Full Text Available Objective: Voice onset time is known to be cue for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops and it can be used to describe or categorize a range of developmental, neuromotor and linguistic disorders. The aim of this study is determination of standard values of voice onset time for Azerbaijani language (Tabriz dialect. Materials & Methods: In this description-analytical study, 30 Azeris persons whom were selected conveniently by simple selection, uttered 46 monosyllabic words initiating with 6 Azerbaijani stops twice. Using Praat software, the voice onset time values were analyzed by waveform and wideband spectrogram in milliseconds. Vowel effect, sex differences and the effect of place of articulation on VOT, were evaluated and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: There was no significant difference in voice onset time between male and female Azeris speakers (P<0.05. Vowel and place of articulation had significant correlation with voice onset time (P<0.001. Voice onset time values for /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, and [c], [ɟ] allophones were 10.64, 86.88, 13.35, 87.09, 26.25, 100.62, 131.19, 63.18 mili second, respectively. Conclusion: Voice onset time values are the same for Azerbaijani men and women. However, like many other languages, back and high vowels and back place of articulation lengthen VOT. Also, voiceless stops are aspirated in this language and voiced stops have positive VOT values.
Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi
Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = -2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = -2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.
Full Text Available Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z=−2.232, P=0.026 and Z=−2.401, P=0.016, resp. than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.
Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi
Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients ...
Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.
Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…
Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André
Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.
Full Text Available Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.
Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André
Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech. PMID:29466455
Mortensen, Johannes; Tøndering, John
Voice onset time has been reported to vary with the height of vowels following the stop consonant. This paper investigates the effects of vowel height on VOT in Danish CV sequences with stop consonants in Danish spontaneous speech. A significant effect of vowel height on VOT was found...
Liu, Hanjun; Ng, Manwa L; Wan, Mingxi; Wang, Supin; Zhang, Yi
The present study investigated the effect of tonal changes on voice onset time (VOT) between normal laryngeal (NL) and superior esophageal (SE) speakers of Mandarin Chinese. VOT values were measured from the syllables /pha/, /tha/, and /kha/ produced at four tone levels by eight NL and seven SE speakers who were native speakers of Mandarin. Results indicated that Mandarin tones were associated with significantly different VOT values for NL speakers, in which high-falling tone was associated with significantly shorter VOT values than mid-rising tone and falling-rising tone. Regarding speaker group, SE speakers showed significantly shorter VOT values than NL speakers across all tone levels. This may be related to their use of pharyngoesophageal (PE) segment as another sound source. SE speakers appear to take a shorter time to start PE segment vibration compared to NL speakers using the vocal folds for vibration.
Yanagida, Saori; Nishizawa, Noriko; Mizoguchi, Kenji; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Satoshi
Voice onset time (VOT) for word-initial voiceless consonants in adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) and abductor spasmodic dysphonia (ABSD) patients were measured to determine (1) which acoustic measures differed from the controls and (2) whether acoustic measures were related to the pause or silence between the test word and the preceding word. Forty-eight patients with ADSD and nine patients with ABSD, as well as 20 matched normal controls read a story in which the word "taiyo" (the sun) was repeated three times, each differentiated by the position of the word in the sentence. The target of measurement was the VOT for the word-initial voiceless consonant /t/. When the target syllable appeared in a sentence following a comma, or at the beginning of a sentence following a period, the ABSD patients' VOTs were significantly longer than those of the ADSD patients and controls. Abnormal prolongation of the VOTs was related to the pause or silence between the test word and the preceding word. VOTs in spasmodic dysphonia (SD) may vary according to the SD subtype or speaking conditions. VOT measurement was suggested to be a useful method for quantifying voice symptoms in SD. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.
Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…
Recent experiments using low power EM-radar like sensors (e.g, GEMs) have demonstrated a new method for measuring vocal fold activity and the onset times of voiced speech, as vocal fold contact begins to take place. Similarly the end time of a voiced speech segment can be measured. Secondly it appears that in most normal uses of American English speech, unvoiced-speech segments directly precede or directly follow voiced-speech segments. For many applications, it is useful to know typical duration times of these unvoiced speech segments. A corpus, assembled earlier of spoken ''Timit'' words, phrases, and sentences and recorded using simultaneously measured acoustic and EM-sensor glottal signals, from 16 male speakers, was used for this study. By inspecting the onset (or end) of unvoiced speech, using the acoustic signal, and the onset (or end) of voiced speech using the EM sensor signal, the average duration times for unvoiced segments preceding onset of vocalization were found to be 300ms, and for following segments, 500ms. An unvoiced speech period is then defined in time, first by using the onset of the EM-sensed glottal signal, as the onset-time marker for the voiced speech segment and end marker for the unvoiced segment. Then, by subtracting 300ms from the onset time mark of voicing, the unvoiced speech segment start time is found. Similarly, the times for a following unvoiced speech segment can be found. While data of this nature have proven to be useful for work in our laboratory, a great deal of additional work remains to validate such data for use with general populations of users. These procedures have been useful for applying optimal processing algorithms over time segments of unvoiced, voiced, and non-speech acoustic signals. For example, these data appear to be of use in speaker validation, in vocoding, and in denoising algorithms.
Alphen, P.M. van; McQueen, J.M.
Effects on spoken-word recognition of prevoicing differences in Dutch initial voiced plosives were examined. In 2 cross-modal identity-priming experiments, participants heard prime words and nonwords beginning with voiced plosives with 12, 6, or 0 periods of prevoicing or matched items beginning
Vitikainen, Anne-Mari; Mäkelä, Elina; Lioumis, Pantelis; Jousmäki, Veikko; Mäkelä, Jyrki P
The use of navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in mapping of speech-related brain areas has recently shown to be useful in preoperative workflow of epilepsy and tumor patients. However, substantial inter- and intraobserver variability and non-optimal replicability of the rTMS results have been reported, and a need for additional development of the methodology is recognized. In TMS motor cortex mappings the evoked responses can be quantitatively monitored by electromyographic recordings; however, no such easily available setup exists for speech mappings. We present an accelerometer-based setup for detection of vocalization-related larynx vibrations combined with an automatic routine for voice onset detection for rTMS speech mapping applying naming. The results produced by the automatic routine were compared with the manually reviewed video-recordings. The new method was applied in the routine navigated rTMS speech mapping for 12 consecutive patients during preoperative workup for epilepsy or tumor surgery. The automatic routine correctly detected 96% of the voice onsets, resulting in 96% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Majority (63%) of the misdetections were related to visible throat movements, extra voices before the response, or delayed naming of the previous stimuli. The no-response errors were correctly detected in 88% of events. The proposed setup for automatic detection of voice onsets provides quantitative additional data for analysis of the rTMS-induced speech response modifications. The objectively defined speech response latencies increase the repeatability, reliability and stratification of the rTMS results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Smith, Marshall E
This investigation explored the onset, progression, socioemotional effects, and treatment outcomes of spasmodic dysphonia (SD). A cross-sectional epidemiological approach was used to examine questionnaire responses from 150 individuals with SD. Symptoms of SD (mean age at onset, 46 years) began gradually in 76% of cases and were progressive (ie, failed to plateau) in 34% of cases. Botulinum toxin A (Botox) helped to attenuate voice symptoms in 91% of cases; however, the scores on the Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire (V-RQOL) were not associated with this effect. The V-RQOL scores improved with time since symptom onset, independent of age and treatment. The patients with only SD experienced onset, course, and progression of symptoms similar to those of the patients with SD and coexisting vocal tremor. The symptoms of SD begin gradually and worsen over time. New evidence indicates that SD symptoms may continue to progress without plateau in at least a subset of patients. Individuals with SD and coexisting vocal tremor experience symptom trajectories similar to those of patients with SD only. Although Botox may attenuate voice symptoms, these effects do not appear to be strongly related to the V-RQOL scores. These results provide new and valuable insights regarding the onset, course, progression, and treatment of SD.
Sturm, Irene; Treder, Matthias S.; Miklody, Daniel
responses to tone onsets, such as N1/P2 ERP components. Music clips (resembling minimalistic electro-pop) were presented to 11 subjects, either in an ensemble version (drums, bass, keyboard) or in the corresponding three solo versions. For each instrument we train a spatio-temporal regression filter...... at the level of early auditory ERPs parallels the perceptual segregation of multi-voiced music....
Cláudia Fassin Arcuri
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a duração da emissão da fala fluente de adultos com diferentes graus de gagueira em tarefa de repetição de frases. MÉTODOS: Seis adultos gagos, com grau de severidade variando de leve a severo, foram pareados com indivíduos sem nenhuma alteração de linguagem. O corpus foi composto pelas palavras "cavalo", "pipoca" e " tapete", inseridas em frases-veículo "Digo......baixinho". As frases foram emitidas pela pesquisadora e repetidas três vezes pelos indivíduos. A fala foi gravada diretamente em computador, tendo sido desconsideradas as emissões disfluentes. Posteriormente, foram realizadas as medidas de duração acústica das amostras, através do programa Praat 4.3. As frases foram divididas em segmentos delimitados por dois onsets vocálicos consecutivos. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do Teste-t e da ANOVA (Analysis of variance. RESULTADOS: Os gagos levaram mais tempo para emitir todas as unidades estudadas, com exceção da unidade [ib]. Na comparação entre os diferentes graus de severidade da gagueira, verificou-se que os gagos leves e moderados apresentam medidas de duração semelhantes e diferentes da dos gagos severos. CONCLUSÃO: Os parâmetros acústicos de duração delimitados pela medida dos onset vocálicos demonstraram que os gagos diferem dos não-gagos, além destas medidas diferenciarem os graus de severidade da gagueira.PURPOSE: To compare utterance duration of fluent speech of adults with different degrees of stuttering on a phrase repetition task. METHODS: Six adult stutterers, with severity degrees varying from mild to severe, were matched to individuals with no communication problems. The corpus was constituted by the words "horse", "popcorn" and "carpet" introduced into the vehicle-phrase "I say......quietly". Each phrase was uttered by the researcher and repeated aloud three times by the participants. The speech sample was recorded on a computer, and
Zäske, Romi; Mühl, Constanze; Schweinberger, Stefan R
Recognition of personally familiar voices benefits from the concurrent presentation of the corresponding speakers' faces. This effect of audiovisual integration is most pronounced for voices combined with dynamic articulating faces. However, it is unclear if learning unfamiliar voices also benefits from audiovisual face-voice integration or, alternatively, is hampered by attentional capture of faces, i.e., "face-overshadowing". In six study-test cycles we compared the recognition of newly-learned voices following unimodal voice learning vs. bimodal face-voice learning with either static (Exp. 1) or dynamic articulating faces (Exp. 2). Voice recognition accuracies significantly increased for bimodal learning across study-test cycles while remaining stable for unimodal learning, as reflected in numerical costs of bimodal relative to unimodal voice learning in the first two study-test cycles and benefits in the last two cycles. This was independent of whether faces were static images (Exp. 1) or dynamic videos (Exp. 2). In both experiments, slower reaction times to voices previously studied with faces compared to voices only may result from visual search for faces during memory retrieval. A general decrease of reaction times across study-test cycles suggests facilitated recognition with more speaker repetitions. Overall, our data suggest two simultaneous and opposing mechanisms during bimodal face-voice learning: while attentional capture of faces may initially impede voice learning, audiovisual integration may facilitate it thereafter.
Melson, David L.; Brophy, Robert; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Brink, Gary S.
Because of its exciting potential to improve clinical service, as well as reduce costs, a voice recognition system for radiological dictation was recently installed at our institution. This system will be clinically successful if it dramatically reduces radiology report turnaround time without substantially affecting radiologist dictation and editing time. This report summarizes an observer study currently under way in which radiologist reporting times using the traditional transcription system and the voice recognition system are compared. Four radiologists are observed interpreting portable intensive care unit (ICU) chest examinations at a workstation in the chest reading area. Data are recorded with the radiologists using the transcription system and using the voice recognition system. The measurements distinguish between time spent performing clerical tasks and time spent actually dictating the report. Editing time and the number of corrections made are recorded. Additionally, statistics are gathered to assess the voice recognition system's impact on the report cycle time -- the time from report dictation to availability of an edited and finalized report -- and the length of reports.
Tamura, Shunsuke; Ito, Kazuhito; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Mori, Shuji
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychophysical boundary used for categorization of voiced-voiceless stop consonants in native Japanese speakers. Method: Twelve native Japanese speakers participated in the experiment. The stimuli were synthetic stop consonant-vowel stimuli varying in voice onset time (VOT) with…
Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille
Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments.
Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I
When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.
Meiyanti, R.; Subandi, A.; Fuqara, N.; Budiman, M. A.; Siahaan, A. P. U.
A singer doesn’t just recite the lyrics of a song, but also with the use of particular sound techniques to make it more beautiful. In the singing technique, more female have a diverse sound registers than male. There are so many registers of the human voice, but the voice registers used while singing, among others, Chest Voice, Head Voice, Falsetto, and Vocal fry. Research of speech recognition based on the female’s voice registers in singing technique is built using Borland Delphi 7.0. Speech recognition process performed by the input recorded voice samples and also in real time. Voice input will result in weight energy values based on calculations using Hankel Transformation method and Macdonald Functions. The results showed that the accuracy of the system depends on the accuracy of sound engineering that trained and tested, and obtained an average percentage of the successful introduction of the voice registers record reached 48.75 percent, while the average percentage of the successful introduction of the voice registers in real time to reach 57 percent.
Full Text Available The human voice originates from oscillations of the vocal folds in the larynx. The duration of the voice onset (VO, called the voice onset time (VOT, is currently under investigation as a clinical indicator for correct laryngeal functionality. Different analytical approaches for computing the VOT based on endoscopic imaging were compared to determine the most reliable method to quantify automatically the transient vocal fold oscillations during VO. Transnasal endoscopic imaging in combination with a high-speed camera (8000 fps was applied to visualize the phonation onset process. Two different definitions of VO interval were investigated. Six analytical functions were tested that approximate the envelope of the filtered or unfiltered glottal area waveform (GAW during phonation onset. A total of 126 recordings from nine healthy males and 210 recordings from 15 healthy females were evaluated. Three criteria were analyzed to determine the most appropriate computation approach: (1 reliability of the fit function for a correct approximation of VO; (2 consistency represented by the standard deviation of VOT; and (3 accuracy of the approximation of VO. The results suggest the computation of VOT by a fourth-order polynomial approximation in the interval between 32.2 and 67.8% of the saturation amplitude of the filtered GAW.
Arsinte, Radu; Ferencz, Attila; Miron, Costin
This paper describes an experimental system designed for development of real time voice synthesis applications. The system is composed from a DSP coprocessor card, equipped with an TMS320C25 or TMS320C50 chip, voice acquisition module (ADDA2),host computer (IBM-PC compatible), software specific tools.
Kluender, K R; Lotto, A J
When F1-onset frequency is lower, longer F1 cut-back (VOT) is required for human listeners to perceive synthesized stop consonants as voiceless. K. R. Kluender [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 83-96 (1991)] found comparable effects of F1-onset frequency on the "labeling" of stop consonants by Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) trained to distinguish stop consonants varying in F1 cut-back. In that study, CVs were synthesized with natural-like rising F1 transitions, and endpoint training stimuli differed in the onset frequency of F1 because a longer cut-back resulted in a higher F1 onset. In order to assess whether earlier results were due to auditory predispositions or due to animals having learned the natural covariance between F1 cut-back and F1-onset frequency, the present experiment was conducted with synthetic continua having either a relatively low (375 Hz) or high (750 Hz) constant-frequency F1. Six birds were trained to respond differentially to endpoint stimuli from three series of synthesized /CV/s varying in duration of F1 cut-back. Second and third formant transitions were appropriate for labial, alveolar, or velar stops. Despite the fact that there was no opportunity for animal subjects to use experienced covariation of F1-onset frequency and F1 cut-back, quail typically exhibited shorter labeling boundaries (more voiceless stops) for intermediate stimuli of the continua when F1 frequency was higher. Responses by human subjects listening to the same stimuli were also collected. Results lend support to the earlier conclusion that part or all of the effect of F1 onset frequency on perception of voicing may be adequately explained by general auditory processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Parâmetros acústicos do contraste de sonoridade das plosivas no desenvolvimento fonológico típico e no desviante Acoustic parameters of the voicing contrast of plosives in typical phonological development and phonological disorder
Roberta Michelon Melo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se as crianças com desvio fonológico apresentam características acústicas distintas de sons plosivos surdos e sonoros das crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico típico. MÉTODOS:Participaram do estudo 11 crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico típico e cinco com desvio fonológico e dificuldade na aquisição do traço [+voz] das consoantes plosivas. Por meio de palavras (['papa], ['baba], ['tata], ['dada], ['kaka] e ['gaga] inseridas em frases-veículo, mediu-se o voice onset time, a duração da vogal, a amplitude do burst e a duração da oclusão de cada plosivo. Foram comparados todos os registros acústicos de plosivos surdos e sonoros intra e intergrupo, por meio de testes estatísticos. RESULTADOS: As crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico típico apresentaram resultados significativos, principalmente, na diferenciação dos parâmetros de voice onset time, duração da vogal e oclusão de plosivos surdos e sonoros, diferentemente do observado para as crianças com desvio fonológico. A comparação entre os dois grupos mostrou diferenças quanto à produção de voice onset time e duração da oclusão dos plosivos sonoros. Com relação aos demais parâmetros analisados, os valores foram aproximados entre os grupos, sem diferença estatística. CONCLUSÃO: A marcação do contraste de sonoridade do grupo desviante mostra-se distinta em relação ao grupo de crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico típico, principalmente no que se refere ao voice onset time e à duração da oclusão dos segmentos sonoros.PURPOSE: To investigate if children with phonological disorder present different acoustic characteristics of voiceless and voiced plosives from children with typical phonological development. METHODS: Participants were 11 children with typical phonological development and five children with phonological disorder and difficulty to establish the distinctive feature [+voice] of plosives. Through words
Full Text Available Voice biometrics has a long history in biosecurity applications such as verification and identification based on characteristics of the human voice. The other application called voice classification which has its important role in grouping unlabelled voice samples, however, has not been widely studied in research. Lately voice classification is found useful in phone monitoring, classifying speakers’ gender, ethnicity and emotion states, and so forth. In this paper, a collection of computational algorithms are proposed to support voice classification; the algorithms are a combination of hierarchical clustering, dynamic time wrap transform, discrete wavelet transform, and decision tree. The proposed algorithms are relatively more transparent and interpretable than the existing ones, though many techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and Hidden Markov Model (which inherently function like a black box have been applied for voice verification and voice identification. Two datasets, one that is generated synthetically and the other one empirically collected from past voice recognition experiment, are used to verify and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed voice classification algorithm.
Sussman, Harvey M.; Modarresi, Golnaz
The consistency of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place in CV sequences across voiced and voiceless aspirated stops was explored in the speech of five male speakers of American English and two male speakers of Persian. Using traditional locus equation measurement sites for F2 onsets, voiceless labial and coronal stops had significantly lower locus equation slopes relative to their voiced counterparts, whereas velars failed to show voicing differences. When locus equations were derived using F2 onsets for voiced stops that were measured closer to the stop release burst, comparable to the protocol for measuring voiceless aspirated stops, no significant effects of voicing/aspiration on locus equation slopes were observed. This methodological factor, rather than an underlying phonetic-based explanation, provides a reasonable account for the observed flatter locus equation slopes of voiceless labial and coronal stops relative to voiced cognates reported in previous studies [Molis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2925 (1994); O. Engstrand and B. Lindblom, PHONUM 4, 101-104]. [Work supported by NIH.
Valadez, Victor; Ysunza, Antonio; Ocharan-Hernandez, Esther; Garrido-Bustamante, Norma; Sanchez-Valerio, Araceli; Pamplona, Ma C
Vocal Nodules (VN) are a functional voice disorder associated with voice misuse and abuse in children. There are few reports addressing vocal parameters in children with VN, especially after a period of vocal rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to describe measurements of vocal parameters including Fundamental Frequency (FF), Shimmer (S), and Jitter (J), videonasolaryngoscopy examination and clinical perceptual assessment, before and after voice therapy in children with VN. Voice therapy was provided using visual support through Speech-Viewer software. Twenty patients with VN were studied. An acoustical analysis of voice was performed and compared with data from subjects from a control group matched by age and gender. Also, clinical perceptual assessment of voice and videonasolaryngoscopy were performed to all patients with VN. After a period of voice therapy, provided with visual support using Speech Viewer-III (SV-III-IBM) software, new acoustical analyses, perceptual assessments and videonasolaryngoscopies were performed. Before the onset of voice therapy, there was a significant difference (ptherapy period, a significant improvement (pvocal nodules were no longer discernible on the vocal folds in any of the cases. SV-III software seems to be a safe and reliable method for providing voice therapy in children with VN. Acoustic voice parameters, perceptual data and videonasolaryngoscopy were significantly improved after the speech therapy period was completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The last twenty years of computer integration significantly changed the process of service in a call center service systems. Basic building modules of classical call centers – a switching system and a group of humans agents – was extended with other special modules such as skills-based routing module, automatic call distribution module, interactive voice response module and others to minimize the customer waiting time and wage costs. A calling customer of a modern call center is served in the first stage by the interactive voice response module without any human interaction. If the customer requirements are not satisfied in the first stage, the service continues to the second stage realized by the group of human agents. The service time of second stage – the average handle time – is divided into a conversation time and wrap-up time. During the conversation time, the agent answers customer questions and collects its requirements and during the wrap-up time (administrative time the agent completes the task without any customer interaction. The analytical model presented in this contribution is solved under the condition of statistical equilibrium and takes into account the interactive voice response module service time, the conversation time and the wrap-up time.
Freeman, Ena; Woo, Peak; Saxman, John H; Murry, Thomas
Phonation onset is important in the maintenance of healthy vocal production for speech and singing. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine differences in vocal fold vibratory behavior between sung and spoken phonation onset gestures. Given the greater degree of precision required for the abrupt onset sung gestures, we hypothesize that differences exist in the timing and coordination of the vocal fold adductory gesture with the onset of vocal fold vibration. Staccato and German (a modified glottal plosive, so named for its occurrence in German classical singing) onset gestures were compared with breathy, normal, and hard onset gestures, using high-speed digital imaging. Samples were obtained from two subjects with no history of voice disorders (a female trained singer and a male nonsinger). Simultaneous capture of acoustical data confirmed the distinction among gestures. Image data were compared for glottal area configurations, degree of adductory positioning, number of small-amplitude prephonatory oscillations (PPOs), and timing of onset gesture events, the latter marked by maximum vocal fold abduction, maximum adduction, beginning of PPOs, and beginning of steady-state oscillation. Results reveal closer adductory positioning of the vocal folds for the staccato and German gestures. The data also suggest a direct relationship between the degree of adductory positioning and the number of PPOs. Results for the timing of onset gesture events suggest a relationship between discrete adductory positioning and more evenly spaced PPOs. By contrast, the overlapping of prephonatory adductory positioning with vibration onset revealed more unevenly spaced PPOs. This may support an existing hypothesis that less well-defined boundaries interfere with normal modes of vibration of the vocal fold tissue. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakao, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Yataro; Kaga, Kimitaka
In normal speech, coordinated activities of intrinsic laryngeal muscles suspend a glottal sound at utterance of voiceless consonants, automatically realizing a voicing control. In electrolaryngeal speech, however, the lack of voicing control is one of the causes of unclear voice, voiceless consonants tending to be misheard as the corresponding voiced consonants. In the present work, we developed an intra-oral vibrator with an intra-oral pressure sensor that detected utterance of voiceless phonemes during the intra-oral electrolaryngeal speech, and demonstrated that an intra-oral pressure-based voicing control could improve the intelligibility of the speech. The test voices were obtained from one electrolaryngeal speaker and one normal speaker. We first investigated on the speech analysis software how a voice onset time (VOT) and first formant (F1) transition of the test consonant-vowel syllables contributed to voiceless/voiced contrasts, and developed an adequate voicing control strategy. We then compared the intelligibility of consonant-vowel syllables among the intra-oral electrolaryngeal speech with and without online voicing control. The increase of intra-oral pressure, typically with a peak ranging from 10 to 50 gf/cm2, could reliably identify utterance of voiceless consonants. The speech analysis and intelligibility test then demonstrated that a short VOT caused the misidentification of the voiced consonants due to a clear F1 transition. Finally, taking these results together, the online voicing control, which suspended the prosthetic tone while the intra-oral pressure exceeded 2.5 gf/cm2 and during the 35 milliseconds that followed, proved efficient to improve the voiceless/voiced contrast.
Morrow, Sharon L.
Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…
Schiller, Isabel S; Morsomme, Dominique; Remacle, Angélique
This study aimed (1) to investigate music theory teachers' professional and extra-professional vocal loading and background noise exposure, (2) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and background noise, and (3) to determine the correlation between vocal loading and self-evaluation data. Using voice dosimetry, 13 music theory teachers were monitored for one workweek. The parameters analyzed were voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), phonation time, vocal loading index (VLI), and noise SPL. Spearman correlation was used to correlate vocal loading parameters (voice SPL, F0, and phonation time) and noise SPL. Each day, the subjects self-assessed their voice using visual analog scales. VLI and self-evaluation data were correlated using Spearman correlation. Vocal loading parameters and noise SPL were significantly higher in the professional than in the extra-professional environment. Voice SPL, phonation time, and female subjects' F0 correlated positively with noise SPL. VLI correlated with self-assessed voice quality, vocal fatigue, and amount of singing and speaking voice produced. Teaching music theory is a profession with high vocal demands. More background noise is associated with increased vocal loading and may indirectly increase the risk for voice disorders. Correlations between VLI and self-assessments suggest that these teachers are well aware of their vocal demands and feel their effect on voice quality and vocal fatigue. Visual analog scales seem to represent a useful tool for subjective vocal loading assessment and associated symptoms in these professional voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease
Received approaches to a unified phenomenon called "language" are firmly committed to a Cartesian view of distinct unobservable minds. Questioning this commitment leads us to recognize that the boundaries conventionally separating the linguistic from the non-linguistic can appear arbitrary, omitting much that is regularly present during vocal communication. The thesis is put forward that uttering, or voicing, is a much older phenomenon than the formal structures studied by the linguist, and that the voice has found elaborations and codifications in other domains too, such as in systems of ritual and rite. Voice, it is suggested, necessarily gives rise to a temporally bound subjectivity, whether it is in inner speech (Descartes' "cogito"), in conversation, or in the synchronized utterances of collective speech found in prayer, protest, and sports arenas world wide. The notion of a fleeting subjective pole tied to dynamically entwined participants who exert reciprocal influence upon each other in real time provides an insightful way to understand notions of common ground, or socially shared cognition. It suggests that the remarkable capacity to construct a shared world that is so characteristic of Homo sapiens may be grounded in this ability to become dynamically entangled as seen, e.g., in the centrality of joint attention in human interaction. Empirical evidence of dynamic entanglement in joint speaking is found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. A convergent theoretical vocabulary is now available in the concept of participatory sense-making, leading to the development of a rich scientific agenda liberated from a stifling metaphysics that obscures, rather than illuminates, the means by which we come to inhabit a shared world.
Full Text Available Received approaches to a unified phenomenon called language are firmly committed to a Cartesian view of distinct unobservable minds. Questioning this commitment leads us to recognize that the boundaries conventionally separating the linguistic from the non-linguistic can appear arbitrary, omitting much that is regularly present during vocal communication. The thesis is put forward that uttering, or voicing, is a much older phenomenon than the formal structures studied by the linguist, and that the voice has found elaborations and codifications in other domains too, such as in systems of ritual and rite. Voice, it is suggested, necessarily gives rise to a temporally bound subjectivity, whether it is in inner speech (Descartes' cogito, in conversation, or in the synchronized utterances of collective speech found in prayer, protest and sports arenas world wide. The notion of a fleeting subjective pole tied to dynamically entwined participants who exert reciprocal influence upon each other in real time provides an insightful way to understand notions of common ground, or socially shared cognition. It suggests that the remarkable capacity to construct a shared world that is so characteristic of Homo sapiens may be grounded in this ability to become dynamically entangled as seen, e.g., in the centrality of joint attention in human interaction. Empirical evidence of dynamic entanglement in joint speaking is found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. A convergent theoretical vocabulary is now available in the concept of participatory sense-making, leading to the development of a rich scientific agenda liberated from a stifling metaphysics that obscures, rather than illuminates, the means by which we come to inhabit a shared world.
Full Text Available The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1, and famous voices (Experiment 2 are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker. In experiment 1, participants learned three voices over several sessions, and performed a three-alternative forced-choice identification task on original voice samples and several “speaker averages,” created by morphing across varying numbers of different vowels (e.g., [a] and [i] produced by the same speaker. In experiment 2, the same participants performed the same task on voice samples produced by familiar speakers. The two experiments showed that for famous voices, but not for trained-to-familiar voices, identification performance increased and response times decreased as a function of the number of utterances in the averages. This study sheds light on the perceptual representation of familiar voices, and demonstrates the power of average in recognizing familiar voices. The speaker average captures the unique characteristics of a speaker, and thus retains the information essential for recognition; it acts as a prototype of the speaker.
L.C. Cantor Cutiva (Lady Catherine); A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractObjectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional
Geneid, Ahmed; Lindestad, Per-Åke; Granqvist, Svante; Möller, Riitta; Södersten, Maria
To evaluate voice function in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) who discontinued botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment because they felt that their voice had improved sufficiently. Twenty-eight patients quit treatment in 2004, of whom 20 fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, with 3 subsequently excluded because of return of symptoms, leaving 17 patients (11 males, 6 females) included in this follow-up study. A questionnaire concerning current voice function and the Voice Handicap Index were completed. Audio-perceptual voice assessments were done by 3 listeners. The inter- and intrarater reliabilities were r > 0.80. All patients had a subjectively good stable voice, but with differences in their audio-perceptual voice assessment scores. Based on the pre-/posttreatment auditory scores on the overall degree of AdSD, patients were divided into 2 subgroups showing more and less improvement, with 10 and 7 patients, respectively. The subgroup with more improvement had shorter duration from the onset of symptoms until the start of BTX treatment, and included 7 males compared to only 4 males in the subgroup with less improvement. It seems plausible that the symptoms of spasmodic dysphonia may decrease over time. Early intervention and male gender seem to be important factors for long-term reduction of the voice symptoms of AdSD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…
Majdinasab, Fatemeh; Karkheiran, Siamak; Soltani, Majid; Moradi, Negin; Shahidi, Gholamali
To evaluate voice of Iranian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and find any relationship between motor disabilities and acoustic voice parameters as speech motor components. We evaluated 27 Farsi-speaking PD patients and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy persons as control. Motor performance was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III and Hoehn and Yahr rating scale in the "on" state. Acoustic voice evaluation, including fundamental frequency (f0), standard deviation of f0, minimum of f0, maximum of f0, shimmer, jitter, and harmonic to noise ratio, was done using the Praat software via /a/ prolongation. No difference was seen between the voice of the patients and the voice of the controls. f0 and its variation had a significant correlation with the duration of the disease, but did not have any relationships with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III. Only limited relationship was observed between voice and motor disabilities. Tremor is an important main feature of PD that affects motor and phonation systems. Females had an older age at onset, more prolonged disease, and more severe motor disabilities (not statistically significant), but phonation disorders were more frequent in males and showed more relationship with severity of motor disabilities. Voice is affected by PD earlier than many other motor components and is more sensitive to disease progression. Tremor is the most effective part of PD that impacts voice. PD has more effect on voice of male versus female patients. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The customary methods for assessment of intubating conditions, namely the onset time in the adductor pollicis muscle and qualitative rating scales of the conditions at intubation, are unsatisfactory. The onset time of neuromuscular block in the adductor pollicis is not a meaningful, quantifiable
Pearce, Mary Dorothy
This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.
Lin, R Jun; Munin, Michael C; Rosen, Clark A; Smith, Libby J
Intralaryngeal muscle synkinesis associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) is thought to preserve thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex tone, resulting in a better voice despite the presence of vocal fold paralysis (VFP). This study compares voice handicap in patients with unilateral VFP (UVFP) with and without evidence of adductory synkinesis on laryngeal electromyography (LEMG). Retrospective review of LEMG data and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) scores of patients diagnosed with permanent UVFP. LEMG was performed within 1 to 6 months post onset of UVFP. Patients were stratified into two groups: 1) recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) neuropathy with synkinesis and 2) RLN neuropathy without synkinesis. Synkinesis was diagnosed when the sniff to phonation maximum amplitude ratio was ≥0.65. VHI-10 scores at 6-month follow-up were recorded. Four hundred forty-nine patients with UVFP and who had an LEMG were reviewed. Eighty-three patients met the inclusion criteria, with 16 in group 1 and 67 in group 2. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to age, timing of LEMG from onset of VFP, number of patients undergoing temporary vocal fold injection or use of off-label nimodipine. Average VHI-10 scores at 6 months post onset of VFP were 14.4 ± 10.6 for patients with LEMG-identified synkinesis (group 1) and 21.0 ± 10.1 for patients with no LEMG evidence of synkinesis (group 2). This was statistically significant (P = .02). Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and LEMG evidence of laryngeal synkinesis are more likely to have less perceived voice handicap than those without synkinesis. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1628-1632, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Ternström, Sten; Johansson, Dennis; Selamtzis, Andreas
From soft to loud and low to high, the mechanisms of human voice have many degrees of freedom, making it difficult to assess phonation from the acoustic signal alone. FonaDyn is a research tool that combines acoustics with electroglottography (EGG). It characterizes and visualizes in real time the dynamics of EGG waveforms, using statistical clustering of the cycle-synchronous EGG Fourier components, and their sample entropy. The prevalence and stability of different EGG waveshapes are mapped as colored regions into a so-called voice range profile, without needing pre-defined thresholds or categories. With appropriately 'trained' clusters, FonaDyn can classify and map voice regimes. This is of potential scientific, clinical and pedagogical interest.
O. N. Faizulaieva
Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.
Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph
Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.
Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha
Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us-members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners.
Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva
Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequency and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.
Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva
The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po
Full Text Available The most commonly used time-frequency representation of the analysis in voice signal is spectrogram. This representation belongs in general to Cohen's class, the class of time-frequency energy distributions. From the standpoint of properties of the resolution spectrogram representation is not optimal. In Cohen class representations are known which have a better resolution properties. All of them are created by smoothing the Wigner-Ville'a (WVD distribution characterized by the best resolution, however, the biggest harmful interference. Used smoothing functions decide about a compromise between the properties of resolution and eliminating harmful interference term. Another class of time-frequency energy distributions is the affine class of distributions. From the point of view of readability of analysis the best properties are known so called Redistribution of energy caused by the use of a general methodology referred to as reassignment to any time-frequency representation. Reassigned distributions efficiently combine a reduction of the interference terms provided by a well adapted smoothing kernel and an increased concentration of the signal components.
Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.
There are intuitive reasons to believe that speech-sound acquisition and language acquisition should be related in development. Surprisingly, only recently has research begun to parse just how the two might be related. This study investigated possible correlations between speech-sound acquisition and language acquisition, as part of a large-scale, longitudinal study of the relationship between different types of phonological development and vocabulary growth in the preschool years. Productions of voiced and voiceless stop-initial words were recorded from 96 children aged 28-39 months. Voice Onset Time (VOT, in ms) for each token context was calculated. A mixed-model logistic regression was calculated which predicted whether the sound was intended to be voiced or voiceless based on its VOT. This model estimated the slopes of the logistic function for each child. This slope was referred to as Robustness of Contrast (based on Holliday, Reidy, Beckman, and Edwards, 2015), defined as being the degree of categorical differentiation between the production of two speech sounds or classes of sounds, in this case, voiced and voiceless stops. Results showed a wide range of slopes for individual children, suggesting that slope-derived Robustness of Contrast could be a viable means of measuring a child's acquisition of the voicing contrast. Robustness of Contrast was then compared to traditional measures of speech and language skills to investigate whether there was any correlation between the production of stop voicing and broader measures of speech and language development. The Robustness of Contrast measure was found to correlate with all individual measures of speech and language, suggesting that it might indeed be predictive of later language skills.
Pelegrin Garcia, David; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland
of the classroom. The results thus suggest that teachers with voice problems are more aware of classroom acoustic conditions than their healthy colleagues and make use of the more supportive rooms to lower their voice levels. This behavior may result from an adaptation process of the teachers with voice problems...... of the voice problems was made with a questionnaire and a laryngological examination. During teaching, the sound pressure level at the teacher’s position was monitored. The teacher’s voice level and the activity noise level were separated using mixed Gaussians. In addition, objective acoustic parameters...... of Reverberation Time and Voice Support were measured in the 30 empty classrooms of the study. An empirical model shows that the measured voice levels depended on the activity noise levels and the voice support. Teachers with and without voice problems were differently affected by the voice support...
Charles R Larson
Full Text Available The pitch-shift paradigm has become a widely used method for studying the role of voice pitch auditory feedback in voice control. This paradigm introduces small, brief pitch shifts in voice auditory feedback to vocalizing subjects. The perturbations trigger a reflexive mechanism that counteracts the change in pitch. The underlying mechanisms of the vocal responses are thought to reflect a negative feedback control system that is similar to constructs developed to explain other forms of motor control. Another use of this technique requires subjects to voluntarily change the pitch of their voice when they hear a pitch shift stimulus. Under these conditions, short latency responses are produced that change voice pitch to match that of the stimulus. The pitch-shift technique has been used with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG recordings, and has shown that at vocal onset there is normally a suppression of neural activity related to vocalization. However, if a pitch-shift is also presented at voice onset, there is a cancellation of this suppression, which has been interpreted to mean that one way in which a person distinguishes self-vocalization from vocalization of others is by a comparison of the intended voice and the actual voice. Studies of the pitch shift reflex in the fMRI environment show that the superior temporal gyrus (STG plays an important role in the process of controlling voice F0 based on auditory feedback. Additional studies using fMRI for effective connectivity modeling show that the left and right STG play critical roles in correcting for an error in voice production. While both the left and right STG are involved in this process, a feedback loop develops between left and right STG during perturbations, in which the left to right connection becomes stronger, and a new negative right to left connection emerges along with the emergence of other feedback loops within the cortical network tested.
Zhang Yu, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Sprecher, Alicia J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States); Zhao Zongxi [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Jiang, Jack J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)
Highlights: > The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. > The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. > Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.
Zhang Yu; Sprecher, Alicia J.; Zhao Zongxi; Jiang, Jack J.
Highlights: → The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. → The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. → Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.
