WorldWideScience

Sample records for voice gender discrimination

  1. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  2. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  3. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  4. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  5. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  6. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers.

  7. Gender in voice perception in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Orsouw, L van; Zwiers, M.; Swinkels, S.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender.

  8. Gender in Voice Perception in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter B.; van Orsouw, Linda; Zwiers, Marcel; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender. About 20 children with HFA and 20 matched…

  9. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  10. Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  11. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women’s right and believing their ability are essential for women’s empowerment and development. This study deals with gender discrimination in India, its various forms and its causes. Importance of women in development, legislation...

  12. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women's right and believing their ability are essential for women's empowerment and…

  13. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market....... It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  14. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  15. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  16. Evaluating Gender Discrimination Claims: Is There a Gender Similarity Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Teri J.; Phillips, James S.; Konopaske, Robert; Townsend, Joellyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the possible existence of a gender similarity bias in evaluations of gender discrimination allegations, using a laboratory experiment in which the strength of evidence against a defendant company and the gender of the plaintiff were manipulated. Participants were ethnically diverse undergraduate students. Although female mock jurors…

  17. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine eSczesny; Magdalena eFormanowicz; Franziska eMoser

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of...

  18. The Voice of Gender in Emily Dickinson’s Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺亚男

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the reading and interpreting of the voice of gender in Emily Dickinson’s poems.The gender,the 1yric poem and the reading constitute the performance.Dickinson succeeded in constructing alternatives to a traditional,fixed binary gender system(woman/man) and opens opportunities for the reader to perform alternative gendering.Analysis of voices of gender in and of Dickinson’s poems shows that her variant performances of gender are crucial to the general construction of her poetry.Through the analysis of the voice of gender in Dickinson’s poetry,the paper discloses the crucial function of poets construct in women’s rebellion and self-salvation and subverting patriarchy,which also demonstrates her uniqueness in her life and literary creativity.

  19. CONFERENCIA GENDER AND EDUCATION DIVERSITY OF VOICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Rios

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 El pasado 8 y 9 de Abril, tuvo lugar, en el Edificio Histórico de la Universidad de Barcelona, la Conferencia Gender and Education. Diversity of Voices que organizaron conjuntamente el Grupo de Mujeres CREA-Safo y la Gender and Education Association, GEA de ahora en adelante. Esta última, es una asociación con investigadoras dedicadas a los estudios de género y educación de diferentes universidades europeas e internacionales. En este sentido, GEA cuenta en la actualidad con representantes en diferentes países, entre los que se incluyen Estados Unidos, Francia, Japón, Canadá, Brasil, Irlanda y España. Desde sus inicios en los años 90, ha ido organizando conferencias de gran impacto internacional donde han asistido teóricas de prestigio como Raewyn Connell, Judith Butler y Christine Skelton...

  20. Voicing discrimination in multilingual and multiethnic Netherlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    This paper explores political discourse on two public issues involving discrimination in the. Netherlands ..... 'they' hate 'us' (the West, non-Muslims). ... election night speech may well lead to his ... As in many other countries, social media function as a garbage belt for discriminatory ..... communication in the public sphere.

  1. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSczesny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language (GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman with gender-unmarked forms (police officer, whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she instead of the applicant ... he. Integrating research on language structures, language policies, and individual language behavior, the present paper provides an overview of whether and under what circumstances GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination.

  2. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making.

  3. Neural correlates of face gender discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.

  4. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.

  5. Gender and the Telephone: Voice and Emotions Shaping and Gendering Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Livholts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of communication studies, the topic of telephony and the gendering of space via voice and emotions has received limited attention. The focus of this article is how telephone conversations are mediated by voice and emotions, which in turn shape and gender social space. The methodology is a collaborative autoethnographic design based on diary notes and memory work. Two central themes emerge from the findings that explain how space becomes gendered when using the telephone: (a the voice and relations of power, and (b the interstices between work, caring, and the telephone. Our findings reveal the central role of work and caring and how these spaces constantly are being traversed and transformed as the mobile phone becomes an important appendage for sensory perceptions of hearing/listening/voice. We argue that these themes point toward the crucial impact of emotions in the construction of multiple and gendered spatialities of telephony.

  6. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  7. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  8. Predictors of Level of Voice in Adolescent Girls: Ethnicity, Attachment, and Gender Role Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with…

  9. Towards the abolition of gender discrimination in nationality laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Albarazi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of gender discrimination to generating and perpetuating statelessness is considerable, and there continues to be a need to address such discrimination in nationality laws.

  10. Self-Presentation of Beliefs about Gender Discrimination and Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Michelle Ceynar; Hartman, Shelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether college students' expressed beliefs about gender discrimination and feminism related to concerns about self-presentation. Students completed gender discrimination and feminism scales and discussed hypothetical court cases. They were told their views would be either shared publicly or remain private. Men expressed more belief in…

  11. Gender Discrimination in Workforce and its Impact on the Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Ali Channar (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper explores the issue of gender discrimination in workforce and its impact on the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and stress level of employees. Close ended questionnaire was administered from 526 males and females oflower, middle and higher category employees of public and private health and education departments of Hyderabad and Jamshoro districts. Gender discrimination in workforce was measured through independent samples-t test. The analysis shows that females were discriminated more than males in private organizations. Thus the findings show that females are discriminated more than males in private sector than in public sector. The impact of gender discrimination on satisfaction &motivation, commitment & enthusiasm and stress level was assessed through Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient. The results show that gender discrimination decreases satisfaction & motivation and commitment & enthusiasm level of employees, and increases the stress level in the employees.

  12. Predictors of level of voice in adolescent girls: ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Sally A

    2009-09-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with authority figures and peers. Both masculinity and femininity were salient for higher levels of voice with authority figures whereas higher scores on masculinity contributed to higher levels of voice with peers. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous theoretical work, femininity itself is not a risk factor for low levels of voice. In addition, African-American girls had higher levels of voice with teachers and classmates than did Caucasian girls, and girls who were in a school with a greater concentration of ethnic minorities had higher levels of voice with peers than did girls at a school with fewer minority students.

  13. Gender and ethics committees: where's the 'different voice'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Donna

    2006-06-01

    Prominent international and national ethics commissions such as the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee rarely achieve anything remotely resembling gender equality, although local research and ethics committees are somewhat more egalitarian. Under-representation of women is particularly troubling when the subject matter of modern bioethics so disproportionately concerns women's bodies, and when such committees claim to derive 'universal' standards. Are women missing from many ethics committees because of relatively straightforward, if discriminatory, demographic factors? Or are the methods of analysis and styles of ethics to which these bodies are committed somehow 'anti-female'? It has been argued, for example, that there is a 'different voice' in ethical reasoning, not confined to women but more representative of female experience. Similarly, some feminist writers, such as Evelyn Fox Keller and Donna Haraway, have asked difficult epistemological questions about the dominant 'masculine paradigm' in science. Perhaps the dominant paradigm in ethics committee deliberation is similarly gendered? This article provides a preliminary survey of women's representation on ethics committees in eastern and western Europe, a critical analysis of the supposed 'masculinism' of the principlist approach, and a case example in which a 'different voice' did indeed make a difference.

  14. Discrimination and Psychological Distress: Gender Differences among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2003, this study recruited Arab Americans (337 males, 385 females) living in Michigan, United States. The main independent variable was discrimination. The main outcome was psychological distress. Covariates included demographic factors (age), socioeconomic status (education, employment, and income), and immigration characteristics (nativity and years living in United States). Gender was the focal moderator. We used multivariable regression with and without discrimination × gender interaction term. In the pooled sample, discrimination was positively associated with psychological distress [B = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-1.03, p = 0.003]. We found a significant gender × discrimination interaction in the pooled sample (B = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.01-1.59, p = 0.050), suggesting a stronger association in males than females. In our gender-specific model, higher discrimination was associated with higher psychological distress among male (B = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.33-1.42, p = 0.002) but not female (B = 0.18, 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.78, p = 0.567) Arab Americans. While discrimination is associated with poor mental health, a stronger link between discrimination and psychological symptoms may exist in male compared to female Arab Americans. While efforts should be made to universally reduce discrimination, screening for discrimination may be a more salient component of mental health care for male than female Arab Americans.

  15. Gender and ethnic discrimination in the rental housing market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Ragnar; Iverman, Elis; Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors

    2012-01-01

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bjorn.hinnerich@ne.su.se We use a field experiment to measure discrimination in the housing market in Stockholm. Four fictitious persons, of different gender, with distinct-sounding Arabic or Swedish names, are randomly assigned to vacant apartments. We extend...... the study by Ahmed and Hammarstedt (2008). There are two new results. First, we provide evidence that there is no or little gender premium for the female with the Arabic name, which suggests that ethnic discrimination dominates the effects of gender. Secondly, discriminatory behaviour is only found...... in the suburbs or satellite cities/towns of Stockholm County not in the densely populated, affluent, city center. Moreover, we can replicate that there is a gender premium for females with Swedish names. However, we are not able to confirm that males with Arabic names face discrimination....

  16. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  17. Ethnic and Gender Discrimination in Recruitment: Experimental Evidence From Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmela Liebkind

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We ask (1 how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2 whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1, 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on the CVs of three bogus applicants from different ethnic groups (Finnish, Austrian and Polish and in a field experiment (Study 2, four test applicants (male and female Finns and Russians with equivalent CVs applied for 1,258 vacant jobs, addressing gender discrimination in relation to occupational gender stereotypes as well as ethnic discrimination. Together these studies cover both skilled (Study 1 and semi-skilled jobs (Study 2 and applicants from ethnic minority groups originating from within as well as outside the EU. Results show that majority group members are more likely to be hired compared to minority members (both Studies and that minority members from a higher status group are more likely to be hired than those from a lower status group (Study 1. Results also show that male applicants from the majority group were discriminated compared to women in occupations characterised as feminine, while Russian men faced recruitment discrimination compared to Russian women independently of the job’s gender stereotype (Study 2. Implications of recruitment discrimination based on ethnicity and gender are discussed.

  18. Racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and substance abuse among Latina/os nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiniano Verissimo, Angie Denisse; Gee, Gilbert C; Ford, Chandra L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002-2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM-IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and demographics. Analyses were completed using gender-stratified multinomial logistic regression. Men reported more discrimination (39.6% vs. 30.3%) and had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse (16.5% vs. 4.5%) and drug abuse (9.5% vs. 2.3%) than women. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse for women and increased risk of drug abuse for men. Men and women also varied in the types of discrimination (e.g., racial vs. gender) reported, and in the associations between these types of discrimination and substance abuse. These data indicate that discrimination is associated with different substance abuse outcomes between genders. Future research should consider the mechanisms that explain these differences.

  19. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (Mage  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  20. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Cogburn, Courtney D.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Tiffany M. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple reg...

  1. The voices of seduction: cross-gender effects in processing of erotic prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethofer, Thomas; Wiethoff, Sarah; Anders, Silke; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Gender specific differences in cognitive functions have been widely discussed. Considering social cognition such as emotion perception conveyed by non-verbal cues, generally a female advantage is assumed. In the present study, however, we revealed a cross-gender interaction with increasing responses to the voice of opposite sex in male and female subjects. This effect was confined to erotic tone of speech in behavioural data and haemodynamic responses within voice sensitive brain areas (right middle superior temporal gyrus). The observed response pattern, thus, indicates a particular sensitivity to emotional voices that have a high behavioural relevance for the listener. PMID:18985138

  2. Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, nationally representative data on women's employment histories are used to study the gap between women's and men's pay in Great Britain. It is decomposed into a gap attributable to gender differences in human capital characteristics (such as education, work experience, and time spent out of employment by women), and a gap attributable to gender discrimination. Using data collected in the 1980 Women and Employment Survey, we find that women's wages would be between 20 and 2...

  3. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  4. Behavioural evidence of a dissociation between voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization using auditory morphed stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril R Pernet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both voice gender and speech perception rely on neuronal populations located in the peri-sylvian areas. However, whilst functional imaging studies suggest a left versus right hemisphere and anterior versus posterior dissociation between voice and speech categorization, psycholinguistic studies on talker variability suggest that these two processes (voice and speech categorization share common mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the categorical perception of voice gender (male vs. female and phonemes (/pa/ vs. /ta/ using the same stimulus continua generated by morphing. This allowed the investigation of behavioural differences while controlling acoustic characteristics, since the same stimuli were used in both tasks. Despite a higher acoustic dissimilarity between items during the phoneme categorization task (a male and female voice producing the same phonemes than the gender task (the same person producing 2 phonemes, results showed that speech information is being processed much faster than voice information. In addition, f0 or timbre equalization did not affect RT, which disagrees with the classical psycholinguistic models in which voice information is stripped away or normalized to access phonetic content. Also, despite similar response (percentages and perceptual (d’ curves, a reverse correlation analysis on acoustic features revealed, as expected, that the formant frequencies of the consonant distinguished stimuli in the phoneme task, but that only the vowel formant frequencies distinguish stimuli in the gender task. The 2nd set of results thus also disagrees with models postulating that the same acoustic information is used for voice and speech. Altogether these results suggest that voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization are dissociated at an early stage on the basis of different enhanced acoustic features that are diagnostic to the task at hand.

  5. Uncovering gender discrimination cues in a realistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Fortin, Isabelle; Fiset, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-02-10

    Which face cues do we use for gender discrimination? Few studies have tried to answer this question and the few that have tried typically used only a small set of grayscale stimuli, often distorted and presented a large number of times. Here, we reassessed the importance of facial cues for gender discrimination in a more realistic setting. We applied Bubbles-a technique that minimizes bias toward specific facial features and does not necessitate the distortion of stimuli-to a set of 300 color photographs of Caucasian faces, each presented only once to 30 participants. Results show that the region of the eyes and the eyebrows-probably in the light-dark channel-is the most important facial cue for accurate gender discrimination; and that the mouth region is driving fast correct responses (but not fast incorrect responses)-the gender discrimination information in the mouth region is concentrated in the red-green color channel. Together, these results suggest that, when color is informative in the mouth region, humans use it and respond rapidly; and, when it's not informative, they have to rely on the more robust but more sluggish luminance information in the eye-eyebrow region.

  6. INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS CONCERNING GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN PROFESSIONAL LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja Zwiech

    2011-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting legal regulations imposed by International Labour Organization, the United Nations and the European Union, and regarding gender equality in professional life. Issues relating to discrimination against women on labour market have been addressed by international institutions for over 60 years.

  7. International regulations concerning gender discrimination in professional life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Zwiech

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at presenting legal regulations imposed by International Labour Organization, the United Nations and the European Union, and regarding gender equality in professional life. Issues relating to discrimination against women on labour market have been addressed by international institutions for over 60 years.

  8. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research.

  9. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women with Reinke's Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Method Using a self-evaluation study,…

  10. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women with Reinke's Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Method Using a self-evaluation study,…

  11. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    Humans routinely produce acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward high-definition (HD) voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE) is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing) when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from "The Star-Spangled Banner") with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants) and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  12. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans routinely create acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward HD voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from The Star-Spangled Banner with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  13. Gender-Based Discrimination In Nursing: A Ghanaian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Ofori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: The 'glass escalator' phenomenon holds that men in female dominated professions like nursing can rise quickly to the top. However, they can also suffer discrimination. This phenomenon is widely recognised in advanced countries. Trained, mostly female nurses have been leaving Ghana in droves for greener pastures abroad, particularly the US and UK, with serious consequences on the health delivery service in Ghana. Conversely, increasing numbers of males are joining the nursing profession. It examines whether male nurses in Ghana enjoy any hidden advantages, and if so, what makes the men successful (even with their limited numbers in a women-dominated field and what the implications are for both male and female nurses. Problem investigated: The article explores gender-based discrimination and the phenomenon of the glass escalator in a developing country context. It examines the position of male nurses in Ghana; the type, nature and extent of advantages they enjoy and any discrimination they face in a female-dominated field. Methodology: An in-depth cross-sectional questionnaire was employed. A thematic and cluster analysis of findings was executed, with data captured using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. A combination of descriptive accounts as well as summary statistics using chi-square and correlations was used to examine the findings. Findings and implications: This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that show that male nurses neither suffer gender-based discrimination nor occupy the top positions in the nursing field. It also found that a majority of males do not want to leave the profession even though they feel they are assigned more responsibilities and are sometimes passed over for promotion.Originality: Whilst representing a modest contribution to research in gender-based discrimination in nursing, this paper is a first attempt to investigate the phenomenon in a Ghanaian context, with

  14. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. PMID:22837794

  15. Voices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Xu Weihua: 'I Suggest Legalizing the Regulation That Men and Women Retire at me Same Age.' 徐维华:“我建议将男女享有同等退休年龄写入法律。” During a recent working conference, Xu Weihua, deputy-director of the Center for Women's Law and Legal Services of Peking University, said," In addition to the difficulties in finding employment, Chinese women also suffer from gender discrimination, as they must retire earlier than men. I suggest legalizing the regulation that men and women retire at the same age.

