电台具有更低的失效概率。

  12. Introduction to the Special Issue on Voice and Representation of Marginal Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Shelley; Scullion, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Advertising, Marketing, Public Relations and contemporary News: in these potentially powerful forms of cultural communication whose voices do we hear and which of these voices command most attention? This special edition of the Journal of Promotional Communication offers some tentative answers to these important societal questions.\\ud \\ud Thus in this issue the subject of voice and both its re-presentation and representation are addressed and rightly afforded critical importance within the re...

  13. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how the t...... the temporal dynamics of the voice in Asperger's patients enable us to automatically reconstruct the diagnosis, and assess the Autism quotient score. We then generalise the findings to Danish and American children with autism....

  14. Adaptive Traffic Route Control in QoS Provisioning for Cognitive Radio Technology with Heterogeneous Wireless Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Ueda, Tetsuro; Obana, Sadao

    As one of the dynamic spectrum access technologies, “cognitive radio technology,” which aims to improve the spectrum efficiency, has been studied. In cognitive radio networks, each node recognizes radio conditions, and according to them, optimizes its wireless communication routes. Cognitive radio systems integrate the heterogeneous wireless systems not only by switching over them but also aggregating and utilizing them simultaneously. The adaptive control of switchover use and concurrent use of various wireless systems will offer a stable and flexible wireless communication. In this paper, we propose the adaptive traffic route control scheme that provides high quality of service (QoS) for cognitive radio technology, and examine the performance of the proposed scheme through the field trials and computer simulations. The results of field trials show that the adaptive route control according to the radio conditions improves the user IP throughput by more than 20% and reduce the one-way delay to less than 1/6 with the concurrent use of IEEE802.16 and IEEE802.11 wireless media. Moreover, the simulation results assuming hundreds of mobile terminals reveal that the number of users receiving the required QoS of voice over IP (VoIP) service and the total network throughput of FTP users increase by more than twice at the same time with the proposed algorithm. The proposed adaptive traffic route control scheme can enhance the performances of the cognitive radio technologies by providing the appropriate communication routes for various applications to satisfy their required QoS.

  15. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information ... entnet.org . Could Your Medication Be Affecting Your Voice? Some medications including prescription, over-the-counter, and ...

  16. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  17. A Study and Design of a Configurable CDMA Communication Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Software radio.Software radio, together with digital radio as its basis, has been the trends to development in wireless communications. Digital radio focuses on all-digitalization techniques and modularization methods in communication systems, while software radio pays more attention to all-digialtized radio's software structure and opening architecture.

  18. Using Voice Boards: pedagogical design, technological implementation, evaluation and reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Yaneske

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study to evaluate the use of a Wimba Voice Board to support asynchronous audio discussion. We discuss the learning strategy and pedagogic rationale when a Voice Board was implemented within an MA module for language learners, enabling students to create learning objects and facilitating peer-to-peer learning. Previously students studying the module had communicated using text-based synchronous and asynchronous discussion only. A common criticism of text-based media is the lack of non-verbal communication. Audio communication is a richer medium where use of pitch, tone, emphasis and inflection can increase personalisation and prevent misinterpretation. Feedback from staff and students on the affordances and constraints of voice communication are presented. Evaluations show that while there were several issues with the usability of the Wimba Voice Board, both staff and students felt the use of voice communication in an online environment had many advantages, including increased personalisation, motivation, and the opportunity to practice speaking and listening skills. However, some students were inhibited by feelings of embarrassment. The case study provides an in-depth study of Voice Boards, which makes an important contribution to the learning technology literature.

  19. Voice-Controlled Artificial Handspeak System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fonda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A man-machine interaction project is described which aims to establish an automated voice to sign language translator for communication with the deaf using integrated open technologies. The first prototype consists of a robotic hand designed with OpenSCAD and manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer ─which smoothly reproduces the alphabet of the sign language controlled by voice only. The core automation comprises an Arduino UNO controller used to activate a set of servo motors that follow instructions from a Raspberry Pi mini-computer having installed the open source speech recognition engine Julius. We discuss its features, limitations and possible future developments.