Dong, Jing; Gao, Lingqi; Lu, Wenqing; Xu, Zifeng; Zheng, Jijian
Rocuronium is an acceptable alternative when succinylcholine is contraindicated for facilitating the endotracheal intubation. However, the onset time of rocuronium for good intubation condition is still slower than that condition of succinylcholine. This study systematically investigated the most efficacious pharmacological interventions for accelerating the onset time of rocuronium. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, www.clinicaltrials.gov, and hand searching from the reference lists of identified papers were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing drug interventions with placebo or another drug to shorten the onset time of rocuronium. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan5.2 and ADDIS 1.16.5 softwares. Mean differences (MDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to analyze the effects of drug interventions on the onset time of rocuronium. 43 randomized controlled trials with 2,465 patients were analyzed. The average onset time of rocuronium was 102.4±24.9 s. Priming with rocuronium [Mean difference (MD) -21.0 s, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) (-27.6 to -14.3 s)], pretreatment with ephedrine [-22.3 s (-29.1 to -15.5 s)], pretreatment with magnesium sulphate [-28.2 s (-50.9 to -5.6 s)] were all effective in reducing the onset time of rocuronium. Statistical testing of indirect comparisons showed that rocuronium priming, pretreatment with ephedrine, and pretreatment with magnesium sulphate had the similar efficacy. Rocuronium priming, pretreatment with ephedrine, and pretreatment with magnesium sulphate were all effective in accelerating the onset time of rocuronium, and furthermore their efficacies were similar. Considering the convenience and efficacy, priming with rocuronium is recommended for accelerating the onset time of rocuronium. However, more strict clinical trials are still needed to reach a more solid conclusion due to the large heterogeneities exist among different studies.
Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.
Videokymographic images of deviant or irregular vocal fold vibration, including diplophonia, the transition from falsetto to modal voice, irregular vibration onset and offset, and phonation following partial laryngectomy were compared with the synchronously recorded acoustic speech signals. A clear
Full Text Available We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A. In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype.
Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.
The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices
Dumin, Laura Marie
Scope and Method of Study. This study looks at 15 articles from the "American Journal of Botany"--5 articles from 1914-1918, 5 articles from 1962-1966, and 5 articles from 2004-2008--to determine if and how the use of the passive voice has changed over time. Findings and Conclusions. The ways in which the passive voice was used, and the…
Ruotsalainen, J H; Sellman, J; Lehto, L; Jauhiainen, M; Verbeek, J H
Poor voice quality due to a voice disorder can lead to a reduced quality of life. In occupations where voice use is substantial it can lead to periods of absence from work. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent voice disorders in adults. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed, 1950 to 2006), EMBASE (1974 to 2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2006), CINAHL (1983 to 2006), PsychINFO (1967 to 2006), Science Citation Index (1986 to 2006) and the Occupational Health databases OSH-ROM (to 2006). The date of the last search was 05/04/06. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of interventions evaluating the effectiveness of treatments to prevent voice disorders in adults. For work-directed interventions interrupted time series and prospective cohort studies were also eligible. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. We identified two randomised controlled trials including a total of 53 participants in intervention groups and 43 controls. One study was conducted with teachers and the other with student teachers. Both trials were poor quality. Interventions were grouped into 1) direct voice training, 2) indirect voice training and 3) direct and indirect voice training combined.1) Direct voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct voice training compared to no intervention.2) Indirect voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for indirect voice training when compared to no intervention.3) Direct and indirect voice training combined: One study did not find a decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no intervention. The same study did however find an improvement in maximum phonation time (Mean Difference -3.18 sec; 95 % CI -4.43 to -1.93) for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no
Rosen, Cherise; Chase, Kayla A; Jones, Nev; Grossman, Linda S; Gin, Hannah; Sharma, Rajiv P
This paper reports on analyses designed to elucidate phenomenological characteristics, content and experience specifically targeting participants with Schneiderian voices conversing/commenting (VC) while exploring differences in clinical presentation and quality of life compared to those with voices not conversing (VNC). This mixed-method investigation of Schneiderian voices included standardized clinical metrics and exploratory phenomenological interviews designed to elicit in-depth information about the characteristics, content, meaning, and personification of auditory verbal hallucinations. The subjective experience shows a striking pattern of VC, as they are experienced as internal at initial onset and during the longer-term course of illness when compared to VNC. Participants in the VC group were more likely to attribute the origin of their voices to an external source such as God, telepathic communication, or mediumistic sources. VC and VNC were described as characterological entities that were distinct from self (I/we vs. you). We also found an association between VC and the positive, cognitive, and depression symptom profile. However, we did not find a significant group difference in overall quality of life. The clinical portrait of VC is complex, multisensory, and distinct, and suggests a need for further research into the biopsychosocial interface between subjective experience, socioenvironmental constraints, individual psychology, and the biological architecture of intersecting symptoms. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bhan, S.N.; Coblentz, C.L.; Norman, G.R.; Ali, S.H.
To study the effect that voice recognition (VR) has on radiologist reporting efficiency in a clinical setting and to identify variables associated with faster reporting time. Five radiologists were observed during the routine reporting of 402 plain radiograph studies using either VR (n 217) or conventional dictation (CD) (n = 185). Two radiologists were observed reporting 66 computed tomography (CT) studies using either VR (n - 39) or CD (n - 27). The time spent per reporting cycle, defined as the radiologist's time spent on a study from report finalization to the subsequent report finalization, was compared. As well, characteristics about the radiologist and their reporting style were collected and correlated against reporting time. For plain radiographs, radiologists took 134% (P = 0.048) more time to produce reports using VR, but there was significant variability between radiologists. Significant association with faster reporting times using VR included: English as a first language (r-0.24), use of a template (r -0.34), use of a headset microphone (r -0.46), and increased experience with VR (r -0.43). Experience as a staff radiologist and having previous study for comparison did not correlate with reporting time. For CT, there was no significant difference in reporting time identified between VR and CD (P 0.61). Overall, VR slightly decreases the reporting efficiency of radiologists. However, efficiency may be improved if English is a first language, a headset microphone, and macros and templates are use. (author)
Conclusion: Priming with rocuronium or cisatracurium for 3 minutes significantly accelerated the onset of cisatracurium. Priming with rocuronium for 3 minutes improved the onset time of cisatracurium even more than priming with cisatracurium itself.
Chillale, Nagaraja Rao
Incubation time is a key epidemiologic descriptor of an infectious disease. In the case of HIV infection this is a random variable and is probably the longest one. The probability distribution of incubation time is the major determinant of the relation between the incidences of HIV infection and its manifestation to Aids. This is also one of the key factors used for accurate estimation of AIDS incidence in a region. The present article i) briefly reviews the work done, points out uncertainties in estimation of AIDS onset time and stresses the need for its precise estimation, ii) highlights some of the modelling features of onset distribution including immune failure mechanism, and iii) proposes a 'Double Hit' model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset in the cases of (a) independent and (b) dependent time variables of the two markers and examined the applicability of a few standard probability models.
Patel, Rita; Forrest, Karen; Hedges, Drew
Objective To investigate the relationship between (1) onset of the acoustic signal and pre-phonatory phases associated with oscillatory onset and (2) offset of the acoustic signal with the post-phonatory events associated with oscillatory offset across vocally healthy adults. Subjects and Methods High-speed videoendoscopy was captured simultaneously with the acoustic signal during repeated production of /hi.hi.hi/ at typical pitch and loudness from 56 vocally healthy adults (age 20–42 years; 21 male, 35 female). The relationship between the acoustic sound pressure signal and oscillatory onset /offset events from the glottal area waveforms (GAW), were statistically investigated using a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The onset of the acoustic signal (X1a) is a significant predictor of the onset of first oscillations (X1g) and onset of sustained oscillations (X2g). X1a as well as gender are significant predictors of the first instance of medial contact (X1.5g). The offset of the acoustic signal (X2a) is a significant predictor of the first instance of oscillatory offset (X3g), first instance of incomplete glottal closure (X3.5g), and cessation of vocal fold motion (X4g). Conclusions The acoustic signal onset is closely related to the first medial contact of the vocal folds but the latency between these events is longer for females compared to males. The offset of the acoustic signal occurs immediately after incomplete glottal adduction. The emerging normative group latencies between the onset/offset of the acoustic and the GAW from this study appear promising for future investigations. PMID:27769696
Tânia Mara Vieira Santos
Full Text Available Objective: To assess lag time between onset of symptoms anddiagnosis of endometriosis in patients followed up at the OutpatientsClinic of Endometriosis and Chronic Pelvic Pain, at the Hospitaldo Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo “Francisco Moratode Oliveira”, from January 2003 to November 2009. Methods:In a retrospective analytical study, a total of 310 women withendometriosis confirmed by surgery and pathological examinationwere evaluated in the period from January 6, 2003 to November29, 2009. Data were gathered through revision of the follow-up visitforms at the specialized outpatients clinic and medical records. Thesoftware Epi-Info 3.3.2 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean lag time between onset of symptoms and confirming diagnosisof endometriosis was 46.16 months (3.84 years, ranging from 6 to324 months. Patients aged under 20 years had a mean time untildiagnosis of 2.8 years (33.6 months, range of 6 to 144 months. Inpatients aged 20-29 years, it was 3.51 years (42.18 months, range6-192 months. In those aged 30-40 years, the mean time was 4.14years (49.69 months, range 6-324 months. And in women age over40 years, it was 3.15 years (37.86 months, range 6-216 months.Conclusion: The lag time between onset of symptoms and diagnosisof endometriosis was shorter, as compared to other national andinternational evaluations.
Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Sznurowska-Przygocka, B; Fiszer, M; Kotyło, P; Sinkiewicz, A; Modrzewska, M; Sliwinska-Kowalska, M
An incorrect voice emission is a risk factor for developing occupational voice disorders. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of voice therapy in female teachers with dysphonia. The study comprised 133 subjects with voice disorders, taking part in a vocal training programme. A reference group for the present study included 53 teachers with dysphonia. Questionnaire surveys, phoniatric examination and videostroboscopic evaluation were conducted at initial and control examination. In the study group, an improvement after the vocal training was noted in most of the reported symptoms and also in some quantitative parameters of phoniatric examinations compared to the findings for the reference group. The number of patients who assessed their voice as normal increased significantly after the vocal training (2.3 vs. 46.6%). A significant increase in the mean maximum phonation time, from 13.3 to 16.6 s, was observed. The same applied to voice frequency range (increase from 171 to 226.8 Hz). The outcomes of vocal training, such as a subjective improvement of voice quality and an increase in the quantitative parameters (prolonged maximum phonation time, extended voice range) seem to be important parameters for monitoring the effectiveness of training in correct voice emission. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kovačić, Damir; Balaban, Evan
The study was carried out to assess the role that five hearing history variables (chronological age, age at onset of deafness, age of first cochlear implant [CI] activation, duration of CI use, and duration of known deafness) play in the ability of CI users to identify speaker gender. Forty-one juvenile CI users participated in two voice gender identification tasks. In a fixed, single-interval task, subjects listened to a single speech item from one of 20 adult male or 20 adult female speakers and had to identify speaker gender. In an adaptive speech-based voice gender discrimination task with the fundamental frequency difference between the voices as the adaptive parameter, subjects listened to a pair of speech items presented in sequential order, one of which was always spoken by an adult female and the other by an adult male. Subjects had to identify the speech item spoken by the female voice. Correlation and regression analyses between perceptual scores in the two tasks and the hearing history variables were performed. Subjects fell into three performance groups: (1) those who could distinguish voice gender in both tasks, (2) those who could distinguish voice gender in the adaptive but not the fixed task, and (3) those who could not distinguish voice gender in either task. Gender identification performance for single voices in the fixed task was significantly and negatively related to the duration of deafness before cochlear implantation (shorter deafness yielded better performance), whereas performance in the adaptive task was weakly but significantly related to age at first activation of the CI device, with earlier activations yielding better scores. The existence of a group of subjects able to perform adaptive discrimination but unable to identify the gender of singly presented voices demonstrates the potential dissociability of the skills required for these two tasks, suggesting that duration of deafness and age of cochlear implantation could have
Arunachalam, Ravikumar; Boominathan, Prakash; Mahalingam, Shenbagavalli
Carnatic singing is a classical South Indian style of music that involves rigorous training to produce an "open throated" loud, predominantly low-pitched singing, embedded with vocal nuances in higher pitches. Voice problems in singers are not uncommon. The objective was to report the nature of voice problems and apply a routine protocol to assess the voice. Forty-five trained performing singers (females: 36 and males: 9) who reported to a tertiary care hospital with voice problems underwent voice assessment. The study analyzed their problems and the clinical findings. Voice change, difficulty in singing higher pitches, and voice fatigue were major complaints. Most of the singers suffered laryngopharyngeal reflux that coexisted with muscle tension dysphonia and chronic laryngitis. Speaking voices were rated predominantly as "moderate deviation" on GRBAS (Grade, Rough, Breathy, Asthenia, and Strain). Maximum phonation time ranged from 4 to 29 seconds (females: 10.2, standard deviation [SD]: 5.28 and males: 15.7, SD: 5.79). Singing frequency range was reduced (females: 21.3 Semitones and males: 23.99 Semitones). Dysphonia severity index (DSI) scores ranged from -3.5 to 4.91 (females: 0.075 and males: 0.64). Singing frequency range and DSI did not show significant difference between sex and across clinical diagnosis. Self-perception using voice disorder outcome profile revealed overall severity score of 5.1 (SD: 2.7). Findings are discussed from a clinical intervention perspective. Study highlighted the nature of voice problems (hyperfunctional) and required modifications in assessment protocol for Carnatic singers. Need for regular assessments and vocal hygiene education to maintain good vocal health are emphasized as outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola
The aim of this study was to assess the application of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders in female teachers. The subjective assessment of voice by VHI was performed in fifty subjects with dysphonia diagnosed in laryngovideostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 30 women whose jobs did not involve vocal effort. The results of the total VHI score and each of its subscales: functional, emotional and physical was significantly worse in the study group than in controls (p teachers estimated their own voice problems as a moderate disability, while 12% of them reported severe voice disability. However, all non-teachers assessed their voice problems as slight, their results ranged at the lowest level of VHI score. This study confirmed that VHI as a tool for self-assessment of voice can be a significant contribution to the diagnosis of occupational dysphonia.
O. N. Faizulaieva
Full Text Available Scientific task for improving the signal-to-noise ratio for user’s voice signal in computer systems and networks during the process of user’s voice authentication is considered. The object of study is the process of input and extraction of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of the voice signal on the background of external interference signals are investigated. Ways for quality improving of the user’s voice signal in systems of voice authentication are investigated experimentally. Firmware means for experimental unit of input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are considered. As modern computer means, including mobile, have two-channel audio card, two microphones are used in the voice signal input. The distance between sonic-wave sensors is 20 mm and it provides forming one direction pattern lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. According to the results of experimental studies, the usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array and space-time processing of the recorded signals with implementation of constant and adaptive weighting factors has made it possible to reduce considerably the influence of interference signals. The results of firmware experimental studies for input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are shown. The proposed solutions will give the possibility to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker discrimination.
The projected speaking voice and the singing voice are highly sensitive to external and internal influences, and teachers of spoken voice and singing are in a unique position to identify subtle and more serious vocal difficulties in their students. Persistent anomalies may herald early onset of changes in vocal fold structure, neurophysiological control, or emotional stability. Two cases are presented to illustrate the benefits of a collaborative approach to diagnosis and management. The first, a 21-year-old male drama and singing student with an abnormally high speaking voice and falsetto singing voice was found to have a psychogenic dysphonia referred to as "puberphonia" or "mutational falsetto". The second, a 34-year-old female alto with strained phonation and perceived stutter of the vocal folds was diagnosed with "adductor spasmodic dysphonia" or "focal laryngeal dystonia" of neurological origin.
Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie
The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Ankola, Ashish; Sulica, Lucian; Murry, Thomas
The purpose of this study was to identify the presence or absence of known factors related to onset of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) in a population with sudden onset during or after pregnancy. Retrospective review. A review of 350 patient records identified five patients with sudden onset of ADSD related to pregnancy. An age-matched group with sudden onset of ADSD not related to pregnancy served as controls. All subjects completed a 20-question survey of risk factors relevant to ADSD. The average age of onset in both groups was 31 years. Three had onset of ADSD in the postpartum period, the other two during pregnancy. Significantly increased avocational voice use was found in the pregnant group compared to the control group. There was a significant difference in the two groups regarding cumulative risk factors traditionally associated with ADSD. Sudden onset of ADSD can occur in pregnancy in women with clinical profiles that differ from traditional ADSD patients. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Background. Teachers as voice professionals with heavy vocal load represent a population at high risk of vocal problems. Until now there has not been any study evaluating prevalence and risk factors for voice disorders among teachers in Slovenia.Methods. Questionnaires about voice disorders and vocal habits were sent to randomly chosen 10% of elementary, middle schools and kindergarten in Slovenia. Answers from 1509 completed questionnaires were analyzed by statistical program SPSS 11.0.Results. In the school year 2002/03 51% of teachers occasionally experienced voice disorders and 15% did frequently. The prevalence of transient voice problems was therefore about 66%. By univariate χ 2 test we found statistically significant relationship to frequent voice disorders for female sex (p < 0.02, middle school teachers (p < 0.02, age over 40 years (p < 0.0005 and atopic constitution (p < 0.006; voice disorders during study showed borderline significance (p < 0.07. There was no significant relationship to voice problems for yelling, talking loudly or rapidly, using chalk while talking, cigarette smoking, water intake and gastroesophageal reflux. Statistically significant variates were included in the multivariate logistic regression model. There was 1.9-times higher risk of experiencing frequent voice disorders in females than for males (p < 0.003. Risk of vocal problems in middle school teachers was 1.5-times higher than in kindergarten teachers (p < 0.01 and 1.8-times higher than in elementary school teachers (p < 0.0005. Age over 40 years carried 2,3-times higher risk for hoarseness than age under 40 years (p < 0.0005. Voice disorders during study showed 1.7-times higher risk for later occupational vocal problems (p < 0.02. Atopic constitution had 1.6-times higher risk for frequent vocal problems (p < 0.008. The questionaire also showed how unfamiliar to vocal hygiene Slovene teachers are.Conclusions. The prevalence of voice disorders among
Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin
Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.
Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Smith, Marshall E
This epidemiology study examined risk factors uniquely associated with spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Case-control. A questionnaire was administered to 150 patients with SD (with and without coexisting vocal tremor) and 136 patients with other structural, neurological, and functional voice disorders (excluding SD and vocal tremor). Questions included personal and family medical histories, environmental exposures, trauma, illnesses, voice use habits, and the Short Form 36. Several factors were uniquely associated with SD (α = .05), including: 1) a personal history of cervical dystonia, sinus and throat illnesses, mumps, rubella, dust exposure, and frequent volunteer voice use, 2) a family history of voice disorders, 3) an immediate family history of vocal tremor and meningitis, and 4) an extended family history of head and neck tremor, ocular disease, and meningitis. Vocal tremor coexisted with SD in 29% of cases. Measles and mumps vaccines were protective for SD. SD is likely multifactorial and associated with several endogenous and exogenous factors. Certain viral exposures, voice use patterns, and familial neurological conditions may contribute to the onset of SD later in life. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
As part of a speaker verification program for BISS (Base Installation Security System), a test system is being designed with a flexible preprocessing system for the evaluation of voice spectrum/verification algorithm related problems. The main part of this report covers the design, construction, and testing of a voice analyzer with 16 integrating real-time frequency channels ranging from 300 Hz to 3 KHz. The bandpass filter response of each channel is programmable by NMOS switched capacitor quad filter arrays. Presently, the accuracy of these units is limited to a moderate precision by the finite steps of programming. However, repeatability of characteristics between filter units and sections seems to be excellent for the implemented fourth-order Butterworth bandpass responses. We obtained a 0.1 dB linearity error of signal detection and measured a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 70 dB. The proprocessing system discussed includes preemphasis filter design, gain normalizer design, and data acquisition system design as well as test results.
Yoo, Han Soo; Chung, Seok Jong; Chung, Su Jin; Ye, Byoung Seok; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Phil Hyu; Moon, Hyojeong; Oh, Jung Su; Kim, Jae Seung; Hong, Jin Yong
Reduced presynaptic dopaminergic activity plays an important role in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether dopaminergic function in the nigrostriatal system is associated with the timing of LID onset. From among 412 drug-naive PD patients who underwent a dopamine transporter (DAT) PET scan during their baseline evaluation, we enrolled 65 patients who developed LID during a follow-up period of >2 years. Based on the time from PD onset, LID was classified as early, intermediate or late onset. We then compared DAT availability in the striatal subregions of the patients in the three groups. The demographic characteristics did not differ among the three patient groups except for earlier intervention of levodopa therapy in the early LID onset group (p = 0.001). After adjusting for age at PD onset, gender, timing of levodopa therapy from PD onset, and the severity of PD motor symptoms, DAT activity in the posterior putamen was found to be significantly lower in the early LID onset group than in the late LID onset group (p = 0.017). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that low DAT activity in the posterior putamen was significantly associated with the early appearance of LID in the early LID onset group (β = 16.039, p = 0.033). This study demonstrated that low DAT activity in the posterior putamen at baseline is a major risk factor for the early onset of LID in patients with PD, suggesting that the degree of presynaptic dopaminergic denervation plays an important role in determining the timing of LID onset. (orig.)
Yoo, Han Soo; Chung, Seok Jong; Chung, Su Jin; Ye, Byoung Seok; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Phil Hyu [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyojeong; Oh, Jung Su; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jin Yong [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)
Reduced presynaptic dopaminergic activity plays an important role in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether dopaminergic function in the nigrostriatal system is associated with the timing of LID onset. From among 412 drug-naive PD patients who underwent a dopamine transporter (DAT) PET scan during their baseline evaluation, we enrolled 65 patients who developed LID during a follow-up period of >2 years. Based on the time from PD onset, LID was classified as early, intermediate or late onset. We then compared DAT availability in the striatal subregions of the patients in the three groups. The demographic characteristics did not differ among the three patient groups except for earlier intervention of levodopa therapy in the early LID onset group (p = 0.001). After adjusting for age at PD onset, gender, timing of levodopa therapy from PD onset, and the severity of PD motor symptoms, DAT activity in the posterior putamen was found to be significantly lower in the early LID onset group than in the late LID onset group (p = 0.017). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that low DAT activity in the posterior putamen was significantly associated with the early appearance of LID in the early LID onset group (β = 16.039, p = 0.033). This study demonstrated that low DAT activity in the posterior putamen at baseline is a major risk factor for the early onset of LID in patients with PD, suggesting that the degree of presynaptic dopaminergic denervation plays an important role in determining the timing of LID onset. (orig.)
Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A
Previous research shows that the human voice can communicate a wealth of nonsemantic information; preferences for voices can predict health, fertility, and genetic quality of the speaker, and people often use voice attractiveness, in particular, to make these assessments of others. But it is not known what we think of the attractiveness of our own voices as others hear them. In this study eighty men and women rated the attractiveness of an array of voice recordings of different individuals and were not told that their own recorded voices were included in the presentation. Results showed that participants rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others had rated their voices, and participants also rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than they had rated the voices of others. These findings suggest that people may engage in vocal implicit egotism, a form of self-enhancement.
Dacakis, Georgia; Oates, Jennifer; Douglas, Jacinta
The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) was designed to capture the voice-related perceptions of individuals whose gender identity as female is the opposite of their birth-assigned gender (MtF women). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the TVQ MtF is ongoing. To investigate associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic parameters of voice pitch and voice quality in order to evaluate further the validity of the TVQ MtF . A strong correlation between TVQ MtF scores and self-ratings of voice femininity was predicted, but no association between TVQ MtF scores and acoustic measures of voice pitch and quality was proposed. Participants were 148 MtF women (mean age 48.14 years) recruited from the La Trobe Communication Clinic and the clinics of three doctors specializing in transgender health. All participants completed the TVQ MtF and 34 of these participants also provided a voice sample for acoustic analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to examine the associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic measures of F0, jitter (%), shimmer (dB) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). Strong negative correlations between the participants' perceptions of their voice femininity and the TVQ MtF scores demonstrated that for this group of MtF women a low self-rating of voice femininity was associated with more frequent negative voice-related experiences. This association was strongest with the vocal-functioning component of the TVQ MtF . These strong correlations and high levels of shared variance between the TVQ MtF and a measure of a related construct provides evidence for the convergent validity of the TVQ MtF . The absence of significant correlations between the TVQ MtF and the acoustic data is consistent with the equivocal findings of earlier research. This finding indicates that these two measures assess different aspects of the voice
Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva
The aim of the study was to investigate if voice ergonomic risk factors in classrooms correlated with acoustic parameters of teachers' voice production. The voice ergonomic risk factors in the fields of working culture, working postures and indoor air quality were assessed in 40 classrooms using the Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment - Handbook and Checklist. Teachers (32 females, 8 males) from the above-mentioned classrooms recorded text readings before and after a working day. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL) and the slope of the spectrum (alpha ratio) were analyzed. The higher the number of the risk factors in the classrooms, the higher SPL the teachers used and the more strained the males' voices (increased alpha ratio) were. The SPL was already higher before the working day in the teachers with higher risk than in those with lower risk. In the working environment with many voice ergonomic risk factors, speakers increase voice loudness and use more strained voice quality (males). A practical implication of the results is that voice ergonomic assessments are needed in schools. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Akmal, Fadira; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Azmi, Fairuz
Aircraft blackbox is a device used to record all aircraft information, which consists of Flight Data Recorder (FDR) and Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). Cockpit Voice Recorder contains conversations in the aircraft during the flight.Investigations on aircraft crashes usually take a long time, because it is difficult to find the aircraft blackbox. Then blackbox should have the ability to send information to other places. Aircraft blackbox must have a data security system, data security is a very important part at the time of information exchange process. The system in this research is to perform the encryption and decryption process on Cockpit Voice Recorder by people who are entitled by using Dragon Stream Cipher algorithm. The tests performed are time of data encryption and decryption, and avalanche effect. Result in this paper show us time encryption and decryption are 0,85 seconds and 1,84 second for 30 seconds Cockpit Voice Recorder data witn an avalanche effect 48,67 %.
Fang, Jing; Yan, Weihong; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Qi
To observe the time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival (time-to-hospital) in acute ischemic stroke patients and analyze its putatively associated factors. During the period from November 1, 2006 to August 31, 2008, patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted consecutively to the Department of Neurology, Ninth Hospital, Shanghai, were enrolled in the study. Information of the patients was registered including the time-to-hospital, demographic data, history of stroke, season at attack, neurological symptom at onset, etc. Characteristics of the patients were analyzed and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the time-to-hospital. There were 536 patients in the study, 290 (54.1%) males and 246 (45.9%) females. The median time-to-hospital was 8h (ranged from 0.1 to 300 h) for all patients. Within 3h after the onset of stroke, 162 patients (30.2%) arrived at our hospital; and within 6h, 278 patients (51.9%). Patients with a history of stroke, unconsciousness at onset, or a high NIHSS score at admission had significantly less time-to-hospital. The time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival was importance of seeking immediate medical help after stroke onset of patients and their relatives could significantly influence their actions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira
The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVAs (Belin et al., 2000 of the human brain show greater neuronal activity in response to human voices than to other categories of nonvocal sounds. However, a direct link between TVA activity and voice perceptionbehaviour has not yet been established. Here we show that a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measure of activity in the TVAs predicts individual performance at a separately administered voice memory test. This relation holds whengeneral sound memory ability is taken into account. These findings provide the first evidence that the TVAs are specifically involved in voice cognition.
Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana
Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women who appeared relatively disinterested in the listener. These findings show that voice preferences are not determined solely by physical properties of voices and that men integrate information about voice pitch and the degree of social interest expressed by women when forming voice preferences. Women's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices were not modulated by cues of social interest, suggesting that the integration of cues of social interest and voice pitch when men judge the attractiveness of women's voices may reflect adaptations that promote efficient allocation of men's mating effort.
Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.
Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260 Section 25.260 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...
Goldberg, Rachel E; Tienda, Marta; Adserà, Alícia
This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth. Foreign-born youth who migrate after the start of adolescence exhibit the latest sexual onset; boys' sexual behavior is particularly sensitive to age at migration. Parental union stability is protective for first- and second-generation youth, especially boys; however, instability in co-residence with parents accelerates sexual debut for foreign-born girls, and dilutes protections from parental marital stability. Use of a non-English language at home delays sexual onset for immigrant girls, but not boys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Granholm, A; Lange, T; Anthon, C T
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, but clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. The majority of intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite uncertainty concerning the balance between benefit and harm....... For approximately half of ICU patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, onset is early, ie within the first two days of the ICU stay. The aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding and consequently the balance between benefit and harm of SUP may differ between patients with early vs late gastrointestinal bleeding...... will describe baseline characteristics and assess the time to onset of the first clinically important episode of GI bleeding accounting for survival status and allocation to SUP or placebo. In addition, we will describe differences in therapeutic and diagnostic procedures used in patients with clinically...
Hartigan, Nicky; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Hayward, Mark
Despite an increasing volume of cross-sectional work on auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices), there remains a paucity of work on how the experience may change over time. The first aim of this study was to attempt replication of a previous finding that beliefs about voices are enduring and stable, irrespective of changes in the severity of voices, and do not change without a specific intervention. The second aim was to examine whether voice-hearers' interrelations with their voices change over time, without a specific intervention. A 12-month longitudinal examination of these aspects of voices was undertaken with hearers in routine clinical treatment (N = 18). We found beliefs about voices' omnipotence and malevolence were stable over a 12-month period, as were styles of interrelating between voice and hearer, despite trends towards reductions in voice-related distress and disruption. However, there was a trend for beliefs about the benevolence of voices to decrease over time. Styles of interrelating between voice and hearer appear relatively stable and enduring, as are beliefs about the voices' malevolent intent and power. Although there was some evidence that beliefs about benevolence may reduce over time, the reasons for this were not clear. Our exploratory study was limited by only being powered to detect large effect sizes. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
Bele, Irene Velsvik
This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included.
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola
Laryngovideostroboscopy is the method most frequently used in the assessment of voice disorders. However, the employment of quantitative methods, such as voice acoustic analysis, is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic activities as well as for objective medical certification of larynx pathologies. The aim of this study was to examine voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with occupational voice diseases. Acoustic analysis (IRIS software) was performed in 66 female teachers, including 35 teachers with occupational voice diseases and 31 with functional dysphonia. The teachers with occupational voice diseases presented the lower average fundamental frequency (193 Hz) compared to the group with functional dysphonia (209 Hz) and to the normative value (236 Hz), whereas other acoustic parameters did not differ significantly in both groups. Voice acoustic analysis, when applied separately from vocal loading, cannot be used as a testing method to verify the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders.
Pestana, Pedro Melo; Vaz-Freitas, Susana; Manso, Maria Conceição
The objectives of this study were to trace and describe research patterns in singing voice, to compare the amount of published research over time, to identify journals that published most papers on "singing voice," and to establish the most frequent research topics. The study uses qualitative and quantitative approaches through descriptive statistics, text mining, and clustering. The authors conducted a search to identify scientific papers. The titles and abstracts were analyzed regarding word frequency and relations between them, through hierarchical cluster analysis and co-occurrence networks. The frequency of journals was calculated, as well as the amount of papers across time. Since 1949, 754 papers were published and an increase was noticed. Even though 162 journals were identified by the authors, the Journal of Voice holds the majority of papers, in every analyzed period. An evolution of studied topics is described. Up to 2010, the main theme was professional singers, especially classical and opera interpreters. Since then, voice quality and the effects of training gathered more attention. The growing interest in singing has been conspicuous since the first indexed paper. However, it has been slightly slowing down. Until 2010, great importance was given to the voice quality of singers and their occupational demands. Acoustic analysis was widely used to study the effects of training. Since 2010, the concern with functionality is increasing, rather than the organic voice structures. Musical perception studies have been a trend, as well as the use of electroglottography. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.
Dudley, James; Eames, Catrin; Mulligan, John; Fisher, Naomi
Developing compassion towards oneself has been linked to improvement in many areas of psychological well-being, including psychosis. Furthermore, developing a non-judgemental, accepting way of relating to voices is associated with lower levels of distress for people who hear voices. These factors have also been associated with secure attachment. This study explores associations between the constructs of mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and distress from hearing voices and how secure attachment style related to each of these variables. Cross-sectional online. One hundred and twenty-eight people (73% female; M age = 37.5; 87.5% Caucasian) who currently hear voices completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Southampton Mindfulness of Voices Questionnaire, Relationships Questionnaire, and Hamilton Programme for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire. Results showed that mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and severity of voices, and self-compassion mediated the relationship between mindfulness of voices and severity of voices. Self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with distress and severity of voices. Mindful relation to voices and self-compassion are associated with reduced distress and severity of voices, which supports the proposed potential benefits of mindful relating to voices and self-compassion as therapeutic skills for people experiencing distress by voice hearing. Greater self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly associated with less distress from voices. These findings support theory underlining compassionate mind training. Mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and distress from voices, indicating a synergistic relationship between the constructs. Although the current findings do not give a direction of causation, consideration is given to the potential impact of mindful and
Haghighat, Abbas; Hasheminia, Dariush; Samandari, Mohammad-Hasan; Safarian, Vajihe; Davoudi, Amin
Background Using local anesthetic is common to control the pain through blocking the nerve reversibly in dental procedures. Gow-Gates (GG) technique has a high success rate but less common. This study aimed to compare the onset time and success rate in GG and standard technique of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). Material and Methods This descriptive, single blind study was consisted of 136 patients (59 males and 77 females) who were randomly received GG or IANB for extraction of mandibular molar teeth. Comparisons between the successes of two anesthetic injection techniques were analyzed with Chi-square test. Incidence of pulpal anesthesia and soft tissue anesthesia were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method. Mean onset times of pulpal anesthesia, soft tissue and lip numbness were analyzed with Log-Rank test. Comparisons were considered significant at P≤0.05 by using SPSS software ver.15. Results The incidence of pulpal anesthesia in the IANB group (canine 49.3%, premolar 60.3%) were not significantly different from the GG group (canine 41.3%, premolar 74.6%) (P=0.200 and P=0.723). The success rate in the IANB group (80.82%) was not significantly different from the GG group (92.02%) (P=0.123). Furthermore, onset time of lip and buccal soft tissue numbness in GG group (3.25, 4.96 minutes) was quite similar to IANB group (3.22, 4.89 minutes) (all Pvalues >0.05). Conclusions Although this study demonstrated higher clinical success rate for GG than IANB technique, no significant differences in success rates and onset time were observed between two techniques. Key words: Anesthesia, Inferior alveolar nerve, nerve block, success rate. PMID:25858085
Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Opioids are usually used in regional anesthesia, with or without local anesthetics to improve the regional block or postoperative pain control. Since no data are available on fentanyl's effect on the onset time of lidocaine interscalene anesthesia, the purpose of this study was to examine its effect on the onset time of sensory and motor blockade during interscalene anesthesia. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, ninety patients scheduled for elective shoulder, arm and forearm surgeries under an interscalene brachial plexus block .They were randomly allocated to receive either 30 ml of 1.5 % lidocaine with 1.5 ml of isotonic saline (control group, n = 39 or 30 ml of 1.5% lidocaine with 1.5 ml (75µg of fentanyl (fentanyl group,n=41. Then the onset time of sensory and motor blockades of the shoulder, arm and forearm were evaluated every 60 sec. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockades was defined as the time between the last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain sensation. Results: Ten patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade or unbearable pain during the surgery. The onset time of the sensory block was significantly faster in the fentanyl group (186.54± 62.71sec compared with the control group (289.51± 81.22, P < 0.01. The onset times of the motor block up to complete paralysis in forearm flexion was significantly faster in the fentanyl group (260.61± 119.91sec than the control group (367.08± 162.43sec, P < 0.01 There was no difference in the duration of the sensory block between two groups. Conclusion: Results of the study showed that the combination of 75 µg fentanyl and 1.5% lidocaine solution accelerated the onset of sensory and motor
Sahlén, Birgitta; Haake, Magnus; von Lochow, Heike; Holm, Lucas; Kastberg, Tobias; Brännström, K Jonas; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka
The present study aims at exploring the influence of voice quality on listening effort in children performing a language comprehension test with sentences of increasing difficulty. Listening effort is explored in relation to gender ( = cisgender). The study has a between-groups design. Ninety-three mainstreamed children aged 8;2 to 9;3 with typical language development participated. The children were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 46/47) with equal allocation of boys and girls and for the analysis to four groups depending of gender and voice condition. Working memory capacity and executive functions were tested in quiet. A digital version of a language comprehension test (the TROG-2) was used to measure the effect of voice quality on listening effort, measured as response time in a forced-choice paradigm. The groups listened to sentences through recordings of the same female voice, one group with a typical voice and one with a dysphonic voice, both in competing multi-talker babble noise. Response times were logged after a time buffer between the sentence-ending and indication of response. There was a significant increase in response times with increased task difficulty and response times between the two voice conditions differed significantly. The girls in the dysphonic condition were slower with increasing task difficulty. A dysphonic voice clearly adds to the noise burden and listening effort is greater in girls than in boys when the teacher speaks with dysphonic voice in a noisy background. These findings might mirror gender differences as for coping strategies in challenging contexts and have important implications for education.
Zhang, Li; Gong, Lina
With the increasing bandwidth of the network and network convergence accelerating, VoIP means of communication across the network is becoming increasingly popular phenomenon. The real-time identification and analysis for VOIP flow over backbone network become the urgent needs and research hotspot of network operations management. Based on this, the paper proposes a VoIP business management system over backbone network. The system first filters VoIP data stream over backbone network and further resolves the call signaling information and media voice. The system can also be able to design appropriate rules to complete real-time reduction and presentation of specific categories of calls. Experimental results show that the system can parse and process real-time backbone of the VoIP call, and the results are presented accurately in the management interface, VoIP-based network traffic management and maintenance provide the necessary technical support.
Febriansyah; Zainuddin, Zahir; Bachtiar Nappu, M.
The development of voice activated panic button application aims to design faster early notification of hazardous condition in community to the nearest police by using speech as the detector where the current application still applies touch-combination on screen and use coordination of orders from control center then the early notification still takes longer time. The method used in this research was by using voice recognition as the user voice detection and haversine formula for the comparison of closest distance between the user and the police. This research was equipped with auto sms, which sent notification to the victim’s relatives, that was also integrated with Google Maps application (GMaps) as the map to the victim’s location. The results show that voice registration on the application reaches 100%, incident detection using speech recognition while the application is running is 94.67% in average, and the auto sms to the victim relatives reaches 100%.
will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne
Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool for non...
Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja
The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.
of Ma(j,i) at scale i + 1, and where lw (resp. rw) is a weighting factor, taken as the absolute value of the ... In this section, the linear model for voiced speech production (Fant 1960; Flanagan 1972) is reviewed, in ..... (vii) Post-processing. Most of ...
Sacuiu, S.; Gustafson, D.; Johansson, B.; Thorvaldsson, V.; Berg, S.; Sjogren, J.M.C.; Guo, X.; Ostling, S.; Skoog, I.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether cognitive symptom patterns differ by age and length of time before dementia onset. Our objective was to investigate whether different patterns of cognitive symptoms at ages 70, 75, and 79 years predict short-term (< or =5 years) and long-term (>5 years)
Fung, Ppl; Bedogni, G; Bedogni, A
OBJECTIVES: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a potentially severe adverse effect of bisphosphonates (BP). Although the risk of ONJ increases with increasing duration of BP treatment, there are currently no reliable estimates of the ONJ time to onset (TTO). The objective of this study was to esti...