  16. Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

  17. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  18. Boys' and Girls' Gendered Voices in EFL Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas Galicia, Luis Leonardo; Camacho Posada, María Fernanda; Florez Fernández, Leidy Milena

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a case study conducted at a school in Bogotá. It was based on constructivist and poststructuralist frameworks that viewed gender positioning as a social construction in foreign language learning contexts (Baxter, 2003; Sunderland, 1992; Tannen, 1996). Aiming to understand how ninth grade gender positioning is constructed, and…

  19. Gender and Education: "Educating Rita" and the Struggle for Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Diane

    An examination of the film, "Educating Rita," explores the effects of power respective to particular gender categories and suggests ways that the film becomes a case study in gender and education. The film is about a woman, Rita, who wants the ability to have choices in her life, pursues an education as the key to providing choices, and…

  20. Gender Discrimination in Management. Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the permanently expanding literature on gender discrimination in management, focusing on women in decision making positions from both the public and private sphere. Different psychological mechanisms (such as stereotyping, attribution or equity, that are not necessarily mutually exclusive but rather complementary, determine individual manifestations in the form of discrimination (ranging from formal to informal, covert to overt and so on against females. As a result, women are either underrepresented in top management (under normal conditions or overrepresented in risky managerial positions (in periods of organizational crisis or downturn. Furthermore, even in the limited number of sectors where women represent more than half of the labor force (such as nursing, primary education or social services men have better odds of being promoted, due to formal or informal assistance received from mentors of the same gender. Albeit rather incremental shifts toward a better representation of women in decision making positions can be observed in the last decades, both statistical and experimental data show that there is still a long way until their representation in managerial positions will reflect their involvement in the workforce.

  1. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  2. Gender-biased behavior at work: what can surveys tell us about the link between sexual harassment and gender discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Barcus, Vanessa E.; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the links between survey-based reports of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. In particular, we are interested in assessing whether these concepts measure similar forms of gender-biased behavior and whether they have the same effect on workers' job satisfaction and intentions to leave their jobs. Our results provide little support for the notion that survey-based measures of sexual harassment and gender discrimination capture the same underlying behavior. Responde...

  3. Tennessee – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Tennessee‟s anti-discrimination law, known as the Tennessee Human Rights Act, does not explicitly address either sexual orientation or gender identity discrimination. Further, the state does not provide protection to state or private employees against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. In addition, no executive orders, local laws or state government personnel policies exist that prohibit job discrimination on either basis. The formal state employee grievance policy...

  4. Gender Variance on Campus: A Critical Analysis of Transgender Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Lee M.

    2011-01-01

    Transgender college students face discrimination, harassment, and oppression on college and university campuses; consequently leading to limited academic and social success. Current literature is focused on describing the experiences of transgender students and the practical implications associated with attempting to meet their needs (Beemyn,…

  5. Gender, Sexuality and Education stories in the voices of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Pagano Peres Molina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We seek to understand, through the narratives collected from adolescents aged 14-17 years, issues relating to construction and dynamics of gender relations and sexuality and the teaching of history allows for the possibility of reflection and discussion of these issues in the school environment.

  6. Working Group on Gender and Mathematics: Gathering Reflective Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchick, Diana B.; Condron, Linda

    This paper reviews the history of the work of the PME-NA Gender and Mathematics Working Group, and the progress made toward the intended end product of the Working Group. The first section, Introduction and Review, outlines the history and work to date of the group. The second section, PME-NA XXIV Session Goals, delineates the plans of the group…

  7. Gender variance on campus : a critical analysis of transgender voices

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Transgender college students face discrimination, harassment, and oppression on college and university campuses; consequently leading to limited academic and social success. Current literature is focused on describing the experiences of transgender students and the practical implications associated with attempting to meet their needs (Beemyn, 2005; Beemyn, Curtis, Davis, & Tubbs, 2005). This study examined the perceptions of transgender inclusion, ways in which leadership structures or entiti...

  8. Relationships between visual figure discrimination, verbal abilities, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammik, Valdar; Toomela, Aaro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between verbal thinking and performance on visual figure discrimination tasks from a Vygotskian perspective in a large varied adult sample (N = 428). A test designed to assess the structure of word meanings (ie tendency to think in 'everyday' or 'scientific' concepts as distinguished by Vygotsky) together with two contour picture tasks was presented. Visual tasks were a modified version of Poppelreuter's overlapping figures and a picture depicting a meaningful scene. On both tasks concrete objects and abstract meaningless shapes had to be identified. In addition to relationships between visual task performance and word meaning structure, the effects of the meaningful scene and relations with gender were examined. The results confirmed the expected relation between word meaning structure and visual performance. Furthermore, they suggested a specific effect of the meaningful whole and a male advantage, especially for the first task in which women seemed to benefit less from advanced word meaning structure.

  9. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  10. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients’ opinions. Results and Conclusion: At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by

  11. The Dawn Of Gender Justice Against Discrimination - A Legal Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Socio-economic rights are a vital aspect of human rights agenda for women. The slowstudy process and radical change in recognizing the rights of women to a greater extend has helped tobuild her own identity and withstand her rights against all discrimination. The feminist movementquestioned several discriminatory practices against women. However there was a need for revolutionto debar the discriminatory practice of status on the ground of gender. And revolution was created byfeminist movement. These Movements largely contributed by feminist writing recognized the need tosubdue the discriminatory practice of status. Feminist theory emerged from these feministmovements includes general theories and theories about the origins of inequality, economic injusticeand in some cases, about the social construction of sex and gender, in a variety of disciplines.Feminist activists have campaigned for women's rights as such, in contract, property, and voting,while also promoting women's rights from human right perspective. They have opposed domesticviolence sexual harassment and sexual assault, in economics they have advocated for workplacerights, including equal pay and opportunities for careers and to start businesses. Interventions ofnational and international legal instrument have added grace and recognized women’s right. All thisresulted in increase participation of women both in formal and informal job sector. However thejourney to heed her right did not end here; it was the beginning, the beginning to fight for hersurvival.

  12. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Arc Kanakuze Jeanne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and

  13. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-07-19

    Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should be a priority in workplace violence

  14. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should

  15. The Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa R; Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that transgender people face high levels of discrimination in society, which may contribute to their disproportionate risk for poor health. However, little is known about whether gender nonconformity, as a visible marker of one's stigmatized status as a transgender individual, heightens trans people's experiences with discrimination and, in turn, their health. Using data from the largest survey of transgender adults in the United States, the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 4,115), we examine the associations among gender nonconformity, transphobic discrimination, and health-harming behaviors (i.e., attempted suicide, drug/alcohol abuse, and smoking). The results suggest that gender nonconforming trans people face more discrimination and, in turn, are more likely to engage in health-harming behaviors than trans people who are gender conforming. Our findings highlight the important role of gender nonconformity in the social experiences and well-being of transgender people.

  16. Bodies in Contempt: Gender, Class and Disability Intersections in Workplace Discrimination Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Dick-Mosher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on theories of gendered organizations to examine discrimination against people with disabilities in the workplace. A sample of 200 cases that document disability discrimination lawsuits was drawn from the Westlaw legal database. Each case was coded for gender, job, disability and discrimination type and analyzed using multinomial logistic models. Of those 200 cases, 34 were selected for in depth qualitative analysis. This study finds that disability type, job type, and gender do have an influence on the type of discrimination someone is likely to experience. In addition, the qualitative analysis finds that the social processes of discrimination differ based on job type and gender pointing to intersections of disability and class as well as gender and disability.

  17. Gender Discrimination in Higher Education in Pakistan: A Survey of University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaukat, Sadia; Siddiquah, Aishah; Pell, Anthony William

    2014-01-01

    Problem statement: Gender disparity is a worldwide phenomenon. This disparity is not only with respect to opportunities and resources but also in rewards, and exists in all regions and classes. Gender disparity exists in the field of education as well. Females experience overt and subtle gender discrimination to some extent nearly at every stage…

  18. Gender Discrimination in Educational Personnel: A Case Study of Gweru Urban District Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matope, Nogget

    2012-01-01

    Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…

  19. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  20. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p Women with part-time positions were more likely to have the perception of gender-based career obstacles than women working full-time (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.73). More women than men reported experience of gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p gender discrimination included age (p Women older than 40 years were more likely to experience gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians.

  1. Alabama – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    There is no state law in Alabama prohibiting any form of employment discrimination. Rather, Alabama defers to federal law for providing its citizens with protections against discrimination based upon age, race, religion, sex, national origin, and disabilities. Only a few unsuccessful attempts have been made to enact legislation to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination, and none to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. Neither the state nor any locality in...

  2. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne N. Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. Results: We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. Conclusions: The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.

  3. 18- and 24-month-olds' discrimination of gender-consistent and inconsistent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sara E; Flom, Ross

    2007-02-01

    18- and 24-month-olds' ability to discriminate gender-stereotyped activities was assessed. Using a preferential looking paradigm, toddlers viewed male and female actors performing masculine and feminine-stereotyped activities. Consistent with our predictions, and previous research, 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, looked longer at the gender-inconsistent activities than the gender-consistent activities. Results are discussed in terms of toddlers emerging gender stereotypes and perception of everyday events.

  4. Auditory discrimination of voice-onset time and its relationship with reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Rankine, Tracey; Monaghan, Padraic

    2010-05-01

    The perception of voice-onset time (VOT) during dichotic listening provides unique insight regarding auditory discrimination processes and, as such, an opportunity to learn more about individual differences in reading ability. We analysed the responses elicited by four VOT conditions: short-long pairs (SL), where a syllable with a short VOT was presented to the left ear and a syllable with a long VOT was presented to the right ear, as well as long-short (LS), short-short (SS), and long-long (LL) pairs. Stimuli were presented in three attention conditions, where participants were instructed to attend to either the left or right ear, or received no instruction. By around 9.5 years of age children perform similarly to adults in terms of the size and relative magnitude of the right ear advantage (REA) elicited by each of the four VOT conditions. Overall, SL pairs elicited the largest REA and LS pairs elicited a left ear advantage (LEA), reflecting stimulus-driven bottom-up processes. However, children were less able to modulate their responses according to attention condition, reflecting a lack of top-down control. Effective direction of attention to one ear or the other was related to measures of reading accuracy and comprehension, indicating that reading skill is associated with top-down control of bottom-up perceptual processes.

  5. Gender discrimination in physics and astronomy: Graduate student experiences of sexism and gender microaggressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Ramón S.; McCormick, Melinda; Henderson, Charles

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Sexism occurs when men are believed to be superior to women, and is thought to be one of the reasons for women's underrepresentation in physics and astronomy. The issue of sexism in physics and astronomy has not been thoroughly explored in the physics education literature and there is currently no clear language for discussing sexism in the field. This article seeks to begin a conversation on sexism in physics and astronomy and offer a starting point for language to discuss sexism in research groups and departments. Interviews with 21 women in graduate physics and astronomy programs are analyzed for their individual experiences of sexism. Although a subset of women did not report experiencing sexual discrimination, the majority experienced subtle insults and slights known as microaggressions. Other participants also experienced more traditional hostile sexism in the form of sexual harassment, gender role stereotypes, and overt discouragement. These results indicate the existence of sexism in the current culture of physics and astronomy, as well as the importance departments must put on eliminating it and educating students about sexism and microaggressions.

  6. Discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contemporary research on gender and language, using the method of discourse analysis applied to the laws and policies, this article explains how certain linguistic practice, in the context of the administrative discourse, produces meaning that may or may not contribute to its better understanding and more efficient implementation. Through discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies in Serbia, it has been shown how and with what consequences the socio-political and academic elites affect defining and promoting certain concepts (gender, sex, gender equality, discrimination in one social and historical moment. The paper is placed in the theoretical framework of three visions of gender equality: perspective of equal treatment, women‘s perspectives and gender perspective (Booth, Bennett 2002, that are corresponding to the three strategies for achieving gender equality: equal treatment, specific policy of gender equality and gender mainstreaming (Verloo, 2001. The discourse analysis of the Law on Gender Equality (2009, the National Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Women and Advancement of Gender Equality (2009, the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination (2009 and the Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Discrimination (2013, has shown the context of use and meaning of terms gender and sex, as well as implications it has on their potential to change the existing paradigms and understanding of gender equality, and the implementation of policies in Serbia. Analysis of the use of terms sex and gender in the most important legal and strategic documents for achieving gender equality, showed that the choice of certain categories and terms is always a political choice. The authors show how these documents are written in the key of two gender perspectives and strategies: equal treatment and the specific policy of gender equality, while the third - introduction of a gender perspective

  7. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  8. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

  9. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  10. Declining Bias and Gender Wage Discrimination? A Meta-Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Stephen B.; Stanley, T. D.

    2004-01-01

    The meta-regression analysis reveals that there is a strong tendency for discrimination estimates to fall and wage discrimination exist against the woman. The biasing effect of researchers' gender of not correcting for selection bias has weakened and changes in labor market have made it less important.

  11. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  12. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming eac...

  13. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  14. Reliable jitter and shimmer measurements in voice clinics: the relevance of vowel, gender, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency effects in a typical clinical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Meike; Drinnan, Michael J; Storck, Claudio; Carding, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine vowel and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in a typical clinical voice task while correcting for the confounding effects of voice sound pressure level (SPL) and fundamental frequency (F(0)). Furthermore the relative effect sizes of vowel, gender, voice SPL, and F(0) were assessed, and recommendations for clinical measurements were derived. With this cross-sectional single cohort study, 57 healthy adults (28 women, 29 men) aged 20-40 years were investigated. Three phonations of /a/, /o/, and /i/ at "normal" voice loudness were analyzed using Praat (software). The effects of vowel, gender, voice SPL, and F(0) on jitter and shimmer were assessed using descriptive and inferential (analysis of covariance) statistics. The effect sizes were determined with the eta-squared statistic. Vowels, gender, voice SPL, and F(0), each had significant effects either on jitter or on shimmer, or both. Voice SPL was the most important factor, whereas vowel, gender, and F(0) effects were comparatively small. Because men had systematically higher voice SPL, the gender effects on jitter and shimmer were smaller when correcting for SPL and F(0). Surprisingly, in clinical assessments, voice SPL has the single biggest impact on jitter and shimmer. Vowel and gender effects were clinically important, whereas fundamental frequency had a relatively small influence. Phonations at a predefined voice SPL (80 dB minimum) and vowel (/a/) would enhance measurement reliability. Furthermore, gender-specific thresholds applying these guidelines should be established. However, the efficiency of these measures should be verified and tested with patients. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebral activity to opposite-sex voices reflected by event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    Full Text Available Human voice is a gender discriminating cue and is important to mate selection. This study employed electrophysiological recordings to examine whether there is specific cerebral activity when presented with opposite-sex voices as compared to same-sex voices. Male voices and female voices were pseudo-randomly presented to male and female participants. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to determine the gender of each voice. A late positivity (LP response around 750 ms after voice onset was elicited by opposite-sex voices, as reflected by a positive deflection of the ERP to opposite-sex voices than that to same-sex voices. This LP response was prominent around parieto-occipital recording sites, and it suggests an opposite-sex specific process, which may reflect emotion- and/or reward-related cerebral activity. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to press a key when hearing a non-voice pure tone and not give any response when they heard voice stimuli. In this task, no difference were found between the ERP to same-sex voices and that to opposite-sex voices, suggesting that the cerebral activity to opposite-sex voices may disappear without gender-related attention. These results provide significant implications on cognitive mechanisms with regard to opposite-sex specific voice processing.

  16. Gender differences among discrimination & stigma experienced by depressive patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nashi; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khalid, Adeela; Farooq, Anum

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine Gender Difference in the level of Discrimination and Stigma experienced by people diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that Women diagnosed with Depression are likely to be experiencing more Discrimination and Internalized Stigma in comparison to Men. This is a Cross Sectional Study. Thirty eight patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder recruited from different Government Sector Hospitals of Lahore; were approached after obtaining informed consent. Discrimination and Stigma were measured through Discrimination and Stigma Scale and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory respectively. Both Men and Women experience considerably high level of associated Stigma and Discrimination due to their Mental Illness. However, Women in comparison to Men experience significantly greater level of Internalized Stigma especially in domains of Discrimination Experience and Social Withdrawal. The findings of this study highlight the fact that people with Depression can be more benefited with psychological treatment if dealing with Stigma and Discrimination is also addressed in Intervention Plans.