  20. 多径分量噪声干扰下无线电扩频通信优化技术%Optimization of radio spread spectrum communication under multipath component noise interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸珩烨

    2016-01-01

    The radio spread spectrum communication is subjected to the interference of the multipath component noise, which leads to the poor communication channel equalization, the ability of anti interference is not strong, and the bit error rate is high. Noise interference suppression is needed to improve the quality of radio spread spectrum communication. An optimization technique of radio spread spectrum communication based on adaptive cascade notch and inter symbol interference suppression is proposed in the paper. The paper presents the construction of radio spread spectrum communication system transmission structure model, and selects an adaptive notch filter to decrease the noise of the spread spectrum radio multipath components, which reduces the signal access to in band interference power, improves the demodulator output signal⁃to⁃noise ratio and signal to stem ratio. With the expansion of the sequence to modulate the carrier, the signal is moved to the carrier frequency, furthermore channel equalization is realized , and anti⁃interference ability is improved. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the bit error rate of spread spectrum communication, and improve the communication quality.%无线电扩频通信受到多径分量噪声的干扰,导致通信信道均衡性不好,抗干扰能力不强,误码率较高。需要进行噪声干扰抑制,改善无线电扩频通信质量。提出一种基于自适应级联陷波和码间干扰抑制的无线电扩频通信优化技术。构建无线电扩频通信系统传输结构模型,采用自适应陷波器对无线电扩频通信中的多径分量噪声进行有效抑制,降低了进入信号通频带内的干扰功率,提高解调器的输出信噪比和信干比。采用扩展后的序列去调制载波,将信号搬移到载频上,实现信道均衡,提高抗干扰能力。仿真结果表明,该算法能有效降低无线电扩频

  1. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  2. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  3. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...... to develop this “skill” in health education and to refine the capacity in practice using creativity and artistic approaches....

  4. The digital sport radio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  5. The Role of the Electronic Portfolio in Enhancing Information and Communication Technology and English Language Skills: The Voices of Six Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Siew Ming; Lee, Yit Sim; Zulkifli, Nurul Farhana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the construction and development of electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) on a small user population at a public university in Malaysia. The study was based on a three-month Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and language learning course offered to the undergraduates of the university. One of the…

  6. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80 and 87 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends our rules concerning commercial radio operator... hold an appropriate commercial radio operator license. The Commission initiated this proceeding...

  7. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  8. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how...

  9. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  10. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La...

  11. Voice integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  12. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  13. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  14. EasyVoice: Integrating voice synthesis with Skype

    CERN Document Server

    Condado, Paulo A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents EasyVoice, a system that integrates voice synthesis with Skype. EasyVoice allows a person with voice disabilities to talk with another person located anywhere in the world, removing an important obstacle that affect these people during a phone or VoIP-based conversation.

  15. Voice vs. Text-Based Discussion Forums: An Implementation of Wimba Voice Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Philip; Hiscock, Jane

    This paper reports on a two-year exploratory study to determine the viability of voice-based threaded discussions forums as a means of stimulating discussion and understanding of weekly readings as part of a large undergraduate communications course. From March to June 2001, 600 students participating in a large introduction to communication…

  16. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  17. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andics, A.V.; McQueen, J.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Gal, V.; Rudas, G.; Vidnyanszky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training expli

  18. The value of visualizing tone of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives.

  19. Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  20. Using Voice Boards: pedagogical design, technological implementation, evaluation and reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Yaneske, Elisabeth; Oates, Briony

    2010-01-01

    We present a case study to evaluate the use of a Wimba Voice Board to support asynchronous audio discussion. We discuss the learning strategy and pedagogic rationale when a Voice Board was implemented within an MA module for language learners, enabling students to create learning objects and facilitating peer-to-peer learning. Previously students studying the module had communicated using text-based synchronous and asynchronous discussion only. A common criticism of text-based media is the la...

  1. Dominant Voice in Hamlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Tragedy of Hamlet dramatizes the revenge Prince Hamlet exacts on his uncle Claudius for murdering King Hamlet,Claudius’s brother and Prince Hamlet’s father,and then succeeding to the throne and taking as his wife Gertrude,the old king’s widow and Prince Hamlet’s mother.This paper will discuss something about dominant voice in the play.Dominant voice is the major voice in the country,the society,or the whole world.Those people who have the power or