Benjamin J Pitcher
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many gregarious mammals, mothers and offspring have developed the abilities to recognise each other using acoustic signals. Such capacity may develop at different rates after birth/parturition, varying between species and between the participants, i.e., mothers and young. Differences in selective pressures between species, and between mothers and offspring, are likely to drive the timing of the onset of mother-young recognition. We tested the ability of Australian sea lion mothers to identify their offspring by vocalisation, and examined the onset of this behaviour in these females. We hypothesise that a rapid onset of recognition may reflect an adaptation to a colonial lifestyle. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a playback study maternal responses to own pup and non-filial vocalisations were compared at 12, 24 and every subsequent 24 hours until the females' first departure post-partum. Mothers showed a clear ability to recognise their pup's voice by 48 hours of age. At 24 hours mothers called more, at 48 hours they called sooner and at 72 hours they looked sooner in response to their own pup's vocalisations compared to those of non-filial pups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Australian sea lion females can vocally identify offspring within two days of birth and before mothers leave to forage post-partum. We suggest that this rapid onset is a result of selection pressures imposed by a colonial lifestyle and may be seen in other colonial vertebrates. This is the first demonstration of the timing of the onset of maternal vocal recognition in a pinniped species.
Sierra-Sosa, D.; Bastidas, M.; Ortiz P, D.; Quintero, O.L.
We propose a novel analysis alternative, based on two Fourier Transforms for emotion recognition from speech. Fourier analysis allows for display and synthesizes different signals, in terms of power spectral density distributions. A spectrogram of the voice signal is obtained performing a short time Fourier Transform with Gaussian windows, this spectrogram portraits frequency related features, such as vocal tract resonances and quasi-periodic excitations during voiced sounds. Emotions induce such characteristics in speech, which become apparent in spectrogram time-frequency distributions. Later, the signal time-frequency representation from spectrogram is considered an image, and processed through a 2-dimensional Fourier Transform in order to perform the spatial Fourier analysis from it. Finally features related with emotions in voiced speech are extracted and presented. (paper)
In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…
Full Text Available Most judicial opinions, for a variety of reasons, do not speak with the voice of identifiable judges, but an analysis of several of John Marshall’s best known opinions reveals a distinctive voice, with its characteristic language and style of argumentation. The power of this voice helps to account for the influence of his views.
Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of onset time(Tfor macula choroidal thickness(CTin myopia patient. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was designed.One hundred and twenty-two myopia patients(244 eyes; 67 male and 55 female; aged 30～41 years, mean 35.1±4.6 years oldwho received preoperative examinations from March 2014 to April 2015 were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to onset time(T:group A(T≤5a, group B(5aF=1.56,P>0.05,age(F=2.13,P>0.05,best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, F=1.41,P>0.05,corneal curvature(F=1.65,P>0.05and axial length(F=1.89,P>0.05among the three groups. The choroid in macular region was measured by enhanced depth imaging(EDIusing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT. This study recorded the CT at subfoveal(SFCT, 1mm at temporal(T1mm, nasal(N1mm, superior(S1mmand inferior(I1mmto the fovea and 3mm temporal(T3mm, nasal(N3mm, superior(S3mmand inferior(I3mmto the fovea, respectively. The differences of CT at the same position among the three groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The mean SFCT for group A,B,C were 238.32±57.95μm, 230.58±67.21μm, 221.63±62.37μm respectively in this study. The CT was found no significant difference in different locations except N3mm(tA-B=4.34,P3mm(tB-C=7.61,P3mm(t=0.76,P>0.05between group A and C. Significant difference was found at N3mm(tA-B=4.31,t B-C=7.59,tA-C=12.18; PCONCLUSION:The choroidal thickness decreases as the myopia onset time is earlier, especially at nasal.
Larson Charles R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The motor-driven predictions about expected sensory feedback (efference copies have been proposed to play an important role in recognition of sensory consequences of self-produced motor actions. In the auditory system, this effect was suggested to result in suppression of sensory neural responses to self-produced voices that are predicted by the efference copies during vocal production in comparison with passive listening to the playback of the identical self-vocalizations. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in response to upward pitch shift stimuli (PSS with five different magnitudes (0, +50, +100, +200 and +400 cents at voice onset during active vocal production and passive listening to the playback. Results Results indicated that the suppression of the N1 component during vocal production was largest for unaltered voice feedback (PSS: 0 cents, became smaller as the magnitude of PSS increased to 200 cents, and was almost completely eliminated in response to 400 cents stimuli. Conclusions Findings of the present study suggest that the brain utilizes the motor predictions (efference copies to determine the source of incoming stimuli and maximally suppresses the auditory responses to unaltered feedback of self-vocalizations. The reduction of suppression for 50, 100 and 200 cents and its elimination for 400 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback support the idea that motor-driven suppression of voice feedback leads to distinctly different sensory neural processing of self vs. non-self vocalizations. This characteristic may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for unexpected errors in the feedback of self-produced voice pitch compared with externally-generated sounds.
Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R
The motor-driven predictions about expected sensory feedback (efference copies) have been proposed to play an important role in recognition of sensory consequences of self-produced motor actions. In the auditory system, this effect was suggested to result in suppression of sensory neural responses to self-produced voices that are predicted by the efference copies during vocal production in comparison with passive listening to the playback of the identical self-vocalizations. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to upward pitch shift stimuli (PSS) with five different magnitudes (0, +50, +100, +200 and +400 cents) at voice onset during active vocal production and passive listening to the playback. Results indicated that the suppression of the N1 component during vocal production was largest for unaltered voice feedback (PSS: 0 cents), became smaller as the magnitude of PSS increased to 200 cents, and was almost completely eliminated in response to 400 cents stimuli. Findings of the present study suggest that the brain utilizes the motor predictions (efference copies) to determine the source of incoming stimuli and maximally suppresses the auditory responses to unaltered feedback of self-vocalizations. The reduction of suppression for 50, 100 and 200 cents and its elimination for 400 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback support the idea that motor-driven suppression of voice feedback leads to distinctly different sensory neural processing of self vs. non-self vocalizations. This characteristic may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for unexpected errors in the feedback of self-produced voice pitch compared with externally-generated sounds.
Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R
. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...... to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration...... of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration....
Full Text Available Where am I? Or as the young boy in Jules Verne’s Journey to the Centre of the Earth calls back to his distant-voiced companions: ‘Lost… in the most intense darkness.’ ‘Then I understood it,’ says the boy, Axel, ‘To make them hear me, all I had to do was to speak with my mouth close to the wall, which would serve to conduct my voice, as the wire conducts the electric fluid’ (Verne 1864. By timing their calls, the group of explorers work out that Axel is separated from them by a distance of four miles, held in a cavernous vertical gallery of smooth rock. Feeling his way down towards the others, the boy ends up falling, along with his voice, through the space. Losing consciousness he seems to give himself up to the space...
Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F
If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.
Speth, Jana; Harley, Trevor A; Speth, Clemens
We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking. Physiology was controlled with the nightcap sleep-wake mentation monitoring system. Sleep-onset hallucinations, traditionally at the focus of scientific attention on auditory verbal hallucinations, showed the lowest degree of VE and VA, whereas REM sleep showed the highest degrees. Degrees of different linguistic-pragmatic aspects of VE and VA likewise depend on the physiological states. The quantity and pragmatics of VE and VA are a function of the physiologically distinct state of consciousness in which they are conceived. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...
Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A
Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures. We found that participants indeed rated the voices of those who had a history of cheating as more likely to cheat. Male speakers were given higher ratings for cheating, while female raters were more likely to ascribe the likelihood to cheat to speakers. Additionally, we manipulated the pitch of the voice samples, and for both sexes, the lower pitched versions were consistently rated to be from those who were more likely to have cheated. Regardless of the pitch manipulation, speakers were able to assess actual history of infidelity; the one exception was that men's accuracy decreased when judging women whose voices were lowered. These findings expand upon the idea that the human voice may be of value as a cheater detection tool and very thin slices of vocal information are all that is needed to make certain assessments about others.
Schloneger, Matthew; Hunter, Eric
The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18–24 y/o, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal were analyzed traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, LTAS slope, alpha ratio, dB SPL 1–3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between non-singing, solo singing and choral singing. PMID:26897545
Zane Z Zheng
Full Text Available We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0 of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.
Kallvik, Emma; Toivonen, Laura; Peltola, Ville; Kaljonen, Anne; Simberg, Susanna
Health-related factors are part of the multifactorial background of dysphonia in children. Respiratory tract infections affect the same systems and structures that are used for voice production. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the number of respiratory tract infections or the viral etiology were significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. The participants were 4-year-old children who participated in the multidisciplinary STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) where they were followed up from pregnancy or birth to 4 years of age. Data were collected through questionnaires and a health diary filled in by the parents. Some of the children were followed up more intensively for respiratory tract infections during the first 2 years of life, and nasal swab samples were taken at the onset of respiratory symptoms. Our participants were 489 of these children who had participated in the follow-up for at least 1 year and for whom data on respiratory tract infections and data on voice quality were available. The number of hospitalizations due to respiratory tract infections was a significant predictor for a more hoarse voice quality. Neither the number of rhinovirus infections nor the number of respiratory syncytial virus infections was statistically significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. Based on our results, we would suggest including questions on the presence of respiratory tract infections that have led to hospitalization in the pediatric voice anamnesis. Whether the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections is of importance or not requires further research. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harriet Mary Jessica Smith
Full Text Available This study addressed the effect of misleading post-event information (PEI on voice ratings, identification accuracy, and confidence, as well as the link between verbal recall and accuracy. Participants listened to a dialogue between male and female targets, then read misleading information about voice pitch. Participants engaged in verbal recall, rated voices on a feature checklist, and made a lineup decision. Accuracy rates were low, especially on target-absent lineups. Confidence and accuracy were unrelated, but the number of facts recalled about the voice predicted later lineup accuracy. There was a main effect of misinformation on ratings of target voice pitch, but there was no effect on identification accuracy or confidence ratings. As voice lineup evidence from earwitnesses is used in courts, the findings have potential applied relevance.
Novak, Beatriz; Lozano-Keymolen, Daniel
The aim of this study is to investigate the association of early life factors with the timing of the onset of natural menopause in Costa Rica and Puerto Rico. We use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of the onset of menopause. Our results suggest that socioeconomic disadvantages, as expressed by difficulties attending school due to economic hardships or parents never living together, increase the risk of the onset of natural menopause among Puerto Rican women. Among Costa Rican women, early life nutrition, estimated using anthropometric measures, is related to the timing of the onset of natural menopause.
Guo, Yong-qing; Lin, Sheng-zhi; Xu, Xin-lin; Zhou, Li; Zhuang, Pei-yun; Jiang, Jack J
To investigate the application and significance of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment. The phonatory aerodynamic system (PAS) was used to collect aerodynamic parameters from subjects with normal voice, vocal fold polyp, vocal fold cyst, and vocal fold immobility. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to compare measurements across groups. Phonation threshold flow (PTF), mean flow rate (MFR), maximum phonation time (MPT), and glottal resistance (GR) in one hundred normal subjects were significantly affected by sex (P efficiency (VE) were not (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP, and MPT were significantly different between normal voice and voice disorders (P 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that PTP, PTF, SGP, MFR, MPT, and VE in one hundred thirteen voice dis orders had similar diagnostic utility (P aerodynamic parameters of the three degrees of voice dysfunction due to vocal cord polyps were compared and found to have no significant differences (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP and MPT in forty one patients with vocal polyps were significantly different after surgical resection of vocal cord polyps (P aerodynamic parameters can objectively and effectively evaluate the variations of vocal function, and have good auxiliary diagnostic value.
Mailänder, Eva; Mühre, Lea; Barsties, Ben
The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a 3-week training program with the voice therapy "Lax Vox" for teachers. Four healthy female teachers participated as volunteers for the study. Several voice measurements of perception, acoustics, aerodynamics, and self-evaluation were investigated. Furthermore, a survey to rate the applicability of Lax Vox was also part of the study. To assess the treatment effects of the Lax Vox training, an effect size analysis (d unb ) was conducted. After 3 weeks of training, medium and large improvements were found in some parameters of perceptual and acoustic voice quality assessments (d unb >0.50 and d unb >0.80, respectively). Furthermore, medium improvements were revealed in some parameters of self-evaluation (ie, physical and total scale of the Voice Handicap Index) and aerodynamic (ie, maximum phonation time) assessments (all d unb >0.50). Additionally, acoustic measures of vocal function showed an expansion in the upper contour of voice range profiles after training. Particularly, the main improvements in the voice range profile was found in the modal and the beginning of the falsetto voice registers. There was an increase of the intensity levels of about 4.6 dB. No changes were revealed in some acoustic measures of the voice range profile, self-evaluation measurements, and the perception of breathy voice quality (all d unb teachers appears to improve select measures of voice quality, maximum phonation time, vocal function, self-evaluation, and perceived applicability. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P
Music teachers are over four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice disorders and greater than eight times more likely to have voice-related problems than the general public. Research has shown that individual voice-use parameters of phonation time, fundamental frequency and vocal intensity, as well as vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose are significantly higher for music teachers than their classroom teacher counterparts. Finding effective and inexpensive prophylactic measures to decrease vocal load for music teachers is an important aspect for voice preservation for this group of professional voice users. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voice amplification on vocal intensity and vocal load in the workplace as measured using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Seven music teachers were monitored for 1 workweek using an APM to determine average vocal intensity (dB sound pressure level [SPL]) and vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose. Participants were monitored a second week while using a voice amplification unit (Asyst ChatterVox; Asyst Communications Company, Inc., Indian Creek, IL). Significant decreases in mean vocal intensity of 7.00-dB SPL (Pmusic teachers in the classroom. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen
Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Kotylo, Piotr; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola
It has been shown that teachers are at risk of developing occupational dysphonia, which accounts for over 25% of all occupational diseases diagnosed in Poland. The most frequently used method of diagnosing voice diseases is videostroboscopy. However, to facilitate objective evaluation of voice efficiency as well as medical certification of occupational voice disorders, it is crucial to implement quantitative methods of voice assessment, particularly voice acoustic analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the results of acoustic analysis in 66 female teachers (aged 40-64 years), including 35 subjects with occupational voice pathologies (e.g., vocal nodules) and 31 subjects with functional dysphonia. The acoustic analysis was performed using the IRIS software, before and after a 30-minute vocal loading test. All participants were subjected also to laryngological and videostroboscopic examinations. After the vocal effort, the acoustic parameters displayed statistically significant abnormalities, mostly lowered fundamental frequency (Fo) and incorrect values of shimmer and noise to harmonic ratio. To conclude, quantitative voice acoustic analysis using the IRIS software seems to be an effective complement to voice examinations, which is particularly helpful in diagnosing occupational dysphonia.
Husain, Solomon; Sadoughi, Babak; Mor, Niv; Levin, Ariana M; Sulica, Lucian
To clarify the time course of recovery in patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis. Retrospective chart review. Medical records for all patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis over a 10-year period were reviewed to obtain demographic and clinical information, including onset of disease and recovery of vocal function. Stroboscopic exams of patients who recovered voice were reviewed blindly to assess return of vocal fold motion. Thirty-eight of 55 patients (69%) recovered vocal function. Time course of recovery could be assessed in 34 patients who did not undergo injection augmentation. The mean time to recovery was 152.8 ± 109.3 days (left, 179.8 ± 111.3 days; right, 105.3 ± 93.7 days; P = .088). Two-thirds of patients recovered within 6 months. Probability of recovery declined over time. Five of 22 patients who recovered voice had return of vocal fold motion; 17 did not. The mean time to recovery did not differ between these groups (return of motion, 127.4 ± 132.3 days; no return of motion, 160.1 ± 105.1 days; P = .290). Sixty-nine percent of patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis recovered vocal function, two-thirds doing so within 6 months of onset. Age, gender, laterality, use of injection augmentation did not influence recovery rate. Declining probability of recovery over time leads us to consider framework surgery after 6 months in patients with idiopathic paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:148-152, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Nusseck, M; Richter, B; Echternach, M; Spahn, C
Studies on the effectiveness of preventive voice care programs have focused mainly on voice parameters. Psychological parameters, however, have not been investigated in detail so far. The effect of a voice training program for German student teachers on psychological health parameters was investigated in a longitudinal study. The sample of 204 student teachers was divided into the intervention group (n = 123), who participated in the voice training program, and the control group (n = 81), who received no voice training. Voice training contained ten 90-min group courses and an individual visit by the voice trainer in a teaching situation with feedback afterwards. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires (self-efficacy, Short-Form Health Survey, self-consciousness, voice self-concept, work-related behaviour and experience patterns) at the beginning and the end of their student teacher training period. The training program showed significant positive influences on psychological health, voice self-concept (i.e. more positive perception and increased awareness of one's own voice) and work-related coping behaviour in the intervention group. On average, the mental health status of all participants reduced over time, whereas the status in the trained group diminished significantly less than in the control group. Furthermore, the trained student teachers gained abilities to cope with work-related stress better than those without training. The training program clearly showed a positive impact on mental health. The results maintain the importance of such a training program not only for voice health, but also for wide-ranging aspects of constitutional health.
Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin
In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…
Hong Jin Lim
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5 min for 60 min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Results: Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6 ± 12.9 min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2 ± 13.9 min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.
Smith, David R R
Whispered vowels, produced with no vocal fold vibration, lack the periodic temporal fine structure which in voiced vowels underlies the perceptual attribute of pitch (a salient auditory cue to speaker sex). Voiced vowels possess no temporal fine structure at very short durations (below two glottal cycles). The prediction was that speaker-sex discrimination performance for whispered and voiced vowels would be similar for very short durations but, as stimulus duration increases, voiced vowel performance would improve relative to whispered vowel performance as pitch information becomes available. This pattern of results was shown for women's but not for men's voices. A whispered vowel needs to have a duration three times longer than a voiced vowel before listeners can reliably tell whether it's spoken by a man or woman (∼30 ms vs. ∼10 ms). Listeners were half as sensitive to information about speaker-sex when it is carried by whispered compared with voiced vowels.
Brugière, Olivier; Pessione, Fabienne; Thabut, Gabriel; Mal, Hervé; Jebrak, Gilles; Lesèche, Guy; Fournier, Michel
Among risk factors for the progression of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation (LT), the influence of time to BOS onset is not known. The aim of the study was to assess if BOS occurring earlier after LT is associated with worse functional prognosis and worse graft survival. We retrospectively compared functional outcome and survival of all single-LT (SLT) recipients who had BOS develop during follow-up in our center according to time to onset of BOS ( or = 3 years after transplantation). Among the 29 SLT recipients with BOS identified during the study period, 20 patients had early-onset BOS and 9 patients had late-onset BOS. The mean decline of FEV(1) over time during the first 9 months in patients with early-onset BOS was significantly greater than in patients with of late-onset BOS (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, patients with early-onset BOS had a lower mean FEV(1) value (25% vs 39% of predicted, p = 0.004), a lower mean PaO(2) value (54 mm Hg vs 73 mm Hg, p = 0.0005), a lower 6-min walk test distance (241 m vs 414 m, p = 0.001), a higher Medical Research Council index value (3.6 vs 1.6, p = 0.0001), and a higher percentage of oxygen dependency (90% vs 11%, p = 0.001) compared with patients with late-onset BOS. In addition, graft survival of patients with early-onset BOS was significantly lower than that of patients with late-onset BOS (log-rank test, p = 0.04). There were 18 of 20 graft failures (90%) in the early-onset BOS group, directly attributable to BOS in all cases (deaths [n = 10] or retransplantation [n = 8]). In the late-onset BOS group, graft failure occurred in four of nine patients due to death from extrapulmonary causes in three of four cases. The median duration of follow-up after occurrence of BOS was not statistically different between patients with early-onset BOS and patients with late-onset BOS (31 +/- 28 months and 37 +/- 26 months, respectively; p = not significant). The subgroup of patients who had BOS develop
Wickens, C. D.; Zenyuh, J.; Culp, V.; Marshak, W.
Two fundamental principles of human performance, compatibility and resource competition, are combined with two structural dichotomies in the human information processing system, manual versus voice output, and left versus right cerebral hemisphere, in order to predict the optimum combination of voice and manual control with either hand, for time-sharing performance of a dicrete and continuous task. Eight right handed male subjected performed a discrete first-order tracking task, time-shared with an auditorily presented Sternberg Memory Search Task. Each task could be controlled by voice, or by the left or right hand, in all possible combinations except for a dual voice mode. When performance was analyzed in terms of a dual-task decrement from single task control conditions, the following variables influenced time-sharing efficiency in diminishing order of magnitude, (1) the modality of control, (discrete manual control of tracking was superior to discrete voice control of tracking and the converse was true with the memory search task), (2) response competition, (performance was degraded when both tasks were responded manually), (3) hemispheric competition, (performance degraded whenever two tasks were controlled by the left hemisphere) (i.e., voice or right handed control). The results confirm the value of predictive models invoice control implementation.
As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed.
Krieg, Sandro M; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Picht, Thomas; Tanigawa, Noriko; Houde, John; Sollmann, Nico; Meyer, Bernhard; Vajkoczy, Peter; Berger, Mitchel S; Ringel, Florian; Nagarajan, Srikantan
Within the primary motor cortex, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has been shown to yield maps strongly correlated with those generated by direct cortical stimulation (DCS). However, the stimulation parameters for repetitive nTMS (rTMS)-based language mapping are still being refined. For this purpose, the present study compares two rTMS protocols, which differ in the timing of pulse train onset relative to picture presentation onset during object naming. Results were the correlated with DCS language mapping during awake surgery. Thirty-two patients with left-sided perisylvian tumors were examined by rTMS prior to awake surgery. Twenty patients underwent rTMS pulse trains starting at 300 ms after picture presentation onset (delayed TMS), whereas another 12 patients received rTMS pulse trains starting at the picture presentation onset (ONSET TMS). These rTMS results were then evaluated for correlation with intraoperative DCS results as gold standard in terms of differential consistencies in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) statistics. Logistic regression analysis by protocols and brain regions were conducted. Within and around Broca's area, there was no difference in sensitivity (onset TMS: 100%, delayed TMS: 100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (onset TMS: 100%, delayed TMS: 100%), and positive predictive value (PPV) (onset TMS: 55%, delayed TMS: 54%) between the two protocols compared to DCS. However, specificity differed significantly (onset TMS: 67%, delayed TMS: 28%). In contrast, for posterior language regions, such as supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, and posterior superior temporal gyrus, early pulse train onset stimulation showed greater specificity (onset TMS: 92%, delayed TMS: 20%), NPV (onset TMS: 92%, delayed TMS: 57%) and PPV (onset TMS: 75%, delayed TMS: 30%) with comparable sensitivity (onset TMS: 75%, delayed TMS: 70%). Logistic regression analysis also confirmed the greater fit of the predictions by rTMS that had the
This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…
Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude
Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect
Reiter, R; Brosch, S
Demographic data, subjective und objective voice analysis as well as self-assessment of voice quality from applicants for a school of speech therapists were investigated. Demographic data from 116 applicants were collected and their voice quality assessed by three independent judges. An objective evaluation was done by maximum phonation time, average fundamental frequency, dynamic range and percent of jitter and shimmer by means of Goettinger Hoarseness diagram. Self-assessment of voice quality was done by "voice handicap index questionnaire". The twenty successful applicants had a physiological voice in 95 %, they were all musical and had university entrance qualifications. Subjective voice assessment showed in 16 % of the applicants a hoarse voice. In this subgroup an unphysiological vocal use was observed in 72 % and a reduced articulation in 45 %. The objective voice parameters did not show a significant difference between the 3 groups. Self-assessment of the voice was inconspicuous in all applicants. Applicants with general qualification for university entrance, musicality and a physiological voice were more likely to be successful. There were main differences between self assessment of voice and quantitative analysis or subjective assessment by three independent judges.
Full Text Available Despite the expanded use of the Internet for language learning and practice, little attention if any has been given to the quality of interaction among English L2 speakers in conversational text or voice chat rooms. This study explored the patterns of repair moves in synchronous non-native speaker (NNS text chat rooms in comparison to voice chat rooms on the Internet. The following questions were posed: (a Which types of repair moves occur in text and voice chats; and (b what are the differences, if any, between the repair moves in text chats and voice chats when time is held constant? Repair moves made by anonymous NNSs in 10, 5-minute, synchronous chat room sessions (5 text-chat sessions, 5 voice-chat sessions were counted and analyzed using chi-square with alpha set at .05. Significant differences were found between the higher number of total repair moves made in voice chats and the smaller number in text chats. Qualitative data analysis showed that repair work in voice chats was often pronunciation-related. The study includes discussion that may affect teachers' and learners' considerations of the value of NNS chat room interaction for second language development.
Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Vukovic, Jovana
Most previous studies of vocal attractiveness have focused on preferences for physical characteristics of voices such as pitch. Here we examine the content of vocalizations in interaction with such physical traits, finding that vocal cues of social interest modulate the strength of men's preferences for raised pitch in women's voices. Men showed stronger preferences for raised pitch when judging the voices of women who appeared interested in the listener than when judging the voices of women ...
Dowding, Keith; John, Peter
Using data from a five-year online survey the paper examines the effects of relative satisfaction with health services on individuals' voice-and-choice activity in the English public health care system. Voice is considered in three parts – individual voice (complaints), collective voice voting and participation (collective action). Exercising choice is seen in terms of complete exit (not using health care), internal exit (choosing another public service provider) and private exit (using private health care). The interaction of satisfaction and forms of voice and choice are analysed over time. Both voice and choice are correlated with dissatisfaction with those who are unhappy with the NHS more likely to privately voice and to plan to take up private health care. Those unable to choose private provision are likely to use private voice. These factors are not affected by items associated with social capital – indeed, being more trusting leads to lower voice activity.
Yeung, Jeffrey C; Fung, Kevin; Davis, Eric; Rai, Sunita K; Day, Adam M B; Dzioba, Agnieszka; Bornbaum, Catherine; Doyle, Philip C
Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) is a voice disorder characterized by variable symptom severity and voice disability. Those with the disorder experience a wide spectrum of symptom severity over time, resulting in varied degrees of perceived voice disability. This study investigated the longitudinal variability of AdSD, with a focus on auditory-perceptual judgments of a dimension termed laryngeal overpressure (LO) and patient self-assessments of voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL). Longitudinal, correlational study. Ten adults with AdSD were followed over three time periods. At each, both voice samples and self-ratings of V-RQOL were gathered prior to their scheduled Botox injection. Voice recordings subsequently were perceptually evaluated by eight listeners for LO using a visual analog scale. LO ratings for all-voiced and Rainbow Passage sentence stimuli were found to be highly correlated. However, only the LO ratings obtained from judgments of AV stimuli were found to correlate moderately with self-ratings of voice disability for both the physical functioning and social-emotional subscores, as well as the total V-RQOL score. Based on perceptual judgments, LO appears to provide a reliable means of quantifying the severity of voice abnormalities in AdSD. Variability in self-ratings of the V-RQOL suggest that perceived disability related to AdSD should be actively monitored. Further, auditory-perceptual judgments may provide an accurate index of the potential impact of the disorder on the speaker. Similarly, LO was supported as a simple clinical measure that serves as a reliable index of voice change over time. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Vande Vusse, Lisa K; Caldwell, Ellen; Tran, Edward; Hogl, Laurie; Dinwiddie, Steven; López, José A; Maier, Ronald V; Watkins, Timothy R
Research that applies an unreliable definition for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) may draw false conclusions about its risk factors and biology. The effectiveness of preventive strategies may decrease as a consequence. However, the reliability of the consensus TRALI definition is unknown. To prospectively study the effect of applying two plausible definitions of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time on TRALI epidemiology. We studied 316 adults admitted to the intensive care unit and transfused red blood cells within 24 hours of blunt trauma. We identified patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and defined acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time two ways: (1) the time at which the first radiographic or oxygenation criterion was met, and (2) the time both criteria were met. We categorized two corresponding groups of TRALI cases transfused in the 6 hours before acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. We used Cohen's kappa to measure agreement between the TRALI cases and implicated blood components identified by the two acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time definitions. In a nested case-control study, we examined potential risk factors for each group of TRALI cases, including demographics, injury severity, and characteristics of blood components transfused in the 6 hours before acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Forty-two of 113 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were TRALI cases per the first acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time definition and 63 per the second definition. There was slight agreement between the two groups of TRALI cases (κ = 0.16; 95% confidence interval, -0.01 to 0.33) and between the implicated blood components (κ = 0.15, 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.20). Age, Injury Severity Score, high plasma-volume components, and transfused plasma volume were risk factors for TRALI when applying the second acute respiratory distress syndrome onset time definition
Al-Qahtani, Noura H
To examine whether prenatal exposure to music and voice alters foetal behaviour and whether foetal response to music differs from human voice. A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 normal term pregnant mothers. Ten foetuses were exposed to music and voice for 15 s at different sound pressure levels to find out the optimal setting for the auditory stimulation. Music, voice and sham were played to another 10 foetuses via a headphone on the maternal abdomen. The sound pressure level was 105 db and 94 db for music and voice, respectively. Computerised assessment of foetal heart rate and activity were recorded. 90 actocardiograms were obtained for the whole group. One way anova followed by posthoc (Student-Newman-Keuls method) analysis was used to find if there is significant difference in foetal response to music and voice versus sham. Foetuses responded with heart rate acceleration and motor response to both music and voice. This was statistically significant compared to sham. There was no significant difference between the foetal heart rate acceleration to music and voice. Prenatal exposure to music and voice alters the foetal behaviour. No difference was detected in foetal response to music and voice.
Sferrella, Sheila M
You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six
Lim, Hong Jin; Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz; Chinna, Karuthan
A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5min for 60min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6±12.9min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2±13.9min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn
In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Experiences of an internal 'anorexic voice' are common in anorexia nervosa. Clinicians should consider the role of the voice when formulating eating pathology in anorexia nervosa, including how individuals perceive and relate to that voice. Addressing the voice may be beneficial, particularly in more severe and enduring forms of anorexia nervosa. When working with the voice, clinicians should aim to address both the content of the voice and how
Zhang, Guoming; Yan, Chen; Ji, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Taimin; Zhang, Tianchen; Xu, Wenyuan
Speech recognition (SR) systems such as Siri or Google Now have become an increasingly popular human-computer interaction method, and have turned various systems into voice controllable systems(VCS). Prior work on attacking VCS shows that the hidden voice commands that are incomprehensible to people can control the systems. Hidden voice commands, though hidden, are nonetheless audible. In this work, we design a completely inaudible attack, DolphinAttack, that modulates voice commands on ultra...
Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Rzepakowska, Anna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
The purpose of this study was to evaluate vocal tract function and the voice quality in singers with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) after undergoing combined functional voice therapy of the singing voice. This is a prospective, randomized study. Forty singers (29 females and 11 males, mean age: 24.6 ± 8.8 years) with MTD were enrolled in the study. The study group consisted of 20 singers who underwent combined functional voice therapy (10-15 individual sessions, 30-40 minutes each). Singers who did not opt for vocal rehabilitation consisted of the control group. Effects of rehabilitation were assessed with videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, flexible fiberoptic evaluation of the pharynx and the larynx, perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, and the Voice Handicap Index. After combined functional voice therapy in the study group, great improvement was noticed in palpation of the vocal tract structures (P singing range obtained from acoustic analysis of glissando (P singing. Development of palpation and perceptual singing voice examination protocols enables one to compare results before and after rehabilitation in clinics. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yan Ming Cheng
Full Text Available We describe two voice-to-phoneme conversion algorithms for speaker-independent voice-tag creation specifically targeted at applications on embedded platforms. These algorithms (batch mode and sequential are compared in speech recognition experiments where they are first applied in a same-language context in which both acoustic model training and voice-tag creation and application are performed on the same language. Then, their performance is tested in a cross-language setting where the acoustic models are trained on a particular source language while the voice-tags are created and applied on a different target language. In the same-language environment, both algorithms either perform comparably to or significantly better than the baseline where utterances are manually transcribed by a phonetician. In the cross-language context, the voice-tag performances vary depending on the source-target language pair, with the variation reflecting predicted phonological similarity between the source and target languages. Among the most similar languages, performance nears that of the native-trained models and surpasses the native reference baseline.
Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.
In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints
Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.
In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints
Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt
Although there is a vast amount of research on leadership and improvement-oriented voice behavior, the amount of cross-lagged research on leadership that also incorporates more challenging forms of voice is sparse. This paper reports on a two-wave study of white-collar workers in a Norwegian...... medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...
Meulenbroek, Leo F P; de Jong, Felix I C R S
The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptual examination of voice quality with the condition of the vocal folds and voice complaints during voice screening in female student teachers. This research was a cross-sectional study in 214 starting student teachers using the four-point grade scale of the GRBAS and laryngostroboscopic assessment of the vocal folds. The voice quality was assessed by speech pathologists using the ordinal 4-point G-scale (overall dysphonia) of the GRBAS method in a running speech sample. Glottal closure and vocal fold lesions were recorded. A questionnaire was used for assessing voice complaints. More students with an insufficient glottal closure (89%) were rated dysphonic compared with students with sufficient glottal closure (80%). Students with sufficient glottal closure had a significantly lower mean G-score (1.21) compared with the group with insufficient glottal closure (1.52) (P = 0.038). This study showed a larger percentage of students with vocal fold lesions (96%) labeled a dysphonic voice compared to students with no vocal fold problems (81%). Students with no vocal fold lesions had a significantly lower mean G-score (1.20) compared with the group with vocal fold lesions (2.05) (P=0.002). A dysphonic voice (G≥1) was rated in 76% of the students without voice complaints compared with 86% of the students with voice complaints. Students with no voice complaints had a lower mean G-score (1.07) compared with the group with voice complaints (1.41) (P=0.090). The present study showed that perceptual assessment of the voice and voice complaints is not sufficient to check if the future professional is at risk. Therefore, preventive measures are needed to detect students at risk early in their education and this depends on broader assessment: on the one hand, assessing voice quality and voice complaints and on the other hand, examination of the vocal folds of all starting students. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation
Orr, Rosemary; de Jong, Felix; Cranen, Bert
One of the problems confronted in the teaching profession is the maintenance of a healthy voice. This basic pedagogical tool is subjected to extensive use, and frequently suffers from overload, with some teachers having to give up their profession altogether. In some teacher training schools, it is the current practice to examine the student's voice, and to refer any perceived susceptibility to strain to voice specialists. For this study, a group of vocally healthy students were examined first at the teacher training schools, and then at the ENT clinic at the University Hospital of Nijmegen. The aim was to predict whether the subject's voice might be at risk for occupational dysphonia as a result of the vocal load of the teaching profession. We tried to find objective measures of voice quality in student teachers, used in current clinical practice, which reflect the judgements of the therapists and phoniatricians. We tried to explain such measures physiologically in terms of robustness of, and control over voicing. Objective measures used included video-laryngostroboscopy, phonetography and spectrography. Maximum phonation time, melodic range in conjunction with maximum intensity range, and the production of soft voice are suggested as possible predictive parameters for the risk of occupational voice strain.
Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.
Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P
Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their voices at high intensities and durations in the course of their workday, voice-use profiles concerning the amount and intensity of vocal use and vocal load have neither been quantified nor has vocal load for music teachers been compared with classroom teachers using these same voice-use parameters. In this study, total phonation time, fundamental frequency (F₀), and vocal intensity (dB SPL [sound pressure level]) were measured or estimated directly using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Vocal load was calculated as cycle and distance dose, as defined by Švec et al (2003), which integrates total phonation time, F₀, and vocal intensity. Twelve participants (n = 7 elementary music teachers and n = 5 elementary classroom teachers) were monitored during five full teaching days of one workweek to determine average vocal load for these two groups of teachers. Statistically significant differences in all measures were found between the two groups (P vocal loads for music teachers are substantially higher than those experienced by classroom teachers (P vocal load may have immediate clinical and educational benefits in vocal health in music teachers. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink
The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...
Grolman, Wilko; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Tan, Frédérique M. L.; Tange, Rinze A.; Schouwenburg, Paul F.
BACKGROUND: In laryngectomized patients, tracheoesophageal voice generally provides a better voice quality than esophageal voice. Understanding the aerodynamics of voice production in patients with a voice prosthesis is important for optimizing prosthetic designs and successful voice rehabilitation.
van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P
Patient adherence to voice therapy is an established challenge. The purpose of this study was (a) to examine whether adherence to treatment could be predicted from three social-cognitive factors measured at treatment onset: self-efficacy, goal commitment, and the therapeutic alliance, and (b) to test whether the provision of clinician, self-, and peer model mobile treatment videos on MP4 players would influence the same triad of social cognitive factors and the adherence behavior of patients. Forty adults with adducted hyperfunction with and without benign lesions were prospectively randomized to either 4 sessions of voice therapy enhanced by MP4 support or without MP4 support. Adherence between sessions was assessed through self-report. Social cognitive factors and voice outcomes were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy. Utility of MP4 support was assessed via interviews. Self-efficacy and the therapeutic alliance predicted a significant amount of adherence variance. MP4 support significantly increased generalization, self-efficacy for generalization, and the therapeutic alliance. An interaction effect demonstrated that MP4 support was particularly effective for patients who started therapy with poor self-efficacy for generalization. Adherence may be predicted and influenced via social-cognitive means. Mobile technology can extend therapy to extraclinical settings.
Cohen, Seth M; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson; Courey, Mark
Despite the accepted role of laryngoscopy in assessing patients with laryngeal/voice disorders, controversy surrounds its timing. This study sought to determine how increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology outpatient visit affected the health care costs of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Retrospective analysis of a large, national administrative claims database was performed. Patients had an International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision-coded diagnosis of a laryngeal/voice disorder; initially saw a primary care physician and, subsequently, an otolaryngologist as outpatients; and provided 6 months of follow-up data after the first otolaryngology evaluation. The outpatient health care costs accrued from the first primary care outpatient visit through the 6 months after the first otolaryngology outpatient visit were determined. There were 260,095 unique patients who saw a primary care physician as an outpatient for a laryngeal/voice disorder, with 8999 (3.5%) subsequently seeing an otolaryngologist and with 6 months postotolaryngology follow-up data. A generalized linear regression model revealed that, compared with patients who saw an otolaryngologist ≤1 month after the first primary care visit, patients in the >1-month and ≤3-months and >3-months time periods had relative mean cost increases of $271.34 (95% confidence interval $115.95-$426.73) and $711.38 (95% confidence interval $428.43-$993.34), respectively. Increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology evaluation is associated with increased outpatient health care costs. Earlier otolaryngology examination may reduce health care expenditures in the evaluation and management of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison
In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kuzańska, Anna; Błoch, Piotr; Domańska, Maja; Woźnicka, Ewelina; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola
The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the evaluation of effectiveness of functional voice disorders treatment in teachers. The subjects were 45 female teachers with functional dysphonia who evaluated their voice problems according to the subjective VHI scale before and after phoniatric management. Group I (29 patients) were subjected to vocal training, whereas group II (16 patients) received only voice hygiene instructions. The results demonstrated that differences in the mean VHI score before and after phoniatric treatment were significantly higher in group 1 than in group II (p teacher's dysphonia.