  17. Gender-discriminative accents of the Ukrainian family legislation: social and moral aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Parchomenko

    2017-04-01

    It has been proven that the elimination of gender discrimination is a key imperative of the regulation and institutionalization of family relations provided the implementation of a package of measures, which make the long-term impact on society and its institutions. This will allow overcoming the matriarchal racism and women sexism and will end the long period of gender inequality and injustice, when the male part of the Ukrainian population was subjected to hidden gender discrimination through the breach of the socio-normative parity of both genders representatives in the legal institutionalization of the family. As to the author, the strategic goal of gender relations’ transformation in the family and legal sphere is to change the culture of gender interaction, to replace hierarchical relationships by the partnership, to bring the values of peacefulness and life-creation as the core values of the educated androcracy to the social consciousness. Understanding of the fact that gender is not a basis for the discrimination in any sphere of public life is the key to the positive social transformation. Discrimination on all other grounds of social stratification (class, national, racial, political, cultural, etc. in an egalitarian society is not only illegal, but also incompatible with the effective social morality.

  18. What Will It Take to Stop Gender Discrimination?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese employers could be brought to court by their employees from next year if they discriminate against female job seekers under the new Employment Promotion Law.Except for jobs in mines,lumbering,installation

  19. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Phoneme discrimination and dyslexia. Is the correlation gender-specific?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M; Stuhrmann, N

    2013-01-01

    Amongst pediatric phoniatry patients, the number of boys suspected of having dyslexia and/or an auditory processing disorder dominates over the number of girls. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there are different correlation patterns between phoneme discrimination and spelling ability in male and female children. Data from 253 children aged between 7 and 13 were analyzed retrospectively. Phoneme discrimination was assessed via the Heidelberg phoneme discrimination test and compared to the results of spelling and intelligence tests. We found a highly significant correlation between phoneme discrimination and spelling ability within the whole population (girls: r = 0.337; boys: r = 0.437) at an average IQ of 107. Results of the Heidelberg phoneme discrimination test were below the normal average value and showed no difference between the male and female populations. However, the correlation between phoneme discrimination and spelling ability was higher for the boys than for the girls. We conclude that female children are better able to compensate their deficits in speech processing than male children and perhaps employ other strategies for spelling.

  1. Perceived racial, socioeconomic and gender discrimination and its impact on contraceptive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, Karla; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Secura, Gina M; Roehl, Kimberly A; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether perceived racial, economic and gender discrimination has an impact on contraception use and choice of method. We analyzed the first 2,500 women aged 14-45 years enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study aimed to reduce barriers to obtaining long-acting reversible contraception. Items from the "Experiences of Discrimination" (EOD) scale measured experienced race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Overall, 57% of women reported a history of discrimination. Thirty-three percent reported gender- or race-based discrimination, and 24% reported discrimination attributed to socioeconomic status (SES). Prior to study enrollment, women reporting discrimination were more likely to report any contraception use (61% vs. 52%, pdiscrimination were associated with increased current use of less effective methods [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.41; aRR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45; aRR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43, respectively]. After enrollment, 66% of women with a history of experience of discrimination chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (intrauterine device or implantable) and 35% chose a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate or contraceptive pill, patch or ring. Discrimination negatively impacts a woman's use of contraception. However, after financial and structural barriers to contraceptive use were eliminated, women with EOD overwhelmingly selected effective methods of contraception. Future interventions to improve access and utilization of contraception should focus on eliminating barriers and targeting interventions that encompass race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2014-05-06

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders' and researchers' lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today's critical health care needs.This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples.At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers' labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward.

  3. [Resilience in Individuals with Gender Dysphoria: Association with Perceived Social Support and Discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress associated with discrimination is proposed to have an indirect effect on the development of mental disorders, through its negative influence on individual's cognitive, affective and social coping strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between resilience, perceived social support, and perceived discrimination in individuals with gender dysphoria. Individuals with gender dysphoria were assessed with Turkish validated forms of Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Perceived Discrimination Scale (PDS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Diagnoses of mental disorders, history of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self injury were assessed with clinical interviews. Self-report forms were used to obtain demographic information and gender transition related features. Participants' (n=116, 88 trans men) median age was 25. Significantly low RSA scores, indicating poor resilience, were obtained in participants with lifetime (59.5 %) and present (27.6 %) diagnosis of any mental disorder, history of suicide attempt (23.3 %). There was significant direct correlation between RSA and MSPSS scores, inverse correlation with BDI and personal PDS scores, but not with group PDS. Regression analysis revealed that only friends domain score in MSPSS predicted better resilience, whereas personal perceived discrimination score predicted poor resilience. Findings support the association between poor resilience and vulnerability to mental and behavioral problems in individuals with gender dysphoria. The associations reveal the significance of addressing discrimination and assisting individuals with gender dysphoria in developing strategies to obtain peer support in providing mental health services.

  4. GENDER SEGREGATION AND WOMAN DISCRIMINATION ON LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIȚESCU ALINA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of gender equality is the core of the European social and economic policies, but in spite of the progress achieved in recent years, the inequalities between women and men still remain in some fields of activities. Thus, equality and inclusion on the labor market must become a desideratum given the belief that the labor market should provide an opportunity for all, regardless of gender, age or ethnicity. Equality between men and women represents a common value of the EU, and a necessary condition for achieving the objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. In this context, the present paper aims to address a number of theoretical issues in relation to the concept of gender segmentation, to its forms and factors of influence.

  5. Gender identification of Caspian Terns using external morphology and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bluso, J.D.; Yee, J.L.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) plumage characteristics are sexually monochromatic and gender cannot easily be distinguished in the field without extensive behavioral observations. We assessed sexual size dimorphism and developed a discriminant function to assign gender in Caspian Terns based on external morphology. We collected and measured Caspian Terns in San Francisco Bay, California, and confirmed their gender based on necropsy and genetic analysis. Of the eight morphological measurements we examined, only bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length differed between males and females with males being larger than females. A discriminant function using both bill depth at the gonys and head plus bill length accurately assigned gender of 83% of terns for which gender was known. We improved the accuracy of our discriminant function to 90% by excluding individuals that had less than a 75% posterior probability of correctly being assigned to gender. Caspian Terns showed little sexual size dimorphism in many morphometries, but our results indicate they can be reliably assigned to gender in the field using two morphological measurements.

  6. Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Hole, Arne Risa; Santos, Rita

    2011-07-01

    In 2008 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 89%, of those of male GPs. We estimate Oaxaca decompositions using OLS models of wages and 2SLS models of income and propose a set of new direct tests for within workplace gender discrimination. The direct tests are based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices with varying proportions of female GPs and with female or male senior partners. These tests provide only weak evidence for discrimination. We also propose a set of indirect tests for discrimination, including a comparison of a GP's actual income with the income they report as an acceptable reward for their job. The indirect tests provide no evidence for gender discrimination within practices.

  7. Sexism Exposed: Films about Gender Identity, Discrimination, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Alimo, Craig; Brimhall-Vargas, Mark; Clark, Christone; Harewood, Gia; Horton, Julie; O'Neill, Nancy; Subbaraman, Sivagami

    2002-01-01

    Reviews documentary and ethnographic films that examine gender-related issues, summarizing each film and analyzing its relevance to multicultural and social justice education. The films are: "The Fairer Sex?"; "Macho, 2000"; "The Pill"; "Step by Step: Building a Feminist Movement"; "I am a Man";…

  8. Sexism Exposed: Films about Gender Identity, Discrimination, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Alimo, Craig; Brimhall-Vargas, Mark; Clark, Christone; Harewood, Gia; Horton, Julie; O'Neill, Nancy; Subbaraman, Sivagami

    2002-01-01

    Reviews documentary and ethnographic films that examine gender-related issues, summarizing each film and analyzing its relevance to multicultural and social justice education. The films are: "The Fairer Sex?"; "Macho, 2000"; "The Pill"; "Step by Step: Building a Feminist Movement"; "I am a Man"; "The Body Beautiful"; and "Nobody Knows My Name."…

  9. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time.ObjectiveThe current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood.MethodsCurrent study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15 to 2012 (mean age 32. All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012. Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects.ResultsMultigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms.ConclusionWhile racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  10. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  11. The Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health†

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Lisa R.; Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that transgender people face high levels of discrimination in society, which may contribute to their disproportionate risk for poor health. However, little is known about whether gender nonconformity, as a visible marker of one's stigmatized status as a transgender individual, heightens trans people's experiences with discrimination and, in turn, their health. Using data from the largest survey of transgender adults in the United States, the National Transgender Discriminati...

  12. On the Reflection and Comparison of Gender Discrimination in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程梦瑶

    2013-01-01

      Languages play an important role in our lives. As a mirror of the society, they reflect different cultures, diversified cus⁃toms and various values. Gender discrimination, as a notable phenomenon in the society, is thus inevitably reflected in the use of both English and Chinese.This paper tries to attach importance to the study of the reflection of gender discrimination in English and Chinese from the aspects of word formation, semantics, syntax and cultures in order to put forward some solutions to solve this problem.

  13. Gender and discrimination accents of the Family Code of Ukraine: social and moral aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Parkhomenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of gender inequality and gender discrimination against men by means of the legal regulation of the Family Code. As a result of the research it has been concluded by the author that the transformation of gender relations on the level of social-normative regulation should lead to the achievement of the actual, rather than formal, equality of the sexes in marriage and family relations. It has been stated that the concept of equability that provides equal opportunities for two partners should arise instead of traditionally disparate (matriarchal-tendentious and androcidarical distribution of roles between men and women. Thus, the issue of social-gender status of men, which is offered or may be offered to them in a society where matriarchal-geterical type of gender differentiation is being replaced by the egalitarian type, arises from the social practice by itself; and gender analysis of the current family legislation of Ukraine allows responding it properly. It has been proved that the elimination of gender discrimination is a key imperative of regulation and institutionalization of family relations in conditions of the implementation of a package of measures, which provide for the long-term impact on society and its institutions. This will allow overcoming the matriarchal racism and sexism by women and will end a long period of gender inequality and injustice, when the male part of the Ukrainian population was subjected to the hidden gender discrimination through violations of social-normative parity of both sexes in the legal institutionalization of the family. The author believes that the strategic goal of gender relations’ transformation in the family and legal sphere lays in changing the culture of interaction between sexes, replacement of the hierarchy relationship by the partnership relationships, introduction of the values of peacefulness and life-creation as core values of well-educated androkratie in

  14. Cardiovascular disease and perceived weight, racial, and gender discrimination in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-09-01

    To date, most research on perceived discrimination and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has examined racial discrimination although other forms of discrimination may also impact physical and mental health. The current study investigated the relationship between three forms of discrimination (weight, race, and gender) and 3-year incidence of CVD in a large national sample of U.S. adults. 26,992 adults (55.5% women) who participated in the 2001-2002 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three forms of perceived discrimination (simultaneously included in equations after adjusting for relevant potential confounds) for predicting CVD incidence at Wave 2. Perceived weight and racial discrimination were associated with significantly greater likelihood of reporting myocardial infarction (OR=2.56 [95% CI=1.31-4.98], OR=1.84 [95% CI=1.19-2.84], respectively) and minor heart conditions (OR=1.48 [95% CI=1.11-1.98], OR=1.41 [95% CI=1.18-1.70], respectively). Perceived racial discrimination was also significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting arteriosclerosis (OR=1.61 [95% CI=1.11-2.34]). Odds ratios for diagnoses of arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and other minor heart disease were largest for individuals reporting multiple forms of discrimination. Adults who experience weight and racial discrimination, and especially multiple forms of discrimination, may be at heightened risk for CVD. Perceived discrimination may be important to consider during assessment of life stressors by health providers. Future research should address the mechanisms that link discrimination and CVD to assist public health and policy efforts to reduce discrimination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Discrimination and mental health among Somali refugee adolescents: the role of acculturation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Klunk-Gillis, Julie; Lincoln, Alisa; Strunin, Lee; Cabral, Howard J

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role of social identity (acculturation and gender) in moderating the association between discrimination and Somali adolescent refugees' mental health. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135). Perceived discrimination, trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and behavioral acculturation were assessed in structured interviews. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews and 3 focus groups were also conducted. Results indicated that discrimination was common and associated with worse mental health. For girls, greater Somali acculturation was associated with better mental health. Also, the association between discrimination and PTSD was less strong for girls who showed higher levels of Somali acculturation. For boys, greater American acculturation was associated with better mental health, and the association between discrimination and depression was less strong for boys with higher levels of American acculturation.

  16. GENDER AND THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Netkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination against women based on the fact that they are women is a deeply rooted practice in all societies. However, the level of discrimination varies greatly with the level of development of the given society and strongly influences and vice versa it is influenced by the status of women in a given society. Addressing this gender-based discrimination is a difficult task because it is closely linked to the concept of equality, and state’s action and inactions. The article establishes that the States parties’ obligation is to ensure that there is no direct or indirect discrimination against women in their laws, sanctions, and other remedies and those women are protected against discrimination in the public, as well as, in the private spheres.

  17. When Searching Hurts : The Role of Information Search in Reactions to Gender Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Two laboratory studies conducted with Dutch students explored women's motivation to search for evidence of gender discrimination and its effects on psychological well-being. Study 1 (N = 161) considered situational self-relevance of one's personal outcomes (personal failure or success) on women's mo

  18. Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment in Medical Education: Perspectives Gained by a 14-School Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Lois Margaret; McLaughlin, Margaret A.; Fosson, Sue E.; Stratton, Terry D.; Murphy-Spencer, Amy; Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; German, Deborah C.; Seiden, David; Witzke, Donald B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed medical students about their exposures to and perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment (GD/SH) in selected academic and nonacademic contexts. Findings included that more women than men reported all types of GD/SH across all contexts, and that GD/SH is prevalent in undergraduate medical education, particularly within core…

  19. Does Higher Education Expansion Reduce Credentialism and Gender Discrimination in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Hung A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of higher education expansion on the phenomena of credentialism and gender discrimination in education. Using the survey data of Family Income and Expenditure by DGBAS, Taiwan from 1980 to 2009, we examine the time path of the effect of higher education expansion on household expenditures for children's…

  20. Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly concerned with relationships between economic growth and gender discrimination in labor markets and education. Although discrimination in different fields has well been addresses and modelled in the economic literature, there are only a few growth models with endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation, gender time distribution between work, leisure and education under gender (positive or negative discrimination. The production and economic structures, human capital accumulation are based on the Uzawa-Lucas model, while the utility function and gender division of labor, leisure time and study time are based on the model by Zhang. The model takes account of learning by education in modeling human capital accumulation. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the national economy. We also conduct a comparative dynamic analysis in regard to changes in discrimination in the education sector, women’s propensity to stay at home, women’s propensity to receive education, women’s knowledge utilization efficiency, and the propensity to save.

  1. Latino Adolescents' Academic Success: The Role of Discrimination, Academic Motivation, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the academic resilience perspective, the current longitudinal study examined whether academic motivation mediated the relation between Latino adolescents' (N = 221) experiences with discrimination and their academic success. The potential moderating role of gender was also examined. Using multiple group analysis in structural equation…

  2. University Students' Perceptions of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: Reality versus Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Stephanie; Johnson, C. Douglas; Fisher, Donna K.

    2009-01-01

    For 50 years, laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended in 1991, and the Equal Pay Act of 1963 have protected women from overt discrimination. Although gender inequity persists in today's workplace, its presence and effects continue to be underestimated by the relevant stakeholders. Informal observations have shown that college…

  3. Gender discrimination and its impact on income, productivity, and technical efficiency: evidence from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinkingninhoun-Mêdagbé, F.M.; Diagne, A.; Simtowe, F.; Agboh-Noameshie, A.R.; Adegbola, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the occurrence and impact of gender discrimination in access to production resources on the income, productivity, and technical efficiency of farmers. Through an empirical investigation of farmers from Koussin-Le´le´, a semi-collective irrigated rice scheme in central Benin, we f

  4. When Searching Hurts : The Role of Information Search in Reactions to Gender Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Two laboratory studies conducted with Dutch students explored women's motivation to search for evidence of gender discrimination and its effects on psychological well-being. Study 1 (N = 161) considered situational self-relevance of one's personal outcomes (personal failure or success) on women's mo

  5. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  6. Impostor phenomenon and mental health: The influence of racial discrimination and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Donte L; Lige, Quiera M; Willis, Henry A; Sosoo, Effua E; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-03-01

    The impostor phenomenon (IP), or feelings of intellectual incompetence, reflects a maladaptive set of cognitions, which pose a significant psychological risk for African American emerging adults. In light of recent evidence suggesting that personal and sociocultural factors may influence the association between IP and psychological adjustment, this study used 2 waves of data to examine the extent to which gender and racial discrimination moderated the association between IP and indices of mental health among 157 African American college students (69% women; mean age = 18.30) attending a predominantly White institution. Analyses revealed that young African American women reporting higher frequencies of racial discrimination and women reporting lower levels of distress resulting from racial discrimination were most vulnerable to negative mental health outcomes, particularly at higher levels of IP. These findings suggest that IP may interact with gender and racial discrimination experiences to influence mental health outcomes. We discuss how these findings can be utilized to inform treatment of African American emerging adults experiencing IP and the importance of considering how gender and discrimination may intersect to exacerbate feelings of intellectual incompetence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Differences in Experiences of Discrimination in Accessing Social Services Among Transgender/Gender Nonconforming Individuals by (Dis)Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattari, Shanna K; Walls, N Eugene; Speer, Stephanie Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Transgender and gender nonconforming (GNC) individuals frequently experience discrimination and potentially a lack of respect from service providers, suggesting they have decreased access to professionals with cultural competency. Similarly, people with disabilities experience higher levels of discrimination in social services than their nondisabled counterparts. From an intersectional perspective, this study examines rates of discrimination in accessing social services faced by transgender and GNC people, comparing across ability. Data indicate that although transgender and GNC individuals of all abilities experience gender-based discrimination when accessing social services, those with disabilities experience higher levels of antitransgender discrimination in mental health centers, rape crisis centers, and domestic violence shelters.