  2. The Show with the Voice: An [Au]/-[o]-tophonographic Parody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D.J. Sander Scheidt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available According to my claim that voice as a phenomenon cannot be materialised or located, neither in the (voice organ of the self nor in the (ear of the other, I coined the term [au]/[o]-tophonography for my examination of the possibilities of performing subjectivity in writing and in sound productions. Drawing on the theory of performativity in its deconstructive senses (see BUTLER, 1993, 1997, 1999/1990; DERRIDA, 1988/1972, 1997/1967, 2002/1981; SMITH, 1995 my performative epistemology reaches beyond the theoretical, including the practical and the aesthetical, aiming at questioning notions of "self", "audience", "voice", "writing" and "communication". "The show with the voice" (http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-08/08-2-27_audio.mp3 is an example of this practice. It parodies the medico-scientific approach to the human voice by presenting some of its possible appearances (the "normal", the "disordered", the "homosexual" and the "transsexual" voice in an audio collage that takes the shape of a mock tutorial. Through re-contextualising and re-compiling voice samples from different sources that are usually kept apart (e.g. the lecturer's voice, the researcher's voice, the artist's voice, the autobiographer's voice I open a space for a multidisciplinary and creative perspective to the examination of voice. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802279

  3. 75 FR 52872 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Blythe, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Blythe, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Prescott Valley Radio Broadcasting... Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio...

  4. Radio archive

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Broadcasting History Research, in association with the\\ud British Universities Film and Video Council, is developing an online\\ud audio archive of UK commercial radio, from 1973 to 1992. Work produced\\ud before the Broadcasting Act 1990 represents a different ethos to the role\\ud commercial radio played, and subsequently,continues to play, in the UK.\\ud The change in commercial radio since this period is extraordinary. It is\\ud impossible for the young student of radio, born si...

  5. 75 FR 52649 - Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73...

  6. 77 FR 58800 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Knox City, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Knox City, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. ] List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... Commission requests comment on a petition filed by Big Cat Broadcasting, LLC, proposing to amend the Table...

  7. Adaptive Baseband Processing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarjo, I.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive Radio is a new paradigm in the wireless communications. It puts the intelligence and awareness dimension to the radio communication system. A Cognitive Radio system will be aware of the changing condition in its environment. The awareness in this thesis is related to the spectrum and the c

  8. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ending a radio transmission. 220.35 Section 220.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission....

  9. 78 FR 12622 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. ]...

  10. 77 FR 50630 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Westfield, NY AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio...

  11. 78 FR 4078 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Hebbronville, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio...

  12. 77 FR 43216 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Randsburg, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...

  13. 75 FR 71044 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Onekama, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Onekama, MI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  14. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Fairbanks, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0...

  15. 78 FR 25591 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, New Mexico AGENCY: Federal Communications... Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting....

  16. 78 FR 12010 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...

  17. 77 FR 32900 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Llano, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio...

  18. 76 FR 12292 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Kualapuu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Kualapuu, HI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission..., see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the...

  19. 77 FR 52292 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...

  20. 76 FR 36384 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Brackettville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Brackettville, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications..., see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting....

  1. 77 FR 62481 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...

  2. 77 FR 76936 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Tignall, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Tignall, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission..., see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting....

  3. 78 FR 26739 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... filed by S and H Broadcasting, LLC, proposing the substitution of Channel 228C2 for vacant Channel 286C2... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa...

  4. Ethnographic Voice Memo Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    1800-01-01

    -based technique which actively involves actors in producing ethnography-based data concerning their everyday practice. With the help from smartphone technology it is possible to complement ethnography-based research methods when involving the actors and having them create small voice memo narratives. The voice...... memos create insights of actors‟ everyday practice, without the direct presence of a researcher and could be considered a step towards meeting the dilemmas of research in complex fieldwork settings....

  5. 78 FR 42700 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division, Media...

  6. Text and Voice: Complements, Substitutes or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kjetil; Foros, Øystein; Steen, Frode

    2006-01-01

    Text messaging has become an important revenue component for European and Asian mobile operators. We develop a simple model of demand for mobile services incorporating the existence of call externalities and network effects. We show that when incoming messages and calls stimulate outgoing communications, services that are perceived as substitutes, such as mobile text and voice, may evolve into complements in terms of the price effect when the network size becomes large. We esti...