Rothenberg, Martin; Schutte, Harm K
In 1985, at a conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Martin Rothenberg first described a form of nonlinear source-tract acoustic interaction mechanism by which some sopranos, singing in their high range, can use to reduce the total airflow, to allow holding the note longer, and simultaneously enrich the quality of the voice, without straining the voice. (M. Rothenberg, "Source-Tract Acoustic Interaction in the Soprano Voice and Implications for Vocal Efficiency," Fourth International Conference on Vocal Fold Physiology, New Haven, Connecticut, June 3-6, 1985.) In this paper, we describe additional evidence for this type of nonlinear source-tract interaction in some soprano singing and describe an analogous interaction phenomenon in communication engineering. We also present some implications for voice research and pedagogy. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
From being a fictional element in sci-fi, voice control has become a reality, with inventions such as Apple's Siri, and interactive voice response (IVR) when calling your doctor's office. The combination of radio’s strength as a hands-free medium, public radio’s mission to reach across all platforms and the rise of voice makes up a relevant intersection; voice controlled public radio in Sweden. This thesis has aimed to investigate how radio listeners wish to interact using voice control to li...
Fowler, Linda P; Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Hapner, Edie R
The purpose of this study was to determine if measurable changes in fundamental frequency (F(0)) and relative sound level (RSL) occurred in healthy speakers after transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) as applied via VitalStim (Chattanooga Group, Chattanooga, TN). A prospective, repeated-measures design. Ten healthy female and 10 healthy male speakers, 20-53 years of age, participated in the study. All participants were nonsmokers and reported negative history for voice disorders. Participants received 1 hour of TES while engaged in eating, drinking, and conversation to simulate a typical dysphagia therapy protocol. Voice recordings were obtained before and immediately after TES. The voice samples consisted of a sustained vowel task and reading of the Rainbow Passage. Measurements of F(0) and RSL were obtained using TF32 (Milenkovic, 2005, University of Wisconsin). The participants also reported any sensations 5 minutes and 24 hours after TES. Measurable changes in F(0) and RSL were found for both tasks but were variable in direction and magnitude. These changes were not statistically significant. Subjective comments ranged from reports of a vocal warm-up feeling to delayed onset muscle soreness. These findings demonstrate that application of TES produces measurable changes in F(0) and RSL. However, the direction and magnitude of these changes are highly variable. Further research is needed to determine factors that may affect the extent to which TES contributes to significant changes in voice. Copyright Â© 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Belyayev, N F; Khaynovskiy, A V
The dictionary of voice communications about routes and the time for outlet of people is analyzed. A classification of voice reports is given in order to isolate the constant and variable parts. Two methods for realizing a device for voice outlet of information for the ''Trudovskaya'' mine of the ''Donetskugol''' production union are examined.
Pirani, Joseph; Calvelage, Steven
The technology of transmitting voice over data networks has been available for over 10 years. Mass market VoIP services for consumers to make and receive standard telephone calls over broadband Internet networks have grown in the last 5 years. While operational costs are less with VoIP implementations as opposed to time division multiplexing (TDM) based voice switches, is it still advantageous to convert a mission control center s voice system to this newer technology? Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has converted its mission voice services to a commercial product that utilizes VoIP technology. Results from this testing, design, and installation have shown unique considerations that must be addressed before user operations. There are many factors to consider for a control center voice design. Technology advantages and disadvantages were investigated as they refer to cost. There were integration concerns which could lead to complex failure scenarios but simpler integration for the mission infrastructure. MSFC HOSC will benefit from this voice conversion with less product replacement cost, less operations cost and a more integrated mission services environment.
Hancock, Adrienne B; Gross, Heather E
Known influences of sex hormones on the voice would suggest pregnancy hormones could have an effect, yet studies using acoustic measures have not indicated changes. Additionally, no examination of the voice before the third trimester has been reported. Effect of pregnancy on the voice is relatively unexplored yet could be quite relevant to female speakers and singers. It is possible that spectral and aerodynamic measures would be more sensitive to tissue-level changes caused by pregnancy hormones. In this first longitudinal study of a 32-year-old woman's pregnancy, weekly voice samples were analyzed for acoustic (fundamental frequency, perturbation ratios of shimmer and jitter, Harmonic-to-Noise Ratio, spectral measures, and maximum phonation time) and aerodynamic (average airflow, peak flow, AC/DC ratio, open quotient, and speed quotient) parameters. All measures appeared generally stable during weeks 11-39 of pregnancy compared with 21 weeks postpartum. Slight decrease in minimum airflow and open speed quotient may reflect suspected vocal fold tissue changes. It is recommended that future studies monitor and test correlations among hormone levels, visual analyses of vocal fold mucosa, aerodynamic function, and glottal efficiency. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Voice Over the Internet Protocol (VoIP holds promise as a platform by which services can be delivered to students in rural and remote regions who have reading difficulties. VoIP is an Internet-based protocol that allows two or more individuals to videoconference from remote locations. This study used a single-case research design to investigate whether VoIP would produce significant gains in reading ability in BM, a 10-year-old with long-standing word-level reading problems. BM was provided with a theoretically motivated reading intervention 4 times weekly. The intervention was delivered remotely using the Apple iChat software. Substantial growth in regular- and nonword reading covaried with onset and removal of treatment. Treatment gains were maintained at 10-week follow-up. Meaningful gains were also seen in text-reading accuracy and reading comprehension. VoIP-based instruction represents an important avenue for future research and is a teaching method that holds much promise for rural and remote students.
.... The ultimate goal of voice biometrics is to enable the use of voice as a password. Voice biometrics are "man-in-the-loop" systems in which system performance is significantly dependent on human performance...
Brunkan, Melissa C.
Preservice music teachers often use their voices differently during the semesters leading up to student teaching as compared to during the semester itself. Vocal demands often increase and change as students move from a student role to full-time teacher role. Consequently, music student teachers frequently experience vocal distress symptoms that…
van der Torn, M.; van Gogh, C.D.L.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J.M.; Mahieu, H.F.
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the cause of failing voice production by a sound-producing voice prosthesis (SPVP). METHODS: The functioning of a prototype SPVP is described in a female laryngectomee before and after its sound-producing mechanism was impeded by tracheal phlegm. This assessment included:
Ishigaki, Sayaka; Masui, Kenichi; Kazama, Tomiei
Circulatory factors modify the onset time of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Therefore, we hypothesized that infusion of a saline flush immediately after rocuronium administration would shorten the onset time without influencing the duration of the rocuronium effect. Forty-eight patients were randomly allocated to the control or saline flush group. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil, and all patients received 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium in 10 mL of normal saline. In the saline flush group, 20 mL normal saline was immediately infused after rocuronium administration. Neuromuscular blockade was assessed using acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis muscle with train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. The neuromuscular indices for rocuronium were calculated as follows: the latent onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the first twitch of the TOF (T1) ≥5%; onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the T1 ≥95%; clinical duration, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until T1 recovered to 25% of the final T1 value; recovery index, defined as the time for recovery of T1 from 25% to 75% of the final T1 value; and the total recovery time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until reaching a TOF ratio of 0.9. Significance was designated at P rocuronium bolus by 17%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. In addition, the recovery phase was significantly prolonged in the saline flush group. The mean clinical duration (5th-95th percentile range) in the saline flush group and control group was 35 minutes (27-63 minutes) and 31 minutes (19-48 minutes; P = 0.032), respectively; the recovery index was 13 minutes (8-25 minutes) and 10 minutes (7-19 minutes; P = 0.019), respectively; and the total recovery time was 61 minutes (44-108 minutes) and 50 minutes (35-93 minutes; P = 0
Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; de Jong, F.
BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being.
Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji
Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The three main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood; (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult self-esteem; and (3) help rule out the alternative interpretation that the relationship between major depression and self-esteem is due to state dependence bias stemming from recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events. To address these objectives we use data from a two-wave panel study based on a community sample of young adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida (n = 1,197). Results indicated a history of major depression during sensitive periods of social development is associated with negative changes in self-esteem over a two-year period during the transition to young adulthood. Among those with a history of depression, earlier onset was more problematic than later onset for young adult self-esteem, although the difference disappeared once the level of self-esteem two years prior was controlled. The linkages between the history and timing of depression onset with self-esteem were observed net of recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events, and thus robust to an alternative interpretation of state dependence. The findings support the argument that major depression, especially if it develops earlier during child-adolescent development, has negative consequences for one’s self-esteem. PMID:21860585
Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.; Machida, S.; Hiraki, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.; Auster, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Donovan, E.; Larson, D. E.
We have studied the relative timing of the processes in the near-Earth magnetotail and development of auroral onset arc at the beginning of the expansion phase, based on substorm events observed by the THEMIS spacecraft and ground-based all-sky imagers. The THEMIS all-sky imagers can observe auroras over a wide area with temporal and spacial resolutions higher than spacecraft-borne cameras. This enables us to investigate the timing of auroral development in more detail than before. A few min after the appearance and intensification of an auroral onset arc, it begins to form wave-like structure. Then auroral poleward expansion begins another few min later. THEMIS magnetotail observations clearly show that magnetic reconnection is initiated at X~-20 Re at least 1-2 min before the intensification of auroral onset arc. Then low-frequency waves are excited in the plasma sheet at X~-10 Re 2 min before dipolarization, which is simultaneous with the formation of auroral wave-like structure. Dipolarization begins at the same time as the auroral poleward expansion. These results suggest that near-Earth magnetic reconnection plays some role in the development of dipolarization and auroral onset arc.
Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.
Investigators have identified a number of factors that increase risk for physical and psychological dating abuse perpetration during adolescence, but as yet little is known about the etiology of sexual dating aggression during this critical developmental period. This is an important gap in the literature given that research suggests that patterns of sexual dating violence that are established during this period may carry over into young adulthood. Using a sample of 459 male adolescents (76% White, 19% Black), the current study used survival analysis to examine the timing and predictors of sexual dating aggression perpetration onset across grades 8 through 12. Risk for sexual dating aggression onset increased across early adolescence, peaked in the 10th grade, and desisted thereafter. As predicted based on the Confluence Model of sexual aggression, associations between early physical aggression towards peers and dates and sexual aggression onset were stronger for teens reporting higher levels of rape myth acceptance. Contrary to predictions, inter-parental violence, prior victimization experiences, and parental monitoring knowledge did not predict sexual dating aggression onset. Findings support the notion that risk factors may work synergistically to predict sexual dating aggression and highlight the importance of rape myth acceptance as a construct that should be addressed by violence prevention programs. PMID:23180071
Saylam, Güleser; Şahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayır, Ömer; Yüceege, Melike Bağnu; Çadallı Tatar, Emel; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan
The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in voice parameters among patients using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Patients with an indication for CPAP treatment without any voice problems and with normal laryngeal findings were included and voice parameters were evaluated before and 1 and 6 months after CPAP. Videolaryngostroboscopic findings, a self-rated scale (Voice Handicap Index-10, VHI-10), perceptual voice quality assessment (GRBAS: grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain), and acoustic parameters were compared. Data from 70 subjects (48 men and 22 women) with a mean age of 44.2 ± 6.0 years were evaluated. When compared with the pre-CPAP treatment period, there was a significant increase in the VHI-10 score after 1 month of treatment and in VHI- 10 and total GRBAS scores, jitter percent (P = 0.01), shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and voice turbulence index after 6 months of treatment. Vague negative effects on voice parameters after the first month of CPAP treatment became more evident after 6 months. We demonstrated nonsevere alterations in the voice quality of patients under CPAP treatment. Given that CPAP is a long-term treatment it is important to keep these alterations in mind.
Behlau, Mara; Zambon, Fabiana; Madazio, Glaucya
Recent advances with regard to occupational voice disorders are highlighted with emphasis on issues warranting consideration when assessing, training, and treating professional voice users. Findings include the many particularities between the various categories of professional voice users, the concept that the environment plays a major role in occupational voice disorders, and that biopsychosocial influences should be analyzed on an individual basis. Assessment via self-evaluation protocols to quantify the impact of these disorders is mandatory as a component of an evaluation and to document treatment outcomes. Discomfort or odynophonia has evolved as a critical symptom in this population. Clinical trials are limited and the complexity of the environment may be a limitation in experiment design. This review reinforced the need for large population studies of professional voice users; new data highlighted important factors specific to each group of voice users. Interventions directed at student teachers are necessities to not only improving the quality of future professionals, but also to avoid the frustration and limitations associated with chronic voice problems. The causative relationship between the work environment and voice disorders has not yet been established. Randomized controlled trials are lacking and must be a focus to enhance treatment paradigms for this population.
Stepanova, Yu E; Gotovyakhina, T V; Korneenkov, A A; Koren', E E
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of homeovox for the combined treatment of small vocal cord nodules and acute laryngitis in the professional voice users. A total of 40 subjects presenting with dysphonia were examined after they were divided into two study groups and two groups of comparison depending on the nosological form of the pathological condition. The subjects comprising the study groups were given traditional therapy in the combination with the intake of homeovox whereas the patients included in the two groups of comparison received the traditional treatment alone. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated on days 1, 5, and 10 after the initiation of therapy based on the analysis of the changes in the videoendostroboscopic picture of the larynx and the acoustic characteristics obtained by the computer-assisted analysis of the voice. The analysis of the results of the combined treatment has demonstrated the statistically significant differences in some acoustic parameters of the voice between the subjects with small vocal cord nodules and acute laryngitis belonging to the study groups and the groups of comparison. It is concluded that the introduction of homeovox in the combined treatment of the patients presenting with the small nodules in the vocal cords and acute catarrhal laryngitis accelerates the recovery of the acoustic characteristics of the voice within various periods after the onset of the treatment in comparison with the patients treated with the use of traditional therapy alone.
Tertoolen, Anja; Geldens, Jeannette; van Oers, Bert; Popeijus, Herman
Listening to young children's voices is an issue with increasing relevance for many researchers in the field of early childhood research. At the same time, teachers and researchers are faced with challenges to provide children with possibilities to express their notions, and to find ways of comprehending children's voices. In our research we aim…
A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.
The prevalence of voice disorders in the teacher population in Latvia has not been studied so far and this is the first epidemiological study whose goal is to investigate the prevalence of voice disorders and their risk factors in this professional group. A wide cross-sectional study using stratified sampling methodology was implemented in the general education schools of Latvia. The self-administered voice risk factor questionnaire and the Voice Handicap Index were completed by 522 teachers. Two teachers groups were formed: the voice disorders group which included 235 teachers with actual voice problems or problems during the last 9 months; and the control group which included 174 teachers without voice disorders. Sixty-six percent of teachers gave a positive answer to the following question: Have you ever had problems with your voice? Voice problems are more often found in female than male teachers (68.2% vs 48.8%). Music teachers suffer from voice disorders more often than teachers of other subjects. Eighty-two percent of teachers first faced voice problems in their professional carrier. The odds of voice disorders increase if the following risk factors exist: extra vocal load, shouting, throat clearing, neglecting of personal health, background noise, chronic illnesses of the upper respiratory tract, allergy, job dissatisfaction, and regular stress in the working place. The study findings indicated a high risk of voice disorders among Latvian teachers. The study confirmed data concerning the multifactorial etiology of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hohgräfe, Bernd; Jacobi, Sebastian
Password resets are time consuming. Especially when urgent jobs need to be done, it is cumbersome to inform the user helpdesk, to identify oneself and then to wait for response. It is easy to enter a wrong password multiple times, which leads to the blocking of the application. Voice biometrics is an easy and secure way for individuals to reset their own password. Read more about how you can ease the burden of your user helpdesk and how voice biometric password resets benefit your expense situation without harming your security.
Rajput, Sudheesh K; Matoba, Osamu
We propose an optical voice encryption scheme based on digital holography (DH). An off-axis DH is employed to acquire voice information by obtaining phase retardation occurring in the object wave due to sound wave propagation. The acquired hologram, including voice information, is encrypted using optical image encryption. The DH reconstruction and decryption with all the correct parameters can retrieve an original voice. The scheme has the capability to record the human voice in holograms and encrypt it directly. These aspects make the scheme suitable for other security applications and help to use the voice as a potential security tool. We present experimental and some part of simulation results.
Meleis, Afaf I.
The author develops in this editorial a claiming discourse whose purpose is to draw attention to the nurses to make their voices heard at a particularly propitious time for it (the stars are aligned). Afaf Meleis describes the current situation as the ideal for the nursing profession, finally, exercise your voice and contribute to optimizer health care through greater presence of nursing in all areas related to health. Demographic, educational, social and health changes, increasingly require ...
Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara
To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.
Examines two methods of generating synthetic speech in voice response systems, which allow computers to communicate in human terms (speech), using human interface devices (ears): phoneme and reconstructed voice systems. Considerations prior to implementation, current and potential applications, glossary, directory, and introduction to Input Output…
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan
Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how...
Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel
The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.
Putnam, Karen T; Wilcox, Marsha; Robertson-Blackmore, Emma; Sharkey, Katherine; Bergink, Veerle; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Payne, Jennifer; Altemus, Margaret; Newport, Jeffrey; Apter, Gisele; Devouche, Emmanuel; Viktorin, Alexander; Magnusson, Patrik; Penninx, Brenda; Buist, Anne; Bilszta, Justin; O’Hara, Michael; Stuart, Scott; Brock, Rebecca; Roza, Sabine; Tiemeier, Henning; Guille, Constance; Epperson, C Neill; Kim, Deborah; Schmidt, Peter; Martinez, Pedro; Di Florio, Arianna; Wisner, Katherine L; Stowe, Zachary; Jones, Ian; Sullivan, Patrick F; Rubinow, David; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha
Summary Background The perinatal period is a time of high risk for onset of depressive disorders and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, including maternal suicide. Perinatal depression comprises a heterogeneous group of clinical subtypes, and further refinement is needed to improve treatment outcomes. We sought to empirically identify and describe clinically relevant phenotypic subtypes of perinatal depression, and further characterise subtypes by time of symptom onset within pregnancy and three post-partum periods. Methods Data were assembled from a subset of seven of 19 international sites in the Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment (PACT) Consortium. In this analysis, the cohort was restricted to women aged 19–40 years with information about onset of depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and complete prospective data for the ten-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Principal components and common factor analysis were used to identify symptom dimensions in the EPDS. The National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria functional constructs of negative valence and arousal were applied to the EPDS dimensions that reflect states of depressed mood, anhedonia, and anxiety. We used k-means clustering to identify subtypes of women sharing symptom patterns. Univariate and bivariate statistics were used to describe the subtypes. Findings Data for 663 women were included in these analyses. We found evidence for three underlying dimensions measured by the EPDS: depressed mood, anxiety, and anhedonia. On the basis of these dimensions, we identified five distinct subtypes of perinatal depression: severe anxious depression, moderate anxious depression, anxious anhedonia, pure anhedonia, and resolved depression. These subtypes have clear differences in symptom quality and time of onset. Anxiety and anhedonia emerged as prominent symptom dimensions with post-partum onset and were notably severe
Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune
This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between child...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....
Bauer, Nadja; Friedrichs, Klaus; Weihs, Claus
A time efficient optimization technique for instance based problems is proposed, where for each parameter setting the target function has to be evaluated on a large set of problem instances. Computational time is reduced by beginning with a performance estimation based on the evaluation of a representative subset of instances. Subsequently, only promising settings are evaluated on the whole data set. As application a comprehensive music onset detection algorithm is introduce...
Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.
Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Behlau, Mara
To verify the influence of sleep quality on the voice. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an online or printed survey divided in three parts: (1) demographic data and vocal health aspects; (2) self-assessment of sleep and vocal quality, and the influence that sleep has on voice; and (3) sleep and voice self-assessment inventories-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Voice Handicap Index reduced version (VHI-10). A total of 862 people were included (493 women, 369 men), with a mean age of 32 years old (maximum age of 79 and minimum age of 18 years old). The perception of the influence that sleep has on voice showed a difference (P influence a voice handicap are vocal self-assessment, ESS total score, and self-assessment of the influence that sleep has on voice. The absence of daytime sleepiness is a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] > 1) against perceived voice handicap; the presence of daytime sleepiness is a damaging factor (OR influences voice. Perceived poor sleep quality is related to perceived poor vocal quality. Individuals with a voice handicap observe a greater influence of sleep on voice than those without. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barcelos, Camila Barbosa; Silveira, Paula Angélica Lorenzon; Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Gonçalves, Aline Nogueira; Slobodticov, Luciana Dall'Agnol Siqueira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de
Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may demonstrate different degrees of voice perturbation depending on the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. Understanding the effectiveness of voice therapy in this population may be an important coefficient to define the therapeutic approach. To evaluate the voice therapy effectiveness in the short, medium and long-term in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and determine the risk factors for voice rehabilitation failure. Prospective study with 61 patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis enrolled. Each subject had voice therapy with an experienced speech pathologist twice a week. A multidimensional assessment protocol was used pre-treatment and in three different times after voice treatment initiation: short-term (1-3 months), medium-term (4-6 months) and long-term (12 months); it included videoendoscopy, maximum phonation time, GRBASI scale, acoustic voice analysis and the portuguese version of the voice handicap index. Multiple comparisons for GRBASI scale and VHI revealed statistically significant differences, except between medium and long term (pvocal improvement over time with stabilization results after 6 months (medium term). From the 28 patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis, 18 (69.2%) reached complete glottal closure following vocal therapy (p=0.001). The logistic regression method indicated that the Jitter entered the final model as a risk factor for partial improvement. For every unit of increased jitter, there was an increase of 0.1% (1.001) of the chance for partial improvement, which means an increase on no full improvement chance during rehabilitation. Vocal rehabilitation improves perceptual and acoustic voice parameters and voice handicap index, besides favor glottal closure in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The results were also permanent during the period of 1 year. The Jitter value, when elevated, is a risk factor for the voice therapy
Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)
A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.
Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.
Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.
Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros
Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.
Full Text Available Diurnal variations in various physiological and biochemical functions and certain pathological events like myocardial infarction and stroke have been documented. We studied prospectively one hundred and seven patients of acute onset stroke confirmed by computed tomography for the exact time of onset, risk factors and type of stroke. Patients who were unclear of time of onset and with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis or sub-arachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. Infarction was detected in 71 patients and hemorrhage in 33 patients. Men out numbered women (1:6:1. Hypertension was more frequent in hemorrhage in the morning time (5 AM-12 noon and more infarction between 12-6 pm. However there was no relation between the time of onset of stroke and various risk-factors of stroke.
Richter, B; Echternach, M
Voice is one of the most important instruments for expression and communication in humans. Dysphonia remains very frequent. Generally people in voice-intensive professions, such as teachers, call center employees, singers and actors suffer from these complaints. In recent years methods have been developed which facilitate appropriate diagnosis and therapy, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine, in voice patients appropriate to their degree of disease. The basic protocol of the European Laryngological Society offers a standardized evaluation of multidimensional voice parameters. In our own patient collective there were statistically significant improvements in voice quality, according to a pre/post mean value comparison, in both phonomicrosurgical (n=45) and voice therapy (n=30) patients in relation to RBH, DSI and VHI.
Sliwinska-Kowalska, M; Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Fiszer, M; Los-Spychalska, T; Kotylo, P; Sznurowska-Przygocka, B; Modrzewska, M
Occupational voice disorders in Poland account for over 25% of all occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of voice problems in the general population of Polish teachers, and identify risk factors for developing voice pathology. The study group comprised 425 female full-time teachers (most of them primary and secondary school, age ranging from 23 to 61 years) and 83 non-teacher women (control) whose jobs did not involve vocal effort, matched for age to the study group. All participants were subjected to a survey using an extensive questionnaire, and to laryngological, phoniatric and videostroboscopic examinations. The overall lifetime vocal symptoms were more frequent in the teachers than in the non-teachers (69 vs. 36%), and in particular it related to permanent and recurrent hoarseness, and dryness in the throat. Mean number of the voice symptoms was 3.21 in teachers and 1.98 in controls (p teachers. Mean maximum phonation time was shorter in teachers than in the controls (14.3 vs. 15.9 s, p dysphonia (that is thought to predispose to such pathology) were found in 32.7% of teachers and 9.6% of control subjects. The probability of developing incomplete glottal closure (odds ratio 13.2x; 95% CI: 1.8-96.8) and hyperfunctional dysphonia (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI: 1.14-6.44) were significantly higher in the teacher group versus non-teachers. A significant positive relationship was found in teachers between the prevalence of hyperfunctional dysphonia and strained phonation, neck muscle hypertension, instability of voice, self-assessed hyper-arousal, and lifetime vocal effort index (years of employment as a teacher x hours of professional activity/week). The prevalence of vocal nodules and incomplete glottal closure were correlated with incorrect phonation technique parameters, but not with psychological factors. No correlation was found with environmental variables, such as classroom temperature, humidity, airborne dust. The prevalence of
Schuldt, T; Ovari, A; Dommerich, S
Voice prostheses are available in different types of architecture und from different producers. Especially the ones with antifungal properties are characterized by a high pricing. The aim of this paper is to check, whether these prices are reflected by the prosthesis life time.A Benchmarking with usage of mean lifetime and prosthesis costs. Comparing Provox 1, Provox 2, Provox Vega, Provox ActiValve, ESKA-Herrmann, Blom Singer Classic, Phonax, Blom Singer Advantage.The voice prosthesis Provox 1 offers the best price-lifetime-ratio (1.0). It's 6.7-times higher than the one of the Provox ActiValve (0.15). In addition, the classic prostheses Provox 2 (0.53), Blom Singer Classic (0.54) and ESKA-Herrmann (0.72) offer a good ratio compared to Provox 1, too.The mean lifetime of the voice prostheses do not reflect the pricing. The Provox 1 offers the best ratio and should be used as a reference in pricing the prostheses. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen
To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.
Siemonsen, Susanne; Mouridsen, Kim; Holst, Brigitte
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that in comparison to diffusion-weighted imaging, quantitative T2 values (qT2) are more directly related to water uptake in ischemic tissue, depending on time from symptom onset. We measured the increase of qT2 in the infarct core to quantify the correlation...
Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T
The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.
Full Text Available Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS, the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations. For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of single fixation durations during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the eye-voice span is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the eye-voice span gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.
Fukutake, Hiromichi; Akazawa, Yoshiaki; Okada, Yoshihiro
This paper proposes a 3D multimedia presentation tool that allows the user to manipulate intuitively only through the voice input and the gesture input without using a standard keyboard or a mouse device. The authors developed this system as a presentation tool to be used in a presentation room equipped a large screen like an exhibition room in a museum because, in such a presentation environment, it is better to use voice commands and the gesture pointing input rather than using a keyboard or a mouse device. This system was developed using IntelligentBox, which is a component-based 3D graphics software development system. IntelligentBox has already provided various types of 3D visible, reactive functional components called boxes, e.g., a voice input component and various multimedia handling components. IntelligentBox also provides a dynamic data linkage mechanism called slot-connection that allows the user to develop 3D graphics applications by combining already existing boxes through direct manipulations on a computer screen. Using IntelligentBox, the 3D multimedia presentation tool proposed in this paper was also developed as combined components only through direct manipulations on a computer screen. The authors have already proposed a 3D multimedia presentation tool using a stage metaphor and its voice input interface. This time, we extended the system to make it accept the user gesture input besides voice commands. This paper explains details of the proposed 3D multimedia presentation tool and especially describes its component-based voice and gesture input interfaces.
Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method o...... of analysis of the mediated voice...
Full Text Available The article deals with methods measuring the quality of voice transmitted over the mobile network as well as related problem, algorithms and options. It presents the created voice quality measurement system and discusses its adequacy as well as efficiency. Besides, the author presents the results of system application under the optimal hardware configuration. Under almost ideal conditions, the system evaluates the voice quality with MOS 3.85 average estimate; while the standardized TEMS Investigation 9.0 has 4.05 average MOS estimate. Next, the article presents the discussion of voice quality predictor implementation and investigates the predictor using nonlinear and linear prediction methods of voice quality dependence on the mobile network settings. Nonlinear prediction using artificial neural network resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.62. While the linear prediction method using the least mean squares resulted in the correlation coefficient of 0.57. The analytical expression of voice quality features from the three network parameters: BER, C / I, RSSI is given as well.Article in Lithuanian
Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Bock, Jonathan M.; Peltier, Amanda C.; Oh, Shin J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn
Objectives We present the second published case of laryngeal involvement in mitochondrial myopathy. Methods A patient with laryngeal involvement of mitochondrial myopathy is presented, together with a literature review. Results A 41-year-old man presented with progressive breathy dysphonia. His brother had mitochondrial myopathy. Biopsy of the biceps muscle demonstrated cytochrome C oxidase–negative ragged blue fibers confirming mitochondrial myopathy. Videostroboscopy showed marked vocal fold atrophy, but subsequent injection laryngoplasty did not significantly improve the patient’s voice, despite improved postoperative glottic closure. Conclusions Mitochondrial myopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe early-onset vocal fold atrophy. PMID:23577570
Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Nishiyama, Koichiro
For the treatment of vocal nodules, educational programs for vocal hygiene and voice training for acquisition of correct phonation are essential. In the case of children, special considerations are necessary as some of their vocal behaviors and reaction to voice disorders are different from those of adults. In this study, a voice therapy program for child vocal nodules were developed and good results were obtained for six children. They were four boys and two girls (Age: 4-11 yr) and bilateral nodules were found for all of them. In addition to a conventional vocal hygiene program for children, correct production of loud voice (so-called gBeltingh) was the major focus of the voice therapy as the visual inspection of the larynges and perceptual evaluations of the voice revealed inappropriate loud voice production with laryngeal constriction in all children. After 5-24 voice therapy sessions, disappearance of the nodules was found in five children and the reduction of the nodule sizes was found in one child. Improvement of the GRBAS scores, longer maximum phonation time, and extension of vocal ranges were found after the completion of the therapy programs.
... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...
... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Hearing Voices and Seeing Things No. 102; Updated October ... delusions (a fixed, false, and often bizarre belief). Hearing voices or seeing things that are not there ...
Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jesse C; Walters, Hannah J; Rutkow, Lainie
The purpose of this study is to examine general time trends in childhood obesity legislative activity in all 50 states (overall and by health equity focus) and whether the Voices for Healthy Kids Campaign (Voices) was associated with increased legislative activity. LexisNexis State Capital was used to identify bills related to childhood obesity from 2012 to 2016. Linear and linear probability models were used to assess general time trends and regression-based difference-in-difference models to assess whether time trends differed for states that received a Voices grant. The data were analyzed in 2017. A total of 989 bills were introduced (Year 1=304, Year 2=364; Year 3=321), and a total of 93 bills were enacted (Year 1=34, Year 2=24, Year 3=35) after baseline. The mean number of bills introduced (baseline=4.3, Year 1=6.6, Year 2=7.3, Year 3=7.0, p=0.007), and the average state enactment rate (baseline=11%, Year 1=16%, Year 2=8%, Year 3=27%, p-trend=0.02) increased significantly. States with Voices grantees introduced 2.1 more bills than non-grantee states (p=0.04). The estimated difference over time in bill enactment and health equity focus did not differ by Voices grantee status. Childhood obesity bill introduction and enactment increased between 2013 and 2016. The evidence-based advocacy supported by Voices appears to be significantly associated with greater increases in state-level bill introduction, but not enactment of legislation to address childhood obesity. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio
Acoustic analysis of voice can provide instrumental data concerning vocal abnormalities. These findings can be used for monitoring clinical course in cases of voice disorders. Cleft palate severely affects the structure of the vocal tract. Hence, voice quality can also be also affected. To study whether the main acoustic parameters of voice, including fundamental frequency, shimmer and jitter are significantly different in patients with a repaired cleft palate, as compared with normal children without speech, language and voice disorders. Fourteen patients with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and persistent or residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) were studied. A control group was assembled with healthy volunteer subjects matched by age and gender. Hypernasality and nasal emission were perceptually assessed in patients with VPI. Size of the gap as assessed by videonasopharyngoscopy was classified in patients with VPI. Acoustic analysis of voice including Fundamental frequency (F0), shimmer and jitter were compared between patients with VPI and control subjects. F0 was significantly higher in male patients as compared with male controls. Shimmer was significantly higher in patients with VPI regardless of gender. Moreover, patients with moderate VPI showed a significantly higher shimmer perturbation, regardless of gender. Although future research regarding voice disorders in patients with VPI is needed, at the present time it seems reasonable to include strategies for voice therapy in the speech and language pathology intervention plan for patients with VPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Gökmen, Muhammed Fatih; Yıldırım, Sibel; Dursun, Gürsel
The aim of this study was to define the clinical features of psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and explore the treatment efficiency of voice therapy and psychological evaluation. Fifty-eight patients who received treatment following the PVD diagnosis and had no organic or other functional voice disorders were assessed retrospectively based on laryngoscopic examinations and subjective and objective assessments. Epidemiological characteristics, accompanying organic and psychological disorders, preferred methods of treatment, and previous treatment outcomes were examined for each patient. A comparison was made based on voice disorders and responses to treatment between patients who received psychotherapy and patients who did not. Participants in this study comprised 58 patients, 10 male and 48 female. Voice therapy was applied in all patients, 54 (93.1%) of whom had improvement in their voice. Although all patients were advised to undergo psychological assessment, only 60.3% (35/58) of them underwent psychological assessment. No statistically significant difference was found between patients who did receive psychological support concerning their treatment responses and patients who did not. Relapse occurred in 14.7% (5/34) of the patients who applied for psychological assessment and in 50% (10/20) of those who did not. There was a statistically significant difference in relapse rates, which was higher among patients who did not receive psychological support (P therapy is an efficient treatment method for PVD. However, in the long-term follow-up, relapse of the disease is observed to be higher among patients who failed to follow up on the recommendation for psychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
data,reduction, clarification, and verification. Characteristic of Awan Voice music is music touch by beatbox acapella format. In each performance, they sometimes intersperse singing with jokes that draw the audience’s attention Awan Voice composition dynamic development and work arrangements can be seen form the aspects of song title, song composition, structure, melody, harmony, market share and song motif. While the orientation toward Indonesia Awan Voice market ideology is using melodies that are easy to remember, flexible to play, easy to sing and meaningful. The harmony used is not too grandiose. It can be combined with the instrument or type of music that is not as common as classic, blues and others. Their work adopted to the time and place or to its target market share, and profitability.
Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Olszowska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016. Voice quality and vocal tract function were evaluated using videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, the perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Twenty-two percent of Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with vocal nodules. Palpation of the vocal tract structure showed in 50% correct motions and tension in speaking and in 39.3% in singing. Perceptual voice assessment showed in 80% proper speaking voice quality and in 82.4% proper singing voice quality. The mean vocal fundamental frequency while speaking in females was 214 Hz and in males was 116 Hz. Dysphonia Severity Index was at the level of 2, and maximum phonation time was 17.7 seconds. The Voice Handicap Index and the SVHI remained within the normal range: 7.5 and 19, respectively. Perceptual singing voice assessment correlated with the SVHI (P = 0.006). Twenty-two percent of the Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with organic vocal fold lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bele, Irene Velsvik
This study focuses on speaking voice quality in male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), who represent untrained and trained voice users, because we wanted to investigate normal and supranormal voices. In this study, both substantial and methodologic aspects were considered. It includes a method for perceptual voice evaluation, and a basic issue was rater reliability. A listening group of 10 listeners, 7 experienced speech-language therapists, and 3 speech-language therapist students evaluated the voices by 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. Two sets of voice signals were investigated: text reading (2 loudness levels) and sustained vowel (3 levels). The results indicated a high interrater reliability for most perceptual characteristics. Connected speech was evaluated more reliably, especially at the normal level, but both types of voice signals were evaluated reliably, although the reliability for connected speech was somewhat higher than for vowels. Experienced listeners tended to be more consistent in their ratings than did the student raters. Some vocal characteristics achieved acceptable reliability even with a smaller panel of listeners. The perceptual characteristics grouped in 4 factors reflected perceptual dimensions.
Sommer, I E C; van der Spek, D W
Hearing voices (i.e. auditory verbal hallucinations) is mainly known as part of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, hearing voices is a symptom that can occur in many psychiatric, neurological and general medical conditions. We present three cases of non-psychotic patients with auditory verbal hallucinations caused by different disorders. The first patient is a 74-year-old male with voices due to hearing loss, the second is a 20-year-old woman with voices due to traumatisation. The third patient is a 27-year-old woman with voices caused by temporal lobe epilepsy. Hearing voices is a phenomenon that occurs in a variety of disorders. Therefore, identification of the underlying disorder is essential to indicate treatment. Improvement of coping with the voices can reduce their impact on a patient. Antipsychotic drugs are especially effective when hearing voices is accompanied by delusions or disorganization. When this is not the case, the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs will probably not outweigh the side-effects.
Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul
The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.
Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu
The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.
Bovo, Roberto; Trevisi, Patrizia; Emanuelli, Enzo; Martini, Alessandro
Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1) amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2) voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3) classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003). The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005). The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade). In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.
Full Text Available Self-recognition, being indispensable for successful social communication, has become a major focus in current social neuroscience. The physical aspects of the self are most typically manifested in the face and voice. Compared with the wealth of studies on self-face recognition, self-voice recognition (SVR has not gained much attention. Converging evidence has suggested that the fundamental frequency (F0 and formant structures serve as the key acoustic cues for other-voice recognition (OVR. However, little is known about which, and how, acoustic cues are utilized for SVR as opposed to OVR. To address this question, we independently manipulated the F0 and formant information of recorded voices and investigated their contributions to SVR and OVR. Japanese participants were presented with recorded vocal stimuli and were asked to identify the speaker—either themselves or one of their peers. Six groups of 5 peers of the same sex participated in the study. Under conditions where the formant information was fully preserved and where only the frequencies lower than the third formant (F3 were retained, accuracies of SVR deteriorated significantly with the modulation of the F0, and the results were comparable for OVR. By contrast, under a condition where only the frequencies higher than F3 were retained, the accuracy of SVR was significantly higher than that of OVR throughout the range of F0 modulations, and the F0 scarcely affected the accuracies of SVR and OVR. Our results indicate that while both F0 and formant information are involved in SVR, as well as in OVR, the advantage of SVR is manifested only when major formant information for speech intelligibility is absent. These findings imply the robustness of self-voice representation, possibly by virtue of auditory familiarity and other factors such as its association with motor/articulatory representation.
Moerman, Mieke; Martens, Jean-Pierre; Dejonckere, Philippe
This article is a compilation of own research performed during the European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) action 2103: 'Advance Voice Function Assessment', an initiative of voice and speech processing teams consisting of physicists, engineers, and clinicians. This manuscript concerns analyzing largely irregular voicing types, namely substitution voicing (SV) and adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD). A specific perceptual rating scale (IINFVo) was developed, and the Auditory Model Based Pitch Extractor (AMPEX), a piece of software that automatically analyses running speech and generates pitch values in background noise, was applied. The IINFVo perceptual rating scale has been shown to be useful in evaluating SV. The analysis of strongly irregular voices stimulated a modification of the European Laryngological Society's assessment protocol which was originally designed for the common types of (less severe) dysphonia. Acoustic analysis with AMPEX demonstrates that the most informative features are, for SV, the voicing-related acoustic features and, for AdSD, the perturbation measures. Poor correlations between self-assessment and acoustic and perceptual dimensions in the assessment of highly irregular voices argue for a multidimensional approach.
van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor
In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.