  8. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kristine M; Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-02-01

    Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity.

  9. Gender and social controversies of in vitro fertilization in Serbia: Discrimination against childless women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kričković-Pele Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses gender and social controversies of assisted reproductive technologies and the discrimination of childless women in Serbia. Primary goals of this paper are critical analysis of new reproductive technologies phenomenon, discrimination against women without children and critical analysis of the legal framework regulating biomedical assisted reproduction in Serbia from gender studies and feminist methodology perspectives, as well as presentation of the research results on discrimination of childless women. For the purpose of this research the survey and the content analysis have been used. A survey was conducted of 50 female participants in the in vitro fertilization program at the Department for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad. The results indicate that the regulations on biomedical assisted reproduction and the criteria for inclusion in the in vitro fertilization program are discriminatory and that women involved in the program feel discriminated against, usually at work and in their own surroundings. The conclusion is that it is necessary to change the regulations governing this area, further work on the elimination of discrimination against childless women and destigmatisation of women and couples that cannot or do not want to have children.

  10. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.

  11. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or a...

  12. Comparative study of selected parameters of gender discrimination in rural versus urban population of Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma, S Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was a population based cross sectional study done with the objective of comparing some parameters (attitude & practice of gender discrimination (GD in rural and urban areas of Ahmedabad district. A population of 963 (446 urban & 517 rural showed alarmingly adverse sex ratio (SR as low as 562 among urban preschoolers. GD was prevalent in both study areas but manifested differently. Preference of male child by both partners an indicator of gender discrimination was seen in both areas, It correlated with female literacy, their low mean age at marriage and first conception. While urban areas showed more adverse sex ratio coupled with awareness and use of Ultrasonography (USG for sex determination and poor employment status, rural areas exhibited (along with adverse sex ratio poor literacy and employment status of females and poor contraceptive use

  13. Establishing the ‘fit’ between the patient and the therapy: The role of patient gender in selecting psychological therapy for distressing voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eHayward

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of hearing distressing voices has recently attracted much attention in the literature on psychological therapies. A new ‘wave’ of therapies is considering voice hearing experiences within a relational framework. However, such therapies may have limited impact if they do not precisely target key psychological variables within the voice hearing experience and/or ensure there is a ‘fit’ between the profile of the hearer and the therapy (the so-called ‘What works for whom’ debate. Gender is one aspect of both the voice and the hearer (and the interaction between the two that may be influential when selecting an appropriate therapy, and is an issue that has thus far received little attention within the literature. The existing literature suggests that some differences in voice hearing experience are evident between the genders. Furthermore, studies exploring interpersonal relating in men and women more generally suggest differences within intimate relationships in terms of distancing and emotionality. The current study utilised data from four published studies to explore the extent to which these gender differences in social relating may extend to relating within the voice hearing experience. The findings suggest a role for gender as a variable that can be considered when identifying an appropriate psychological therapy for a given hearer.

  14. Education and Gender Wage Discrimination%教育与工资性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤鸣; 张世伟

    2012-01-01

      This paper divide the labor force in Northeast cities of China into three groups by education. Based on quantile regression of wage equation and counterfactual analysis, we analyze the gender wage discrimination on individual level in all groups and the influence of education on gender wage discrimination by comparing the wage discrimination between and within groups. The results show that there is significant wage discrimination against women in all groups;wage differential due to gender discrimination is smaller when the group’s educational level is higher;women with higher wage suffer smaller wage discrimination in all groups. Therefore, on the one hand, the government should be dedicated to the design and implementation of fair employment system and wage system; on the other hand, the government should enhance human capital of women, which will help alleviate gender wage differential in urban labor market.%  本文将东北城市劳动力按受教育程度划分为三个群体,应用分位数回归方法和反事实分析方法在个体水平上度量了每个群体中的工资性别歧视程度,并通过比较群体间和群体内部的工资歧视程度分析了教育对工资性别歧视的影响。研究表明,在所有受教育群体中,均存在针对女性的工资歧视;随着个体受教育程度的提高,工资性别歧视不断缩小;在所有受教育群体中,随着工资水平的提高,工资性别歧视呈现出下降趋势。因此,政府在设计和实施公平的就业制度和工资制度的同时,通过发展教育提升女性人力资本水平,将有助于缓解工资性别歧视和缩小工资性别差异。

  15. Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: Voices of Some Young People in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Ghanaian young people's perceptions of the determinants of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and how these perceptions may influence the de-stigmatisation process. Drawing on findings from an in-depth, multi-method qualitative study involving 104 school and street young people aged between 14 and 19 years, the…

  16. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  17. Efficient wavelet-based voice/data discriminator for telephone networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Patrick J.; Tseng, Yi-Chyun; Adhami, Reza R.

    1996-06-01

    A broad array of applications in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) require detailed information about type of call being carried. This information can be used to enhance service, diagnose transmission impairments, and increase available call capacity. The increase in data rates of modems and the increased usage of speech compression in the PSTN has rendered existing detection algorithms obsolete. Wavelets, specifically the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), are a relatively new analysis tool in Digital Signal Processing. The DWT has been applied to signal processing problems ranging from speech compression to astrophysics. In this paper, we present a wavelet-based method of categorizing telephony traffic by call type. Calls are categorized as Voice or Data. Data calls, primarily modem and fax transmissions, are further divided by the International Telecommunications Union-Telephony (ITU-T), formerly CCITT, V-series designations (V.22bis, V.32, V.32bis, and V.34).

  18. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  19. [Mental health implications of workplace discrimination against sexual and gender minorities: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Marie; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    Despite legislative advances in terms of workplace equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGM), available data ascertains the persistence of workplace discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and especially of transgender/transsexual employees. This article, based on an extensive literature review, explores the relationship between different types of workplace discrimination experiences and their impacts on the mental health of SGM and of different sub-populations: men who have sex with men, non-heterosexual women, lesbian and gay parents, and trans people. Furthermore, the article explores certain individual and systemic protection and risk factors that have an impact on this relationship, such as coming-out at work and organisational support. Finally, the existing literature on workplace discrimination and mental health of sexual and gender minorities highlights the importance, in the current legal and social context, of intersectional approaches and of research on homo- and trans-negative microaggressions. The article ends with a discussion on the implications for practice, research, and workplace settings, as well as with several recommendations for these settings.

  20. Perceived Discrimination, Social Support, and Quality of Life in Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-07-01

    Transgender individuals experience discrimination in all domains of their personal and social life. Discrimination is believed to be associated with worse quality of life (QoL). To investigate the relation between QoL and perceived levels of discrimination and social support in individuals with gender dysphoria (GD). Individuals with GD who attended a psychiatry clinic from January 2012 through December 2014 were recruited. Demographic, social, and medical transition features were collected with standardized forms. Self-report measurements of QoL (Turkish version of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life-BREF) that included physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains, perceived discrimination with personal and group subscales (Perceived Discrimination Scale [PDS]), and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) were completed. Ninety-four participants (76.6% trans men) adequately completed the study measurements. Regression models with each QoL domain score as a dependent variable indicated a significant predictor value of personal PDS in social and environmental QoL. Social support from family was associated with better QoL in psychological QoL, whereas perceived support from friends significantly predicted all other domains of QoL. There was a tendency for group PDS to be rated higher than personal PDS, suggesting personal vs group discrimination discrepancy. However, group PDS was not found to be a predictor of QoL in the multivariate model. Perceived personal discrimination and social support from different sources predicted domains of QoL with a non-uniform pattern in individuals with GD. Social support and discrimination were found to have opposing contributions to QoL in GD. The present findings emphasize the necessity of addressing discrimination and social support in clinical work with GD. Moreover, strategies to improve and strengthen friend and family support for individuals with GD should be explored by

  1. Behavioral Motivations of Gender Discrimination on the Labor Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination can be explained at the level ofsegregation on the labor market by the employers' perceptions about maleand female workforce, by the level of development of a country, employersand employees.In any society, people are categorized from the attributes(stereotypical or not which are supposed to be shared with their owngroup. Usually these attributes are anticipated based on stereotypesconveyed on behalf of different groups (Goffman, 1974. Stereotypes arethose beliefs and opinions about the characteristics of men and women.The features associated with the two groups generally show us not onlyhow men and women are perceived, and also how it should be.Stereotyping can be the basis for the discriminatory treatment in mostcases (Linville, Salovey, Fisher, 1986.In this article we presented the main theories that can explain thewage discrimination and we analyzed the discriminatory attitudes ofgender on the Romanian labor market using the Economic and socialcohesion survey.

  2. Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Quintano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occupational dynamics have brought in significant innovations in Italy, as the increased participation of women in the labour market, that have stimulated studies about the gender wage gap, concerning the different remuneration reserved to male and female workers. In this work the Authors, following Oaxaca and Blinder approach, estimate the gap for Italian employers and proceed to its decomposition, one part due to differences in individual characteristics (endowment effect and another part due to the different returns on the same characteristics (coefficient effect, related to discrimination. Then, the gender wage gap and its decomposition is analyzed with reference to Italian macro-areas considered separately with the aim to highlight the different fundamental dynamics. The model has also been modified using the Heckmann correction to eliminate the bias due to self-selection; i.e. the different propensity to work for men and women.

  3. Gender Inequalities in the Health of Immigrants and Workplace Discrimination in Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dzúrová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the relationship between immigrants’ self-reported/rated health (SRH and their perceived working conditions in Czechia materialized via discrimination, based on the example of Ukrainian immigrants analyzed by gender dimension. The role of age, education, and marital status is also analyzed. A sample of native-born Czechs serves as a reference frame. A cross-sectional design was applied. Using data from two surveys of Ukrainian immigrants in Czechia and a countrywide health interview survey for Czechs, we analyse inequalities in SRH and workplace discrimination loads. Four binary logistic regression models were computed separately for women and men from Ukraine and Czechia to identify the determinants of fair/poor SRH. We found that only Ukrainian immigrant females were heavily exposed to all four measured types of workplace discrimination, thereby modifying and worsening the quality of their SRH. Determinants which are behind respondents’ SRH differ between Ukrainian immigrants vis-à-vis Czechs with one exception. The “oldest age group” (41–62 contributes to poorer assessment of SRH among Ukrainian females, Czech females, and Czech males too. The lowest educational level (primary education correlates with poor SRH within the sample of Czech males.

  4. Gender inequalities in the health of immigrants and workplace discrimination in Czechia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzúrová, Dagmar; Drbohlav, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' self-reported/rated health (SRH) and their perceived working conditions in Czechia materialized via discrimination, based on the example of Ukrainian immigrants analyzed by gender dimension. The role of age, education, and marital status is also analyzed. A sample of native-born Czechs serves as a reference frame. A cross-sectional design was applied. Using data from two surveys of Ukrainian immigrants in Czechia and a countrywide health interview survey for Czechs, we analyse inequalities in SRH and workplace discrimination loads. Four binary logistic regression models were computed separately for women and men from Ukraine and Czechia to identify the determinants of fair/poor SRH. We found that only Ukrainian immigrant females were heavily exposed to all four measured types of workplace discrimination, thereby modifying and worsening the quality of their SRH. Determinants which are behind respondents' SRH differ between Ukrainian immigrants vis-à-vis Czechs with one exception. The "oldest age group" (41-62) contributes to poorer assessment of SRH among Ukrainian females, Czech females, and Czech males too. The lowest educational level (primary education) correlates with poor SRH within the sample of Czech males.

  5. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  6. (RE CONSTRUCTING GENDER IN A NEW VOICE: THE ROLE OF GENDER IDENTITY IN SLA, THE CASE OF MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kow Yip Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a qualitative study of Malaysian children aged between four and six years engaged in a story-telling task. The question posed in this piece of research then: Is the role played by gender in SLA? If it does play a role, what then is the nature of this role? The path taken by this study is to analyze discourse in story-telling.

  7. Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E

    2012-08-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e., grade point average, teacher reports of externalizing, adolescents' deviant peer associations) among 178 Mexican-origin adolescents (53% female). Ethnic identity affirmation was examined as a protective factor expected to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment, and gender was examined as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. Findings indicated that the deleterious effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment in school were particularly salient for Mexican-origin male adolescents. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation emerged as a protective factor for Mexican-origin male adolescents by buffering the negative effects of discrimination on their externalizing behaviors in school.

  8. Assessing access to care for transgender and gender nonconforming people: a consideration of diversity in combating discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Taylor M

    2014-06-01

    Transgender and gender nonconforming people face stigma and discrimination from a wide variety of sources and through numerous social realms. Stigma and discrimination originating from biomedicine and health care provision may impact this group's access to primary care. Such stigma and discrimination may originate not only from direct events and past negative experiences, but also through medicine's role in providing treatments of transitioning, the development of formal diagnoses to provide access to such treatments, and the medical language used to describe this diverse group. This paper examines the postponement of primary curative care among this marginalized group of people by drawing from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, one of the largest available datasets for this underserved group. This paper also proposes an innovate categorization system to account for differences in self-conceptualization and identity, which has been of considerable concern for transgender and gender nonconforming communities but remains underexplored in social and health research. Results suggest that experience, identity, state of transition, and disclosure of transgender or gender nonconforming status are associated with postponement due to discrimination. Other findings suggest that postponement associated with primary place of seeking care and health insurance has ties to both discrimination and affordability. These findings highlight the importance of combating stigma and discrimination generated from within or experienced at sites of biomedicine or health care provision in improving access to care for this group of people. Improving access to care for all gender variant people requires a critical evaluation of existing research practices and health care provision to ensure that care is tailored as needed to each person's perspective in relation to larger social processes.

  9. Associations of discrimination and violence with smoking among emerging adults: differences by gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Horn, Kimberly

    2011-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have higher smoking prevalence than their heterosexual peers, but there is a lack of empirical study into why such disparities exist. This secondary analysis of data sought to examine associations of discrimination and violence victimization with cigarette smoking within sexual orientation groups. Data from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessments were truncated to respondents of 18-24 years of age (n = 92,470). Since heterosexuals comprised over 90% of respondents, a random 5% subsample of heterosexuals was drawn, creating a total analytic sample of 11,046. Smoking status (i.e., never-, ever-, and current smoker) was regressed on general (e.g., not sexual orientation-specific) measures of past-year victimization and discrimination. To examine within-group differences, two sets of multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted: one set of models stratified by sexual orientation and another set stratified by gender-by-sexual-orientation groups. Sexual minorities indicated more experiences of violence victimization and discrimination when compared with their heterosexual counterparts and had nearly twice the current smoking prevalence of heterosexuals. After adjusting for age and race, lesbians/gays who were in physical fights or were physically assaulted had higher proportional odds of being current smokers when compared with their lesbian/gay counterparts who did not experience those stressors. When possible, lesbian/gay and bisexual groups should be analyzed separately, as analyses revealed that bisexuals had a higher risk profile than lesbians/gays. Further research is needed with more nuanced measures of smoking (e.g., intensity), as well as examining if victimization may interact with smoking cessation.

  10. Discrimination versus specialization: a survey of economic studies on sexual orientation, gender and earnings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elizabeth Dunne

    2008-01-01

    Several studies examine the link between sexual orientation and earnings using large data sets that distinguish sexual orientation through questions about sexual behavior and/or by allowing respondents to self-identify as part of a same-sex cohabitating couple. After controlling for other earnings-related characteristics these studies generally show an earnings penalty for gay/bisexual men relative to heterosexual men and an earnings premium for lesbian/bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Explanations for this gender disparity include gender differences in sexual orientation discrimination, greater labor force attachment for lesbian/bisexual women, and the effects of the overall gender earnings gap.