  7. Spread Spectrum Mobile Radio Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-15

    seconds, yielding Z Y a =XMZ m M .-m The sequence of operacions is illustrated by the matrices of figures ’--3- and 1-3b. Each matrix is either a...sequence of K-bit numbers (code word, address, detection matrix) or a frequency-time spectrogram (traasmit spectrum, receive spectrum). The matrices pertain...and a reduced rank-sum receiver. In figure 3-1, we show the operation of a MRSR by means of matrices . 3-1 Reduced Rank-Sum Receiver With the values of

  8. Paperbacks in Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Hanno

    1978-01-01

    Lists paperback books on mass communication, divided into six categories: history and biography; appraisals of the press, law, and ethics; cultural, psychological, and social aspects; radio, television, film, photography; international communication; and journalism techniques, miscellaneous. (GW)

  9. Design and applications of emergency communication network based on cognitive radio%基于认知无线电的应急通信网络设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 陈晖; 张学平; 张祯松

    2013-01-01

    针对应急通信网络可靠性较低且不能充分利用稀缺网络资源等缺陷,利用认知无线电实时频谱感知和伺机频谱接入提高频谱资源利用率的优点,在资源受限的条件下,构建了一种基于认知无线电的应急通信网络.这种认知应急通信网络将对传统的公共应急通信系统进行升级改造,采用4层网络体系架构,是一种建立在底层异构物理网络上的软件可调节网络.认知应急通信网络互联整合事发现场的各种专用应急通信系统并进行QoS反馈控制,以提高应急通信服务的可靠性和可用性.实例分析表明,这种应急通信网络可通过资源实时感知和自适应管理缓解紧急情况下的资源紧缺问题,适用于多种应急场景.%Emergency communication network is low reliability and cannot exploit scarce network resource.Cognitive radio can improve spectrum utilization by real-time spectrum sensing and opportunistic spectrum access,emergency communications network based on cognitive radio is built in the resource-constrained conditions.This kind of cognitive emergency communication network will upgrade and modify traditional public emergency communication systems.Meanwhile,it adopts four-layered network architecture and is a software adjustable network based on underlying heterogeneous physical networks.It interconnects various special emergency communication systems in the scene and performs QoS feedback control to improve reliability and availability of emergency communication services.Case analysis shows that the emergency communication network based on cognitive radio can solve the shortage of resources in emergency situations by resource real-time perception and adaptive management and is applicable to a variety of emergency scenarios.

  10. Communication acoustics in Bell Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, J. L.

    2004-05-01

    Communication aoustics has been a central theme in Bell Labs research since its inception. Telecommunication serves human information exchange. And, humans favor spoken language as a principal mode. The atmospheric medium typically provides the link between articulation and hearing. Creation, control and detection of sound, and the human's facility for generation and perception are basic ingredients of telecommunication. Electronics technology of the 1920s ushered in great advances in communication at a distance, a strong economical impetus being to overcome bandwidth limitations of wireline and cable. Early research established criteria for speech transmission with high quality and intelligibility. These insights supported exploration of means for efficient transmission-obtaining the greatest amount of speech information over a given bandwidth. Transoceanic communication was initiated by undersea cables for telegraphy. But these long cables exhibited very limited bandwidth (order of few hundred Hz). The challenge of sending voice across the oceans spawned perhaps the best known speech compression technique of history-the Vocoder, which parametrized the signal for transmission in about 300 Hz bandwidth, one-tenth that required for the typical waveform channel. Quality and intelligibility were grave issues (and they still are). At the same time parametric representation offered possibilities for encryption and privacy inside a traditional voice bandwidth. Confidential conversations between Roosevelt and Churchill during World War II were carried over high-frequency radio by an encrypted vocoder system known as Sigsaly. Major engineering advances in the late 1940s and early 1950s moved telecommunications into a new regime-digital technology. These key advances were at least three: (i) new understanding of time-discrete (sampled) representation of signals, (ii) digital computation (especially binary based), and (iii) evolving capabilities in microelectronics that

  11. Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations, County owned/operated emergency communications towers, Published in 2013, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Waupaca County Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Radio Transmitters and Tower Locations dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2013. It...