Kim, Youngmoo E.
The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.
Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.
Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.
... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...
Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.
Alva, Arati; Machado, Megna; Bhojwani, Kiran; Sreedharan, Suja
School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher's life. It was a cross-sectional study conducted across three English medium institutions. A total of 105 teachers consented to participate in the study and they had to answer a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire, which included demographic details, living habits (drug intake, smoking and alcohol intake) health condition [any Deviated Nasal Septum (DNS), Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), stress, etc., or any history of surgery], teaching characteristics, voice symptoms and physical discomforts and quality of life assessment. The completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed based on the responses obtained. It was found that 81% of the study population had voice problems at some point of their career. A total of 26% of them fell into the voice disorder category. The association of upper respiratory infections DNS and GERD with voice disorders was found to be statistically significant. We also found that a significant number of teachers with voice disorders had changed their teaching styles and were planning to opt for an early retirement. Most importantly, it was also seen that teachers with voice disorders were more likely to have a poorer quality of life as compared to those without a voice disorder (pteacher's life. The affected teachers were more likely to take sick leaves, change overall job opinions, retire early, reduce overall communiations, repeat statements and avoid talking to people in person as well as over the telephone. It reduced their overall
McMullan, E; Gupta, A; Collins, S C
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Community mental health staff and their service users have reported mixed views on the importance of talking about the content of voices. Community staff have reported feeling that they do not have the skills to explore voice content and worry about making things worse. Voice hearers experiencing extreme distress due to the content of their voices can access support through acute inpatient mental health services. No previous studies have focused on the experiences of staff who nurse voice hearers at a time of acute distress. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: MHNs and HSWs working with voice hearers in acute distress report feeling powerless and helpless, as they feel that they cannot lessen the distress experienced by the voice hearer. Despite these difficult feelings, staff report finding ways of coping, including using structured tools to help make sense of their service users' voice-hearing experiences and accessing reflective practice forums. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the current context of increased acuity and limited resources in acute services, there may be a need to further protect time for staff to access reflective practice groups and supervision forums to help them manage the difficult feelings arising from their work with voice hearers. Introduction Mental health nursing (MHN) staff in acute settings work with voice hearers at times of crises when they experience high levels of distress. Previous research has focused on community mental health staff's experiences and their service users views on exploring the content of voices. No studies have explored this from an acute mental health service perspective. Aim This study therefore sought to explore the experiences of staff working with voice hearers in an acute mental health service. Method Due to the exploratory nature of the research, a qualitative design was chosen. Three MHNs and five healthcare support workers (HSWs) were
Utterback, Ann S.
Discusses T. S. Elliot's essay, "The Three Voices of Poetry" which conceptualizes the position taken by the poet or creator. Suggests that an examination of documentary film, within the three voices concept, expands the critical framework of the film genre. (MH)
Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; de Souza, Glaucia S; Hachiya, Adriana; Tsuji, Domingos H
This study aims to analyze the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in Brazilians with or without voice disorders and investigate DSI's correlation with gender and auditory-perceptual evaluation data obtained via the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) protocol. A total of 66 Brazilian adults from both genders participated in the study, including 24 patients with dysphonia confirmed on laryngeal examination (dysphonic group [DG]) and 42 volunteers without voice or hearing complaints and without auditory-perceptual voice disorders (nondysphonic group [NDG]). The vocal tasks included in CAPE-V and DSI were performed and recorded. Data were analyzed by means of the independent t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation at the 5% significance level. Differences were found in the mean DSI values between the DG and the NDG. Differences were also found in all DSI items between the groups, except for the highest frequency parameter. In the DG, a moderate negative correlation was detected between overall dysphonia severity (CAPE-V) and DSI value, and between breathiness and DSI value, and a weak negative correlation was detected between DSI value and roughness. In the NDG, the maximum phonation time was higher among males. In both groups, the highest frequency parameter was higher among females. The DSI discriminated among Brazilians with or without voice disorders. A correlation was found between some aspects of the DSI and the CAPE-V but not between DSI and gender. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sun-Yeul; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Ko, Young-Kwon; Park, Sang-Il; Lee, Jung-Un; Chung, Woo-Suk; Lim, Chae-Seong
The objective of this study was to identify the effects of nicardipine on neuromuscular blockade of rocuronium, such as the onset time and intubation conditions, using a nicardipine dose that attenuates cardiovascular responses during endotracheal intubation. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical comparison was used as the design of this study The study was conducted at the operating room of a university hospital. Participants of this study comprise 78 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients, aged 18 to 60 years who were undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. The nicardipine group was given an intravenous bolus of 20 μg/kg nicardipine before tracheal intubation: the control group was given an intravenous bolus of a comparable volume of normal saline before tracheal intubation. Using a TOF-Watch SX monitor, the time from the end of the injection of rocuronium to maximum depression of T1 (onset time) was measured. Intubation was performed 1 minute after rocuronium administration, and the status of the intubation conditions was assessed. The mean blood pressure and heart rate were each measured after endotracheal intubation. Rate pressure product values were also calculated. Intubation conditions were clinically acceptable in 37 (94.9%) of 39 patients in group N compared with 29 (74.4%) of 39 in group C (P rocuronium was significantly faster in group N than in group C (P .05). Pretreatment with 20 μg/kg nicardipine improves intubation conditions, shortens the onset time of rocuronium, and attenuates cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina
Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal
Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of voice quality on hiring decisions. Considering voice quality an important tool in an individual’s self-presentation in the job market, it may very well enhance his/her job prospects, while some voice qualities may affect employers’ judgments in a negative way. Five men and five women were recorded reading four different utterances representing answers to job interviewers’ questions in four different phonation guises: modal, breathy, creaky and pressed. 38 professional employment interviewers recorded the speakers’ hireability and personality ratings (likeability, self-confidence and trustworthiness on 7-point semantic differential scales based on the speakers’ voice. The results revealed a significant effect of the phonation guises on the speakers’ ratings with the modal voice being superior to the cluster of non-modal voices. Interestingly, the non-modal guises were evaluated in a very similar way, except for the self-confidence category with the breathy voice getting the lowest scores on the one hand and the pressed voice correlating with high self-confidence ratings on the other.
Full Text Available Voice disorders are all changes in the voice quality that can be detected by hearing. Some etiological factors that contribute to the development of voice disorders are related to occupation, working environment and working conditions. In modern societies one third of the labour force works in professions with vocal loading. In such professions, voice disorders influence work ability and quality of life. For an occupational disease, the exposure to harmful factors in the workplace is essential and causes the development of a disorder in a previously healthy individual. In some European countries, voice disorders in teachers, which do not improve after proper treatment are recognized as occupational diseases. In Slovenia, no organic or functional voice disorder is listed on the current list of occupational diseases. Prevention and cure of occupational voice disorders can contribute to better safety at the workplace and improve the workers’ health. Voice professionals must also know that they are responsible for their own health and that they must actively take care of it.
Lange, Holley R.
Discussion of voice as the communications device for computer-human interaction focuses on voice recognition systems for use within a library environment. Voice technologies are described, including voice response and voice recognition; examples of voice systems in use in libraries are examined; and further possibilities, including use with…
Childs, Lesley; Rickert, Scott; Murry, Thomas; Blitzer, Andrew; Sulica, Lucian
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is an idiopathic voice disorder that is characterized by either a strained, strangled voice quality or a breathy voice with aphonic segments of connected speech. It has been suggested that environmental factors play a role in triggering the onset. Clinical observation suggests that some patients associate onset with specific events or factors while others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine a large database of SD patients to determine if specific triggers are associated with the onset of SD. Retrospective chart review. A total of 350 charts of patients with SD were identified and were categorized as either "sudden onset" or "gradual onset." One hundred sixty-nine recalled their circumstances surrounding onset. Forty-five percent of these patients described the onset as sudden. Patient perceptions of inciting events in the sudden onset group were identified 77% of the time and 2% of the time in the gradual onset group. The most common factors identified were stress (42%), upper respiratory infection (33%), and pregnancy and parturition (10%). Thirty-five percent of SD patients perceive their disorder to have a sudden onset with identified inciting events. This prevalence raises questions regarding possible behavioral and environmental factors surrounding the onset of this disorder. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Vocal fold vibration onset delay (VFVOD) is heard frequently in spasmodic dysphonia and in muscle tension dysphonia. VFVOD changes due to other vocal pathologies have not been investigated. VFVOD during sustained vowel production was estimated with high-speed video in 10 normal and 40 pathologic subjects (scars, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold nodules, and polyps). Analysis of high-speed video was done using digital kymography. VFVOD can be divided into two portions. Pre-phonation delay (PPD) is the duration when the vocal folds are nearly approximated to the time of first observed oscillation. Steady state delay (SSD) is the time when vocal folds are observed to come into oscillation until steady state of oscillation is observed. Normal subjects have almost zero PPD with vocal fold oscillation observed before full vocal fold adduction. Pathologic cases showed prolonged PPD because of (1) false cord adduction, (2) prolonged true vocal fold adduction, and (3) delay to onset of vocal fold vibration. Normal subjects have SSD of three to five cycles before steady state. Pathologic states result in increased SSD. Causes for increased SSD include (1) slow ramping up to steady state, (2) partial vibration of vocal folds, and (3) diplophonia with alternating beats before achieving steady state. There are significant differences between normal and pathology groups in both PPD and SSD. VFVOD is elevated in pathologic states. This can be due to increase in PPD or SSD. VFVOD is an under-recognized phenomenon that may contribute to complaints of vocal fatigue and dysphonia. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madden, D J; Bastian, J
Considerable evidence has indicated that some acoustical properties of spoken items are preserved in an "echoic" memory for approximately 2 sec. However, some of this evidence has also shown that changing the voice speaking the stimulus items has a disruptive effect on memory which persists longer than that of other acoustical variables. The present experiment examined the effect of voice changes on response bias as well as on accuracy in a recognition memory task. The task involved judging recognition probes as being present in or absent from sets of dichotically presented digits. Recognition of probes spoken in the same voice as that of the dichotic items was more accurate than recognition of different-voice probes at each of three retention intervals of up to 4 sec. Different-voice probes increased the likelihood of "absent" responses, but only up to a 1.4-sec delay. These shifts in response bias may represent a property of echoic memory which should be investigated further.
Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Hidalgo, Caio Bosque; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes
Voice disorders are very prevalent among teachers and consequences are serious. Although the literature is extensive, there are differences in the concepts and methodology related to voice problems; most studies are restricted to analyzing the responses of teachers to questionnaires and only a few studies include vocal assessments and videolaryngoscopic examinations to obtain a definitive diagnosis. To review demographic studies related to vocal disorders in teachers to analyze the diverse methodologies, the prevalence rates pointed out by the authors, the main risk factors, the most prevalent laryngeal lesions, and the repercussions of dysphonias on professional activities. The available literature (from 1997 to 2013) was narratively reviewed based on Medline, PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, and Cochrane library databases. Excluded were articles that specifically analyzed treatment modalities and those that did not make their abstracts available in those databases. The keywords included were teacher, dysphonia, voice disorders, professional voice. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Video-Voice Project (Zambia). The Zambian health care system has been negatively affected by globalization and faces severe resource constraints. The government has adopted a health reform that emphasizes public participation. This approach requires an informed citizenry, however, at a time when the country is facing ...
Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L
Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Like other areas of speech-language pathology, the behavioural management of voice disorders lacks precision regarding optimal dose-response relationships. In voice therapy, dosing can presumably vary from no measurable effect (i.e., no observable benefit or adverse effect), to ideal dose (maximum benefit with no adverse effects), to doses that produce toxic or harmful effects on voice production. Practicing specific vocal exercises will inevitably increase vocal load. At ideal doses, these exercises may be non-toxic and beneficial, while at intermediate or high doses, the same exercises may actually be toxic or damaging to vocal fold tissues. In pharmacology, toxicity is a critical concept, yet it is rarely considered in voice therapy, with little known regarding "effective" concentrations of specific voice therapies vs "toxic" concentrations. The potential for vocal fold tissue damage related to overdosing on specific vocal exercises has been under-studied. In this commentary, the issue of dosing will be explored within the context of voice therapy, with particular emphasis placed on possible "overdosing".
Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Just, Marcin; Tyc, Michał; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Morawska, Joanna; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola
An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men) diagnosed with occupational dysphonia throuigh videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men) with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR), as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel "a." The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00). The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00). Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Effliciency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larnx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology.
Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal
We are all voice experts. First and foremost, we can produce and understand speech, and this makes us a unique species. But in addition to speech perception, we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication. Consider the following example: you are sitting in a plane, and you can hear a conversation in a foreign language in the row behind you. You do not see the speakers' faces, and you cannot understand the speech content because you do not know the language. Yet, an amazing amount of information is available to you. You can evaluate the physical characteristics of the different protagonists, including their gender, approximate age and size, and associate an identity to the different voices. You can form a good idea of the different speaker's mood and affective state, as well as more subtle cues as the perceived attractiveness or dominance of the protagonists. In brief, you can form a fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction unfolding, which a brief glance backwards can on the occasion help refine - sometimes surprisingly so. What are the acoustical cues that carry these different types of vocal information? How does our brain process and analyse this information? Here we briefly review an emerging field and the main tools used in voice perception research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It has been shown that teachers are at high risk of developing occupational dysphonia, and it has been widely accepted that the vocal characteristics of a speaker play an important role in determining the reactions of listeners. The functions of breathing, breathing movement, breathing tonus, voice vibrations and articulation tonus are transmitted to the listener. So we may conclude that listening to the teacher's voice at school influences children's behavior and the perception of spoken language. This paper presents the concept of Schlaffhorst-Andersen including exercises to help teachers improve their voice, breathing, movement and their posture. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Katharina von Kriegstein
Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.
Govoni, V; Della Coletta, E; Cesnik, E; Casetta, I; Tugnoli, V; Granieri, E
An ecological study in the resident population of the Health District (HD) of Ferrara, Italy, has been carried out to establish the distribution in space and time of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incident cases according to the disease onset type and gender in the period 1964-2009. The hypothesis of a uniform distribution was assumed. The incident cases of spinal onset ALS and bulbar onset ALS were evenly distributed in space and time in both men and women. The spinal onset ALS incident cases distribution according to gender was significantly different from the expected in the extra-urban population (20 observed cases in men 95% Poisson confidence interval 12.22-30.89, expected cases in men 12.19; six observed cases in women 95% Poisson confidence interval 2.20-13.06, expected cases in women 13.81), whereas no difference was found in the urban population. The spinal onset ALS incidence was higher in men than in women in the extra-urban population (difference between the rates = 1.53, 95% CI associated with the difference 0.52-2.54), whereas no difference between sexes was found in the urban population. The uneven distribution according to gender of the spinal onset ALS incident cases only in the extra-urban population suggests the involvement of a gender related environmental risk factor associated with the extra-urban environment. Despite some limits of the spatial analysis in the study of rare diseases, the results appear consistent with the literature data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
da Silva Vitor, Jhonatan; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves
This study aimed to compare musculoskeletal pain perception in teachers with voice disorders and in those with healthy voices, and to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal pain and occupational variables (ie, work journey per week and working period). Forty-three classroom teachers were divided into two groups: dysphonic group (DG), 32 classroom teachers with voice complaints and voice disorders; and non-DG, 11 classroom teachers without voice complaints and who are vocally healthy. The musculoskeletal pain investigation survey was used to investigate the frequency and intensity of the pain. Occupational variables, such as work journey per week and working period, were investigated by the Voice Production Condition-Teacher questionnaire. The statistical tests used were the Spearman correlation (P ≤ 0.05) and the Mann-Whitney U test (P ≤ 0.05). There was no difference between the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain regarding dysphonia. Work journey per week was positively related to the frequency and the intensity of laryngeal pain in the DG. The working period had a negative relationship to the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain in the submandibular region in the DG. Classroom teachers with voice disorders and those with healthy voices do not have differences regarding the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain. Besides dysphonia the pain is an important symptom to be considered in classroom teachers. The occupational variables contributed to the presence of musculoskeletal pain in the region near the larynx, which appears to be directly proportional to work journey per week and inversely proportional to the working period. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina
Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal lobe is
Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P
children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2...
Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1 amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2 voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3 classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Materials and Methods: Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Results: Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003. The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005. The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade. Conclusions: In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.
To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...
Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D; Podsakoff, Nathan P; Podsakoff, Philip M
The article contained a production-related error. In Table 5, the four values in the rows for Study 1 Prosocial motives and Study 1 Constructive voice should have been shifted one column to the right, to the Direct and Total Performance evaluations columns. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Although employee voice behavior is expected to have important organizational benefits, research indicates that employees voicing their recommendations for organizational change may be evaluated either positively or negatively by observers. A review of the literature suggests that the perceived efficacy of voice behaviors may be a function of characteristics associated with the (a) source, (b) message, and (c) context of the voice event. In this study, we manipulated variables from each of these categories based on a model designed to predict when voice will positively or negatively impact raters' evaluations of an employee's performance. To test our model, we conducted 3 laboratory studies in which we manipulated 2 source factors (voicer expertise and trustworthiness), 2 message factors (recommending a solution and positively vs. negatively framing the message), and 2 context factors (timing of the voice event and organizational norms for speaking up vs. keeping quiet). We also examined the mediating effects of liking, prosocial motives, and perceptions that the voice behavior was constructive on the relationships between the source, message, and context factors and performance evaluations. Generally speaking, we found that at least one of the variables from each category had an effect on performance evaluations for the voicer and that most of these effects were indirect, operating through one or more of the mediators. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
Foundations of Voice and Speech Quality Perception starts out with the fundamental question of: "How do listeners perceive voice and speech quality and how can these processes be modeled?" Any quantitative answers require measurements. This is natural for physical quantities but harder to imagine for perceptual measurands. This book approaches the problem by actually identifying major perceptual dimensions of voice and speech quality perception, defining units wherever possible and offering paradigms to position these dimensions into a structural skeleton of perceptual speech and voice quality. The emphasis is placed on voice and speech quality assessment of systems in artificial scenarios. Many scientific fields are involved. This book bridges the gap between two quite diverse fields, engineering and humanities, and establishes the new research area of Voice and Speech Quality Perception.
Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some
Full Text Available Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context. Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew. Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence or affiliative (positive emotional valence context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM. Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms.
The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…
Niebudek-Bogusz, E; Woznicka, E; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, E; Sliwinska-Kowalska, M
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acoustic analysis and biopsychosocial implications of voice problems, evaluated by the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The study comprised 120 female teachers with voice disorders, evaluated by videolaryngostroboscopy. 60.8% of this group were diagnosed as having functional dysphonia and 39.2% had dysphonia with benign vocal fold masses (nodules and polyps). The controls consisted of 30 euphonic women. The correlations between VHI and acoustic analysis were assessed in both groups using the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. In teachers, the total VHI score was over 5 times as high as in controls (p teachers, significant positive correlations were found between the total VHI score and the frequency perturbation parameters and amplitude perturbation parameters when both statistical methods were used. These acoustic parameters also significantly correlated with the score on the functional and emotional subscales, but rarely with the physical subscale of the VHI. The study revealed a significant relationship between the objective voice measurements and the VHI. The results confirmed that VHI can be a valuable tool for assessing biopsychosocial implications of occupational dysphonia and should be incorporated in multidimensional voice evaluation. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wreikat Mahmoud M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little has been reported about the impact of tracheoesophageal (TE speech on individuals in the Middle East where the procedure has been gaining in popularity. After total laryngectomy, individuals in Europe and North America have rated their quality of life as being lower than non-laryngectomized individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in quality of life and degree of voice handicap reported by laryngectomized speakers from Jordan before and after establishment of TE speech. Methods Twelve male Jordanian laryngectomees completed the University of Michigan Head & Neck Quality of Life instrument and the Voice Handicap Index pre- and post-TE puncture. Results All subjects showed significant improvements in their quality of life following successful prosthetic voice restoration. In addition, voice handicap scores were significantly reduced from pre- to post-TE puncture. Conclusion Tracheoesophageal speech significantly improved the quality of life and limited the voice handicap imposed by total laryngectomy. This method of voice restoration has been used for a number of years in other countries and now appears to be a viable alternative within Jordan.
Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234
Franco, Ramon A; Andrus, Jennifer G
Common problems among all patients seen by the laryngologist are also common among professional voice users. These include laryngopharyngeal reflux, muscle tension dysphonia, fibrovascular vocal fold lesions (eg, nodules and polyps), cysts, vocal fold scarring, changes in vocal fold mobility, and age-related changes. Microvascular lesions and their associated sequelae of vocal fold hemorrhage and laryngitis due to voice overuse are more common among professional voice users. Much more common among professional voice users is the negative impact that voice problems have on their ability to work, on their overall sense of well-being, and sometimes on their very sense of self. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for these and other problems among professional voice users, describing the relevant roles of medical treatment, voice therapy, and surgery. The common scenario of multiple concomitant entities contributing to a symptom complex is underscored. Emphasis is placed on gaining insight into the "whole" patient so that individualized management plans can be developed. Videos of select diagnoses accompany this content online.
Jackson, Keith; Jackson, Jacqui; Hopkinson, Gillian
This full paper from the Marketing and Retail track of BAM 2013 investigates the relationships between suppliers and retailers in the UK convenience store sector in terms of Hirschman's model whereby members of a group can influence it by either expressing their opinions (voice) or leaving it in protest (exit). Suppliers may create loyalty among retailers by raising exit costs and/or allowing them to express their voices. The investigation was carried out using the recorded turnover of the to...
Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji
Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult…
Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter
This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Isolan-Cury, Roberta Werlang; Cury, Adriano Namo; Monte, Osmar; Silva, Marta Assumpcao de Andrada e; Duprat, Andre; Marone, Marilia; Almeida, Renata de; Iglesias, Alexandre
Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)
Isolan-Cury, Roberta Werlang; Cury, Adriano Namo [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP); Monte, Osmar [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Physiology Department; Silva, Marta Assumpcao de Andrada e [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Speech Therapy School; Duprat, Andre [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Otorhinolaryngology Department; Marone, Marilia [Nuclimagem - Irmanity of the Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Almeida, Renata de; Iglesias, Alexandre [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Otorhinolaryngology Department. Endocrinology and Metabology Unit
Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)
Bobbert, M.F.; van Zandwijk, J.P.
The effect of muscle stimulation dynamics on the sensitivity of jumping achievement to variations in timing of muscle stimulation onsets was investigated. Vertical squat jumps were simulated using a forward dynamic model of the human musculoskeletal system. The model calculates the motion of body
Casado, Juan C; O'Connor, Carlos; Angulo, María S; Adrián, José A
With the development of new ENT techniques, many male transsexuals who wish to become women usually request a surgical procedure to raise the fundamental frequency of the voice (feminization). The ENT specialist and the voice-therapist have to use an interdisciplinary approach to this growing social demand. The aim of this study was to show the results in a group of transsexual patients after Wendler's anterior synechiae, with additional voice-therapy treatment. Ten male transexulas who wish to become women patients who had Wendler glottoplasty and voice-therapy were assessed. The surgical procedure consisted of a de-epithelialization of the anterior third of both vocal folds; this area was sutured and the surface of both vocal folds was vaporised with laser diode. Pre- and postsurgery voice assessment consisted of measuring fundamental frequency (Fo) and maximum phonation time, administering the transgender self-assessment questionnaire (TSEQ) and obtaining perceptual voice assessment by inter-rater agreement. All the male transsexuals who wish to become women patients significantly increased their Fo (106 Hz on average) after the treatment. Furthermore, significant improvements were shown in self-reported satisfaction and in the degree of voice feminization. No improvements in the maximum phonation time were observed. Wendler glottoplasty is a surgical procedure to contribute to feminising the voice, with good medium-term results and without noteworthy medical complications. The increase in vocal tone was observed using several pre- and post-surgery control measures and voice therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
Bounous, Barry Urban
This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4
He, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhao, Chunshen
Durian the promotion and applications of rural information, different geographical dialect voice interaction is a very complex issue. Through in-depth analysis of TTS core technologies, this paper presents the methods of intelligent segmentation, word segmentation algorithm and intelligent voice thesaurus construction in the different dialects context. And then COM based development methodology for specific context voice processing system implementation and programming method. The method has a certain reference value for the rural dialect and voice processing applications.
Goffi-Fynn, Jeanne C; Carroll, Linda M
This study was designed as a qualitative case study to demonstrate the process of diagnosis and treatment between a voice team to manage a singer diagnosed with muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). Traditionally, literature suggests that MTD is challenging to treat and little in the literature directly addresses singers with MTD. Data collected included initial medical screening with laryngologist, referral to speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializing in voice disorders among singers, and adjunctive voice training with voice teacher trained in vocology (singing voice specialist or SVS). Initial target goals with SLP included reducing extrinsic laryngeal tension, using a relaxed laryngeal posture, and effective abdominal-diaphragmatic support for all phonation events. Balance of respiratory forces, laryngeal coordination, and use of optimum filtering of the source signal through resonance and articulatory awareness was emphasized. Further work with SVS included three main goals including a lowered breathing pattern to aid in decreasing subglottic air pressure, vertical laryngeal position to lower to allow for a relaxed laryngeal position, and a top-down singing approach to encourage an easier, more balanced registration, and better resonance. Initial results also emphasize the retraining of subject toward a sensory rather than auditory mode of monitoring. Other areas of consideration include singers' training and vocal use, the psychological effects of MTD, the personalities potentially associated with it, and its relationship with stress. Finally, the results emphasize that a positive rapport with the subject and collaboration between all professionals involved in a singer's care are essential for recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard
Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
McQuaid, Sara Dybris
’ voices and alternative positions in the process of conflict interpretation and resolution. This essay will outline a ‘thumbnail’ sketch of three areas in which ‘other’ voices are sidelined or silenced: in terms of political discourses; community discourses; and wider academic and public discourses......’ and ‘Cassandras’ the essay concludes that the arguments forwarded by other voices are not disappeared but adapted and realigned to the reigning discourses, and that there is not so much a culture of silence surrounding ‘other’ voices as a certain selective and sectarian hearing in picking them up. Whilst...... it follows that ‘other’ voices have failed to dissolve the magnetic field of Northern Irish politics, the essay suggests that in order to rise to current political challenges in Northern Ireland it is worthwhile sounding out the historical and contemporary ‘other’ voices for carefully thought out and non...
David D.J. Sander Scheidt
Full Text Available According to my claim that voice as a phenomenon cannot be materialised or located, neither in the (voice organ of the self nor in the (ear of the other, I coined the term [au]/[o]-tophonography for my examination of the possibilities of performing subjectivity in writing and in sound productions. Drawing on the theory of performativity in its deconstructive senses (see BUTLER, 1993, 1997, 1999/1990; DERRIDA, 1988/1972, 1997/1967, 2002/1981; SMITH, 1995 my performative epistemology reaches beyond the theoretical, including the practical and the aesthetical, aiming at questioning notions of "self", "audience", "voice", "writing" and "communication". "The show with the voice" (http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-08/08-2-27_audio.mp3 is an example of this practice. It parodies the medico-scientific approach to the human voice by presenting some of its possible appearances (the "normal", the "disordered", the "homosexual" and the "transsexual" voice in an audio collage that takes the shape of a mock tutorial. Through re-contextualising and re-compiling voice samples from different sources that are usually kept apart (e.g. the lecturer's voice, the researcher's voice, the artist's voice, the autobiographer's voice I open a space for a multidisciplinary and creative perspective to the examination of voice. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802279
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate and account for the weak emergence of 'voice' in the writing of students embarking upon their postgraduate studies in Geosciences. The two elements of 'voice' that are emphasised are 'voice' as style of expression and 'voice' as the ability to write distinctly, yet building upon ...
Machado, Megna; Bhojwani, Kiran; Sreedharan, Suja
Introduction School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. Aim The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher’s life. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted across three English medium institutions. A total of 105 teachers consented to participate in the study and they had to answer a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire, which included demographic details, living habits (drug intake, smoking and alcohol intake) health condition [any Deviated Nasal Septum (DNS), Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), stress, etc., or any history of surgery], teaching characteristics, voice symptoms and physical discomforts and quality of life assessment. The completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed based on the responses obtained. Results It was found that 81% of the study population had voice problems at some point of their career. A total of 26% of them fell into the voice disorder category. The association of upper respiratory infections DNS and GERD with voice disorders was found to be statistically significant. We also found that a significant number of teachers with voice disorders had changed their teaching styles and were planning to opt for an early retirement. Most importantly, it was also seen that teachers with voice disorders were more likely to have a poorer quality of life as compared to those without a voice disorder (pteacher’s life. The affected teachers were more likely to take sick leaves, change overall job opinions, retire early, reduce overall communiations, repeat statements and avoid talking to people in person as well
King, Suzanne N; Davis, Larry; Lehman, Jeffrey J; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman
Clinicians use a variety of approaches to motivate children with hyperfunctional voice disorders to comply with voice therapy in a therapeutic session and improve the motivation of children to practice home-based exercises. Utilization of current entertainment technology in such approaches may improve participation and motivation in voice therapy. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using an entertainment video game as a therapy device. Prospective cohort and case-control study. Three levels of game testing were conducted to an existing entertainment video game for use as a voice therapy protocol. The game was tested by two computer programmers and five normal participants. The third level of testing was a case study with a child diagnosed with a hyperfunctional voice disorder. Modifications to the game were made after each feasibility test. Errors with the video game performance were modified, including the addition of a time stamp directory and game controller. Resonance voice exercises were modified to accommodate the gaming environment and unique competitive situation, including speech rate, acoustic parameters, game speed, and point allocations. The development of video games for voice therapeutic purposes attempt to replicate the high levels of engagement and motivation attained with entertainment video games, stimulating a more productive means of learning while doing. This case study found that a purely entertainment video game can be implemented as a voice therapeutic protocol based on information obtained from the case study. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.
The rise of research and advocacy over the years to establish a disability voice in Australia with regard to bioethical issues is explored. This includes an analysis of some of the political processes and engagement in mainstream bioethical debate. An understanding of the politics of rejected knowledge is vital in understanding the muted disability voices in Australian bioethics and public policy. It is also suggested that the voices of those who are marginalised or oppressed in society, such as people with disability, have particular contribution to make in fostering critical bioethics.
Aydınlı, Fatma Esen; Özcebe, Esra; Kulak Kayıkçı, Maviş E; Yılmaz, Taner; Özgür, Fatma F
The aim was to investigate the effects of glottal stop productions (GS) on voice in children with cleft palate using multidimensional voice assessment methods. This is a prospective case-control study. Children with repaired cleft palate (n = 34) who did not have any vocal fold lesions were separated into two groups based on the results of the articulation test. The glottal stop group (GSG) consisted of 17 children who had GS. The control group (CG) consisted of an equal number of age- and gender-matched children who did not have GS. The voice evaluation protocol included acoustic analysis, Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI), and perceptual analysis (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain method). The velopharyngeal statuses of the groups were compared using the nasopharyngoscopy and the nasometer. The total pVHI score and the subscales of the pVHI were found to be significantly higher in the GSG. The F0, jitter, and shimmer were found to be numerically higher in the GSG with the difference being statistically significant in jitter (P speech and language pathology intervention including voice therapy techniques. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.
Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel
Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of “voice quality” (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups—self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls—were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of “whispery” voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of “harsh” and “creaky” voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers. PMID:24032023
Full Text Available There has been a distinct shift in neuroimaging from localization of function into a more network based approach focused on connectivity. While fMRI has proven very fruitful for this, the hemodynamic signal is inherently slow which limits the temporal resolution of fMRI-only connectivity measures. The brain, however, works on a time scale of milliseconds. This study utilized concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS-fMRI in a novel way to obtain measures of dynamic connectivity by measuring changes in fMRI signal amplitude in regions distal to the site of stimulation following differing TMS onset times. Seventeen healthy subjects completed an associative memory encoding task known to involve the DLPFC, viewing pairs of objects which could be semantically related or unrelated. Three pulses of 10 Hz repetitive TMS were applied over the left DLPFC starting either at 200, 600, or 1000 ms after stimulus onset. Associations for related pairs were better remembered than unrelated pairs in a post-scan cued recall test. Differences in neural activity were assessed across different TMS onsets, separately for related and unrelated pairs. Time specific TMS effects were observed in several regions, including those associated with higher-level processing (lateral frontal, anterior cingulate, visual areas (occipital, and regions involved in semantic processing (e.g., left mid-temporal and medial frontal. Activity in the frontal cortex was decreased at 200 ms post-stimulus for unrelated pairs, and 1000 ms post-stimulus for related pairs. This suggests differences in the timing across conditions in which the DLFPC interacts with other PFC regions, consistent with the notion that the DLPFC is facilitating extended semantic processing for related items. This study demonstrates that time-varying TMS onset inside the MRI can be used to reliably measure fast dynamic connectivity with a temporal resolution in the hundreds of milliseconds.
Salturk, Ziya; Kumral, Tolgar Lutfi; Aydoğdu, Imran; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler; Yildirim, Güven; Uyar, Yavuz
To evaluate the psychological effects of dysphonia in voice professionals compared to non-voice professionals and in both genders. Cross-sectional analysis. Forty-eight 48 voice professionals and 52 non-voice professionals with dysphonia were included in this study. All participants underwent a complete ear, nose, and throat examination and an evaluation for pathologies that might affect vocal quality. Participants were asked to complete the Turkish versions of the Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI-30), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). HADS scores were evaluated as HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression). Dysphonia status was evaluated by grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale perceptually. The results were compared statistically. Significant differences between the two groups were evident when the VHI-30 and PSS data were compared (P = .00001 and P = .00001, respectively). However, neither HADS score (HADS-A and HADS-D) differed between groups. An analysis of the scores in terms of sex revealed that females had significantly higher PSS scores (P = .006). The GRBAS scale revealed no difference between groups (P = .819, .931, .803, .655, and .803, respectively). No between-sex differences in the VHI-30 or HADS scores were evident We found that voice professionals and females experienced more stress and were more dissatisfied with their voices. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Maria Lucia Graziano Magalhães Torres
Full Text Available Report of the livings course experiments Technical and Resources of Expressiveness to talk to Public, promoted by NESPROM – CEAM – UNB in 2010-2011, addressing the topic of skills development to speak to the public with safety and confidence, as well as the importance of the use of the voice in this process. It can be observed that by providing students we see advances in expressiveness of the participants during the course and the commitment that perform to obtain a quality result, producing the material based on the information available on the website of the Brazilian society of speech therapy. All present themselves for a second time before the Facilitator, demonstrating safety and the use of the techniques learned. There was satisfaction with the gains on public speaking, even because, talk about a light object and that they all have, as the voice, brings security and trust for the apprentice. Ending a highlight poetry produced by one of the participants completing the course.
Akinbode, R; Lam, K B H; Ayres, J G; Sadhra, S
The prolonged use or abuse of voice may lead to vocal fatigue and vocal fold tissue damage. School teachers routinely use their voices intensively at work and are therefore at a higher risk of dysphonia. To determine the prevalence of voice disorders among primary school teachers in Lagos, Nigeria, and to explore associated risk factors. Teaching and non-teaching staff from 19 public and private primary schools completed a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on personal lifestyles, work experience and environment, and voice disorder symptoms. Dysphonia was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: hoarseness, repetitive throat clearing, tired voice or straining to speak. A total of 341 teaching and 155 non-teaching staff participated. The prevalence of dysphonia in teachers was 42% compared with 18% in non-teaching staff. A significantly higher proportion of the teachers reported that voice symptoms had affected their ability to communicate effectively. School type (public/private) did not predict the presence of dysphonia. Statistically significant associations were found for regular caffeinated drink intake (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-6.62), frequent upper respiratory tract infection (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.39-9.33) and raised voice while teaching (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.07-20.2). Nigerian primary school teachers were at risk for dysphonia. Important environment and personal factors were upper respiratory infection, the need to frequently raise the voice when teaching and regular intake of caffeinated drinks. Dysphonia was not associated with age or years of teaching. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders
use and prevalence of voice problems in teachers and to explore their ratings of vocally loading aspects of their working environment. Method: A questionnaire-survey in 467 teachers aiming to explore the prevalence of voice problems in teaching staff identified teachers with voice problems and vocally...... in the teaching environment and aspects of the classroom environment were also measured. Results: Teachers with voice problems were more affected by any loading factor in the work-environment and were more perceptive of the room acoustics. Differences between the groups were found during field......-measurements of the voice, while there were no differences in the findings from the clinical examinations of larynx and voice. Conclusion: Teachers suffering from voice problems react stronger to loading factors in the teaching environment. It is in the interplay between the individual and the work environment that voice...
Sørensen, Martin Kryspin; Dolven, T L; Rasmussen, L S
The induction dose of hypnotic agents should be reduced in the elderly, but it is not well studied whether thiopental or propofol should be preferred in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to compare onset time, hypnosis level and the haemodynamic response after thiopental vs...
Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S
was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Strumiłło, Paweł; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola
BACKGROUND Special consideration has recently been given to cepstral analysis with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of MFCCs in acoustic analysis for diagnosing occupational dysphonia in comparison to subjective and objective parameters of voice evaluation. The study comprised 2 groups, one of 55 female teachers (mean age: 45 years) with occupational dysphonia confirmed by videostroboscopy and 40 female controls with normal voice (mean age: 43 years). The acoustic samples involving sustained vowels "a" and four standardized sentences were analyzed by computed analysis of MFCCs. The results were compared to acoustic parameters of jitter and shimmer groups, noise to harmonic ratio, Yanagihara index evaluating the grade of hoarseness, the aerodynamic parameter: maximum phonation time and also subjective parameters: GRBAS perceptual scale and Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The compared results revealed differences between the study and control groups, significant for MFCC2, MFCC3, MFCC5, MFCC6, MFCC8, MFCC10, particularly for MFCC6 (p teachers correlated with all eight objective parameters, also showed the significant relation with perceptual voice feature A (asthenity) of subjective scale GRBAS, characteristic of weak tired voice. The cepstral analysis with mel frequency cepstral coefficients is a promising tool for evaluating occupational voice disorders, capable of reflecting the perceptual voice features better than other methods of acoustic analysis.