  11. An Experimental Study of the Correlates and Consequences of Perceiving Oneself to Be the Target of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Chu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    An experimental methodology was used to test hypotheses concerning the effects of contextual, cognitive-developmental, and individual difference factors on children's views of whether they have been the target of gender discrimination and the possible consequent effect of such views on two forms of state self-esteem: performance and social…

  12. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Youths: Examining the Role of Gender and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2013-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents…

  13. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Youths: Examining the Role of Gender and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2013-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents…

  14. "The Voice inside Herself": Transforming Gendered Academic Identities in Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Janice; Wallin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the academic identity formation(s) of 10 Canadian female academics whose disciplinary knowledge is in the field of educational administration. We trace the ways in which discourses of gender, institutional power, and other cultural and social influences shaped their sense of themselves as academics in the highly patriarchal…

  15. Leadership Narratives in Postsecondary Dance Administration: Voices, Values and Gender Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug; Musil, Pamela S.

    2017-01-01

    Dance in the U.S. university finds its beginnings in the visionary leadership of women. Since the mid-1910s, dance faculty and students in higher education have been predominantly female. Gender in postsecondary dance today remains much the same, with the exception of dance leadership, which is increasingly male. This narrative inquiry is drawn…

  16. Neglected Voices : Untold Stories of Gender, Conflict and Transitional Justice in the Great Lakes Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Theo

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of an introduction and one book chapter and three journal articles that are based on extensive field research in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Uganda. The three overarching themes of this dissertation are gender, armed conflict and transitional

  17. Making non-discrimination and equal opportunity a reality in Kenya's health provider education system: results of a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Kimeu, Anastasiah; Shamblin, Leigh; Penders, Christopher; McQuide, Pamela A; Bwonya, Judith

    2011-01-01

    IntraHealth International's USAID-funded Capacity Kenya project conducted a performance needs assessment of the Kenya health provider education system in 2010. Various stakeholders shared their understandings of the role played by gender and identified opportunities to improve gender equality in health provider education. Findings suggest that occupational segregation, sexual harassment and discrimination based on pregnancy and family responsibilities present problems, especially for female students and faculty. To grow and sustain its workforce over the long term, Kenyan human resource leaders and managers must act to eliminate gender-based obstacles by implementing existing non-discrimination and equal opportunity policies and laws to increase the entry, retention and productivity of students and faculty. Families and communities must support girls' schooling and defer early marriage. All this will result in a fuller pool of students, faculty and matriculated health workers and, ultimately, a more robust health workforce to meet Kenya's health challenges.

  18. A longitudinal analysis of Hispanic youth acculturation and cigarette smoking: the roles of gender, culture, family, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-05-01

    Risk for smoking initiation increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society, and this association seems to be stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture, family, and everyday discrimination on cigarette smoking, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation and cigarette smoking. Data came from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), which included 1,436 Hispanic students (54% girls) from Southern California. We used data from 9th to 11th grade (85% were 14 years old, and 86% were U.S. born) to test the influence of acculturation-related experiences on smoking over time. Multigroup structural equation analysis suggested that acculturation was associated with increased familismo and lower traditional gender roles, and enculturation was linked more with familismo and respeto. Familismo, respeto, and traditional gender roles were linked with lower family conflict and increased family cohesion, and these links were stronger for girls. Familismo and respeto were further associated with lower discrimination. Conversely, fatalismo was linked with worse family functioning (especially for boys) and increased discrimination in both the groups. Discrimination was the only predictor of smoking for boys and girls. In all, the results of the current study indicate that reducing discrimination and helping youth cope with discrimination may prevent or reduce smoking in Hispanic boys and girls. This may be achieved by promoting familismo and respeto and by discouraging fatalistic beliefs.

  19. Discriminability and Perceptual Saliency of Temporal and Spectral Cues for Final Fricative Consonant Voicing in Simulated Cochlear-Implant and Bimodal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple redundant acoustic cues can contribute to the perception of a single phonemic contrast. This study investigated the effect of spectral degradation on the discriminability and perceptual saliency of acoustic cues for identification of word-final fricative voicing in “loss” versus “laws”, and possible changes that occurred when low-frequency acoustic cues were restored. Three acoustic cues that contribute to the word-final /s/-/z/ contrast (first formant frequency [F1] offset, vowel–consonant duration ratio, and consonant voicing duration were systematically varied in synthesized words. A discrimination task measured listeners’ ability to discriminate differences among stimuli within a single cue dimension. A categorization task examined the extent to which listeners make use of a given cue to label a syllable as “loss” versus “laws” when multiple cues are available. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with stimuli that were either unprocessed, processed with an eight-channel noise-band vocoder to approximate spectral degradation in cochlear implants, or low-pass filtered. Listeners were tested in four listening conditions: unprocessed, vocoder, low-pass, and a combined vocoder + low-pass condition that simulated bimodal hearing. Results showed a negative impact of spectral degradation on F1 cue discrimination and a trading relation between spectral and temporal cues in which listeners relied more heavily on the temporal cues for “loss-laws” identification when spectral cues were degraded. Furthermore, the addition of low-frequency fine-structure cues in simulated bimodal hearing increased the perceptual saliency of the F1 cue for “loss-laws” identification compared with vocoded speech. Findings suggest an interplay between the quality of sensory input and cue importance.

  20. [Articulate mental health and social gender relations: giving voice to silenced subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Anna Maria Corbi Caldas

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the psychological suffering based on testimonies of male and female users of a public health service in the municipality of Araraquara (SP). It is considered the social construction of the psychological suffering and, therefore, the arrangement of values and norms of a certain society and historical period. Semi-structured interviews were applied in male and female users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS). These interviews were analyzed through the perspective of social gender relations and under the context of changes at the Brazilian psychiatric system started with the Anti Asylum Fight. In conclusion, the challenge to be of the contemporary Brazilian society in the construction of public policies in the field of mental health must take into account questions raised by the perspective of social gender relations. Therefore, it means that by incorporating the gender theme in mental health issues, we must question the biological and reductionist conception of women's mental health. The violence against women and the sexual repression in our society have contributed a lot to the female psychiatric debility. Regarding men, it is necessary to face the question of their stigma. By falling sick, they are excluded from public spaces and confront great difficulties to reintroduce themselves into society and to rebuild their previous identity.

  1. Her voice lingers on and her memory is strategic: effects of gender on directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Park, Giho

    2013-01-01

    The literature on directed forgetting has employed exclusively visual words. Thus, the potentially interesting aspects of a spoken utterance, which include not only vocal cues (e.g., prosody) but also the speaker and the listener, have been neglected. This study demonstrates that prosody alone does not influence directed-forgetting effects, while the sex of the speaker and the listener significantly modulate directed-forgetting effects for spoken utterances. Specifically, forgetting costs were attenuated for female-spoken items compared to male-spoken items, and forgetting benefits were eliminated among female listeners but not among male listeners. These results suggest that information conveyed in a female voice draws attention to its distinct perceptual attributes, thus interfering with retention of the semantic meaning, while female listeners' superior capacity for processing the surface features of spoken utterances may predispose them to spontaneously employ adaptive strategies to retain content information despite distraction by perceptual features. Our findings underscore the importance of sex differences when processing spoken messages in directed forgetting.

  2. Her voice lingers on and her memory is strategic: effects of gender on directed forgetting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwajin Yang

    Full Text Available The literature on directed forgetting has employed exclusively visual words. Thus, the potentially interesting aspects of a spoken utterance, which include not only vocal cues (e.g., prosody but also the speaker and the listener, have been neglected. This study demonstrates that prosody alone does not influence directed-forgetting effects, while the sex of the speaker and the listener significantly modulate directed-forgetting effects for spoken utterances. Specifically, forgetting costs were attenuated for female-spoken items compared to male-spoken items, and forgetting benefits were eliminated among female listeners but not among male listeners. These results suggest that information conveyed in a female voice draws attention to its distinct perceptual attributes, thus interfering with retention of the semantic meaning, while female listeners' superior capacity for processing the surface features of spoken utterances may predispose them to spontaneously employ adaptive strategies to retain content information despite distraction by perceptual features. Our findings underscore the importance of sex differences when processing spoken messages in directed forgetting.

  3. Voices of successful science teachers in an urban diverse single gender girls' school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Jyoti

    This research study was conducted as a qualitative case study of four successful science teachers of female students in a diverse, title 1, urban, public girls' school. The study was designed to hear the 'muted' voices of successful science teachers concerning their beliefs and practices when they effectively provide learning opportunities for female students of color in their classrooms. Ethic of Care, equity pedagogy and culturally responsive pedagogy, created the theoretical framework for interpretation of the powerful narratives and storytelling that influenced this group of successful teachers. Data were collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Constant comparative method and narrative analysis were used to code and categorize the data. Analysis was conducted after each interview to discover emergent themes. Teachers conducted member checks throughout the process. The findings from the study yielded the following: (1) teachers had a passion for science and incorporated ongoing scientific developments and real-life examples and applications in their teaching, (2) teachers adopted a caring, concerned, and student-centered approach to teaching, (3) teachers acknowledged certain benefits to a single-sex girls education which included fewer distractions, increased confidence and comfort level of students, (5) teachers built relationships with students that encouraged students to engage with rigorous course content and meet higher expectations for performance. Themes that emerged included: care, culturally responsive pedagogy and culturally relevant curriculum.

  4. Perceived discrimination and health by gender, social class, and country of birth in a Southern European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Muntaner, Carles; Gil-González, Diana; Artazcoz, Lucia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine; García-Calvente, Mar; Villegas, Rodrigo; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES.: This study aimed to examine the association between perceived discrimination and five health outcomes in Spain as well as to analyze whether these relationships are modified by sex, country of birth, or social class. METHODS.: We used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected as part of the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The present analysis was restricted to the population aged 16-64 years (n=23,760). Five dependent variables on health obtained through the questionnaire were examined. Perceived discrimination was the main independent variable. We obtained the prevalence of perceived discrimination. Logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS.: Perceived discrimination was higher among populations originating from low income countries and among women and showed positive and consistent associations with all poor health outcomes among men and with 3 poor health outcomes among women. Poor mental health showed the largest difference between people who felt and those who did not feel discriminated (prevalence for these 2 groups among men was 42.0% and 13.3%, and among women, was 44.7% and 22.8%). The patterns found were modified by gender, country of birth, and social class. CONCLUSION.: This study has found a consistent relationship of discrimination with five health indicators in Spain, a high-income Southern European country. Public policies are needed that aim to reduce discrimination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Carballo

    Full Text Available Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it. Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3. In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  6. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Putrino, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Carolina; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it) and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it). Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3). In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  7. Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2012-01-01

    ... of discrimination in the labour market as well as to the mechanisms involved in discriminatory hiring practices. The design has several advantages compared to -‘single-method’ approaches and provides a more substantial understanding of the processes leading to ethnic inequality in the labour market.

  8. Fixation to features and neural processing of facial expressions in a gender discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Karly N; Itier, Roxane J

    2015-10-01

    Early face encoding, as reflected by the N170 ERP component, is sensitive to fixation to the eyes. Whether this sensitivity varies with facial expressions of emotion and can also be seen on other ERP components such as P1 and EPN, was investigated. Using eye-tracking to manipulate fixation on facial features, we found the N170 to be the only eye-sensitive component and this was true for fearful, happy and neutral faces. A different effect of fixation to features was seen for the earlier P1 that likely reflected general sensitivity to face position. An early effect of emotion (∼120 ms) for happy faces was seen at occipital sites and was sustained until ∼350 ms post-stimulus. For fearful faces, an early effect was seen around 80 ms followed by a later effect appearing at ∼150 ms until ∼300 ms at lateral posterior sites. Results suggests that in this emotion-irrelevant gender discrimination task, processing of fearful and happy expressions occurred early and largely independently of the eye-sensitivity indexed by the N170. Processing of the two emotions involved different underlying brain networks active at different times.

  9. The effects of gender discrimination on refugee torture survivors: a cross-cultural traumatology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Ibrahim A; Smith, Iris; Lewandowski, Linda; Templin, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Trauma developmental theory identifies gender discrimination (GD) as a type of persistent, ongoing trauma that has the potential for serious, negative effects on mental health. This study was conducted to examine the potential role of GD in the development of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as the role of GD in mediating the effects of other traumas on these disorders. The sample included 160 female torture survivors from more than 30 countries. Measures of PTSD, CTD, and types of trauma exposure were acquired as part of a larger study on refugee torture survivors. Structural equation modeling was used to test several plausible models for the direct and indirect effects of GD on PTSD and CTD, within the context of other trauma exposure. Results suggest that GD mediates the effects of identity traumas on CTD and PTSD. GD also had direct effects on CTD, including relationships with dissociation, suicidality, and deficits in executive function. GD did not appear to directly influence the development of PTSD. The implications of these results for assessment and treatment of women's trauma-related disorders as well as strategies for their prevention are discussed.

  10. Gender differences of language and language gender discrimination%语言性别差异和语言性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙继爽

    2012-01-01

      The male and female is different in terms of language using, based on the control theory, difference theory, the paper discusses the gender differences gender in language use, and points out that these differences cannot be overstated, extremely will be equivalence on language gender discrimination.%  男性和女性在语言使用方面是有差异的,本文以支配论、差异论为理论依据,探讨了男女在语言使用上的性别差异特征,并指出不能夸大这些差异,极端地将其统统与语言性别歧视对等起来。

  11. Feeling voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ammirante

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated deaf individuals' ability to discriminate between same-sex talkers based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Nineteen participants made same/different judgments on pairs of utterances presented to the lower back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination of stimuli matched for F0, duration, and perceived magnitude was successful for pairs of spoken sentences in Experiment 1 (median percent correct = 83% and pairs of vowel utterances in Experiment 2 (median percent correct = 75%. Greater difference in spectral tilt between "different" pairs strongly predicted their discriminability in both experiments. The current findings support the hypothesis that discrimination of complex vibrotactile stimuli involves the cortical integration of spectral information filtered through frequency-tuned skin receptors.

  12. GENDER DALAM TINJAUAN TAFSIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitunah Subhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The  justice gender of issues continues to be voiced. The justice is the most central ideas as well as the highest goal is preached by every religion. Principal of mission of the al Qur’an Islamic Holy Book was revealed to free mankind from all forms of discrimination and oppression. Interpretations is the key to unlock the beauty of meaning which savings in the Qur'an.Keywords : Gender, Tafsir PerspectiveCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i1.34

  13. A Brief Analysis of Gender Discrimination in English%论英语语言的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琨

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to probe into the gender discrimination in English from the perspective of language and social phenomenon relations. And it researches in the topic from many aspects : male language generalization, affix, title, words, word order and idioms. The purpose of this paper is to help language learners understand English culture better, and help them avoid gender discrimination in English writing.%文章主要从语言与社会现象关系的角度,从男性语言泛化、词缀、称谓、词汇、词序和习语方面,探讨了英语语言中的性别歧视现象,以帮助英语语言学习者了解英语语言的文化和帮助他们在英语写作中避免性别歧视。

  14. Confessions of a pharmaceutical company: voice, narrative, and gendered dialectics in the case of Gardasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkowski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that both men and women carry the human papillomavirus (HPV) and jointly contribute to its status as an epidemic, the promotion of Gardasil, a vaccine that blocks infection from four strains of HPV, has largely been designated as a women's-only health issue. The following case study contributes to ongoing efforts in the field of health communication to identify problematic assumptions informing contemporary health policy and practices. Specifically, I analyze how Merck Pharmaceuticals, the creator of Gardasil, strategically imbues direct-to-consumer advertisements with contradiction to preserve traditional notions of both women and medicine. I found that three gendered dialectics characterize Merck's efforts to invoke complacency among female consumers: public/secret, education/ignorance, and structured/individualist. In the case of the HPV vaccination, the implications of these dialectics are the perpetuation of complacency among female audiences that threatens both the success of this particular technology and the overall status of women and health. In line with conclusions offered by Thompson (2010a), this study extends a call for health and communication scholars to continue to deconstruct dominant medical discourses and presents possibilities for re-storying narratives that mediate women's experiences with health.

  15. Trajectories of depressive symptoms and self-esteem in Latino youths: examining the role of gender and perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-05-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents and female adolescents. Depressive symptoms, however, showed differences by gender, with female adolescents reporting a decline in depressive symptoms across high school and male adolescents reporting no change. Perceived ethnic discrimination emerged as an important predictor of male adolescents' self-esteem in early high school and predicted changes in self-esteem growth for male adolescents and female adolescents across the high school years. Perceived ethnic discrimination also emerged as a significant predictor of adolescents' depressive symptoms in early high school but did not relate to changes in symptoms across time. Together, findings suggest that Latino adolescents experience positive changes in psychological adjustment across this developmental time. Experiences of ethnic discrimination, however, have the potential of placing adolescents at risk for maladjustment over time. These findings inform our understanding of Latino youth development and point to the importance of early high school years in youths' psychological functioning.