  12. Performance analysis of LDPC in the digital voice communication system%QC-LDPC码在数字语音通信系统中的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀敏; 付娟; 周畅

    2012-01-01

    采用Wimax标准下的准循环LDPC码与抗干扰能力较强的QPSK调制的信道方案对数字语音通信系统的信道译码性能进行仿真研究.采用TDMP-NMS为准循环LDPC码的信道译码算法,并将其与对数域BP算法及卷积码译码进行误码性能对比.仿真结果表明,在高斯白噪声信道下QC-LDPC码的TDMP-NMS算法的误码性能较对数域BP算法和卷积码译码性能好,较好地抑制了噪声干扰,满足语音通信要求,对实际的数字语音通信有一定的参考意义.%Based on the Gaussian white noise channel, the QC- LDPC belonging to Winmax standard with QPSK scheme was proposed . The TDMP-NMS of LDPC was selected as decoding algorithm, and the error performance was compared with that of LLRBP algorithm and convolutional code's decoding. Simula- tion result shows that the scheme proposed has better error per- formance, and the noise interference be inhibited well, which can ensure the requirement of the speech communication. The scheme has certain reference to the factual application.

  13. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice;...

  14. Simulation study of communication link for Pioneer Saturn/Uranus atmospheric entry probe. [signal acquisition by candidate modem for radio link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    A digital simulation is presented for a candidate modem in a modeled atmospheric scintillation environment with Doppler, Doppler rate, and signal attenuation typical of the radio link conditions for an outer planets atmospheric entry probe. The results indicate that the signal acquisition characteristics and the channel error rate are acceptable for the system requirements of the radio link. The simulation also outputs data for calculating other error statistics and a quantized symbol stream from which error correction decoding can be analyzed.

  15. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  16. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Document Server

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  17. Protocols for Impulse Radio UWB Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology offers an unprecedented opportunity to further accelerate the evolution of wireless communication and expand the application landscape by enabling outstanding capabilities. UWB radio is fundamentally different from most radio technologies, e.g., Bluetooth, WLAN, etc.

  18. An Effective Fault Diagnosis Strategy of Test Point Optimization for Communication Radio Station%一种高效的通信电台测试点优化故障诊断策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文元; 闫海华; 姚宏杰

    2013-01-01

    For the problems of test diagnosis for communication radio stations,a method based on GADPSO and rule of maximum diagnosis information is presented to solve the fault diagnosis of communication radio stations by optimizing the test point' s fault-test matrix. As the genetic operator is introduced into the DPSO,the algorithm is used to find the optimum test points. By adopting maximum fault diagnosis information, test order can be selected based on the information. The result shows that the GADPSO has better computation efficiency and precision. The GADPSO not only avoids the local optimization and premature convergence,but also improves the searching efficiency. Rule of maximum diagnosis information can estimate test points and is fast and effective in finding the test order. It offers an efficient method for the fault diagnosis strategy of communication radio station.%针对通信电台的测试诊断问题,通过建立“故障-测试”相关性矩阵,提出了一种GADPSO算法与最大诊断信息量准则结合进行通信电台故障诊断的方法.GADPSO算法收敛速度快、计算精度高,既避免了陷入局部最优和早熟收敛,又提高了优化效率;最大诊断信息量准则能全面评判测试点,快速有效地获得测试顺序.该方法为通信电台故障诊断提供了一种高效诊断策略.

  19. Voice Matching Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA for voice recognition is described. The practical application of Genetic Algorithm (GA to the solution of engineering problem is a rapidly emerging approach in the field of control engineering and signal processing. Genetic algorithms are useful for searching a space in multi-directional way from large spaces and poorly defined space. Voice is a signal of infinite information. Digital processing of voice signal is very important for automatic voice recognition technology. Nowadays, voice processing is very much important in security mechanism due to mimicry characteristic. So studying the voice feature extraction in voice processing is very necessary in military, hospital, telephone system, investigation bureau and etc. In order to extract valuable information from the voice signal, make decisions on the process, and obtain results, the data needs to be manipulated and analyzed. In this paper, if the instant voice is not matched with same person’s reference voices in the database, then Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied between two randomly chosen reference voices. Again the instant voice is compared with the result of Genetic Algorithm (GA which is used, including its three main steps: selection, crossover and mutation. We illustrate our approach with different sample of voices from human in our institution.

  20. Radio systems engineering a tutorial approach

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Héctor J De Los; Ponte, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for readers who already have knowledge of devices and circuits for radio-frequency (RF) and microwave communication and are ready to study the systems engineering-level aspects of modern radio communications systems. The authors provide a general overview of radio systems with their components, focusing on the analog parts of the system and their non-idealities. Based on the physical functionality of the various building blocks of a modern radio system, block parameters are derived, which allows the examination of their influence on the overall system performance. The dis