Oridate, Nobuhiko; Furuta, Yasushi; Homma, Akihiro; Suzuki, Seigo; Suzuki, Fumiyuki; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Taki, Shigenari; Sakashita, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Satoshi
There are many methods of treating laryngeal cancers: definitive irradiation with or without concurrent chemotherapy, endoscopic laser surgery, partial surgery techniques, and total laryngectomy. Few studies have been reported on vocal function and quality of life of patients after the definitive treatment for laryngeal cancer, using single voice related QOL measures. The aim of this study was to examine voice related QOL in patients treated with various modalities using a Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) questionnaire as well as Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) questionnaire. Between August 2006 and May 2007, survey data on voice utilizing the V-RQOL and VHI-10 were obtained from a total of 130 patients who had received definitive treatment for laryngeal cancers with follow-up at the Hokkaido University Hospital, and who were alive with no evidence of malignancy at the time of survey. Mean V-RQOL scores of the patients who received radiation therapy (n=63), chemoradiotherapy (n=29), laser resection (n=14) and total laryngectomy (n=27) as the final treatment for laryngeal cancer were 92.6, 92.9, 85.5, and 68.4, respectively. Mean VHI-10 values were 2.87, 2.34, 5.43, and 11.26. Such measures of quality of life are important endpoints to help judge the overall effectiveness of treatment options for laryngeal cancers. (author)
Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. In a group of persons using the voice occupationally, the frequent symptoms are hoarseness, voice fatigability and aphonia. Pathological changes in the larynx may have organic or functional character which require different methods of treatment and rehabilitation. Visualization of vibrations of the vocal folds is an essential condition for an appropriate assessment of the causes of dysphonia. [b]objective[/b]. The purpose of the study is assessment of the usefulness of a high-speed imaging (HSI system in the diagnosis of functional and organic dysphonia of occupational character, compared with digital kymography (DKG and digital stroboscopy (DS with a high resolution module. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study group consisted of 64 patients with voice quality disorders with features of occupational dysphonia. The control group consisted of 15 patients with euphonic voice. Analysis of the voice quality parameters during phonation of the ‘e’ vowel was performed using HSI, DKG and stroboscopy of high resolution, by means of a digital HS camera (HRES Endocam, Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany. Vocal folds vibrations were registered at the rate of 4,000 frames per second. [b]results[/b]. HSI is the most reliable diagnostic tool giving the possibility of an analysis of the true vibrations of the vocal folds. It also enables an observation of the aperiodicity of vibrations of the vocal folds, while DS with high resolution allows diagnosis of the periodicity of the vibrations. [b]conclusions[/b]. HSI is particularly useful in the diagnosis of neurologically-based pathology of the voice (paralytic dysphonia and organic dysphonia. The quickest method of diagnosing the phonatory paresis of the glottis is DKG. The advantage of both HSI and DKG is the non-invasiveness of examinations; however, their limitations are time-consuming and the high cost of equipment.
O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R
Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.
Jillian J.M. O'Connor
Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.
Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William
The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.
spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...
Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A; Jackson, Mike; Chadwick, Paul
Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions. It may limit access to autobiographical information that could be helpful in re-appraising distressing experiences, including voices. We investigated the possible links between OGM and distressing voices in psychosis by comparing three groups: (1) clinical voice-hearers (N = 39), (2) non-clinical voice-hearers (N = 35) and (3) controls without voices (N = 77) on a standard version of the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers also completed a newly adapted version of the task, designed to assess voices-related memories (vAMT). As hypothesised, the clinical group displayed an OGM bias by retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories on the AMT compared with both the non-clinical and control groups, who did not differ from each other. The clinical group also showed an OGM bias in recall of voice-related memories on the vAMT, compared with the non-clinical group. Clinical voice-hearers display an OGM bias when compared with non-clinical voice-hearers on both general and voices-specific recall tasks. These findings have implications for the refinement and targeting of psychological interventions for psychosis.
Ma, C.; Kamp, Y.; Willems, L.F.
This paper investigates a weighted LPC analysis of voiced speech. In view of the speech production model, the weighting function is either chosen to be the short-time energy function of the preemphasized speech sample sequence with certain delays or is obtained by thresholding the short-time energy
GPB Consulting has developed a scientific approach to voice coaching. A digital recording of the voice is sent to a lab in Switzerland and analyzed by a computer programme designed by a doctor of psychology and linguistics and a scientist at CERN (1 page).
Laine, Loren; Laursen, Stig B; Dalton, Harry R
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a prospective multi-national study of patients presenting to the emergency department with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and assessed the relationship of time to presentation after onset of UGIB symptoms with patient characteristics and outcomes. METHODS...
Hocevar-Boltezar, Irena; Zargi, Miha; Strojan, Primoz
Background and purpose: In the majority of patients irradiated for early glottic cancer an abnormal voice was reported. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors influencing voice quality after radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer. Methods: The voices of 75 male patients irradiated for T1 glottic carcinoma were assessed subjectively and objectively by acoustic analyses and aerodynamic measurements. The laryngeal function and morphology were evaluated by videolaryngostroboscopy. The data on smoking habits, the associated diseases influencing voice quality, the extent of the tumor, the type of biopsy, and the irradiation technique were collected from the medical records. The data on the factors influencing voice quality were compared for patients with a normal/near-normal voice and those with a hoarse voice. Results: Voice quality was at least slightly abnormal in 94.7% and 81.3% of patients, when assessed perceptively and objectively, respectively. Smoking after the completed treatment, more severe morphologic alterations of the vocal folds, dryness of the throat, incomplete closure of the vocal folds and functional voice disorders expressed as supraglottic activity adversely influenced the voice quality. A good correlation between the perceptive voice assessment and the acoustic analyses was established. Conclusions: After the successful irradiation for T1 glottic carcinoma, the great majority of the patients have at least a slightly hoarse voice. A better voice outcome could be achieved if radiotherapy was followed by the patient's cessation of smoking and the appropriate voice therapy.
Galvez-Buccollini, Juan A; Proal, Ashley C; Tomaselli, Veronica; Trachtenberg, Melissa; Coconcea, Cristinel; Chun, Jinsoo; Manschreck, Theo; Fleming, Jerry; Delisi, Lynn E
Several studies have associated cannabis use with the development of schizophrenia. However, it has been difficult to disentangle the effects of cannabis from that of other illicit drugs, as previous studies have not evaluated pure cannabis users. To test whether the onset of cannabis use had an effect on the initiation of psychosis, we examined the time relationship between onset of use and onset of psychosis, restricting our analysis to a cohort of individuals who only used cannabis and no other street drugs. Fifty-seven subjects with non-affective psychoses who used cannabis prior to developing a psychosis were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). The Family Interview for Genetic Studies (FIGS) was also used to interview a family informant about psychiatric illness in the patient and the entire family. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to estimate the association between variables. After adjusting for potential confounding factors such as sex, age, lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence, and family history of schizophrenia, the age at onset of cannabis was significantly associated with age at onset of psychosis (β=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-0.7, p=0.004) and age at first hospitalization (β=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-0.8, p=0.008). The mean time between beginning to use cannabis and onset of psychosis was 7.0±4.3. Age at onset of alcohol use was not associated with age at onset of psychosis or age at first hospitalization. Age at onset of cannabis is directly associated with age at onset of psychosis and age at first hospitalization. These associations remain significant after adjusting for potential confounding factors and are consistent with the hypothesis that cannabis could cause or precipitate the onset of psychosis after a prolonged period of time. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Transcription skills are crucially important to all phoneticians, and particularly for speech and language therapists who may use transcriptions to make decisions about diagnosis and intervention. Whilst interest in factors affecting transcription accuracy is increasing, there are still a number of issues that are yet to be investigated. The present paper considers how the number of voices and the number of repetitions affects the transcription of nonsense words. Thirty-two students in their second year of study for a BSc in Speech and Language Therapy were participants in an experiment. They heard two nonsense words presented 10 times in either one or two voices. Results show that the number of voices did not affect accuracy, but that accuracy increased between six and ten repetitions. The reasons behind these findings, and implications for teaching and learning, and further research are discussed.
Elizabeth U. Grillo
Full Text Available This study assessed the within-subject variability of voice measures captured using different recording devices (i.e., smartphones and head mounted microphone and software programs (i.e., Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV, Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP, and Praat. Correlations between the software programs that calculated the voice measures were also analyzed. Results demonstrated no significant within-subject variability across devices and software and that some of the measures were highly correlated across software programs. The study suggests that certain smartphones may be appropriate to record daily voice measures representing the effects of vocal loading within individuals. In addition, even though different algorithms are used to compute voice measures across software programs, some of the programs and measures share a similar relationship.
Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin
This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD.
Abel, R. S.; Watkins, H. E.
Modified electronic voice encoder /Vocoder/ includes an independent analog mode of operation in addition to the conventional digital mode. The Vocoder is a bandwidth compression equipment that permits voice transmission over channels, having only a fraction of the bandwidth required for conventional telephone-quality speech transmission.
Full Text Available In order to develop a novel voice sensor to detect human voices, the use of features which are more robust to noise is an important issue. Voice sensor is also called voice activity detection (VAD. Due to that the inherent nature of the formant structure only occurred on the speech spectrogram (well-known as voiceprint, Wu et al. were the first to use band-spectral entropy (BSE to describe the characteristics of voiceprints. However, the performance of VAD based on BSE feature was degraded in colored noise (or voiceprint-like noise environments. In order to solve this problem, we propose the two-dimensional part-band energy entropy (TD-PBEE parameter based on two variables: part-band partition number upon frequency index and long-term window size upon time index to further improve the BSE-based VAD algorithm. The two variables can efficiently represent the characteristics of voiceprints on each critical frequency band and use long-term information for noisy speech spectrograms, respectively. The TD-PBEE parameter can be regarded as a PBEE parameter over time. First, the strength of voiceprints can be partly enhanced by using four entropies applied to four part-bands. We can use the four part-band energy entropies for describing the voiceprints in detail. Due to the characteristics of non-stationary for speech and various noises, we will then use long-term information processing to refine the PBEE, so the voice-like noise can be distinguished from noisy speech through the concept of PBEE with long-term information. Our experiments show that the proposed feature extraction with the TD-PBEE parameter is quite insensitive to background noise. The proposed TD-PBEE-based VAD algorithm is evaluated for four types of noises and five signal-to-noise ratio (SNR levels. We find that the accuracy of the proposed TD-PBEE-based VAD algorithm averaged over all noises and all SNR levels is better than that of other considered VAD algorithms.
Wadley, Greg; Gibbs, Martin R.
This chapter summarizes 5 years of research on the implications of introducing voice communication systems to virtual worlds. Voice introduces both benefits and problems for players of fast-paced team games, from better coordination of groups and greater social presence of fellow players on the positive side, to negative features such as channel congestion, transmission of noise, and an unwillingness by some to use voice with strangers online. Similarly, in non-game worlds like Second Life, issues related to identity and impression management play important roles, as voice may build greater trust that is especially important for business users, yet it erodes the anonymity and ability to conceal social attributes like gender that are important for other users. A very different mixture of problems and opportunities exists when users conduct several simultaneous conversations in multiple text and voice channels. Technical difficulties still exist with current systems, including the challenge of debugging and harmonizing all the participants' voice setups. Different groups use virtual worlds for very different purposes, so a single modality may not suit all.
Remane, Y; Leopold, C S
The time of erythema onset may be used as a response parameter for quantification of the cutaneous erythema response induced by methyl nicotinate. The vehicles light mineral oil (LMO; test) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT; standard) were compared with regard to the pharmacodynamic response. Moreover, the influence of penetration enhancers on the time of erythema onset was investigated under zero order penetration kinetics. The enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and three different glycerides in different concentrations were added to MCT as a standard vehicle. All preparations were applied to the forearms of volunteers under infinite dose conditions at different thermodynamic drug activity levels (0.2-3.2% of the saturation level) and different drug concentrations (0.051-0.816%), respectively. Different penetration kinetics do not influence data of erythema onset, as these data are comparable to those obtained under finite dose conditions (first order penetration kinetics). With regard to the penetration enhancers, a significantly enhanced penetration of methyl nicotinate could be observed only for diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and dimethyl sulfoxide. However, no significant difference between light mineral oil and MCT could be found with regard to penetration enhancement. The time of erythema onset is an easy and efficient parameter for quantification of the pharmacodynamic response caused by nicotinates.
Liu, Ran R.; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S.; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J. S.
Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia. PMID:25349193
Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and
Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian
literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following......Objective: Reliable voice range profiles are of great importance when measuring effects and side effects from surgery affecting voice capacity. Automated recording systems are increasingly used, but the reproducibility of results is uncertain. Our objective was to identify and review the existing...... keywords were used: phonetogram, voice range profile, and acoustic voice analysis. Inclusion criteria were automated recording procedure, healthy voices, and no intervention between test and retest. Test-retest values concerning fundamental frequency and voice intensity were reviewed. Results: Of 483...
van Hooren, Michel R A; Baijens, Laura W J; Vos, Rein; Pilz, Walmari; Kuijpers, Laura M F; Kremer, Bernd; Michou, Emilia
This study explores whether changes in voice- and swallow-related QoL are associated with progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it examines the relationship between patients' perception of both voice and swallowing disorders in IPD. Prospective clinical study, quality of life (QoL). One-hundred mentally competent IPD patients with voice and swallowing complaints were asked to answer four QoL questionnaires (Voice Handicap Index, MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, Visual Analog Scale [VAS] voice, and Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]). Differences in means for the QoL questionnaires and their subscales within Hoehn and Yahr stage groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Scores on both voice and swallow questionnaires suggest an overall decrease in QoL with progression of IPD. A plateau in QoL for VAS voice and the DSS was seen in the early Hoehn and Yahr stages. Finally, scores on voice-related QoL questionnaires were significantly correlated with swallow-related QoL outcomes. Voice- and swallow-related QoL decreases with progression of IPD. A significant association was found between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires. Healthcare professionals can benefit from voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires in a multidimensional voice- or swallow-assessment protocol. The patient's perception of his/her voice and swallowing disorders and its impact on QoL in IPD should not be disregarded. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke
This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...
Arbeiter, Mareike; Petermann, Simon; Hoppe, Ulrich; Bohr, Christopher; Doellinger, Michael; Ziethe, Anke
The aim of this study was to investigate the auditory feedback mechanisms and voice quality during phonation in response to a spontaneous pitch change in the auditory feedback. Does the pitch shift reflex (PSR) change voice pitch and voice quality? Quantitative and qualitative voice characteristics were analyzed during the PSR. Twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent transnasal high-speed video endoscopy (HSV) at 8000 fps during sustained phonation [a]. While phonating, the subjects heard their sound pitched up for 700 cents (interval of a fifth), lasting 300 milliseconds in their auditory feedback. The electroencephalography (EEG), acoustic voice signal, electroglottography (EGG), and high-speed-videoendoscopy (HSV) were analyzed to compare feedback mechanisms for the pitched and unpitched condition of the phonation paradigm statistically. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative voice characteristics were analyzed. The PSR was successfully detected within all signals of the experimental tools (EEG, EGG, acoustic voice signal, HSV). A significant increase of the perturbation measures and an increase of the values of the acoustic parameters during the PSR were observed, especially for the audio signal. The auditory feedback mechanism seems not only to control for voice pitch but also for voice quality aspects.
Greenall, Annjo Klungervik
This chapter tackles several questions relating to the issue of the translator’s voice in retranslation: how do others’ voices (including other (re)translations) interact with the translator’s voice in the production of a translation? How does the intersubjectively constituted voice of the translator manifest itself in paratexts, in the translated text and, in the case of singer-translators, in the translator’s physical, performing voice? The case discussed is that of Bob Dylan in (re)transl...
Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David
Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...... to preserve the teachers’ voices and maximize their comfort, it is necessary to understand the underlaying relationship between classroom acoustics and teachers’ voice production. This paper presents a brief summary of investigations looking into this relationship. A pilot study, carried out in different...... located at various distances, in rooms with very different acoustics. A field study in schools of southern Sweden found out that teachers with and without voice problems, during actual teaching, are affected differently by the support of the classroom. A last laboratory experiment was carried out...
Elizabeth U. Grillo; Jenna N. Brosious; Staci L. Sorrell; Supraja Anand
This study assessed the within-subject variability of voice measures captured using different recording devices (i.e., smartphones and head mounted microphone) and software programs (i.e., Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV), Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP), and Praat). Correlations between the software programs that calculated the voice measures were also analyzed. Results demonstrated no significant within-subject variability across devices and software and that some o...
Meerschman, Iris; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Van Puyvelde, Caro; Bostyn, Astrid; Claeys, Sofie; D'haeseleer, Evelien
Background: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy…
Hoy, Matthew B
Voice assistants are software agents that can interpret human speech and respond via synthesized voices. Apple's Siri, Amazon's Alexa, Microsoft's Cortana, and Google's Assistant are the most popular voice assistants and are embedded in smartphones or dedicated home speakers. Users can ask their assistants questions, control home automation devices and media playback via voice, and manage other basic tasks such as email, to-do lists, and calendars with verbal commands. This column will explore the basic workings and common features of today's voice assistants. It will also discuss some of the privacy and security issues inherent to voice assistants and some potential future uses for these devices. As voice assistants become more widely used, librarians will want to be familiar with their operation and perhaps consider them as a means to deliver library services and materials.
Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L.; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H. Yanna; Zhang, Chan
As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data—fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information—than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey. PMID:26060991
Schober, Michael F; Conrad, Frederick G; Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H Yanna; Zhang, Chan
As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.
Michael F Schober
Full Text Available As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS, longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded, variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation, and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.
Hazell, Cassie M; Hayward, Mark; Cavanagh, Kate; Jones, Anna-Marie; Strauss, Clara
Few patients have access to cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) even though at least 16 sessions of CBTp is recommended in treatment guidelines. Briefer CBTp could improve access as the same number of therapists could see more patients. In addition, focusing on single psychotic symptoms, such as auditory hallucinations ('voices'), rather than on psychosis more broadly, may yield greater benefits. This pilot RCT recruited 28 participants (with a range of diagnoses) from NHS mental health services who were distressed by hearing voices. The study compared an 8-session guided self-help CBT intervention for distressing voices with a wait-list control. Data were collected at baseline and at 12weeks with post-therapy assessments conducted blind to allocation. Voice-impact was the pre-determined primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were depression, anxiety, wellbeing and recovery. Mechanism measures were self-esteem, beliefs about self, beliefs about voices and voice-relating. Recruitment and retention was feasible with low study (3.6%) and therapy (14.3%) dropout. There were large, statistically significant between-group effects on the primary outcome of voice-impact (d=1.78; 95% CIs: 0.86-2.70), which exceeded the minimum clinically important difference. Large, statistically significant effects were found on a number of secondary and mechanism measures. Large effects on the pre-determined primary outcome of voice-impact are encouraging, and criteria for progressing to a definitive trial are met. Significant between-group effects on measures of self-esteem, negative beliefs about self and beliefs about voice omnipotence are consistent with these being mechanisms of change and this requires testing in a future trial. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Recent herbarium-based phenology assessments of many plant species have found significant responses to global climate change over the previous century. In this study, we investigate how the flowering phenology of three alpine ginger Roscoea species responses to climate change over the century from 1913 to 2011, by comparing between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. According to the observations, flowering onset of the three alpine ginger species occurred either 22 days earlier or was delayed by 8–30 days when comparing the mean peak flowering date between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. It is likely that this significant change in flowering onset is due to increased annual minimum and maximum temperatures and mean annual temperature by about 0.053°C per year. Our results also show that flowering time changes occurred due to an increasing winter–spring minimum temperature and monsoon minimum temperature, suggesting that these Roscoea species respond greatly to climate warming resulting in changes on flowering times.
Akın Şenkal, Özgül; Özer, Cem
The hoarseness in school-aged children disrupts the educational process because it affects the social progress, communication skills, and self-esteem of children. Besides otorhinolaryngological examination, the first treatment option is voice therapy when hoarseness occurs. The aim of the study was to determine the factors increasing the hoarseness in school-aged children by parental interview and to know preferable voice therapy on school-aged children within the frame of International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Retrospective analysis of data gathered from patient files. A total of 75 children (56 boys and 19 girls) were examined retrospectively. The age range of school-aged children is 7-14 years and average is 10.86 ± 2.51. A detailed history was taken from parents of children involved in this study. Information about vocal habits of children was gathered within the frame of ICF and then the voice therapies of children were started by scheduling appointments by an experienced speech-language pathologist. The differences between before and after voice therapy according to applied voice therapy methods, statistically significant differences were determined between maximum phonation time values and s/z rate. The relationship between voice therapy sessions and s/z rate with middle degree significance was found with physiological voice therapy sessions. According to ICF labels, most of voice complaints are matching with "body functions" and "activity and limitations." The appropriate voice therapy methods for hoarseness in school-aged children must be chosen and applied by speech-language therapists. The detailed history, which is received from family during the examination, within the frame of ICF affects the processes of choosing the voice therapy method and application of them positively. Child's family is very important for a successful management. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allison, Elizabeth Rowland
barriers to integrating multiliteracies and scientific practices into science teaching. The issues include time, increased standards accountability, and lack of comfort with effective integration of technology. The fourth theme revealed that students have the ability to shape and define their learning while supporting other voices through collaborative science experiences.
Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…
Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob
The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…
Yamada, Jun; Tamaoka, Katsuo
This study makes explicit the limitations and possibilities of voice-key naming latency research on single hiragana symbols (a Japanese syllabic script) by examining three sets of voice-key naming data against Sakuma, Fushimi, and Tatsumi's 1997 speech-analyzer voice-waveform data. Analysis showed that voice-key measurement errors can be substantial in standard procedures as they may conceal the true effects of significant variables involved in hiragana-naming behavior. While one can avoid voice-key measurement errors to some extent by applying Sakuma, et al.'s deltas and by excluding initial phonemes which induce measurement errors, such errors may be ignored when test items are words and other higher-level linguistic materials.
... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...
Iverson, Gregory K.; Ahn, Sang-Cheol
Assuming a framework of privative features, this paper interprets two apparently disparate phenomena in English phonology as structurally related: the lexically specific voicing of fricatives in plural nouns like wives or thieves and the prosodically governed “flapping” of medial /t/ (and /d/) in North American varieties, which we claim is itself not a rule per se, but rather a consequence of the laryngeal weakening of fortis /t/ in interaction with speech-rate determined segmental abbreviation. Taking as our point of departure the Dimensional Theory of laryngeal representation developed by Avery & Idsardi (2001), along with their assumption that English marks voiceless obstruents but not voiced ones (Iverson & Salmons 1995), we find that an unexpected connection between fricative voicing and coronal flapping emerges from the interplay of familiar phonemic and phonetic factors in the phonological system. PMID:18496590
Full Text Available Voice of vocal professionals is exposed to great temptations, i.e. there is a high probability of voice alterations. Smoking, allergies and respiratory infections greatly affect the voice, which can change its acoustic characteristics. In smokers, the vocal cords mass increases, resulting in changes in vocal fold vibratory cycle. Pathological changes of vocal folds deform the acoustic signal and affect voice production. As vocal professionals, teachers are much more affected by voice disorders than average speakers. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in acoustic parameters of voice between smoking and nonsmoking teachers, in a sample of vocal professionals. The sample consisted of 60 female subjects, aged from 25 to 59. For voice analysis we used Computer lab, model 4300, 'Kay Elemetrics Corporation'. The statistical significance of differences in the values of acoustic parameters between smokers and nonsmokers was tested by ANOVA. Results showed that in the sample of female teachers, professional use of voice combined with the smoking habit can be linked to the changes in voice parameters. Comparing smokers and nonsmokers, average values of the parameters in short-term and long-term disturbances of frequency and amplitude proved to be significantly different.
de Bruijn, Marieke J.; ten Bosch, Louis; Kuik, Dirk J.; Witte, Birgit I.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.
Speech impairment often occurs in patients after treatment for head and neck cancer. A specific speech characteristic that influences intelligibility and speech quality is voice-onset-time (VOT) in stop consonants. VOT is one of the functionally most relevant parameters that distinguishes voiced and
Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess a range of DSM-IV disorders that included an expanded definition of separation anxiety disorder allowing onsets in adulthood. Analyses focused on prevalence, age at onset, comorbidity, predictors of onset and persistence, and separation anxiety-related role impairment. Results Lifetime separation anxiety disorder prevalence averaged 4.8% across countries (interquartile range [25th–75th percentiles]=1.4%–6.4%), with 43.1% of lifetime onsets occurring after age 18. Significant time-lagged associations were found between earlier separation anxiety disorder and subsequent onset of internalizing and externalizing DSM-IV disorders and conversely between these disorders and subsequent onset of separation anxiety disorder. Other consistently significant predictors of lifetime separation anxiety disorder included female gender, retrospectively reported childhood adversities, and lifetime traumatic events. These predictors were largely comparable for separation anxiety disorder onsets in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and across country income groups. Twelve-month separation anxiety disorder prevalence was considerably lower than lifetime prevalence (1.0% of the total sample; interquartile range=0.2%–1.2%). Severe separation anxiety-related 12-month role impairment was significantly more common in the presence (42.4%) than absence (18.3%) of 12-month comorbidity. Conclusions Separation anxiety disorder is a common and highly comorbid disorder that can have onset across the lifespan. Childhood adversity and lifetime trauma are
Gao, Yayue; Cao, Shuyang; Qu, Tianshu; Wu, Xihong; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Jinsheng; Li, Liang
In noisy, multipeople talking environments such as a cocktail party, listeners can use various perceptual and/or cognitive cues to improve recognition of target speech against masking, particularly informational masking. Previous studies have shown that temporally prepresented voice cues (voice primes) improve recognition of target speech against speech masking but not noise masking. This study investigated whether static face image primes that have become target-voice associated (i.e., facial images linked through associative learning with voices reciting the target speech) can be used by listeners to unmask speech. The results showed that in 32 normal-hearing younger adults, temporally prepresenting a voice-priming sentence with the same voice reciting the target sentence significantly improved the recognition of target speech that was masked by irrelevant two-talker speech. When a person's face photograph image became associated with the voice reciting the target speech by learning, temporally prepresenting the target-voice-associated face image significantly improved recognition of target speech against speech masking, particularly for the last two keywords in the target sentence. Moreover, speech-recognition performance under the voice-priming condition was significantly correlated to that under the face-priming condition. The results suggest that learned facial information on talker identity plays an important role in identifying the target-talker's voice and facilitating selective attention to the target-speech stream against the masking-speech stream. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Kapur, Nay; Bickley, Harriet; Williams, Alyson; Purandare, Nitin
Background: Suicide rates are high in elderly people with depressive disorder. We compared behavioural, clinical and care characteristics of depressed elderly patients, aged 60 years and over at the time of death by suicide, with an early-onset depression (EOD, onset before 60 years) with those
Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.
Euler, James S.
The author's voice is implicit in all writing, even technical writing. It is the expression of the writer's attitude toward audience, subject matter, and self. Effective use of voice is made possible by recognizing the three roles of the technical writer: transmitter, translator, and author. As a transmitter, the writer must consciously apply an…
Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…
Cohen, Seth M; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson; Courey, Mark
To evaluate the frequency, timing, and factors that influence referral of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders to otolaryngology following initial evaluation by a primary care physician (PCP). Retrospective analysis of a large, national administrative US claims database. Patients with a laryngeal disorder based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008, seen by a PCP as an outpatient (with or without otolaryngology involvement), and continuously enrolled for 12 months were included. Patient age, gender, geographic region, last PCP laryngeal diagnosis, comorbid conditions, time from first PCP visit to first otolaryngology visit, number of PCP outpatient visits, and number of PCP laryngeal diagnoses were collected. Cox and generalized linear regressions were performed. A total of 149,653 unique patients saw a PCP as an outpatient for a laryngeal/voice disorder, with 136,152 (90.9%) only seeing a PCP, 6,013 (4.0%) referred by a PCP to an otolaryngologist, and 3,820 (2.6%) self-referred to an otolaryngologist. Acute laryngitis had a lower hazard ratio (HR) for otolaryngology referral than chronic laryngitis, nonspecific dysphonia, and laryngeal cancer. Having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with a greater HR for otolaryngology referral than having no comorbidities. Patient age, gender, and geographic region also affected otolaryngology referral. The time to otolaryngology evaluation ranged from 3 months. PCP-referred patients had less time to the otolaryngology evaluation than self-referred patients. Multiple factors affected otolaryngology referral for patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Further education of PCPs regarding appropriate otolaryngology referral for laryngeal/voice disorders is needed. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Toshiba Corp. newly developed a natural voice synthesis system, TOS Drive TTS (TOtally speaker Driven Text-To-Speech) system, in which natural high-quality read-aloud is greatly improved, and also developed as its application a voice synthesis middle ware. In the newly developed system, using as a model a narrator's voice recorded preliminarily, a metrical control dictionary is automatically learned that reproduces the characteristics of metrical patters such as intonation or rhythm of a human voice, as is a voice bases dictionary that reproduces the characteristics of a voice quality, enabling natural voice synthesis to be realized that picks up human voice characteristics. The system is high quality and also very compact, while the voice synthesis middle ware utilizing this technology is adaptable to various platforms such as MPU or OS. The system is very suitable for audio response in the ITS field having car navigation systems as the core; besides, expanded application is expected to an audio response system that used to employ a sound recording and reproducing system. (translated by NEDO)
Full Text Available While considered elusive and abstract, authorial voice is paramount in English writing. Unfortunately, many of Indonesian EFL learners found it is highly challeging to show their voice in their writing. The importance of voice is even exaggerated in argumentative writing, since this kind of writing needs obvious stance of the writer. This study investigates the authorial voice students made in their argumentative writing. The purpose of this study is to gain the picture of students‟ writing ability especially in authorial voice to map the road in guiding the next writing classes. The object of the study is the argumentative writing made by English department students at one Indonesian State College of Islamic Studies in their writing III course. Using Hyland‟s interactional model of voice (2008 the data analysis results the authorial presence in the essays is in position 2 at 0 – 4 scale which means the reader feels somehow weak presence of the authorial voice in the essay. This result confirms the findings of some previous studies that EFL learners especially from „interdependent‟ cultural background tend to find this authorial voice difficult in writing English essay.
Maguinness, Corrina; Roswandowitz, Claudia; von Kriegstein, Katharina
Humans have a remarkable skill for voice-identity recognition: most of us can remember many voices that surround us as 'unique'. In this review, we explore the computational and neural mechanisms which may support our ability to represent and recognise a unique voice-identity. We examine the functional architecture of voice-sensitive regions in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, and bring together findings on how these regions may interact with each other, and additional face-sensitive regions, to support voice-identity processing. We also contrast findings from studies on neurotypicals and clinical populations which have examined the processing of familiar and unfamiliar voices. Taken together, the findings suggest that representations of familiar and unfamiliar voices might dissociate in the human brain. Such an observation does not fit well with current models for voice-identity processing, which by-and-large assume a common sequential analysis of the incoming voice signal, regardless of voice familiarity. We provide a revised audio-visual integrative model of voice-identity processing which brings together traditional and prototype models of identity processing. This revised model includes a mechanism of how voice-identity representations are established and provides a novel framework for understanding and examining the potential differences in familiar and unfamiliar voice processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...
The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment
Sheffert, Sonya M; Olson, Elizabeth
In this research, we investigated the effects of voice and face information on the perceptual learning of talkers and on long-term memory for spoken words. In the first phase, listeners were trained over several days to identify voices from words presented auditorily or audiovisually. The training data showed that visual information about speakers enhanced voice learning, revealing cross-modal connections in talker processing akin to those observed in speech processing. In the second phase, the listeners completed an auditory or audiovisual word recognition memory test in which equal numbers of words were spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers. The data showed that words presented by familiar talkers were more likely to be retrieved from episodic memory, regardless of modality. Together, these findings provide new information about the representational code underlying familiar talker recognition and the role of stimulus familiarity in episodic word recognition.
Full Text Available The Beothuk of Newfoundland were among the first inhabitants of North America to encounter European explorers and settlers. By the first part of the nineteenth century the Beothuk were extinct, exterminated by the fishers and soldiers and settlers of western Europe. The last Beothuk was a woman named Shanadithit. She was captured and lived with white settlers for a few years before she died in 1829. Today all that remains of the Beothuk nation, which once numbered seven hundred to one thousand people, are some bones, arrowheads, tools, written records of explorers and settlers, and copies of drawings by Shanadithit in the Newfoundland Museum. In recent years several writers (all are white and male have written fiction and poetry and drama about the Beothuk, including Peter Such (Riverrun, 1973, Paul O'Neill (Legends of a Lost Tribe, 1976, Sid Stephen (Beothuk Poems, 1976, Al Pittman ("Shanadithit," 1978, Geoffrey Ursell (The Running of the Deer; A Play, 1981, Donald Gale (Sooshewan: A Child of the Beothuk, 1988, and Kevin Major (Blood Red Ochre, 1990. A recurring theme in all these narratives is the theme of regret and guilt. These narrative accounts of the Beothuk raise significant questions about voice and narrative, including: Who can speak for Native peoples? Who can speak for extinct peoples? Are there peoples without voices? How is voice historically determined? What is the relationship between voice and power? How are the effects of voice generated? What is an authentic voice? How is voice related to the illusion of presence? What is the relation between voice and silence? In examining contemporary narrative accounts of the Beothuk my goal is to reveal the rhetorical ways in which the Beothuk are given voice(s and to interrogate the ethical and pedagogical implications of contemporary authors revisiting and revisioning and re-voicing a nation of people long extinct.
van Houtte, Evelyne; Claeys, Sofie; Wuyts, Floris; van Lierde, Kristiane
Teaching is a high-risk occupation for developing voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate previously described vocal risk factors as well as to identify new risk factors related to both the personal life of the teacher (fluid intake, voice-demanding activities, family history of voice disorders, and children at home) and to environmental factors (temperature changes, chalk use, presence of curtains, carpet, or air-conditioning, acoustics in the classroom, and noise in and outside the classroom). The study group comprised 994 teachers (response rate 46.6%). All participants completed a questionnaire. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 51.2% (509/994) of the teachers presented with voice disorders. Women reported more voice disorders compared to men (56.4% versus 40.4%, P history of voice disorders (P = 0.005), temperature changes in the classroom (P = 0.017), the number of pupils per classroom (P = 0.001), and noise level inside the classroom (P = 0.001). Teachers with voice disorders presented a higher level of psychological distress (P < 0.001) compared to teachers without voice problems. Voice disorders are frequent among teachers, especially in female teachers. The results of this study emphasize that multiple factors are involved in the development of voice disorders.
Full Text Available Background: Sulcus vocalis is a structural deformity of the vocal ligament. It is the focal invagination of the epithelium deeply attaching to the vocal ligament. There is a dearth of literature on the outcome of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis condition.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document voice characteristics of sulcus vocalis and the secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of voice therapy in a patient with sulcus vocalis.Method: A trial of voice therapy was given to the client who was diagnosed as having sulcus vocalis. Boon’s facilitation techniques were used in voice therapy along with other techniques such as breath holding and push and pull approach prior to surgery. Acoustic, aerodynamic, perceptual, quantitative measures of voice quality and self-rating measurements were performed before and after voice therapy.Results: Improvement was noticed in 10/10 acoustic, 4/4 aerodynamic, perceptual, dysphonia severity index and voice handicap index scores, which hinted that voice therapy can be an option critically for clients with sulcus vocalis in the initial stage.Conclusion: Voice therapy showed promising improvement in the study and it must be recommended as the initial treatment option before any surgical management.
Vázquez de la Iglesia, F; Fernández González, S
The aim of the study is to determine the physiology and pathophisiology of esophageal voice according to objective aerodynamic and acoustic parameters (quantitative and qualitative parameters). Our subjects were comprised of 33 laryngectomized patients (all male) that underwent aerodynamic, acoustic and perceptual protocol. There is a statistical association between acoustic and aerodynamic qualitative parameters (phonation flow chart type, sound spectrum, perceptual analysis) among quantitative parameters (neoglotic pressure, phonation flow, phonation time, fundamental frequency, maximum intensity sound level, speech rate). Nevertheles, not always such observations bring practical resources to clinical practice. We consider that the facts studied may enable us to add, pragmatically, new resources to the more effective vocal rehabilitation to these patients. The physiology of esophageal voice is well understood by the method we have applied, also seeking for rehabilitation, improving oral communication skills in the laryngectomee population.
Luis I Prádanos
Full Text Available This article analyzes the collective, open-access, and modifiable publication El Vivir Bien como respuesta a la Crisis Global as a posthumanist testimonio or ecotestimonio intending to give voice to the biotic community of the Andes. Written by Quechua and Aymara people and presented to the United Nations by the Plurinational State of Bolivia, this document targets the global ecological, financial, and social crises from the perspective of Indigenous knowledges. This document also exemplifies the worldwide reemergence of Indigenous voices that are confronting the global ecological crisis and its environmental injustices through the revitalization of Indigenous worldviews and practices. This ecotestimonio conveys, among many timely lessons, the Indigenous teaching that humans must listen carefully to the non-human world to learn from Pachamama how to interrelate as humans and with non-humans to collaborate in ensuring the continuing vitality of the community of life. If we listen carefully to Pachamama ’s testimony, as Indigenous voices urge, doubt must be cast upon the viability of ideas celebrated by hegemonic Western modern discourses like "development," "progress," or ‘"economic growth." Instead, these voices invite us to rethink the place, functions, and responsibilities of humans as members of the web of life.
Yu Zhang; Wei Yang; Dongsheng Han; Young-Il Kim
In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP) technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching co...
... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
Delgado Hernández, Jonathan; León Gómez, Nieves M; Jiménez, Alejandra; Izquierdo, Laura M; Barsties V Latoszek, Ben
The aim of this study was to validate the Acoustic Voice Quality Index 03.01 (AVQIv3) and the Acoustic Breathiness Index (ABI) in the Spanish language. Concatenated voice samples of continuous speech (cs) and sustained vowel (sv) from 136 subjects with dysphonia and 47 vocally healthy subjects were perceptually judged for overall voice quality and breathiness severity. First, to reach a higher level of ecological validity, the proportions of cs and sv were equalized regarding the time length of 3 seconds sv part and voiced cs part, respectively. Second, concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy were verified. A moderate reliability of overall voice quality and breathiness severity from 5 experts was used. It was found that 33 syllables as standardization of the cs part, which represents 3 seconds of voiced cs, allows the equalization of both speech tasks. A strong correlation was revealed between AVQIv3 and overall voice quality and ABI and perceived breathiness severity. Additionally, the best diagnostic outcome was identified at a threshold of 2.28 and 3.40 for AVQIv3 and ABI, respectively. The AVQIv3 and ABI showed in the Spanish language valid and robust results to quantify abnormal voice qualities regarding overall voice quality and breathiness severity.