  16. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  17. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kohlbrenner

    Full Text Available Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%, had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%, and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%. Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48. Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60. However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15. The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  18. Engaging the Voice of Patients Affected by Gender-Based Violence: Informing Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Chadwick, Mardi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence regarding the benefits, opportunities, and risks associated with providing health care to patients experiencing gender-based violence (GBV) and, moreover, their satisfaction with health care services is sparse. Using a patient- and trauma-informed relationship-based framework, survivors of GBV who were referred for follow-up care were asked to participate in a quality improvement (QI) initiative in an effort to understand their perspectives of receiving healthcare services. Patients were asked to answer three open-ended questions in regard to their healthcare experience. Individuals who were eligible for evidence collection after sexual assault (<5 days) were asked two additional questions. Of the 353 women and six men (359) referred to the C.A.R.E. (Coordinated Approach to Recovery and Empowerment) Clinic, 327 patients were contacted. Of the participants, 24% (86) had a mental health diagnosis; 41% (145) reported their incident to the police; 8% (28) had comorbidities of substance abuse, mental health, and/or homelessness; and 33% (118) of the incidents involved alcohol or drugs. Most of the patients stated that they were well cared for and felt safe during their visit. However, many reported "long waits," "disjointed," "chaotic," "too many" providers, "conflicting" and "miss-information," and "confusion" about what to do after their acute care visit. Over half (59%) did not report incident to the police. Some reported regrets with reporting to the police (16%) and regrets in having evidence collection (15%). Of the patients who did not have evidence collected (47), none expressed regret over choosing not to have evidence collected. Five patients with mental health problems were hospitalized within 5 days of their emergency department visit for suicidal thoughts. A number of opportunities to improve the healthcare response were identified. Patients affected by GBV require an improved coordinated and trauma-informed approach. Explicit consent related to

  19. 性别收入差异及性别歧视的变化%Gender Income Gap and the Changes of Gender Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金霞; 吕康银; 张丽

    2014-01-01

    Gender income gap has attracted a lot of attention. Based on Survey of the social status of Chinese women from 1990 to 2010 in Jilin Province, the article analysis the gender income gap by Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. The article horizontally and longitudinally analysis the gender income gap from of 20 years in Jilin province , then the following conclusions are obtained:Gender segmentation exist in the labor market in our country and the gender income gap is expanding. The individual characteristic is an important cause of gender income gap. Discrimination is still an important cause of gender income gap. Gender income gap at present is mainly caused by the workers own human capital level, it is normal and reasonable, Discrimination is still an important cause of gender income gap. The Opportunity access to education of Women is lower than males, meanwhile, women are difficult to enter into the high income industry and occupation. Women are still at a disadvantage. However , Discrimination against women is gradually weakened during 20 years.%性别歧视带来的性别收入差异一直备受关注。文章基于吉林省1990-2010年间三期妇女地位的调研数据分析了吉林省的性别工资差异问题,并运用Oaxaca-Blinder对性别收入差距进行了分解。文章对20年间吉林省的性别收入差异进行了横向和纵向的分析,实证研究得到如下结论:性别分割是我国劳动力市场上一直存在的一种现象,性别收入差距总体趋势在扩大;个体特征差异能够在一定程度上解释性别收入差异,现阶段性别收入差异在很大程度上是由于劳动者本身的人力资本水平引起的,是正常合理的范围;歧视仍然是造成性别收入差距的一个原因,女性在获得教育的机会上还是比男性要低,而且女性很难进入到高收入行业和职业,使得在教育方面女性仍然处于不利地位。但是经过20年的发展,对女性的歧视逐步减弱。

  20. Discriminating real victims from feigners of psychological injury in gender violence: Validating a protocol for forensic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Arce

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard clinical assessment of psychological injury does not provide valid evidence in forensic settings, and screening of genuine from feigned complaints must be undertaken prior to the diagnosis of mental state (American Psychological Association, 2002. Whereas psychological injury is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, a clinical diagnosis may encompass other nosologies (e.g., depression and anxiety. The assessment of psychological injury in forensic contexts requires a multimethod approach consisting of a psychometric measure and an interview. To assess the efficacy of the multimethod approach in discriminating real from false victims, 25 real victims of gender violence and 24 feigners were assessed using a the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, a recognition task; and a forensic clinical interview, a knowledge task. The results revealed that feigners reported more clinical symptoms on the SCL-90-R than real victims. Moreover, the feigning indicators on the SCL-90-R, GSI, PST, and PSDI were higher in feigners, but not sufficient to provide a screening test for invalidating feigning protocols. In contrast, real victims reported more clinical symptoms related to PTSD in the forensic clinical interview than feigners. Notwithstanding, in the forensic clinical interview feigners were able to feign PTSD which was not detected by the analysis of feigning strategies. The combination of both measures and their corresponding validity controls enabled the discrimination of real victims from feigners. Hence, a protocol for discriminating the psychological sequelae of real victims from feigners of gender violence is described.

  1. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  2. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Mississippi

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 34,800 LGBT workers in Mississippi are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or local laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, media reports, and court cases. Many corporate employers and public opinion in Mississippi support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. 

  3. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  4. The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Cultural Mistrust, and Gender in Latina/o Youth's School Attitudes and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Adina C; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2016-12-01

    Gender gaps in achievement are particularly pronounced among Latina/os, who are among the population most affected by the academic achievement gap. This study examined the roles of racial discrimination, cultural mistrust, and economic value of education in the academic achievement of urban, low-income Latina/o adolescents. Participants were 346 high school students. Structural equation modeling revealed that the model of associations was a better fit for male students than for female students. Cultural mistrust mediated the relationship between racial discrimination and values of education, and perceived limitations of education predicted lower attendance rates for male students but not for female students. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  5. Derogation, Discrimination, and (Dis)satisfaction with Jobs in Science: A Gendered Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Isis H.; Cortina, Lilia M.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Miner, Kathi N.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study of 353 science and engineering faculty members, we examined whether three types of gender-based mistreatment might "chill" individuals' perceptions of the professional climate, which might in turn undermine satisfaction with their jobs. We also tested gender differences in these relationships. Results indicated that…

  6. Essays on executive remuneration contracting : Managerial power, corporate payout, and gender discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 4 examines the existence of the gender pay gap among top managers in the UK. The study suggests the existence of substantial differences in both the level and mix of executive remuneration between male and female executives, but fails to establish a gender pay gap at the CEO level. The fourt

  7. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: An Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Mia; Szulkin, Ryszard

    1999-01-01

    A study of Swedish workers investigated whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of firms' managerial staff. Gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures proved essential to explaining women's relatively low wages. Women working in male-dominated establishments had lower wages than firms with more women managers.…

  8. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Leach, Beryl; Price, Janet; Robinson, Jude; Ettore, Elizabeth; Scott-Samuel, Alex; Kilonzo, Nduku; Sabuni, Louis P; Robertson, Steve; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Bristow, Katie; Lang, Raymond; Romao, Francelina; Theobald, Sally

    2012-06-01

    Critiques of gender mainstreaming (GM) as the officially agreed strategy to promote gender equity in health internationally have reached a critical mass. There has been a notable lack of dialogue between gender advocates in the global north and south, from policy and practice, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper contributes to the debate on the shape of future action for gender equity in health, by uniquely bringing together the voices of disparate actors, first heard in a series of four seminars held during 2008 and 2009, involving almost 200 participants from 15 different country contexts. The series used (Feminist) Participatory Action Research (FPAR) methodology to create a productive dialogue on the developing theory around GM and the at times disconnected empirical experience of policy and practice. We analyse the debates and experiences shared at the seminar series using concrete, context specific examples from research, advocacy, policy and programme development perspectives, as presented by participants from southern and northern settings, including Kenya, Mozambique, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada and Australia. Focussing on key discussions around sexualities and (dis)ability and their interactions with gender, we explore issues around intersectionality across the five key themes for research and action identified by participants: (1) Addressing the disconnect between gender mainstreaming praxis and contemporary feminist theory; (2) Developing appropriate analysis methodologies; (3) Developing a coherent theory of change; (4) Seeking resolution to the dilemmas and uncertainties around the 'place' of men and boys in GM as a feminist project; and (5) Developing a politics of intersectionality. We conclude that there needs to be a coherent and inclusive strategic direction to improve policy and practice for promoting gender equity in health which requires the full and equal participation of practitioners and

  9. Effects of Socialization on Gender Discrimination and Violence Against Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Farver, JoAnn M; Hamieh, Christine Sylva

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the socialization of Lebanese men's attitudes toward gender equality to understand violence against women in Middle Eastern countries. Two hundred seventy-three men completed a survey, and 73 participated in seven focus groups. Survey results showed that participants' education, parents' expectations for gender-typed behavior, school discipline, and exposure to community violence predicted the men's attitudes toward gender inequality. In focus group discussions, participants expressed that masculinity imposed a taxing role wherein they perceived themselves as "victims" of a traditional culture where norms grant men control and power over women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Levine, Cynthia S

    2011-10-01

    American women still confront workplace barriers (e.g., bias against mothers, inflexible policies) that hinder their advancement at the upper levels of organizations. However, most Americans fail to recognize that such gender barriers still exist. Focusing on mothers who have left the workforce, we propose that the prevalent American assumption that actions are a product of choice conceals workplace barriers by communicating that opportunities are equal and that behavior is free from contextual influence. Study 1 reveals that stay-at-home mothers who view their own workplace departure as an individual choice experience greater well-being but less often recognize workplace barriers and discrimination as a source of inequality than do mothers who do not view their workplace departure as an individual choice. Study 2 shows that merely exposing participants to a message that frames actions in terms of individual choice increases participants' belief that society provides equal opportunities and that gender discrimination no longer exists. By concealing the barriers that women still face in the workplace, this choice framework may hinder women's long-term advancement in society.

  11. The Influence of European Law Concerning Gender Discrimination in Romanian Labor Market: Some Aspects of Women’s Migration in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination in employment is one of the problems that have not lost its actuality and discrimination of women, as a species of this principle is a problem that has interesting aspects in Romania. This paper proposes a series of conceptual approach, an attempt to define discrimination against women in employment, a content analysis, including issues of harassment and discrimination. An important part involves the attempt to highlight the sources of discrimination, as well as underlining the paradox that this category of people is not a minority. We want to underline the equality principle reflected by international law, European law, and Romanian legislation and several problems related to gender specificity on the labor market. We have analyzed the international legal framework, the European one (with the multitude of EU directives and the Romanian legislation on this area and I drew a number of conclusions on a few misconceptions of Romanian collective mind, regarded as sources of discrimination.

  12. THE ATTITUDES AND VIEWS OF TEACHERS AND PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS RELATED TO THE GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN SCHOOL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin İPEK

    2010-08-01

    negative attitudes and views for female promoting to school leadership as much as their male counterparts. However, female primary teachers and female primary pre-service teachers seemed to accept voluntarily the social female roles more than male primary teachers and male primary pre-service teachers.In accordance with the study results some suggestions were developed. First of all, it was proposed that traditional gender roles should be redefined in Turkish Educational System. Secondly, gender discrimination subject might take place in teacher training programs. Moreover, further gender studies were recommended in terms of motivation, stress, work satisfaction, work performance, work commitment and organizational culture.

  13. From Exclusion to Discrimination: Gender Inequality in the Senior Management of Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboiyehi, Christiana O.; Fayomi, Ike; Eboiyehi, Friday A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors encouraging gender inequality in university management in three selected universities in Southwestern Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing women's participation in the senior management positions in the region. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. A questionnaire was administered to senior…

  14. Discourses on Gender in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Setting: Equally Discriminated Against

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneselovic, Dragana Pavlovic; Krnjaja, Živka

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses gender issues in the practice of ECEC through research with children. The research examines children's perspectives of kindergarten practice, acknowledging the importance of the child's perspective in critical investigations of this nature. In total, fifty children from thirty kindergartens across Serbia participated in the…

  15. Gender Pay Differences in the European Union: Do Higher Wages Make Up For Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in

  16. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  17. [Gender determination based on osteometric characteristics of the upper and lower extremities by discriminant analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Sineva, I M

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the osteological collection of the Chair of Antropology of the Moscow State University. The results of measurement of length of long tubular bones and articular parts of scapula and pelvis were statistically treated. The complex of discriminant models calculated by the Fisher's method is recommended for the sex identification. The diagnostic accuracy is 74 - 83.5% (separated bones) and 85.7 - 95.2% (complex of bones of upper and lower extremities).

  18. Learning discriminative features from RGB-D images for gender and ethnicity identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzakhnini, Safaa; Ballihi, Lahoucine; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2016-11-01

    The development of sophisticated sensor technologies gave rise to an interesting variety of data. With the appearance of affordable devices, such as the Microsoft Kinect, depth-maps and three-dimensional data became easily accessible. This attracted many computer vision researchers seeking to exploit this information in classification and recognition tasks. In this work, the problem of face classification in the context of RGB images and depth information (RGB-D images) is addressed. The purpose of this paper is to study and compare some popular techniques for gender recognition and ethnicity classification to understand how much depth data can improve the quality of recognition. Furthermore, we investigate which combination of face descriptors, feature selection methods, and learning techniques is best suited to better exploit RGB-D images. The experimental results show that depth data improve the recognition accuracy for gender and ethnicity classification applications in many use cases.

  19. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  20. Understanding low fertility in Poland: Demographic consequences of gendered discrimination in employment and post-socialist neoliberal restructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Mishtal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available After the state socialist regime of Poland collapsed in 1989, the nation's total fertility rate plummeted from 2.1 to 1.27 by 2007. Simultaneously, Poland severely reduced social service provisions and restricted access to family planning. A three-month mixed-methods research study was conducted in 2007 in Gdansk to investigate Polish women's reproductive intentions and decision making. These data reveal that discriminatory practices by employers against pregnant women and women with small children are decisive in women's decisions to postpone or forego childbearing. The case of Poland demonstrates the urgent need to redress fundamental gendered discrimination in employment before work-family reconciliation policies can be effective.

  1. Mississippi – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi has no current or pending state or local statutes recognizing sexual orientation or gender identity as protected classes of citizens. More generally, Mississippi is not welcoming socially or in its laws to LGBT people. Mississippi custody courts consider homosexuality negatively in determining custody disputes. In 2001, Mississippi banned adoption by same-sex couples. In 2004, eighty-six percent (86%) of Mississippians voted in favor of an amendment to the state constitution banni...

  2. Mississippi – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi has no current or pending state or local statutes recognizing sexual orientation or gender identity as protected classes of citizens. More generally, Mississippi is not welcoming socially or in its laws to LGBT people. Mississippi custody courts consider homosexuality negatively in determining custody disputes. In 2001, Mississippi banned adoption by same-sex couples. In 2004, eighty-six percent (86%) of Mississippians voted in favor of an amendment to the state constitution banni...

  3. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; M age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one's sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to disentangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations.

  4. Gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health among Black South African men who have sex with men: A further exploration of unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.; Bos, H.; Knox, J.; Reddy, V.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,

  5. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  6. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Marx, Rani; Katz, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    To determine the independent predictors of attempted suicide among transgender persons we interviewed 392 male-to-female (MTF) and 123 female-to-male (FTM) individuals. Participants were recruited through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals in San Francisco. The prevalence of attempted suicide was 32% (95% CI = 28% to 36%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis younger age (suicide. Suicide prevention interventions for transgender persons are urgently needed, particularly for young people. Medical, mental health, and social service providers should address depression, substance abuse, and forced sex in an attempt to reduce suicidal behaviors among transgender persons. In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population.

  7. A Brief Analysis on Gender Discrimination in Language%浅析英语语言使用中的性别歧视现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高苗

    2012-01-01

    语言是表达思想的工具与载体,人的思想与语言是受不同时期社会文化影响着的,并时刻反映着的社会文化现象。语言使用中的性别歧视现象也正是人们“男尊女卑”的观念的写照。英语语言中的性别歧视现象可以从英语词汇、语音语调和语义这三个方面来陈述,以及从历史文化背景和社会根源两个方面来分析其产生的原因。只有改变思想观念,真正实现男女平等,才有可能根除英语语言中存在的性别歧视的问题。%Language is the tool to express people's attitudes. While attitudes are strongly influenced by social culture,language therefore, reflects social cultural phenomenon. Gender discrimination in language usage is the reflection of gender discrimination in social culture. The paper aims to describe the gender discrimination phenomenon in language usage from the aspects of vocabulary, intona- tion and semantic. And also the cultural causes of the phenomenon will be analyzed from historical culture background and social background. The only way to eliminate the problem of gender discrimination in language usage is to change the current attitude of the whole society, to truly realize the equality between men and women and to show equal respect to the weak gender.

  8. Gender discrimination in undernutrition with mediating factors among Bengalee school children from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2012-04-01

    NS were also significant predictors of stunting (Wald=8.16), underweight (Wald=7.68) and stunting (Wald=6.97) respectively. The present study revealed that the nutritional status of the children was unsatisfactory and it is of paramount importance not only to increase the amount of food supplementation given but also to promote gender equality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  10. Profiles of bullying victimization, discrimination, social support, and school safety: Links with Latino/a youth acculturation, gender, depressive symptoms, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1,919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed 4 distinct profiles of community experience that varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and /or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Which Female Graduates Were Subjected to the Gender Discrimination of the Starting-Wage?%哪些女大学生遭受了起薪歧视?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 孙璐; 胡永远

    2015-01-01

    Based on the survey data of "The Employment of the college graduates", this paper presents the quantile decomposition of the gender starting-wage gap among college graduates. The results show that the average rate of gender discrimination against female graduates arrives 91.7% by the Oaxaca-Blinder approach. Meanwhile, the extent of gender discrimination increases with the wage quantiles, while the gender wage gap measured by absolute values shows an opposite tendency. In other words, the degree of gender discrimination measured by proportion of differentials unexplained is higher in the upper end of wage distribution. Meanwhile, the result is robust regardless of model specification and methods of decomposition. The policy implication is that well-paid positions should be open up to females.%以课题组“高校毕业生就业问卷调查”数据为基础,对男女大学生起薪差距进行了分位数分解。分析表明,就工资均值而言,采用Oaxaca-Blinder 方法的结果表明性别歧视比率高达91.7%;同时,就工资条件分布而言,男女起薪差距随分位数上升而逐步减少,而歧视比率却随工资分位数上升而增大,说明工资高端的性别歧视程度更大。这一结果具有估计的稳健性。因此,要将反性别歧视的重点放在高工资岗位的获取上。

  12. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  13. Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice is the sound made by air passing from your lungs through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, ... to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, ...

  14. Every Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  15. Every Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  16. Voice restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Tan, I.B.; Remacle, M.; Eckel, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical prosthetic voice restoration is the best possible option for patients to regain oral communication after total laryngectomy. It is considered to be the present "gold standard" for voice rehabilitation of laryngectomized individuals. Surgical prosthetic voice restoration, in essence, is alwa

  17. Equal Opportunities between Men and Women and Gender Mainstreaming under the European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC – A New Policy Approach to Combat Gender Discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Braams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the development of the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming with regard to a new policy approach taken outside the traditional community method and to raise the question to what extent these policy instruments can be considered as a 'new tool' to combat gender discrimination. The European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC are two examples of an instrument outside the community method, which tries to increase the recognition of the gender dimension of the labour market and to improve the initiatives taken in the interrelated field of social inclusion of women by the use of 'soft' policy instruments and voluntarist procedures. The paper illustrates the development of the concept of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming under the EES and the OMC; more precisely, the paper seeks to demonstrate that the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming cannot be addressed by reference to harmonisation instruments exclusively, but need, due to the diverse approach towards gender equality on a national level, a decentralised approach as it is offered by the coordination instrument, which should be understood as a complementary tool of integration.

  18. Empresas recuperadas: las voces de las mujeres - perspectivas de género Recovered Enterprises: Women's Voices - Gender Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Bancalari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende una primera aproximación al papel desempenado por la mujer en el fenómeno de las empresas recuperadas. Indagamos en las modalidades de participación femenina, ya sea como protagonista activa en el proceso de recuperación de la fuente de trabajo o como soporte para sus compañeros trabajadores. Intentamos identificar características específicas del género en la experiencia de recuperar el trabajo a través de la lucha, teniendo en cuenta que en el fenómeno social de las empresas recuperadas la proporción de trabajadores hombres es significativamente mayor. Nos basamos en las entrevistas realizadas a mujeres y a hombres que hablan de la participación femenina en las empresas relevadas por este equipo de investigación desde el año 2003 a la fecha.In this article we present an approximation to the role of women in recovered enterprises. We inquire about the diverse forms of female participation, not only as an active character in the process of recovery of the work source but while providing support for their male counterparts. We tried to identify specific gender characteristics in the experience of work recovery throughout the struggle. It is important to consider that proportionally the number of men in recovered enterprises is much larger than the number of women. Our research is based on interviews carried out with women and men about women's participation in the researched enterprises, from 2003 to the present.

  19. Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators of the Association between Discrimination and Academic Adjustment among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Wong, Jessie J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e.,…

  20. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    the paralinguistic traits of the synthesized voice. Using a corpus of 13 synthesized voices, constructed from acoustic concatenative speech synthesis, we assessed the response of 23 listeners from differing cultural backgrounds. Evaluating if the perception shifts from the known ground–truths, we asked listeners...... to assigned traits of age, gender, accent origin, and human–likeness. Results present a difference in perception for age and human–likeness across voices, and a general agreement across listeners for both gender and accent origin. Connections found between age, gender and human–likeness call for further...

  1. 美国学术界的性别歧视与改革%Gender Discrimination and Reform in American Academia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时春荣

    2011-01-01

    Since 1960s,gender discrimination in American academia,with the impact of the strong feminist movements,has decreased like that in other social fields.But gender discrimination did not extinct;it still existed in the teaching,research in universities,service and so on,which only turned to be more covert.Discrimination against women in academia has been recognized and paid great attention by the feminists and people of vision who have started to promote related sectors and institutions,especially two levels of college and department in university to take corresponding policies and measures,such as providing supervisors for young female teachers,changing the institutional culture that discriminates against women in universities,etc.%自20世纪60年代以来,美国学术界的性别歧视也与其他社会领域中的性别歧视一样,在强大女权运动的冲击下,已有所减少,但并未灭绝,仍然存在于大学的教学、科研和服务等方面,只不过有时变得更加隐蔽而已。学术界存在的对妇女的歧视已被女权主义者和许多有识之士所认识和重视。与此同时,他们已开始推动有关部门和机构,尤其大学的院和系两级,采取相应政策和措施,如为女青年教师配备指导教师以及坚决改变大学歧视妇女的机构文化等。

  2. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    Trying to analyse the effects of the paradigm shift in the old age social security system in Germany (GRV) from a life cycle gender perspective yields light and shade - it is a conglomeration of individual- and family-specific transfers, financed by a mix of contributions and taxes, and with measures of explicit and implicit, intended and not intended ex-post and ex-ante redistribution and discrimination.The paradigm shift has increased the complexity of the system and created additional elements of gender specific discrimination as well as reduced established elements of the so called "social compensation". Furthermore, the relevance of complementary private and occupational pensions will increase absolute and relative due to the reduction of the pension level. This will raise the importance of earnings in old age especially those that are without any elements of social security compensation or without elements of recognition of activities beside employment. Overall the paradigm shift has intensified the discrimination of women in two ways and the pension privatisation has caused redistribution from the bottom to the top. In other words, there is an increase in inter- and intra-gender discrimination. Due to the changes and the emphasis of aspects of an independent old age security savings for women the norm of the "male breadwinner model" has increased. The importance of "providing one's own pension" additionally creates distribution conflicts within a partnership. Because of the necessity of constant payments over time within a private insurance and the changes of an individual income and gender-specific life cycle, conflicts may occur time and again. The dependence of life-long partnerships on each other is not reduced or abolished with the strengthening of the individualistic model of protection, but is qualitatively and quantitatively improved. Against this background, the measures of the statutory pension system which are aimed towards the situation of a

  3. Telematics and Gender Discrimination: Some Usage-Based Evidence on Whether Men’s Risk of Accidents Differs from Women’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ayuso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD, or usage-based automobile insurance (UBI, is a policy agreement tied to vehicle usage. In this paper we analyze the effect of the distance traveled on the risk of accidents among young drivers with a PAYD policy. We use regression models for survival data to estimate how long it takes them to have their first accident at fault during the coverage period. Our empirical application with real data is presented and shows that gender differences are mainly attributable to the intensity of use. Indeed, although gender has a significant effect in explaining the time to the first crash, this effect is no longer significant when the average distance traveled per day is introduced in the model. This suggests that gender differences in the risk of accidents are, to a large extent, attributable to the fact that men drive more often than women. Estimates of the time to the first accident for different driver risk types are presented. We conclude that no gender discrimination is necessary if telematics provides enough information on driving habits.

  4. 浅析英语语言中的性别歧视%A Brief Analysis on Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛梅

    2014-01-01

    Language, as a social phenomenon, can fully reflect the realistic social condition, so it is closely related with society, cul-ture, etc. Likewise, gender discrimination in English, from a cer-tain perspective, reflects various problems on society, culture, psychology, etc. With the research of gender discrimination in language as an important subject of English language research, this paper, through illustrating the forms of its existence, analyzes its causes and makes a brief overview of its development and change in recent years.%语言作为一种社会现象,能够充分反映出社会的现实状况,语言和社会、文化等方面有着密不可分的联系,同样,在英语语言当中所存在的性别歧视也从一定的层面上折射出了社会、文化、心理等方面存在的不同问题。对于语言中性别歧视研究中英语语言研究的一项重要课题,本文通过对其存在的形态进行举例说明,对其成因加以解析,并从其近年来的发展变化着手进行简要概述。

  5. Acceptance and Tolerance:The Reproduction of Gender Discrimination against Female Graduates in the Job Market in China%认同与容忍:女大学生就业歧视的再生与强化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余秀兰

    2011-01-01

    女大学生对传统社会性别角色的认同,导致她们对就业市场上性别歧视的视而不见、认同与容忍,这种态度再生与强化了性别歧视现象。而女大学生之所以有这种态度,是性别不平等、"男性中心"的性别文化意识建构的结果。此外,中国妇女解放运动过程中女性主体意识的淡薄,也助长了这种态度。要解决性别歧视问题,女性意识的觉醒首当其冲。%Female graduates accept the concept of stereotyped gender role,so they often turn a blind eye to gender discrimination in the job market,and also accept and tolerate it. Their attitudes to gender discrimination let the gender discrimination be reproduced.Female graduates' idea of gender role is caused by both social construction of male superiority consciousness, and weak feminine consciousness in the course of Chinese women' liberation movement.Then,the first step to eliminate gender discrimination is to awaken women' feminine consciousness.

  6. Legal measure against gender discrimination in employment%女性劳动者就业歧视的法律应对研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑春燕

    2012-01-01

    近年来,我国劳动力市场上对女性的就业歧视现象越来越严重,它不仅侵犯了劳动者的劳动及其他相关权利,而且违背了我国公民在法律面前一律平等的宪法原则及其他体现平等原则的法律规定,具有极大的社会危害性。从当今女性劳动者的就业现状出发,在分析就业性别歧视的概念、判断标准、具体表现以及在立法上存在的主要问题后,提出就业性别歧视的法律应对建议。%In recent years,China's labor market of female employment discrimination is becoming more and more serious.It not only violates laborer's labor rights and other related rights in China,but also goes against the constitutional principle that all citizens are equal before the law,and other legal provisions that embodied the principle of equality,which is of great social harmfulness.Based on the present situation of the current employment of female workers today,the paper proposes the legal countermeasures against gender discrimination in employment through analyzing the concept of gender discrimination,the judgment standard,the specific performance and the main problems existing in legislation.

  7. Learning to cope with degraded sounds: female zebra finches can improve their expertise in discriminating between male voices at long distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouterde, Solveig C; Elie, Julie E; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Reliable transmission of acoustic information about individual identity is of critical importance for pair bond maintenance in numerous monogamous songbirds. However, information transfer can be impaired by environmental constraints such as external noise or propagation-induced degradation. Birds have been shown to use several adaptive strategies to deal with difficult signal transmission contexts. Specifically, a number of studies have suggested that vocal plasticity at the emitter's level allows birds to counteract the deleterious effects of sound degradation. Although the communication process involves both the emitter and the receiver, perceptual plasticity at the receiver's level has received little attention. Here, we explored the reliability of individual recognition by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), testing whether perceptual training can improve discrimination of degraded individual vocal signatures. We found that female zebra finches are proficient in discriminating between calls of individual males at long distances, and even more so when they can train themselves with increasingly degraded signals over time. In this latter context, females succeed in discriminating between males as far as 250 m. This result emphasizes that adaptation to adverse communication conditions may involve not only the emitter's vocal plasticity but also the receptor's decoding process through on-going learning. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  9. The Case Study of Gender Language Differences and Gender Discrimination%性别语言差异及性别歧视的实例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦

    2015-01-01

    性别语言问题已是社会语言学研究的一个热门话题。笔者以《快乐大本营》和《读者》语料,采用定性和定量分析的方法,研究了语料中的性别语言差异现象。研究表明,性别因素以特定的方式影响着人们的言语行为,男性和女性在语言层面以及话语策略运用层面存在差异。同时发现,会话中在句式的选择上有明显的差异,从而差生了不同的语气。该文还从心理、社会因素等方面分析了男女会话产生语言差异的原因。提出了人们可以从性别差异中获得的启示,以实现两性的和谐交流。%The gender language research has been a hotspot. The author adopts qualitative and quantitative methods in the research of gender differences in language within the data comes from Happy Camp and Readers. The study found that men and women dif⁃fer in the use of words and discourse strategies. Meanwhile there are significant differences in the use of sentence syntactical struc⁃ture, which shows a different tone. This paper also analyses the reason why males and females differ in conversations from the an⁃gles of psychology, society, physiology. What’s more, the author also talks about the inspiration people can get from gender differ⁃ence to achieve a harmonious conversation between male and female.

  10. Keeping Your Voice Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Keeping Your Voice Healthy Keeping Your Voice Healthy Patient Health Information ... heavily voice-related. Key Steps for Keeping Your Voice Healthy Drink plenty of water. Moisture is good ...

  11. Variation of voice quality features and aspects of voice training in males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Arend Marten

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess information on voice quality features and to ascertain the variability of these features in specified groups. Groups were created based on gender and status of vocal training, in order to study the influence of these grouping variables on selected voice quality fea

  12. Factors Associated With High-Risk Alcohol Consumption Among LGB Older Adults: The Roles of Gender, Social Support, Perceived Stress, Discrimination, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. A U.S. sample of 2,351 LGB adults aged 50-98 years completed a survey about personal and social experiences, substance use, and health. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of past-month high-risk alcohol consumption. Approximately one fifth (20.6%) of LGB older adults reported high-risk drinking, with nonsignificantly different rates between men (22.4%) and women (18.4%). For women, current smoking and greater social support were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; older age, higher income, recovery from addiction, and greater perceived stress were associated with lower likelihood. For men, higher income, current smoking, and greater day-to-day discrimination were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; transgender identity and recovery from addiction were associated with lower likelihood. Social contexts and perceived drinking norms may encourage higher levels of alcohol consumption in LGB older women, whereas men's drinking may be linked with discrimination-related stress. Prevention and intervention with this population should take into account gender differences and sexual minority-specific risk factors. With future waves of data, we will be able to examine LGB older adults' drinking trajectories over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  14. The Reflection of Mainstream Views and Common Methods to Eliminate Gender Discrimination%对消除性别歧视主流观点和常用方法的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎业勤; 沈继睿

    2012-01-01

    Currently, The mainstream views and common methods to eliminate gender discrimination are with eco- nomic worship and consider that economic ability can represent the degree of equality which reveals some negative im- pacts in dissemination when pursuing equality of politics, economics and culture that manifast in political discrimina- tion, job discrimination and consumerism. Analyzing the origin of gender discrimination, this paper points out that gender discrimination is wealth discrimination in nature, like elassism. On the basis of enssense of discrimination, this paper puts forward more reasonable solution to eliminate gender discrimination from the perspective of system, guidance, advcoaey and social technology.%目前消除性别歧视主流观点和常用方法处在经济崇拜价值观之下,认为经济能力代表平等程度,这在传播和使用时显露出一些负面的影响,在追求政治、经济和文化上平等时,客观上造成参政歧视、职业歧视、消费主义。通过分析性别歧视的起源,指出性别歧视的实质是财富歧视,与阶级歧视同质。在歧视实质基础上,从制度、引导、宣传、社会技术等角度提出更合理的消除性别歧视的方法。

  15. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discussions on Gender Discrimination and Solutions of Employing College Female Graduates%高校女毕业生就业性别歧视及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霄; 黄彪; 余振辉

    2012-01-01

    高校毕业生就业市场屡屡出现性别歧视的现象并产生了不容忽视的消极影响。这一现象的产生主要缘于根深蒂固的传统观念的影响、女性在生理心理方面居于弱势、女性自然附着成本过高、相关法律法规不健全和生育保险制度不完善等原因。要改变这一现状不可能一蹴而就,应该采取加大宣传性别文化的观念、建立新型生育保险机制、建立健全相关法律法规等一系列措施来逐步推进改革的步伐,最大限度地保障女毕业生的合法权益不受侵害,消除这一不合理的现象。%The problems of gender discrimination in the employment of college graduates have appeared and have produced obvious negative influence.This is due to some reasons,such as: deep-rooted conventional concept has great influence;the female are inferior to men physically and psychologically;female has too much naturally attached cost;the concerned laws and regulations are inadequate and the childbirth insurance system is imperfect.There will be a long way to change the situation of gender discrimination.Therefore,in order to gradually promote the reform and guarantee the female graduates' legitimate rights and interests,and eliminate this unreasonable phenomenon,some steps should be adopted,such as: strengthen the propaganda for the culture of gender,build the new childbirth insurance system and set up and perfect some certain laws and regulations.