Full Text Available Background: Special consideration has recently been given to cepstral analysis with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of MFCCs in acoustic analysis for diagnosing occupational dysphonia in comparison to subjective and objective parameters of voice evaluation. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 2 groups, one of 55 female teachers (mean age: 45 years with occupational dysphonia confirmed by videostroboscopy and 40 female controls with normal voice (mean age: 43 years. The acoustic samples involving sustained vowels "a" and four standardized sentences were analyzed by computed analysis of MFCCs. The results were compared to acoustic parameters of jitter and shimmer groups, noise to harmonic ratio, Yanagihara index evaluating the grade of hoarseness, the aerodynamic parameter: maximum phonation time and also subjective parameters: GRBAS perceptual scale and Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Results: The compared results revealed differences between the study and control groups, significant for MFCC2, MFCC3, MFCC5, MFCC6, MFCC8, MFCC10, particularly for MFCC6 (p < 0.001 and MFCC8 (p < 0.009, which may suggest their clinical applicability. In the study group, MFCC4, MFCC8 and MFCC10 correlated significantly with the major objective parameters of voice assessment. Moreover, MFCC8 coefficient, which in the female teachers correlated with all eight objective parameters, also showed the significant relation with perceptual voice feature A (asthenity of subjective scale GRBAS, characteristic of weak tired voice. Conclusions: The cepstral analysis with mel frequency cepstral coefficients is a promising tool for evaluating occupational voice disorders, capable of reflecting the perceptual voice features better than other methods of acoustic analysis. Med Pr 2013;64(6:805–816
Gunjawate, Dhanshree R.; Ravi, Rohit; Bellur, Rajashekhar
Purpose: Singers are vocal athletes having specific demands from their voice and require special consideration during voice evaluation. Presently, there is a lack of standards for acoustic evaluation in them. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available literature on the acoustic analysis of voice in singers. Method: A…
Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola
To assess the usefulness of acoustic analysis with vocal loading test for evaluating the treatment outcomes in occupational voice disorders. Fifty-one female teachers with dysphonia were examined (Voice Handicap Index--VHI, laryngovideostroboscopy and acoustic analysis with vocal loading) before and after treatment. The outcomes of teachers receiving vocal training (group I) were referred to outcomes of group II receiving only voice hygiene instructions. The results of subjective assessment (VHI score) and objective evaluation (acoustic analysis) improved more significantly in group I than in group II. The post-treatment examination revealed a decreased percentage of subjects with deteriorated jitter parameters after vocal loading, particularly in group I. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test can be a helpful tool in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in occupational dysphonia.
Full Text Available This paper describes the packet measuring laboratory setup, which could be used also for lawful interception applications, using professional packet analyzer, Voice over IP call generator, free call server (Asterisk linux setup and appropriate software and hardware described below. This setup was used for measuring the quality of the automatically generated VoIP calls under stressed network conditions, when the call manager server was flooded with high bandwidth traffic, near the bandwidth limit of the connected switch. The call generator realizes 30 calls simultaneously and the packet capturer & analyzercould decode the VoIP traffic, extract RTP session data, automatically analyze the voice quality using standardized MOS (Mean Opinion Score values and describe also the source of the voice degradation (jitter, packet loss, codec, delay, etc..
Eri, Tine Schauer
This dissertation is about how women experience waiting for the onset of labour, and how first-time mothers and midwives communicate during the early phases of labour. Most women in Norway give birth in public hospitals, which is the context used for this study, with the experiences explored within a scientific tradition of lifeworld research. Seventeen women and 18 midwives participated in the study. The empirical material stems from diaries, observations of admissions and in-...
Chang, Chung-Te; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Huang, Cho-ying
Vegetation phenology reflects the response of a terrestrial ecosystem to climate change. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated temporal dynamics of the vegetation onset and its influence on the net primary productivity (NPP) in a subtropical island (Taiwan) of Pacific Asia. We utilized a decade-long (2001–2010) time series of photosynthetically active vegetation cover (PV) data, which were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data, to delineate the vegetation phenology. These data served as inputs for the phenological analysis toolbox TIMESAT. The results indicated that the delayed vegetation onset time was directly influenced by a dry spring (February and March) in which less than 40 mm of rainfall was received. This seasonal drought impeded vegetation growth in the subsequent growing season, most likely due to delayed impacts of moisture stress related to the preceding ENSO events. The significant correlations obtained between the annual MODIS NPP and both the vegetation onset time and the length of the growing season may imply that the accumulated rainfall in the spring season governs the annual NPP. The model simulations revealed that the frequency and intensity of the ENSO-related spring droughts might increase, which would result in cascading effects on the ecosystem metabolism. (letter)
Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane
The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants' tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21-41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of administration, clinic- versus self
Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J
Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.
Full Text Available In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland’s ratification of the United Nations Charter on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC in 1992. Initially emerging in policy from a rights-based and democratic citizenship perspective, the student council became the principal construct for student voice in Irish post-primary schools. While central to the policy discourse, the student council construct has become tokenistic and redundant in practice. School evaluation policy, both external and internal, became a further catalyst for student voice in Ireland. Both processes further challenge and contest the motivation for student voice and point to the concept as an instrument for school improvement and performativity that lacks any centrality for a person-centered, rights-based, dialogic and consultative student voice within an inclusive classroom and school culture.
Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia
Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...
Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Tanaka, Yoko; Lipsius, Sarah; Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila A; Lane, Jeannine R; Escobar, Rodrigo; Trzepacz, Paula T; Allen, Albert J
Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with atomoxetine were examined for time-to-onset and -resolution of common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and male sexual dysfunction, and for changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) upon atomoxetine discontinuation. 12-week open-label atomoxetine (40-100 mg/day) was followed by 12-week double-blind maintenance treatment (atomoxetine 80 or 100 mg/day). Responders were then randomized to atomoxetine (n = 266) or placebo (n = 258) for 25-week randomized withdrawal. Examined were (1) median time-to-onset and -resolution of TEAEs during atomoxetine treatment, and (2) within group, visitwise mean changes for sitting HR, systolic BP, and diastolic BP for the postrandomization placebo group. Common adverse events (AEs) appeared early, within week 1 of atomoxetine treatment. Some AEs resolve relatively rapidly, whereas others have a more lingering course of resolution (including male sexual side effects); median resolution times were 3 - 53 days. BP and HR increases during atomoxetine treatment returned to baseline upon atomoxetine discontinuation. Atomoxetine is associated with common AEs, with 3- to 53-day median resolution times. ClincialTrials.gov - NCT00700427.
Full Text Available This paper studies the concept of form of life as central to ordinary language philosophy (as understood in Wittgenstein’s, Austin’s and Stanley Cavell’s work: philosophy of our language as spoken; pronounced by a human voice within a form of life. Such an approach to Wittgenstein’s later philosophy shifts the question of the common use of language – central to Wittgenstein’s Investigations – to the definition of the subject as voice, and to the reinvention of subjectivity in language. The voice is both a subjective and common expression: it is what makes it possible for my individual voice, or claim, to become shared and for our forms of life to be intertwined with a lifeform.
Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Buttifant, Mary; Berlowitz, David J
Despite anecdotal reports of voice impairment in quadriplegia, the exact nature of these impairments is not well described in the literature. This article details objective and subjective voice assessments for people with quadriplegia at baseline and after a respiratory-targeted singing intervention. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four participants with quadriplegia were randomly assigned to a 12-week program of either a singing intervention or active music therapy control. Recordings of singing and speech were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postintervention. These deidentified recordings were used to measure sound pressure levels and assess voice quality using the Multidimensional Voice Profile and the Perceptual Voice Profile. Baseline voice quality data indicated deviation from normality in the areas of breathiness, strain, and roughness. A greater percentage of intervention participants moved toward more normal voice quality in terms of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; however, the improvements failed to achieve statistical significance. Subjective and objective assessments of voice quality indicate that quadriplegia may have a detrimental effect on voice quality; in particular, causing a perception of roughness and breathiness in the voice. The results of this study suggest that singing training may have a role in ameliorating these voice impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mawson, Amy; Berry, Katherine; Murray, Craig; Hayward, Mark
Research has found relational qualities of power and intimacy to exist within hearer-voice interactions. The present study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the interpersonal context of voice hearing by exploring participants' relationships with their voices and other people in their lives. This research was designed in consultation with service users and employed a qualitative, phenomenological, and idiographic design using semi-structured interviews. Ten participants, recruited via mental health services, and who reported hearing voices in the previous week, completed the interviews. These were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes resulted from the analysis. Theme 1: 'person and voice' demonstrated that participants' voices often reflected the identity, but not always the quality of social acquaintances. Theme 2: 'voices changing and confirming relationship with the self' explored the impact of voice hearing in producing an inferior sense-of-self in comparison to others. Theme 3: 'a battle for control' centred on issues of control and a dilemma of independence within voice relationships. Theme 4: 'friendships facilitating the ability to cope' and theme 5: 'voices creating distance in social relationships' explored experiences of social relationships within the context of voice hearing, and highlighted the impact of social isolation for voice hearers. The study demonstrated the potential role of qualitative research in developing theories of voice hearing. It extended previous research by highlighting the interface between voices and the social world of the hearer, including reciprocal influences of social relationships on voices and coping. Improving voice hearers' sense-of-self may be a key factor in reducing the distress caused by voices. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Rees, C.; Alfes, K.; Gatenby, M.
This paper considers the relationship between employee voice and employee engagement. Employee perceptions of voice behaviour aimed at improving the functioning of the work group are found to have both a direct impact and an indirect impact on levels of employee engagement. Analysis of data from two
Firestone, Robert W.
This article presents findings from recent research demonstrating a significant relationship between parental introjects or "voices," and self-destructive behavior. The "voice" is defined as a systematized, integrated pattern of negative thoughts accompanied by angry affect, that is the basis of an individual's maladaptive…
de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
This study estimates the prevalence of absenteeism due to voice disorders among teachers and investigates individual and contextual factors associated with it. The study involved 1,980 teachers from 76 municipal schools. The response rate was 85%. The survey was carried out between May 2004 and July 2005 using a self-administered structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and work-related questions. The dependent variable was obtained from answers to the following question: In the last 2 weeks, have you missed work because of voice problems? Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated factors. Voice-related absenteeism in the prior 2 weeks was reported by 66 teachers (3.35%). During their entire careers, approximately one-third of teachers missed work at least once due to voice problems. In the final model, factors associated with recent absenteeism were as follows: witnessing violence by students or parents one or more times (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.14-3.90), presence of depression or anxiety (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.09-3.78), upper respiratory problems in the prior 2 weeks (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.53-5.29), and absenteeism because of voice problems during the preceding 6 months (OR = 15.79; 95% CI = 8.18-30.45). The results encourage new approaches to the problems of absenteeism in the educational sector and contribute to addressing the weaknesses of economic and administrative approaches to the phenomenon.
A.B. Muhammad Firdaus
Full Text Available Abstract These days automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability lacking recognition precision and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.
CAOYanbo; ZHOUBin; LIChengshu
In this paper, we research an admission control scheme of integrated voice and data CDMA/TDD (Code division multiple access/Time division duplex) system considering asymmetric traffic and power limit. A new user can access the system only if the outage probabilities it experiences on the uplink and downlink time slots are below a threshold value. Based on the power limit the results show the voice and data blocking probabilities under different cell coverage~ arrival rates and various uplink/downlink time slot allocation patterns. Furthermore, multicode and multislot schemes are also evaluated under the presented admission control scheme.
Bogon, Johanna; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Landgraf, Steffen; Dreisbach, Gesine
Vocal events offer not only semantic-linguistic content but also information about the identity and the emotional-motivational state of the speaker. Furthermore, most vocal events have implications for our actions and therefore include action-related features. But the relevance and irrelevance of vocal features varies from task to task. The present study investigates binding processes for perceptual and action-related features of spoken words and their modulation by the task representation of the listener. Participants reacted with two response keys to eight different words spoken by a male or a female voice (Experiment 1) or spoken by an angry or neutral male voice (Experiment 2). There were two instruction conditions: half of participants learned eight stimulus-response mappings by rote (SR), and half of participants applied a binary task rule (TR). In both experiments, SR instructed participants showed clear evidence for binding processes between voice and response features indicated by an interaction between the irrelevant voice feature and the response. By contrast, as indicated by a three-way interaction with instruction, no such binding was found in the TR instructed group. These results are suggestive of binding and shielding as two adaptive mechanisms that ensure successful communication and action in a dynamic social environment.
Drumond, Lorena Badaró; Vieira, Naymme Barbosa; Oliveira, Domingos Sávio Ferreira de
To present a literature review about the Brazilian scientific production in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology regarding voice in popular singing in the last decade, as for number of publications, musical styles studied, focus of the researches, and instruments used for data collection. Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two stages: search in databases and publications encompassing the last decade of researches in this area in Brazil, and reading of the material obtained for posterior categorization. The databases LILACS and SciELO, the Databasis of Dissertations and Theses organized by CAPES, the online version of Acta ORL, and the online version of OPUS were searched, using the following uniterms: voice, professional voice, singing voice, dysphonia, voice disorders, voice training, music, dysodia. Articles published between the years 2000 and 2010 were selected. The researches found were classified and categorized after reading their abstracts and, when necessary, the whole study. Twenty researches within the proposed theme were selected, all of which were descriptive, involving several musical styles. Twelve studies focused on the evaluation of the popular singer's voice, and the most frequently used data collection instrument was the auditory-perceptual evaluation. The results of the publications found corroborate the objectives proposed by the authors and the different methodologies. The number of studies published is still restricted when compared to the diversity of musical genres and the uniqueness of popular singer.
Dornelas, Rodrigo; Santos, Thaynara Alves Dos; Oliveira, Daniela Sena de; Irineu, Roxane de Alencar; Brito, Aline; Silva, Kelly
To correlate self-reporting of voice disorders with habits that impact voice production and situations of violence experienced by teachers. The study involved 41 elementary-school teachers of rural and urban areas. Two instruments were used for data collection: The Vocal Production Condition - Teacher (CPV-P) questionnaire and the Screening Index for Voice Disorders - ITDV. The chi-square test was used to verify association among variables with a significance level of 5%. The sample consisted of 8 men and 33 women aged 25-66 years with a median of 39 years. Regarding vocal habits, 33 people (80.5%) mentioned the screaming as usual practice, 40 people (97.5%) declared they talk a lot. As for voice care, 31 people (73.1%) reported drinking water while using their voice. As for the ITDV total score, 30 teachers (73.1%) were above the score threshold set for predisposition to vocal disorders. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between female participants and complaint of graffiti writings as a type of violence. No significant correlation between the ITDV results with gender and the ITDV with forms of violence evaluated in the study was indicated. Self-reporting of voice disorders showed no significant relationship with acts of violence. However, analysis of the context of violence in schools and vocal problems are issues worthy of attention, particularly the observed naturalization of gender inssues, which is seldom problematized.
Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method: The sample included 38,993 adults in 18
Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Delaveau, Pauline; Rotgé, Jean-Yves; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe
According to theories of emotion dynamics, emotions unfold across two phases in which different types of processes come to the fore: emotion onset and emotion offset. Differences in onset-bound processes are reflected by the degree of explosiveness or steepness of the response at onset, and differences in offset-bound processes by the degree of accumulation or intensification of the subsequent response. Whether onset- and offset-bound processes have distinctive neural correlates and, hence, whether the neural basis of emotions varies over time, still remains unknown. In the present fMRI study, we address this question using a recently developed paradigm that allows to disentangle explosiveness and accumulation. Thirty-one participants were exposed to neutral and negative social feedback, and asked to reflect on its contents. Emotional intensity while reading and thinking about the feedback was measured with an intensity profile tracking approach. Using non-negative matrix factorization, the resulting profile data were decomposed in explosiveness and accumulation components, which were subsequently entered as continuous regressors of the BOLD response. It was found that the neural basis of emotion intensity shifts as emotions unfold over time with emotion explosiveness and accumulation having distinctive neural correlates. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Orlova, O S; Vasilenko, Iu S; Zakharova, A F; Samokhvalova, L O; Kozlova, P A
The paper analyzes voice disturbances, their causes and specific features in teachers based on the questionnaires filled by 934 general educational school teachers. The teachers have been found to associate voice disturbances not only with changes in the voice timbre, but with different subjective feelings that make their professional activity difficult. The major factors that cause voice disturbances are the voice overloads that differ in teachers of different specialities, their inability to use the voice, psychoemotional stresses, and frequent colds, as well as a combination of several factors. The incidence of vocal apparatus diseases does not tend to decrease, which makes it necessary to implement combined medical and pedagogical prophylactic measures to prevent dysphonia.
Gelfer, Marylou Pausewang; Tice, Ruthanne M
The present study examined how effectively listeners' perceptions of gender could be changed from male to female for male-to-female (MTF) transgender (TG) clients based on the voice signal alone, immediately after voice therapy and at long-term follow-up. Short- and long-term changes in masculinity and femininity ratings and acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and vowel formant frequencies were also investigated. Prospective treatment study. Five MTF TG clients, five control female speakers, and five control male speakers provided a variety of speech samples for later analysis. The TG clients then underwent 8 weeks of voice therapy. Voice samples were collected immediately at the termination of therapy and again 15 months later. Two groups of listeners were recruited to evaluate gender and provide masculinity and femininity ratings. Perceptual results revealed that TG subjects were perceived as female 1.9% of the time in the pretest, 50.8% of the time in the immediate posttest, and 33.1% of the time in the long-term posttest. The TG speakers were also perceived as significantly less masculine and more feminine in the immediate posttest and the long-term posttest compared with the pre-test. Some acoustic measures showed significant differences between the pretest and the immediate posttest and long-term posttest. It appeared that 8 weeks of voice therapy could result in vocal changes in MTF TG individuals that persist at least partially for up to 15 months. However, some TG subjects were more successful with voice feminization than others. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edita K. Kuular
Full Text Available Among the most important parameters of biometric systems with voice modalities that determine their effectiveness, along with reliability and noise immunity, a speed of identification and verification of a person has been accentuated. This parameter is especially sensitive while processing large-scale voice databases in real time regime. Many research studies in this area are aimed at developing new and improving existing algorithms for presentation and processing voice records to ensure high performance of voice biometric systems. Here, it seems promising to apply a modern approach, which is based on complex network platform for solving complex massive problems with a large number of elements and taking into account their interrelationships. Thus, there are known some works which while solving problems of analysis and recognition of faces from photographs, transform images into complex networks for their subsequent processing by standard techniques. One of the first applications of complex networks to sound series (musical and speech analysis are description of frequency characteristics by constructing network models - converting the series into networks. On the network ontology platform a previously proposed technique of audio information representation aimed on its automatic analysis and speaker recognition has been developed. This implies converting information into the form of associative semantic (cognitive network structure with amplitude and frequency components both. Two speaker exemplars have been recorded and transformed into pertinent networks with consequent comparison of their topological metrics. The set of topological metrics for each of network models (amplitude and frequency one is a vector, and together those combine a matrix, as a digital "network" voiceprint. The proposed network approach, with its sensitivity to personal conditions-physiological, psychological, emotional, might be useful not only for person identification
Dutta, Mohan J.
Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the pa...
Han, T.-H.; Martyn, J. A. J.
Background Burn injury leads to resistance to the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. We tested the hypothesis that a larger bolus dose is as effective as priming for rapid onset of paralysis after burns. Methods Ninety adults, aged 18–59 yr with 40 (2)% [mean (se)] burn and 30 (2) days after injury, received rocuronium as a priming dose followed by bolus (0.06+0.94 mg kg−1), or single bolus of either 1.0 or 1.5 mg kg−1. Sixty-one non-burned, receiving 1.0 mg kg−1 as a primed (0.06+0.94 mg kg−1) or full bolus dose, served as controls. Acceleromyography measured the onset times. Results Priming when compared with 1.0 mg kg−1 bolus in burned patients shortened the time to first appearance of twitch depression (30 vs 45 s, P<0.05) and time to maximum twitch inhibition (135 vs 210 s, P<0.05). The onset times between priming and higher bolus dose (1.5 mg kg−1) were not different (30 vs 30 s for first twitch depression and 135 vs 135 s for maximal depression, respectively). The onset times in controls, however, were significantly (P<0.05) faster than burns both for priming and for full bolus (15 and 15 s, respectively, for first twitch depression and 75 and 75 s for maximal depression). Priming caused respiratory distress in 10% of patients in both groups. Intubating conditions in burns were significantly better with 1.5 mg kg−1 than with priming or full 1.0 mg kg−1 bolus. Conclusions A dose of 1.5 mg kg−1 not only produces an initial onset of paralysis as early as 30 s, which we speculate could be a reasonable onset time for relief of laryngospasm, but also has an onset as fast as priming with superior intubating conditions and no respiratory side-effects. PMID:19029093
Watts, Christopher R; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted
To investigate the effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on vocal function and handicap. Randomized controlled trial. Participants with primary muscle tension dysphonia were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. Experimental participants received vocal hygiene education followed by 6 weeks of stretch-and-flow voice therapy. Control participants received vocal hygiene education only. Outcome variables consisted of a measure of vocal handicap (Voice Handicap Index [VHI]), maximum phonation time, s/z ratio, and acoustic measures. All measures were obtained at baseline prior to treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment or at the end of the control period. The pre- to posttreatment measurement change (delta Δ) was applied to statistical analyses. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant group differences in pre-to-post changes on measures of VHI, maximum phonation time, and cepstral peak prominence (CPP) in connected speech and vowels (P = 0.003, 0.013, 0.025, and 0.017 respectively), with a significant reduction of VHI (Cohen's d = 1.6), increase in maximum phonation time (Cohen's d = 1.2), increase of CPP in connected speech (Cohen's d = 1.2), and increase of CPP in vowels (Cohen's d = 1.1) in the experimental group compared to the control group. This preliminary small sample randomized controlled trial found significantly greater improvement in vocal handicap, maximum phonation time, and acoustic measures of vocal function after participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy compared to participants receiving vocal hygiene education alone. Additional research incorporating larger samples will be needed to confirm and further investigate these findings. 1b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Gilman, Marina; Merati, Albert L; Klein, Adam M; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M
Contemporary commercial music (CCM) performers rely heavily on their voice, yet may not be aware of the importance of proactive voice care. This investigation intends to identify perceptions and barriers to seeking voice care among CCM artists. This cross-sectional observational study used a 10-item Likert-based response questionnaire to assess current perceptions regarding voice care in a population of randomly selected participants of professional CCM conference. Subjects (n=78) were queried regarding their likelihood to seek medical care for minor medical problems and specifically problems with their voice. Additional questions investigated anxiety about seeking voice care from a physician specialist, speech language pathologist, or voice coach; apprehension regarding findings of laryngeal examination, laryngeal imaging procedures; and the effect of medical insurance on the likelihood of seeking medical care. Eighty-two percent of subjects reported that their voice was a critical part of their profession; 41% stated that they were not likely to seek medical care for problems with their voice; and only 19% were reluctant to seek care for general medical problems (Peducation about the importance of voice care is needed in this population of vocal performers.
Full Text Available The Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs are widely used in order to extract essential information from a voice signal and became a popular feature extractor used in audio processing. However, MFCC features are usually calculated from a single window (taper characterized by large variance. This study shows investigations on reducing variance for the classification of two different voice qualities (normal voice and disordered voice using multitaper MFCC features. We also compare their performance by newly proposed windowing techniques and conventional single-taper technique. The results demonstrate that adapted weighted Thomson multitaper method could distinguish between normal voice and disordered voice better than the results done by the conventional single-taper (Hamming window technique and two newly proposed windowing methods. The multitaper MFCC features may be helpful in identifying voices at risk for a real pathology that has to be proven later.
Esposito, Marcello; Dubbioso, R; Apisa, P; Allocca, R; Santoro, L; Cesari, U
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a focal dystonia of laryngeal muscles seriously impairing quality of voice. Adductor SD (ADSD) is the most common presentation of this disorder that can be identified by specialized phoniatricians and neurologists firstly on a clinical evaluation and then confirmed by videolaryngoscopy (VL). Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection with electromyographic guidance in muscles around vocal cords is the most effective treatment. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire is the main tool to assess dysphonia and response to treatment. Objective of this study is to perform VL and voice spectrography (VS) to confirm the efficacy of BTX injections over time. 13 patients with ADSD were studied with VHI, VL and VS before and after 4 consecutive treatment with onobotulinumtoxin-A. For each treatment vocal improvement was proved by a significant reduction of VHI score and increase of maximum time phonation and harmonic-to-noise ratio while VL showed the absence of spasm in most of patients. No change of the response to BTX was found between injections. This study supports the efficacy of the treatment of SD with BTX with objective measurements and suggests that the efficacy of recurring treatments is stable over time.
Rousseau, Bernard; Cohen, Seth M; Zeller, Amy S; Scearce, Leda; Tritter, Andrew G; Garrett, C Gaelyn
To determine patient compliance with voice rest and the impact of voice rest on quality of life (QOL). Prospective. University hospital. Demographics, self-reported compliance, QOL impact on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), and communication methods were collected from 84 participants from 2 academic voice centers. Of 84 participants, 36.9% were men, 63.1% were women, and 64.3% were singers. The mean age of participants was 47.2 years. The mean duration of voice rest was 8.8 days (range, 3-28), and the median was 7 days. Overall compliance was 34.5%. Postoperative voice rest patients were more compliant than non-postoperative patients (42.4% vs 16.0%, P = .04, χ(2)). Voice rest had an impact on QOL (mean ± SD, 68.5 ± 27.7). Voice rest also had a greater impact on singers than nonsingers (mean VAS 77.2 vs 63.6, P = .03, t test) and on those age <60 years than those age ≥ 60 years (mean VAS 74.4 vs 46.7, P < .001, t test). More talkative patients and those with longer periods of voice rest had worse QOL scores (Spearman correlation = 0.35, P = .001 and Spearman correlation = 0.24, P = .03, respectively). Restrictions in personal and social life were noted in 36.9% of patients, 46.4% were unable to work, 44.0% felt frustrated, and 38.1% reported feeling handicapped while on voice rest. Given poor patient compliance and the significant impact of voice rest on QOL, further studies are warranted to examine the efficacy of voice rest and factors that may contribute to patient noncompliance with treatment.
Fang, Shih-Hau; Tsao, Yu; Hsiao, Min-Jing; Chen, Ji-Ying; Lai, Ying-Hui; Lin, Feng-Chuan; Wang, Chi-Te
Computerized detection of voice disorders has attracted considerable academic and clinical interest in the hope of providing an effective screening method for voice diseases before endoscopic confirmation. This study proposes a deep-learning-based approach to detect pathological voice and examines its performance and utility compared with other automatic classification algorithms. This study retrospectively collected 60 normal voice samples and 402 pathological voice samples of 8 common clinical voice disorders in a voice clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital. We extracted Mel frequency cepstral coefficients from 3-second samples of a sustained vowel. The performances of three machine learning algorithms, namely, deep neural network (DNN), support vector machine, and Gaussian mixture model, were evaluated based on a fivefold cross-validation. Collective cases from the voice disorder database of MEEI (Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary) were used to verify the performance of the classification mechanisms. The experimental results demonstrated that DNN outperforms Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine. Its accuracy in detecting voice pathologies reached 94.26% and 90.52% in male and female subjects, based on three representative Mel frequency cepstral coefficient features. When applied to the MEEI database for validation, the DNN also achieved a higher accuracy (99.32%) than the other two classification algorithms. By stacking several layers of neurons with optimized weights, the proposed DNN algorithm can fully utilize the acoustic features and efficiently differentiate between normal and pathological voice samples. Based on this pilot study, future research may proceed to explore more application of DNN from laboratory and clinical perspectives. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crawford, A. D.; Stroeve, J.; Serreze, M. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Horvath, S.
As much of the Arctic Ocean transitions to ice-free conditions in summer, efforts have increased to improve seasonal forecasts of not only sea ice extent, but also the timing of melt onset and retreat. This research investigates the potential of regional terrestrial snow retreat in spring as a predictor for subsequent sea ice melt onset and retreat in Arctic seas. One pathway involves earlier snow retreat enhancing atmospheric moisture content, which increases downwelling longwave radiation over sea ice cover downstream. Another pathway involves manipulation of jet stream behavior, which may affect the sea ice pack via both dynamic and thermodynamic processes. Although several possible connections between snow and sea ice regions are identified using a mutual information criterion, the physical mechanisms linking snow retreat and sea ice phenology are most clearly exemplified by variability of snow retreat in the West Siberian Plain impacting melt onset and sea ice retreat in the Laptev Sea. The detrended time series of snow retreat in the West Siberian Plain explains 26% of the detrended variance in Laptev Sea melt onset (29% for sea ice retreat). With modest predictive skill and an average time lag of 53 (88) days between snow retreat and sea ice melt onset (retreat), West Siberian Plains snow retreat is useful for refining seasonal sea ice predictions in the Laptev Sea.
Merrett, Zalie; Rossell, Susan L; Castle, David J
In clinical settings, there is substantial evidence both clinically and empirically to suggest that approximately 50% of individuals with borderline personality disorder experience auditory verbal hallucinations. However, there is limited research investigating the phenomenology of these voices. The aim of this study was to review and compare our current understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder with auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with a psychotic disorder, to critically analyse existing studies investigating auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder and to identify gaps in current knowledge, which will help direct future research. The literature was searched using the electronic database Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE. Relevant studies were included if they were written in English, were empirical studies specifically addressing auditory verbal hallucinations and borderline personality disorder, were peer reviewed, used only adult humans and sample comprising borderline personality disorder as the primary diagnosis, and included a comparison group with a primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Our search strategy revealed a total of 16 articles investigating the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder. Some studies provided evidence to suggest that the voice experiences in borderline personality disorder are similar to those experienced by people with schizophrenia, for example, occur inside the head, and often involved persecutory voices. Other studies revealed some differences between schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder voice experiences, with the borderline personality disorder voices sounding more derogatory and self-critical in nature and the voice-hearers' response to the voices were more emotionally resistive. Furthermore, in one study, the schizophrenia group's voices resulted in more disruption in daily functioning
Bang, Casper N; Gislason, Gunnar H; Greve, Anders M
AIM: To evaluate the effect of statins on reducing new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in a large real-world post-myocardial infarction (MI) population. Subsequently, to test if different statin doses, various types and compliance affected the incidence of new-onset AF post MI. METHODS: All patients...
Fritsch, Jonas; Jacobsen, Mogens
In this paper, we present the preliminary results from an ongoing interaction design experiment, the Voice Pump. The Voice Pump is an affectively engaging air-based interface for attuning to the differential qualities of voices in order to change attachments between native Danish speakers and non-native...
A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base/mobile non-voice operations. 90.233... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.233 Base/mobile non-voice operations. The use of A1D, A2D, F1D, F2D, G1D, or G2D emission may be authorized to base...
It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone.
Rinkel, R N P M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; van den Brakel, N; de Bree, R; Eerenstein, S E J; Aaronson, N; Leemans, C R
To validate questionnaires on voice, speech, and swallowing among laryngeal cancer patients, to assess the need for and use of rehabilitation services, and to determine the association between voice, speech, and swallowing problems, and quality of life and distress. Laryngeal cancer patients at least three months post-treatment completed the VHI (voice), SHI (speech), SWAL-QOL (swallowing), EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-HN35, HADS, and study-specific questions on rehabilitation. Eighty-eight patients and 110 healthy controls participated. Cut off scores of 15, 6, and 14 were defined for the VHI, SHI, and SWAL-QOL (sensitivity > 90%; specificity > 80%). Based on these scores, 56% of the patients reported voice, 63% speech, and 54% swallowing problems. VHI, SHI, and SWAL-QOL scores were associated significantly with quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 global quality of life scale) (r = .43 (VHI and SHI) and r = .46 (SWAL-QOL)) and distress (r = .50 (VHI and SHI) and r = .58 (SWAL-QOL)). In retrospect, 32% of the patients indicated the need for rehabilitation at time of treatment, and 81% of these patients availed themselves of such services. Post-treatment, 8% of the patients expressed a need for rehabilitation, and 20% of these patients actually made use of such services. Psychometric characteristics of the VHI, SHI, and SWAL-QOL in laryngeal cancer patients are good. The prevalence of voice, speech, and swallowing problems is high, and clearly related to quality of life and distress. Although higher during than after treatment, the perceived need for and use of rehabilitation services is limited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M
Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human
Hu, Xueping; Wang, Xiangpeng; Gu, Yan; Luo, Pei; Yin, Shouhang; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Chao; Qiao, Lei; Du, Yi; Chen, Antao
Numerous behavioral studies have found a modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination. However, the neural substrates underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we manipulated language familiarity to test the hypothesis that phonological experience affects voice discrimination via mediating the engagement of multiple perceptual and cognitive resources. The results showed that during voice discrimination, the activation of several prefrontal regions was modulated by language familiarity. More importantly, the same effect was observed concerning the functional connectivity from the fronto-parietal network to the voice-identity network (VIN), and from the default mode network to the VIN. Our findings indicate that phonological experience could bias the recruitment of cognitive control and information retrieval/comparison processes during voice discrimination. Therefore, the study unravels the neural substrates subserving the modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination, and provides new insights into studying voice discrimination from the perspective of network interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McEnteggart, C.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; Egger, J.I.M.; Barnes-Holmes, D.
The current research used the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a preliminary step toward bringing a broad, functional approach to understanding psychosis, by focusing on the specific phenomenon of auditory hallucinations of voices and sounds (often referred to as hearing voices).
This paper proposes a multimodal biometric scheme for human authentication based on fusion of voice and face recognition. For voice recognition, three categories of features (statistical coefficients, cepstral coefficients and voice timbre) are used and compared. The voice identification modality is carried out using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). For face recognition, three recognition methods (Eigenface, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA), and Gabor filter) are used and compared. The combination of voice and face biometrics systems into a single multimodal biometrics system is performed using features fusion and scores fusion. This study shows that the best results are obtained using all the features (cepstral coefficients, statistical coefficients and voice timbre features) for voice recognition, LDA face recognition method and scores fusion for the multimodal biometrics system
Mahmood, Awais; Alsulaiman, Mansour; Muhammad, Ghulam; Akram, Sheeraz
Local features for any pattern recognition system are based on the information extracted locally. In this paper, a local feature extraction technique was developed. This feature was extracted in the time-frequency plain by taking the moving average on the diagonal directions of the time-frequency plane. This feature captured the time-frequency events producing a unique pattern for each speaker that can be viewed as a voice print of the speaker. Hence, we referred to this technique as voice print-based local feature. The proposed feature was compared to other features including mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) for speaker recognition using two different databases. One of the databases used in the comparison is a subset of an LDC database that consisted of two short sentences uttered by 182 speakers. The proposed feature attained 98.35% recognition rate compared to 96.7% for MFCC using the LDC subset.
Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude
The present study was designed to examine listeners' ability to use voice information incidentally during spoken word recognition. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a continuous recognition paradigm in which participants indicated on each trial whether the spoken word was "new" or "old." Old items were presented at 2, 8 or 16 words following the first presentation. Context congruency was manipulated by having the same word repeated by either the same speaker or a different speaker. The different speaker could share the gender, accent or neither feature with the word presented the first time. Participants' accuracy was greatest when the old word was spoken by the same speaker than by a different speaker. In addition, accuracy decreased with increasing lag. The correct identification of old words was accompanied by an enhanced late positivity over parietal sites, with no difference found between voice congruency conditions. In contrast, an earlier voice reinstatement effect was observed over frontal sites, an index of priming that preceded recollection in this task. Our results provide further evidence that acoustic and semantic information are integrated into a unified trace and that acoustic information facilitates spoken word recollection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The authors present a computer-based expert computer system called Mammo-Icon, which automatically assists the radiologist's case analysis by reviewing the trigger phrase output of a commercially available voice transcription system in he domain of mammography. A commercially available PC-based voice dictation system is coupled to an expert system implemented on a microcomputer. Software employs the LISP and C computer languages. Mammo-Icon responds to the trigger phrase output of a voice dictation system with a textual discussion of the potential significance of the findings that have been described and a display of reference images that may help the radiologist to confirm a suspected diagnosis or consider additional diagnoses. This results in automatic availability of potentially useful computer-based expert advice, making such systems much more likely to be used in routine clinical practice
Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encodes two non-polyadenylated RNAs termed EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs. In this study, we tried to find series in which data of EBER and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD for patients have been documented to conduct a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed by Pubmed and Google scholar to find reports indicating test results for EBER and PTLD onset in transplant patients. PTLD was considered "early onset" when it develops within the first post-transplant year. Finally, 265 patients from 15 studies have been included in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis also showed a significant relation between EBER test positivity and early-onset PTLD development [relative risk (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.16-1.59; P <0.001]. The i2 index was 49.8%. Our study suggests that PTLD lesions with positive EBER test are more likely to develop within the early post-transplant period. Since early-onset PTLD is supposed to have better prognosis, having a positive EBER test might not be a bad news. However, for having a precise conclusion, prospective studies are needed to be conducted.
Jones, Nev; Shattell, Mona
Although the hearing voices movement (HVM) has yet to take root in the US to the extent it has in the UK (and parts of Australia and Europe), recent publications and events, including a keynote presentation by UK hearing voices trainer Ron Coleman at the 2012 Annual NAMI convention and a TED 2013 talk in Los Angeles by British voice hearer and psychologist Eleanor Longden, suggest that the tide is starting to turn (Arenella, 2012; Grantham, 2012; Thomas, 2012). At its core, the HVM emphasizes a few basic, but important, points: that antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and various forms of psychotherapy that aim to suppress psychotic experiences are often--for too many people--ineffective or insufficient; that voices and other extreme experiences and beliefs carry important messages that need to be explored rather than silenced, and that voices themselves are often less of the problem than the difficulties individuals have in coping and negotiating with them (Corstens, Escher, & Romme, 2008; Longden, Corstens, Escher, & Romme, 2012; Place, Foxcroft, & Shaw, 2011).
... Brain Listen Up! Wise Choices Avoid Voice Problems Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day. This helps keep your vocal folds moist and healthy. Limit intake of caffeinated or alcoholic drinks. These can dehydrate your body and make the ...
Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…
Byker, Erik Jon; Putman, S. Michael; Handler, Laura; Polly, Drew
Student Voice is a term that honors the participatory roles that students have when they enter learning spaces like classrooms. Student Voice is the recognition of students' choice, creativity, and freedom. Seminal educationists--like Dewey and Montessori--centered the purposes of education in the flourishing and valuing of Student Voice. This…
Rubin, Lucille S.
This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…
Jacobs, Kamra Angelica
The journey of finding my voice has forced me to show up and be seen in my work. I silenced my own voice at a dehumanizing call center, as a faceless target for frustrated customers. l discovered the power of connection by embodying advocacy and engaging my voice and body in my work. Primarily, I listen to my gut and trust my intuition. Secondly, I advocate by speaking up for those who cannot advocate for themselves. During the Streamers production process, when I felt the twinge in my gut,...
Azeta A. A.
Full Text Available Although the Internet has received significant attention in recent years, voice is still the most convenient and natural way of communicating between human to human or human to computer. In voice applications, users may have different needs which will require the ability of the system to reason, make decisions, be flexible and adapt to requests during interaction. These needs have placed new requirements in voice application development such as use of advanced models, techniques and methodologies which take into account the needs of different users and environments. The ability of a system to behave close to human reasoning is often mentioned as one of the major requirements for the development of voice applications. In this paper, we present a framework for an intelligent voice-enabled e-Education application and an adaptation of the framework for the development of a prototype Course Registration and Examination (CourseRegExamOnline module. This study is a preliminary report of an ongoing e-Education project containing the following modules: enrollment, course registration and examination, enquiries/information, messaging/collaboration, e-Learning and library. The CourseRegExamOnline module was developed using VoiceXML for the voice user interface(VUI, PHP for the web user interface (WUI, Apache as the middle-ware and MySQL database as back-end. The system would offer dual access modes using the VUI and WUI. The framework would serve as a reference model for developing voice-based e-Education applications. The e-Education system when fully developed would meet the needs of students who are normal users and those with certain forms of disabilities such as visual impairment, repetitive strain injury (RSI, etc, that make reading and writing difficult.
Ferreira, Josiane Mendes; Campos, Nathália Ferreira; Bassi, Iara Barreto; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes
To evaluate the long-term effects of voice therapy on the life quality of teachers who were discharged or abandoned the voice therapy for dysphonia. This was a longitudinal study based on analysis of assessments with teachers of municipal schools in Belo Horizonte, who were referred to voice therapy and were discharged or abandoned the speech-language therapy for more than six months. A total of 33 teachers in the discharged group and 20 teachers in the abandoned group were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the study by answering the Voice activity and participation profile, which was forwarded to the researchers and sent via letter. At the moment of the pre speech therapy, the discharged and abandoned groups were homogeneous, except in relation to daily communication parameter. Comparing the discharged group in the pre and post speech-language therapy, it was showed improvements in social communication parameter as well as in the total score. The discharged group presented worsening in self-perception parameter when comparing the average values in the post therapy and current moments, and the group abandoned presented worsening in work, social communication and total score when comparing to the average values in the pre therapy and current moments. The discharged and abandoned groups differ in the present moment in all investigated parameters. Speech-language therapy for dysphonia have long term positive effects on life quality and voice of teachers who were soon discharged from the therapy and in a period of two years on average. Teachers who have abandoned treatment and did not obtain improvement in the voice showed negative impact in life quality and voice in a time of 2 years and 2 months on average.
Buijssen, Kevin J. D. A.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify bacterial strains responsible for biofilm formation on silicone rubber voice prostheses. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an analysis of the bacterial population in biofilms on used silicone rubber voice prostheses by using new microbiological methods. METHODS: Two
Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Hase, Kazuo
This study evaluated the relationship between the time after onset of myocardial infarction and thallium redistribution in infarcted areas in a total of 123 patients with anterior infarction who underwent exercise thallium scintiscanning. Complete or incomplete redistribution of thallium was visually evaluated for transient perfusion defect by three physicians. Ischemic and defect scores were quantitatively determined by using circumferential profile analysis. The patients were divided into three groups: 64 patients receiving thallium scintiscanning within 3 months after onset of myocardial infarction (Group A), 25 patients receiving it at 3 months to one year after that (Group B), and 34 patients receiving it one year or later (Group C). Complete and incomplete redistributions were seen in 4% and 96%, respectively, for Group A, 38% and 62% for Group B, and 53% and 47% for Group C; and the rate of incomplete redistribution was significantly higher in Group A than the other two groups. Ischemic score was 50±32 for Group A, 46±29 for Group B, and 37±19 for Group C; and defect scores for these groups were 25±16, 24±16, and 20±18, respectively. Both ischemic and defect scores tended to be lower as the time after onset of myocardial infarction was longer. Eighteen patients, comprising 7 in Group A, 4 in Group B, and 7 in Group C, were also reinjected with thallium 201 and then reimaged at rest. These scans for Group A showed a significantly lower defect scores than the conventional thallium scans. Conventional exercise thallium scintiscanning seemed to underestimate thallium redistribution when performed early after onset of myocardial infarction. (N.K.)
Sawhney, Gagan K; Hutchinson, Amy K; Lambert, Scott R
To determine the value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children over 6 months of age. Personal photographs from children with unilateral cataracts who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation when > or =6 months of age were reviewed. Photographs were evaluated for changes in the red reflex, which might indicate the presence of a cataract. Twelve children underwent cataract surgery at a mean age of 37 months. They were followed for a mean of 32 months. Ten children were diagnosed as having an acquired cataract by photographic review documenting a previously normal red reflex. The visual acuity in the affected eye of 4 of these children improved to > or =20/60. Cataracts were visible on photographs prior to clinical diagnosis in 6 patients, from 0.5 to 22 months prior to clinical diagnosis. Visual outcomes did not relate closely to the photographically documented duration of the cataract prior to treatment. Photographs were not helpful in timing the onset of cataract in 2 children due to the poor quality of the images. Serial personal photographs are sometimes helpful in determining whether cataracts are acquired. However, the usefulness of personal photographs alone in predicting the visual outcome after cataract surgery was limited in this small, retrospective study.
Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.
Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M; Ptito, Maurice
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.
Cantor Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex
To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and their associations with work-related and individual factors. Some of the keywords used were: "teacher", "voice disorder", "voice problem", and "dysphonia". Information regarding the occurrence of voice disorders and associations between work-related and individual factors and voice disorders were extracted from each paper. Occurrence and associations were expressed in prevalence and odds ratios, respectively. In total, 23 publications met the criteria for inclusion. All publications were cross-sectional studies. Prevalence estimates varied widely, reflecting disparity in definitions of "voice problem". Teachers had a significantly increased occurrence of voice disorders compared to other occupations. Several work-related and individual factors were consistently associated with voice disorders, most notably high levels of noise in classrooms, being a physical education instructor, and habitual use of a loud speaking voice. This review shows that teachers report voice disorders more often than non-teachers. Various work-related and individual factors are associated with reported voice disorders. Longitudinal studies are urgently required to get more insight into the development of voice disorders, their work-related determinants, and the consequences of these voice disorders for functioning and work performance among teachers. Describe the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers. Identify some work-related factors of voice disorders among teachers. Interpret the quality of the publications to describe or analyze the relationship between working conditions and voice disorders among teachers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sauder, Cara; Bretl, Michelle; Eadie, Tanya
The purposes of this study were to (1) determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of a single acoustic measure, smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS), to predict voice disorder status from connected speech samples using two software systems: Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV) and Praat; and (2) to determine the relationship between measures of CPPS generated from these programs. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Measures of CPPS were obtained from connected speech recordings of 100 subjects with voice disorders and 70 nondysphonic subjects without vocal complaints using commercially available ADSV and freely downloadable Praat software programs. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of CPPS measures. Relationships between CPPS measures from the programs were determined. Results showed acceptable overall accuracy rates (75% accuracy, ADSV; 82% accuracy, Praat) and area under the ROC curves (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, ADSV; AUC = 0.91, Praat) for predicting voice disorder status, with slight differences in sensitivity and specificity. CPPS measures derived from Praat were uniquely predictive of disorder status above and beyond CPPS measures from ADSV (χ 2 (1) = 40.71, P disorder status using either program. Clinicians may consider using CPPS to complement clinical voice evaluation and screening protocols. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena
Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...
Maja Šereh Bahar
Conclusions: The prevalence of voice disorders among outpatients’ physicians in Slovenia is high and is comparable to the incidence of voice problems in Slovenian teachers. URI is the most common cause of these voice problems. GERD, allergies and an age over 40 years were stated as the risk factors for voice disorders. In order to reduce the extent of voice problems, lessons on vocal hygiene, and additional information about diseases causing voice disorders should be included in their postgraduate education.
Background: Current models of evidence-based practice marginalize and even silence the voices of those who are the potential beneficiaries of assessment and intervention. These missing voices can be found in the reflections of clients on their own life-world experiences. Aims: This paper examines how voices from the life-world are silenced in…
Rexhepi Agron M.
Full Text Available Purpose. Since human voice characteristics are specific to each individual, numerous anthropological studies have been oriented to find significant relationships between voice and morpho-functional features. The goal of this study was to identify the correlation between seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters in sportsmen. Methods. Following the protocols of the International Biological Program, seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters have been measured in 88 male professional athletes from Kosovo, aged 17-35 years, during the period of April-October 2013. The statistical analysis was accomplished through the SPSS program, version 20. The obtained data were analysed through descriptive parameters and with Spearman’s method of correlation analysis. Results. Spearman’s method of correlation showed significant negative correlations (R = -0.215 to -0.613; p = 0.05 between three voice acoustic variables of the fundamental frequency of the voice sample (Mean, Minimum, and Maximum Pitch and six morpho-functional measures (Body Height, Body Weight, Margaria-Kalamen Power Test, Sargent Jump Test, Pull-up Test, and VO2max.abs. Conclusions. The significant correlations imply that the people with higher stature have longer vocal cords and a lower voice. These results encourage investigations on predicting sportsmen’s functional abilities on the basis of their voice acoustic parameters.
This article combines results from three earlier investigations of the glottal voice source during phonation at varying degrees of vocal loudness (1) in five classically trained baritone singers (Sundberg et al., 1999), (2) in 15 female and 14 male untrained voices (Sundberg et al., 2005), and (3) in voices rated as hyperfunctional by an expert panel (Millgård et al., 2015). Voice source data were obtained by inverse filtering. Associated subglottal pressures were estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. Five flow glottogram parameters, (1) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), (2) peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, (3) level difference between the first and the second harmonics of the voice source, (4) closed quotient, and (5) normalized amplitude quotient, were averaged across the singer subjects and related to associated MFDR values. Strong, quantitative relations, expressed as equations, are found between subglottal pressure and MFDR and between MFDR and each of the other flow glottogram parameters. The values for the untrained voices, as well as those for the voices rated as hyperfunctional, deviate systematically from the values derived from the equations. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shih, Ludy C; Piel, Jordan; Warren, Amanda; Kraics, Lauren; Silver, Althea; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel
Parkinson's disease related speech and voice impairment have significant impact on quality of life measures. LSVT(®)LOUD voice and speech therapy (Lee Silverman Voice Therapy) has demonstrated scientific efficacy and clinical effectiveness, but musically based voice and speech therapy has been underexplored as a potentially useful method of rehabilitation. We undertook a pilot, open-label study of a group-based singing intervention, consisting of twelve 90-min weekly sessions led by a voice and speech therapist/singing instructor. The primary outcome measure of vocal loudness as measured by sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm during connected speech was not significantly different one week after the intervention or at 13 weeks after the intervention. A number of secondary measures reflecting pitch range, phonation time and maximum loudness also were unchanged. Voice related quality of life (VRQOL) and voice handicap index (VHI) also were unchanged. This study suggests that a group singing therapy intervention at this intensity and frequency does not result in significant improvement in objective and subject-rated measures of voice and speech impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dearing, Karen S; Steadman, Sheryl
Stigma is a barrier to mental health care access for patients with schizophrenia and can interfere with developing therapeutic relationships. This study demonstrates success of a voice simulation experience during orientation in changing the biases of nursing students and the effect on the development of the nurse-patient relationship. Ninety-four individuals participated; 52 received a voice simulation experience during orientation, and 42 received orientation with no voice simulation experience. The Medical Condition Regard Scale was administered before and after orientation. Posttest paired t test results show significant differences in attitudes toward patients with voice hearing experiences between the two groups. The themes of personal growth from the focus groups postorientation include Affective Experience, Physical Experience, and Empathy. Findings demonstrate that the orientation process should include methods to challenge stereotyping and bias to decrease stigma, improve service access, and enhance the ability to develop therapeutic relationships.
Smith, David R. R.
Whispered vowels, produced with no vocal fold vibration, lack the periodic temporal fine structure which in voiced vowels underlies the perceptual attribute of pitch (a salient auditory cue to speaker sex). Voiced vowels possess no temporal fine structure at very short durations (below two glottal cycles). The prediction was that speaker-sex discrimination performance for whispered and voiced vowels would be similar for very short durations but, as stimulus duration increases, voiced vowel pe...
Manka, David L
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an emerging technology with the potential to assist the United States Marine Corps in solving communication challenges stemming from modern operational concepts...
Scott, David W.
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides communication services for a number of real time environments, including Space Shuttle Propulsion support and International Space Station (ISS) payload operations. In such settings, control team members speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops. Each loop has a particular purpose and constituency, and users are assigned listen and/or talk capabilities for a given loop based on their role in fulfilling the purpose. A voice switch is a given facility's hardware and software that supports such communication, and may be interconnected with other facilities switches to create a large network that, from an end user perspective, acts like a single system. Since users typically monitor and/or respond to several voice loops concurrently for hours on end and real time operations can be very dynamic and intense, it s vital that a control panel or keyset for interfacing with the voice switch be a servant that reduces stress, not a master that adds it. Implementing the visual interface on a computer screen provides tremendous flexibility and configurability, but there s a very real risk of overcomplication. (Remember how office automation made life easier, which led to a deluge of documents that made life harder?) This paper a) discusses some basic human factors considerations related to keysets implemented as application software windows, b) suggests what to standardize at the facility level and what to leave to the user's preference, and c) provides screen shot mockups for a robust but reasonably simple user experience. Concepts apply to keyset needs in almost any type of operations control or support center.
Vampola, T.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J. G.
Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-88 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomechanics of human voice * voice production modelling * vocal excersing * voice training Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/138
Muhammed Maruf Ozturk
Full Text Available To manage file transfer operation various tools have been developed so far. However these tools can not respond adequately for conduct a secure transfer. Also few works have been done using encrypted voice controlled system yet. By regarding this lack we investigate how to built a useful and secure tool. This work presents a novel improved voice controlled FTP tool Wb-CFTP using chaotic system. A chaotic system called as logistic map is associated with Wb-FTP designed on the basis of Asp.Net and C. Here we depict the prominence of encryption in voice controlled systems.
Full Text Available Multimedia telephony is a delay-sensitive application. Packet losses, relatively less critical than delay, are allowed up to a certain threshold. They represent the QoS constraints that have to be respected to guarantee the operation of the telephony service and user satisfaction. In this work we introduce a new smartphone architecture characterized by two process levels called application processor (AP and mobile termination (MT, respectively. Here, they communicate through a serial channel. Moreover, we focus our attention on two very important UMTS services: voice and video telephony. Through a simulation study the impact of voice and video telephony is evaluated on the structure considered using the protocols known at this moment to realize voice and video telephony
Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen; Lyle, Samantha
This study is an acoustic investigation of the nature and extent of consonant voicing of the stop /b/ in two dialectal varieties of American English spoken in south-central Wisconsin and western North Carolina. The stop /b/ occurred at the juncture of two words such as small bids, in a position between two voiced sonorants, i.e. the liquid /l/ and a vowel. Twenty women participated, ten representing the Wisconsin and ten the North Carolina variety, respectively. Significant dialectal differences were found in the voicing patterns. The Wisconsin stop closures were usually not fully voiced and terminated in a complete silence followed by a closure release whereas North Carolina speakers produced mostly fully voiced closures. Further dialectal differences included the proportion of closure voicing as a function of word emphasis. For Wisconsin speakers, the proportion of closure voicing was smallest when the word was emphasized and it was greatest in non-emphatic positions. For North Carolina speakers, the degree of word emphasis did not have an effect on the proportion of closure voicing. The results suggest different mechanisms by which closure voicing is maintained in these two dialects, pointing to active articulatory maneuvers in North Carolina speakers and passive in Wisconsin speakers. PMID:20198112
Full Text Available A novel approach for onset detection of musical notes from audio signals is presented. In contrast to most commonly used conventional approaches, the proposed method features new detection functions constructed from the linear temporal bases that are obtained from the decomposition of musical spectra using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF. Three forms of detection function, namely, first-order difference function, psychoacoustically motivated relative difference function, and constant-balanced relative difference function, are considered. As the approach works directly on input data, no prior knowledge or statistical information is therefore required. Practical issues, including the choice of the factorization rank and detection robustness to instruments, are also examined experimentally. Due to the scalability issue with the generated nonnegative matrix, the proposed method is only applied to relatively short, single instrument (or voice recordings. Numerical examples are provided to show the good performance of the proposed method, including comparisons between the three detection functions.
MacLeod, D.; Palmer, T.
The timing of the rainy seasons is critical for East Africa, where many livelihoods depend on rain-fed agriculture. The exact onset date of the rains varies from year to year and a delayed start has significant implications for food security. Early warning of anomalous onset can help mitigate risks by informing farmer decisions on crop choice and timing of planting. Onset forecasts may also pre-warn governments and NGOs of upcoming need for financial support and humanitarian intervention. Here we assess the potential to forecast the onset of both the short and long rains over East Africa at subseasonal to seasonal timescales. Based on operational reforecasts from ECMWF, we will demonstrate skilful prediction of onset anomalies. An investigation to determine potential sources of this forecast skill will also be presented. This work has been carried out as part of the project ForPAc: "Towards forecast-based preparedness action".
Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia
Dysphonia is more prevalent in teachers than among the general population. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical, vocal, and videolaryngoscopical aspects in dysphonic teachers. Ninety dysphonic teachers were inquired about their voice, comorbidities, and work conditions. They underwent vocal auditory-perceptual evaluation (maximum phonation time and GRBASI scale), acoustic voice analysis, and videolaryngoscopy. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 90 dysphonic nonteachers, of similar gender and ages, and with professional activities excluding teaching and singing. In both groups, there were 85 women and five men (age range 31-50 years). In the controls, the majority of subjects worked in domestic activities, whereas the majority of teachers worked in primary (42.8%) and secondary school (37.7%). Teachers and controls reported, respectively: vocal abuse (76.7%; 37.8%), weekly hours of work between 21 and 40 years (72.2%; 80%), under 10 years of practice (36%; 23%), absenteeism (23%; 0%), sinonasal (66%; 20%) and gastroesophageal symptoms (44%; 22%), hoarseness (82%; 78%), throat clearing (70%; 62%), and phonatory effort (72%; 52%). In both groups, there were decreased values of maximum phonation time, impairment of the G parameter in the GRBASI scale (82%), decrease of F0 and increase of the rest of acoustic parameters. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant in teachers; laryngopharyngeal reflux, polyps, and sulcus vocalis predominated in the controls. Vocal symptoms, comorbidities, and absenteeism were predominant among teachers. The vocal analyses were similar in both groups. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant among teachers, whereas polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and sulcus were predominant among controls. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roper, Larry D.
Higher education reform is a prominent topic among state and federal governments. However, the discussions regarding higher education are narrowly focused and not always inclusive of the voices of postsecondary leaders. Higher education officials must find approaches to ensure their voices are appropriately represented in these crucial…
Romak, Jonathan J; Orbelo, Diana M; Maragos, Nicolas E; Ekbom, Dale C
This study examines the correlation between two voice-specific patient-reported outcome measures: the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL). Retrospective chart review. Eight hundred four patients presenting to our voice clinic between May 2009 and August 2011. All patients completed the VHI-10 and V-RQOL in a single sitting. Correlation between the two scales was examined using Spearman rank analysis. Calculated VHI-10 score was derived from V-RQOL score by direct conversion equation and compared with measured VHI-10 score. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were derived for diagnostic groups. Spearman correlation coefficient between the VHI-10 and V-RQOL was -0.91 (P dysphonia (V-RQOL AUC = 0.536 [SE ± 0.026]; VHI-10 AUC = 0.508 [SE ± 0.26]; P = 0.018) groups, with the V-RQOL showing relatively greater sensitivity. The VHI-10 and V-RQOL are highly correlated. However, VHI-10 score cannot be calculated from V-RQOL score using the tested equation. The V-RQOL may be more sensitive than the VHI-10 in detecting the impact of presbyphonia and muscle tension dysphonia. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Age at symptom onset (ASO is a prognostic factor that could affect the accrual of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Some factors are known to influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS, but their influence on the ASO is less well-investigated.Objective: Examine the associations between known or emerging MS risk factors and ASO.Methods: This was a multicenter study, incident cases (n = 279 with first clinical diagnosis of demyelinating event aged 18–59 years recruited at four Australian centres (latitudes 27°-43°S, from 1 November 2003 to 31 December 2006. Environmental/behavioral variables and initial symptoms were recorded at baseline interview. Linear regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and ASO.Results: Five factors were significantly associated with ASO: a history of tobacco smoking was associated with 3.05-years later ASO (p = 0.002; a history of marijuana use was associated with 6.03-years earlier ASO (p < 0.001; progressive-onset cases had 5.61-years later ASO (p = 0.001; an initial presentation of bowel & bladder and cerebral dysfunctional were associated with 3.39 (p = 0.017 and 4.37-years (p = 0.006 later ASO, respectively. Other factors, including sex, offspring number, latitude of study site, history of infectious mononucleosis, HLA-DR15 & HLA-A2 genotype, 25(OHD levels, and ultraviolet radiation exposure were not associated with ASO. Including all five significant variables into one model explained 12% of the total variance in ASO.Conclusion: We found a novel association between a history of tobacco smoking and later onset, whereas marijuana use was associated with earlier onset. Behavioral factors seem important drivers of MS onset timing although much of the variance remains unexplained.
Liu, Su; Sha, Zhiyi; Sencer, Altay; Aydoseli, Aydin; Bebek, Nerse; Abosch, Aviva; Henry, Thomas; Gurses, Candan; Ince, Nuri Firat
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings are considered as promising clinical biomarkers of epileptogenic regions in the brain. The aim of this study is to improve and automatize the detection of HFOs by exploring the time-frequency content of iEEG and to investigate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) detection accuracy during the sleep, awake and pre-ictal states in patients with epilepsy, for the purpose of assisting the localization of SOZ in clinical practice. Ten-minute iEEG segments were defined during different states in eight patients with refractory epilepsy. A three-stage algorithm was implemented to detect HFOs in these segments. First, an amplitude based initial detection threshold was used to generate a large pool of HFO candidates. Then distinguishing features were extracted from the time and time-frequency domain of the raw iEEG and used with a Gaussian mixture model clustering to isolate HFO events from other activities. The spatial distribution of HFO clusters was correlated with the seizure onset channels identified by neurologists in seven patient with good surgical outcome. The overlapping rates of localized channels and seizure onset locations were high in all states. The best result was obtained using the iEEG data during sleep, achieving a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 96%. The channels with maximum number of HFOs identified epileptogenic areas where the seizures occurred more frequently. The current study was conducted using iEEG data collected in realistic clinical conditions without channel pre-exclusion. HFOs were investigated with novel features extracted from the entire frequency band, and were correlated with SOZ in different states. The results indicate that automatic HFO detection with unsupervised clustering methods exploring the time-frequency content of raw iEEG can be efficiently used to identify the epileptogenic zone with an accurate and efficient manner.
Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne
Abstract One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers’ visual and manual distractions with ‘infotainment’ technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual–manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox ‘one-shot’ voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory–vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers’ interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281
Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne
One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers' visual and manual distractions with 'infotainment' technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual-manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox 'one-shot' voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory-vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers' interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation.
Noraida Abdullah Karim
Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.
Cannito, Michael P; Chorna, Lesya B; Kahane, Joel C; Dworkin, James P
This study evaluated the hypotheses that sentence production by speakers with adductor (AD) and abductor (AB) spasmodic dysphonia (SD) may be differentially influenced by consonant voicing and manner features, in comparison with healthy, matched, nondysphonic controls. This was a prospective, single blind study, using a between-groups, repeated measures design for the independent variables of perceived voice quality and sentence duration. Sixteen subjects with ADSD and 10 subjects with ABSD, as well as 26 matched healthy controls produced four short, simple sentences that were systematically loaded with voiced or voiceless consonants of either obstruant or continuant manner categories. Experienced voice clinicians, who were "blind" as to speakers' group affixations, used visual analog scaling to judge the overall voice quality of each sentence. Acoustic sentence durations were also measured. Speakers with ABSD or ADSD demonstrated significantly poorer than normal voice quality on all sentences. Speakers with ABSD exhibited longer than normal duration for voiceless consonant sentences. Speakers with ADSD had poorer voice quality for voiced than for voiceless consonant sentences. Speakers with ABSD had longer durations for voiceless than for voiced consonant sentences. The two subtypes of SD exhibit differential performance on the basis of consonant voicing in short, simple sentences; however, each subgroup manifested voicing-related differences on a different variable (voice quality vs sentence duration). Findings suggest different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for ABSD and ADSD. Findings also support inclusion of short, simple sentences containing voiced or voiceless consonants as part of the diagnostic protocol for SD, with measurement of sentence duration in addition to judments of voice quality severity. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Baccher, Gurmit K.; Waghmare, Chaitali M.; Mallick, Indranil; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Pai, Prathamesh; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; D'Cruz, Anil; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.
Aims: To prospectively analyze the objective voice quality before and after radiotherapy (RT) for early glottic cancer and to evaluate the role of different factors that may affect it. Methods: Patients with T1-T2N0M0 glottic cancer underwent voice quality assessment before treatment and after radical RT. Post-RT voice quality was compared to the voice at diagnosis and the voice of healthy individuals used as controls. A comprehensive set of voice parameters were measured. The effects of age, smoking history, T stage, anterior commissure (AC) involvement, radiation dose, fractionation and volumes on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice quality were analyzed. Results: The voice quality data of 50 patients were analyzed. Following treatment, there was a significant improvement in the majority of measured parameters. However, perturbation and HNR remained inferior compared to controls. A history of smoking, AC involvement and larger RT volumes resulted in poorer voice parameters following RT. There was no significant impact of age alone. T2 tumors had an inferior voice quality before treatment, but did not remain inferior following RT. Hypofractionated RT did not show any negative impact. Conclusions: There is a considerable improvement of voice quality following RT. Several factors may have specific effects on pre-treatment and post-treatment voice
Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.
Vilhauer, Ruvanee P
Voice hearing experiences, or auditory verbal hallucinations, occur in healthy individuals as well as in individuals who need clinical care, but news media depict voice hearing primarily as a symptom of mental illness, particularly schizophrenia. This article explores whether, and how, public perception of an exaggerated association between voice hearing and mental illness might influence individuals' need for clinical care. A narrative literature review was conducted, using relevant peer-reviewed research published in the English language. Stigma may prevent disclosure of voice hearing experiences. Non-disclosure can prevent access to sources of normalizing information and lead to isolation, loss of social support and distress. Internalization of stigma and concomitantly decreased self-esteem could potentially affect features of voices such as perceived voice power, controllability, negativity and frequency, as well as distress. Increased distress may result in a decrease in functioning and increased need for clinical care. The literature reviewed suggests that stigma has the potential to increase need for care through many interrelated pathways. However, the ability to draw definitive conclusions was constrained by the designs of the studies reviewed. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this review.
Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert
Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…
This dissertation investigates how and when the Dutch voicing alternation is acquired. In Dutch, final neutralisation of the voice contrast (or ‘final devoicing’) leads to alternations in singular - plural pairs such as bed ~ bedden ‘bed(s)’. In such pairs, the singular always ends in a voiceless
Schultz-Coulon, H J
The applicability of a newly developed fundamental frequency analyzer to diagnosis in phoniatrics is reviewed. During routine voice examination, the analyzer allows a quick and accurate measurement of fundamental frequency and sound level of the speaking voice, and of vocal range and maximum phonation time. By computing fundamental frequency histograms, the median fundamental frequency and the total pitch range can be better determined and compared. Objective studies of certain technical faculties of the singing voice, which usually are estimated subjectively by the speech therapist, may now be done by means of this analyzer. Several examples demonstrate the differences between correct and incorrect phonation. These studies compare the pitch perturbations during the crescendo and decrescendo of a swell-tone, and show typical traces of staccato, thrill and yodel. Conclusions of the study indicate that fundamental frequency analysis is a valuable supplemental method for objective voice examination.
Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D
Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.
Full Text Available Joassin et al. (Neuroscience Letters, 2004,369,132-137 observed that the recognition of face-voice associations led to an interference effect, i.e. to decreased performances relative to the recognition of faces presented in isolation. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that this interference effect could be due to the fact that voices were more difficult to recognize than faces. For this purpose, we modified some faces by morphing to make them as difficult to recognize as the voices. Twenty one healthy volunteers performed a recogniton task of previously learned face-voice associations in 5 conditions: voices (A, natural faces (V, morphed faces (V30, voice-natural face associations (AV and voice-morphed faces associations (AV30. As expected, AV led to interference, as it was less well and slower performed than V. However, when faces were as difficult to recognize as voices, their simultaneous presentation produced a clear facilitation, AV30 being significantly better and faster performed than A and V30. These results demonstrate that matching or not the perceptual complexity of the unimodal stimuli modulates the potential cross-modal gains of the bimodal situations.
Richter, Bernhard; Nusseck, Manfred; Spahn, Claudia; Echternach, Matthias
The effectiveness of a preventive training program on vocal health for German student teachers was investigated on specific vocal parameters. The voice quality as described by the Dysphonia Severity Index of 204 student teachers (training group: n = 123; control group: n = 81) was measured at the beginning and at the end of the student teachers training period (duration 1.5 years). Additionally, for investigating the voice-carrying capacity, a vocal loading test (VLT) was performed. Finally, participants had to provide a subjective judgment of a possible Voice Handicap Index. The training program improved the voice quality of the trained group compared with that of the control group, whose voice quality declined. The trained group was also able to better sustain their voice quality across the VLT than the control group. Both groups, however, reported a similar increase in subjective vocal strain. The presented training program clearly showed a positive impact on the voice quality and the vocal capacity. The results maintain the importance of such a training program to be integrated in the education and occupational routine of teachers. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R
Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Grinband, Jack
Why do humans make errors on seemingly trivial perceptual decisions? It has been shown that such errors occur in part because the decision process (evidence accumulation) is initiated before selective attention has isolated the relevant sensory information from salient distractors. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that subjects increase accuracy by prolonging the decision process rather than delaying decision onset. To date it has not been tested whether humans can strategically delay decision onset to increase response accuracy. To address this question we measured the time course of selective attention in a motion interference task using a novel variant of the response signal paradigm. Based on these measurements we estimated time-dependent drift rate and showed that subjects should in principle be able trade speed for accuracy very effectively by delaying decision onset. Using the time-dependent estimate of drift rate we show that subjects indeed delay decision onset in addition to raising response threshold when asked to stress accuracy over speed in a free reaction version of the same motion-interference task. These findings show that decision onset is a critical aspect of the decision process that can be adjusted to effectively improve decision accuracy. PMID:24599295
Full Text Available Women with higher-pitched voices and more feminine facial features are commonly judged as being more attractive than are women with lower-pitched voices and less feminine faces, possibly because both features are affected by (age-related variations in endocrine status. These results are primarily derived from investigations of perceptions of variations in single-modality stimuli (i.e., faces or voices in samples of young adult women. In the present study we sought to test whether male and female perceptions of women's voices affect visual representations of facial femininity. Eighty men and women judged voice recordings of 10 young girls (11–15 years, 10 adult women (19–28 years and 10 peri-/post-menopausal women (50–64 years on age, attractiveness, and femininity. Another 80 men and women were asked to indicate the face they think each voice corresponded to using a video that gradually changed from a masculine looking male face into a feminine looking female face. Both male and female participants perceived voices of young girls and adult women to be significantly younger, more attractive and feminine than those of peri-/post-menopausal women. Hearing young girls' and adult women's voices resulted in both men and women selecting faces that differed markedly in apparent femininity from those associated with peri-/post-menopausal women's voices. Voices of young girls had the strongest effect on visualizations of facial femininity. Our results suggest a cross-modal preference for women's vocal and facial femininity, which depends on female age and is independent of the perceiver's sex.
Martens, S; Johnson, A
Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second target relative to the first. Blocking the TOA
Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.
Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching
Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Full Text Available Abstract: As a product of mass media, news photograph is an image which provides the viewers with a valuable source of information and news story. All events captured in photographs turn into a news photo. Besides covering the news with fact, news photographs do not only have surface meanings, but also deeper meanings to be interpreted by each viewer. The phenomenon of demonstration, particularly the massive demonstration in Egypt in 2011, offers a good chance to discover how visual messages have been presented to guide interpretation of foreign news events. Principally, demonstration is an expression of the people’s voices, and thus, their voices are related closely with their demands, grievances and wishes related to the new government. Here, the photographs are able to portray and reflect the people’s voices through the compositions and contents (meanings involved in the photos. This study is aimed at discovering the portrayal of the voice of the people (the protesters in the news photographs of the Indonesian online newspaper, The Jakarta Globe. The data consist of 15 news photographs taken from The Jakarta Globe online newspaper published in January – October 2011. The study employs qualitative method framed with semiotic analysis using Roland Barthes’ theory of orders of signification and photographic message. The results of the study show that The Jakarta Globe visually constructs this event (demonstration by focusing on the human action (the protesters. Thus, the voice of the people is portrayed in the photo subjects (the protesters and the included objects of the photo. Meanwhile, the technical aspects of the photos play a meaningful role in emerging the portrayal of the people’s voice. There are four voices revealed by the people in the 15 photographs, namely the voice of freedom, the voice of peace, the voice of justice and the voice of human rights. The photo text including headlines and captions also interact with
Full Text Available When we hear a new voice we automatically form a "first impression" of the voice owner's personality; a single word is sufficient to yield ratings highly consistent across listeners. Past studies have shown correlations between personality ratings and acoustical parameters of voice, suggesting a potential acoustical basis for voice personality impressions, but its nature and extent remain unclear. Here we used data-driven voice computational modelling to investigate the link between acoustics and perceived trustworthiness in the single word "hello". Two prototypical voice stimuli were generated based on the acoustical features of voices rated low or high in perceived trustworthiness, respectively, as well as a continuum of stimuli inter- and extrapolated between these two prototypes. Five hundred listeners provided trustworthiness ratings on the stimuli via an online interface. We observed an extremely tight relationship between trustworthiness ratings and position along the trustworthiness continuum (r = 0.99. Not only were trustworthiness ratings higher for the high- than the low-prototypes, but the difference could be modulated quasi-linearly by reducing or exaggerating the acoustical difference between the prototypes, resulting in a strong caricaturing effect. The f0 trajectory, or intonation, appeared a parameter of particular relevance: hellos rated high in trustworthiness were characterized by a high starting f0 then a marked decrease at mid-utterance to finish on a strong rise. These results demonstrate a strong acoustical basis for voice personality impressions, opening the door to multiple potential applications.
Rosa, Christine; Lassonde, Maryse; Pinard, Claudine; Keenan, Julian Paul; Belin, Pascal
Three experiments investigated functional asymmetries related to self-recognition in the domain of voices. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to identify one of three presented voices (self, familiar or unknown) by responding with either the right or the left-hand. In Experiment 2, participants were presented with auditory morphs between the…
Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther
Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…
Mitchell, Kim M
Academic voice is an oft-discussed, yet variably defined concept, and confusion exists over its meaning, evaluation, and interpretation. This paper will explore perspectives on academic voice and counterarguments to the positivist origins of objectivity in academic writing. While many epistemological and methodological perspectives exist, the feminist literature on voice is explored here as the contrary position. From the feminist perspective, voice is a socially constructed concept that cannot be separated from the experiences, emotions, and identity of the writer and, thus, constitutes a reflection of an author's way of knowing. A case study of how author presence can enhance meaning in text is included. Subjective experience is imperative to a practice involving human interaction. Nursing practice, our intimate involvement in patient's lives, and the nature of our research are not value free. A view is presented that a visible presence of an author in academic writing is relevant to the nursing discipline. The continued valuing of an objective, colorless academic voice has consequences for student writers and the faculty who teach them. Thus, a strategically used multivoiced writing style is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Silva, Marco; Vellasco, Marley M B R; Cataldo, Edson
The aging of the voice, known as presbyphonia, is a natural process that can cause great change in vocal quality of the individual. This is a relevant problem to those people who use their voices professionally, and its early identification can help determine a suitable treatment to avoid its progress or even to eliminate the problem. This work focuses on the development of a new model for the identification of aging voices (independently of their chronological age), using as input attributes parameters extracted from the voice and glottal signals. The proposed model, named Quantum binary-real evolving Spiking Neural Network (QbrSNN), is based on spiking neural networks (SNNs), with an unsupervised training algorithm, and a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm that automatically determines the most relevant attributes and the optimal parameters that configure the SNN. The QbrSNN model was evaluated in a database composed of 120 records, containing samples from three groups of speakers. The results obtained indicate that the proposed model provides better accuracy than other approaches, with fewer input attributes. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pimenta, Regina Aparecida
Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of voiced vibration technique can be assessed by laryngeal imaging. Kymographic images derived from high-speed videoendoscopy allow actual visualization of vocal folds vibration. Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the immediate effects of the voiced vibration technique in healthy vocal folds using high-speed digital laryngeal imaging. Methods: Samples were obtained from 15 healthy subjects with no history of voice disorders (6 men and 9 women aged 21 to 43 years. High-speed videoendoscopy recordings were performed before and after the voiced vibration technique. Kymographic images were obtained using high-speed videoendoscopy. The vocal folds were examined in their open and closed positions and the characteristics of the opening and closing phases were determined. A customize computational routine was used quantify these parameters. The closing, opening, and speed quotients were also calculated. Results: In this study, women displayed statistically significant differences in opened phase (P= 0.05*, closed phase (P= 0.046*, and closing phase (P= 0.026* phase characteristics. Men displayed the highest difference rate in opening time characteristics (P= 0.06. The closing and opening quotients for the female group showed significant differences (P= 0.029* and P= 0.049*, respectively. The speed quotient exhibited statistically significant differences in the male group (P= 0.048*. Conclusion: The kymographic images indicated that the immediate effect of the voiced vibration technique was smooth contact in healthy vocal fold vibration.
Özlem YAŞAR UĞURLU
Full Text Available In this quantitative research, we enhance understanding of psychological safety on employee voice behavior by examining mediating role of affective commitment and intrinsic motivation. We examined these relationships among 151 research assistants working full-time for universities. The results suggest that psychological safety is significantly associated with affective commitment whereas it does not significantly influence intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, employee voice behavior is affected by intrinsic motivation but not by affective commitment. Lastly, while affective commitment plays an important role as mediator in the relationship between psychological safety and employee voice although intrinsic motivation does not have a mediating effect. We discuss the implications of these findings for both theory and practice.
Watt, Seth O; Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O
Voices convey important social information about an individual's identity, including gender. This is especially relevant to transgender individuals, who cite voice alteration as a primary goal of the gender alignment process. Although the voice is a primary target of testosterone therapy among female-to-male (FTM) trans people, little research has explored the effects of such changes on their psychological well-being. Here, we investigated how FTMs' vocal gender related to their well-being. A total of 77 FTMs (M age = 25.45 years, SD = 6.77) provided voice samples and completed measures of their well-being and psychological health. An independent group of 32 naïve raters (M age = 22.16 years, SD = 8.21) subsequently rated the voice samples for masculinity. We found that FTMs whose voices sounded more congruent with their experienced gender (i.e., sounded more masculine) reported greater well-being (better life satisfaction, quality of life, and self-esteem; lower levels of anxiety and depression) than FTMs with less gender congruent (i.e., more feminine) voices (β = .48). The convergence between outwardly perceived vocal gender and gender identity brought about through hormone replacement therapy may therefore support greater well-being for FTMs.
Schwartz, Sandra M.
Vocal demands of teaching are significant, and this challenge is compounded for choral directors who depend on the voice for communicating information or demonstrating music concepts. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and intensity of middle and high school choral directors' voices and to compare choral directors' voices with…
Voznak, Miroslav; Partila, Pavol; Penhaker, Marek; Peterek, Tomas; Tomala, Karel; Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub
The paper deals with the increasing accuracy of voice authentication methods. The developed algorithm first extracts segmental parameters, such as Zero Crossing Rate, the Fundamental Frequency and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients from voice. Based on these parameters, the neural network classifier detects the speaker's emotional state. These parameters shape the distribution of neurons in Kohonen maps, forming clusters of neurons on the map characterizing a particular emotional state. Using regression analysis, we can calculate the function of the parameters of individual emotional states. This relationship increases voice authentication accuracy and prevents unjust rejection.
Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge
Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the p