  17. Investigating the role of male advantage and female disadvantage in explaining the discrimination effect of the gender pay gap in the Cameroon labor market. Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Thomas NDAMSA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the sources of gender-based wage differentials and investigates the relative importance of the endowment effect, female disadvantage and male advantage in explaining gender-based wage differentials in the Cameroon labor market. Use is made of the Ordinary Least Square technique and the Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition. Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition results show that primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and professional training are sources of the gender pay gap. Our results also underline the importance of working experience, formal sector employment and urban residency in explaining wage differentials between male and female workers in the Cameroon labour market. Our findings reveal that education human capital explains a greater portion of the endowment effect and contributes little to the discrimination effect. Essentially, we observe that the discrimination effect has a worsening effect on the gender pay gap compared to the mitigating role of the endowment effect. Again, our results show that a greater part of the discrimination effect of the gender pay gap is attributed to female disadvantage in the Cameroon labor market.

  18. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran R; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-04-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia.

  19. [Psychological classification of functional voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Kruse, E

    1997-01-01

    In an explorative study the classification of a collective of patients with different voice disorders by discriminant and cluster analysis was tried. 21 variables, obtained from 128 patients with various diagnoses of voice disorders, were used. A first discriminant analysis on the basis of diagnoses-groups permitted no differentiation. A subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis indicated a four-cluster-solution. The clusters showed only little association with the phoniatric diagnoses. Cluster 1 is characterized by patients with non-organic voice disorders. Cluster 2 is marked by emotional unstable patients with organic dysphonia. Cluster 3 consists of patients with psychosomatic dysphonia by laryngeal contact granuloma, and cluster 4 contains emotional stable patients suffering from organic dysphonia and from spasmodic dysphonia. Thirteen psychological variables discriminated the clusters significantly: Anxiety about appearing in public, emotionality (neuroticism), life satisfaction, aggressiveness, anxiety, about physical injuries, extraversion.

  20. Research on Gender Discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs%浅谈汉英谚语中的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2014-01-01

    谚语是语言的特殊形式,是熟语的一种。古往今来,人们对谚语的评价向来很高。有人曾言:谚语乃语言中的盐,一束智慧的花。作为现实世界的一面镜子,语言真实地反映了各种社会习俗和价值观念。谚语作为语言的精华,浓缩了文化的内涵,涉及到社会生活的方方面面,从侧面反映了各民族的思维方式和价值观念。因而中西方文化中对女性带有贬义的看法和评价在汉英谚语中就会有所反映。笔者将以女性主义为视角分别探讨性别歧视在汉英谚语中的体现、性别歧视的根源及其发展趋势。%Proverbs are the special form of language and a type of idioms. All along people speak highly of proverbs. They are said to be the salt of language and a bunch of flowers of wisdom. Language,a mirror of the real world,,can truly reflect different kinds of social conventions and values. As the essence of language,proverbs enrich the cultural connotation,involve the social life and reflect a nation’s way of thinking,values and psychological characteristics from one side. Therefore many social views of women containing derogatory sense and evaluation are reflected in the proverbs. In this paper,the author will explore respectively the reflection of gender discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs,the deep-rooted causes of gender discrimination and its developing trend in the perspective of feminism.

  1. "Women and disability don't mix]" Double discrimination and disabled women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Habib, L

    1995-06-01

    Oxfam's experience with groups of disabled people has revealed that gender affects how disabled people are treated in various cultures. This experience runs counter to the often voiced (even by a consultant hired by Oxfam) assumption that gender analysis serves only to confuse any analysis undertaken of disability-based circumstances. This assumption is echoed in the disability movement itself where activists fear fragmentation through the introduction of gender analysis. Thus, gender is not yet understood as a factor which affects every aspect of life including race, class, ethnicity, caste, and disability. Because 75% of the 250 million disabled women in the world live in developing countries, development programs must consider the specific needs and rights of disabled women who suffer from double discrimination and are more likely than disabled men to live impoverished and isolated lives which lead to depression and despair. In many societies, disabled women, but not disabled men, lose their rights to marriage, family life, education, and health care. Mothers of disabled children are stigmatized, and fathers tend to "blame" defective genes on the mothers and to ignore their disabled offspring. These factors combine to make it difficult to improve the status and livelihoods of disabled women through development work. Disabled women activists have also voiced complaints about their lack of access to the preparatory meetings for the Fourth UN Women's Conference, but disabled women intend to use the Conference to lobby for their rights and to call for scrutiny of health policies which discriminate against the disabled.

  2. Voicing women in Eastern Europe-an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Judit; Borgos, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This special issue maps out real and symbolic spaces of women who are attracted to women in Eastern Europe, and highlights some of the challenges they face. One of the main themes emerging from the articles is that constructing spaces for women outside the heterosexual mainstream can be a useful political strategy in societies where non-conventional sexual interests, attractions, and gender expression have discriminative consequences. All of the eight articles in this special issue represent different voices, while demonstrating that there are many similar tendencies concerning the main goals and difficulties of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and lesbian movements of the region, in terms of legal and social developments related to the most heated issues of same-sex marriage and parenting on the one hand, and the violent attacks against pride marches and political backlash on the other.

  3. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P racial/ethnic discrimination and CRP was not statistically significant among Black and White men reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination. Further research in other populations is needed.

  4. Low Vocal Pitch Preference Drives First Impressions Irrespective of Context in Male Voices but Not in Female Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantani, Maria S; Belin, Pascal; Paterson, Helena M; McAleer, Phil

    2016-08-01

    Vocal pitch has been found to influence judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance from a novel voice. However, the majority of findings arise from using only male voices and in context-specific scenarios. In two experiments, we first explore the influence of average vocal pitch on first-impression judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance, before establishing the existence of an overall preference for high or low pitch across genders. In Experiment 1, pairs of high- and low-pitched temporally reversed recordings of male and female vocal utterances were presented in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Results revealed a tendency to select the low-pitched voice over the high-pitched voice as more trustworthy, for both genders, and more dominant, for male voices only. Experiment 2 tested an overall preference for low-pitched voices, and whether judgments were modulated by speech content, using forward and reversed speech to manipulate context. Results revealed an overall preference for low pitch, irrespective of direction of speech, in male voices only. No such overall preference was found for female voices. We propose that an overall preference for low pitch is a default prior in male voices irrespective of context, whereas pitch preferences in female voices are more context- and situation-dependent. The present study confirms the important role of vocal pitch in the formation of first-impression personality judgments and advances understanding of the impact of context on pitch preferences across genders.

  5. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  6. Discrimination in the Employment of Female Graduates and Construction of Harmonious Relations Between the Genders%女大学生就业歧视与和谐两性关系的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪伟

    2011-01-01

    女大学生就业受歧视,一直是一个不争的社会事实,这种现实已经影响到两性关系的和谐发展。文章分析了女大学生这一特殊群体受歧视的根源,并阐述了建构和谐两性关系的措施。%It is a social indisputable fact that the female graduates always receive discrimination in employment,and this kind of reality has already affected the harmonious development of gender relations.The article analyzes the root that female college students,the special group receives discrimination and elaborates the measures that construct harmonious gender relations.

  7. On "In a Different Voice": An Interdisciplinary Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Linda K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This group of papers on Carol Gilligan's study of psychological theory, "In a Different Voice," includes: "Some Cautionary Words for Historians" (Linda K. Kerber); "How Different Is the 'Different Voice?'" (Catherine G. Greeno and Eleanor F. Maccoby); "A Methodological Critique" (Zella Luria); "The Culture of Gender: Women and Men of Color" (Carol…

  8. Voice-based assessments of trustworthiness, competence, and warmth in blind and sighted adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Kinga; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tas...

  9. Qualidade de vida em voz: o impacto de uma disfonia de acordo com gênero, idade e uso vocal profissional Voice-related quality of life: the impact of a dysphonia according to gender, age and occupational use of voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Souza Putnoki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto auto-relatado de uma alteração vocal na qualidade de vida de indivíduos com queixa de voz, de acordo com gênero, idade e uso vocal profissional. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 1304 questionários - Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV - respondidos por brasileiros com queixa vocal variada, sendo 996 mulheres e 308 homens. No tratamento estatístico foram feitas comparações entre gênero, idade e nível de uso vocal profissional. RESULTADOS: Os resultados totais foram similares nos três domínios para homens (total 75,5; físico 71,3; sócio-emocional 82,3 e mulheres (total 74,9; físico 70,7; sócio-emocional 82,1. Observaram-se maiores escores do QVV nos indivíduos entre 20 e 29 anos (total 82,2; físico 77,8; sócio-emocional 89,2. De acordo com o nível de uso da voz, profissionais do nível I apresentaram os maiores índices (total 80,93 e físico 80,97. CONCLUSÃO: O impacto auto-relatado na qualidade de vida relacionado a uma alteração vocal foi percebido de maneira semelhante por homens e mulheres. Os indivíduos de 20 a 29 anos perceberam o impacto da disfonia na sua qualidade de vida diferente dos indivíduos das outras faixas etárias. Os profissionais com grande demanda de voz falada artística relataram sofrer o menor impacto de um problema de voz na qualidade de vida.PURPOSE: To verify the self-reported impact of a vocal disorder on the quality of life of individuals with vocal complaints, according to gender, age and occupational use of voice. METHODS: We analyzed 1034 Voice-Related Quality of Life (VRQOL protocols answered by Brazilian individuals with varied vocal complaints. The subjects were 996 women and 308 men. Statistical analyses compared the variables gender, age and level of occupational use of voice. RESULTS: Total results were similar for men (total 75.5; physical 71.3; socio-emotional 82.3 and women (total 74.9; physical 70.7; socio-emotional 82.1 in the three domains. Higher VRQOL scores

  10. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  11. Exploring the feasibility of smart phone microphone for measurement of acoustic voice parameters and voice pathology screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Vegiene, Aurelija; Pribuisiene, Ruta; Saferis, Viktoras; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Verikas, Antanas

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of acoustic voice parameters obtained using smart phone (SP) microphones and investigate the utility of use of SP voice recordings for voice screening. Voice samples of sustained vowel/a/obtained from 118 subjects (34 normal and 84 pathological voices) were recorded simultaneously through two microphones: oral AKG Perception 220 microphone and SP Samsung Galaxy Note3 microphone. Acoustic voice signal data were measured for fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer, normalized noise energy (NNE), signal to noise ratio and harmonic to noise ratio using Dr. Speech software. Discriminant analysis-based Correct Classification Rate (CCR) and Random Forest Classifier (RFC) based Equal Error Rate (EER) were used to evaluate the feasibility of acoustic voice parameters classifying normal and pathological voice classes. Lithuanian version of Glottal Function Index (LT_GFI) questionnaire was utilized for self-assessment of the severity of voice disorder. The correlations of acoustic voice parameters obtained with two types of microphones were statistically significant and strong (r = 0.73-1.0) for the entire measurements. When classifying into normal/pathological voice classes, the Oral-NNE revealed the CCR of 73.7% and the pair of SP-NNE and SP-shimmer parameters revealed CCR of 79.5%. However, fusion of the results obtained from SP voice recordings and GFI data provided the CCR of 84.60% and RFC revealed the EER of 7.9%, respectively. In conclusion, measurements of acoustic voice parameters using SP microphone were shown to be reliable in clinical settings demonstrating high CCR and low EER when distinguishing normal and pathological voice classes, and validated the suitability of the SP microphone signal for the task of automatic voice analysis and screening.

  12. Speaking and Nonspeaking Voice Professionals: Who Has the Better Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitguppi, Chandala; Raj, Anoop; Meher, Ravi; Rathore, P K

    2017-04-18

    Voice professionals can be classified into two major subgroups: the primarily speaking and the primarily nonspeaking voice professionals. Nonspeaking voice professionals mainly include singers, whereas speaking voice professionals include the rest of the voice professionals. Although both of these groups have high vocal demands, it is currently unknown whether both groups show similar voice changes after their daily voice use. Comparison of these two subgroups of voice professionals has never been done before. This study aimed to compare the speaking voice of speaking and nonspeaking voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology or voice-related complaints on the day of assessment. After obtaining relevant voice-related history, voice analysis and videostroboscopy were performed in 50 speaking and 50 nonspeaking voice professionals. Speaking voice professionals showed significantly higher incidence of voice-related complaints as compared with nonspeaking voice professionals. Voice analysis revealed that most acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter percent, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in speaking voice professionals, whereas videostroboscopy did not show any significant difference between the two groups. This is the first study of its kind to analyze the effect of daily voice use in the two subgroups of voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology. We conclude that voice professionals should not be considered as a homogeneous group. The detrimental effects of excessive voice use were observed to occur more significantly in speaking voice professionals than in nonspeaking voice professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    researchers improve our practices and how could digital online video help offer more positive stories about research and higher education? How can academics in higher education be better to tell about our research, thereby reclaiming and leveraging our voice in a post-factual era? As higher education......This paper speculates on how researchers share research without diluting our credibility and how to make strategies for the future. It also calls for consideration of new traditions and practices for communicating knowledge to a wider audience across multiple media platforms. How might we...... continues to engage with digital and networked technologies it becomes increasingly relevant to question why and how academics could (re) position research knowledge in the digital and online media landscape of today and the future. The paper highlights methodological issues that arise in relation...

  14. Jordanian teachers' perceptions of voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate if Jordanian school teachers perceive their voice as handicapped using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-Arab. The effect of teachers' age, gender, years of teaching, class taught, and education level on VHI was examined. A total of 289 teachers and a control group of 100 participants took part in the study. The teachers' group differed significantly from the control group in the physical, emotional, and functional subscales and the total score of the VHI-Arab. There was no significant difference among teachers in any of the three VHI subscales or total regarding gender, age, years of teaching experience, education level, and classes taught. Jordanian teachers have a strong perception of voice handicap. Thus, preventive and treatment vocal programs are strongly advised.

  15. [The gender gap in Italian medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Podda, Daiana; Lampis, Jessica

    2015-01-28

    This study is collocated in the debate about the gender gap in Medicine giving voice to female physicians who have damaged the "glass ceiling". Our research offers a contribute to the exploration about the motivations of persistence of gender gap in Medicine despite current changes. This study is based on 21 biographical interviews to female physicians who are managers in Italian hospitals. The themes emerged by data analysis concerned the participants 'discrimination experiences in their hierarchical advancement, the evidences of a persistence of horizontal segregation in some medical specializations, the difficult to find a work-life balance and the effects of this difficult on the female physicians' health. Our research confirmed a persistence of gender gap in the medical world, which disadvantages women in their career choices and in their hierarchical advancement and which appears in the form of invisible barriers impregnated of stereotypes and prejudices that are taken for granted by many men and women, especially those who have the power; these barriers make the female doctors 'health more vulnerable to the event of work-related stress. By the dates emerged the necessity of cultural and institutional interventions, actions for deconstruction of gender stereotypes, and the necessity of intervention for a more flexible and functioning work organization that satisfies the female physicians' needs.

  16. The Norwegian Voice Handicap Index (VHI-N) patient scores are dependent on voice-related disease group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Tom; Heimdal, John-Helge; Grieg, Anne Rita Hella; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine to what extent the Voice Handicap Index-Norwegian (VHI-N) is scored depending on specific laryngological disease. In a multi-center study, 126 healthy subjects and 355 patients with different voice-related diseases answered the VHI-N. The VHI-N scores showed high Cronbach's alpha. Analyses of variance were performed with VHI-N dependent and specific voice-related disease as independent variable, and showed highly significant dependence by group allocation (F(7,461) = 28.0; p VHI-N scores. The VHI-N is a psychometrically well-functioning instrument, also at disease-specific levels and discriminates well between health and voice diseases, as well as between different voice-related diseases. The VHI-N may be recommended to be used when monitoring voice-related disease treatment.

  17. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  18. ExpIoration of Gender Discrimination in Spanish VocabuIary from the Perspective of Markedness Theory%从标记性探究西班牙语词汇中的性别歧视现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓琳

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination as a common social phenomenon can be reflected from language and language use. It is particu-larly reflected in Spanish vocabulary. Taking advantage of Markedness Theory,this paper explores the asymmetry of gender vocabulary between“the marked”and“the unmarked”from aspects of formal markers,distribution markers and semantic markers in order to re-veal gender discrimination in Spanish vocabulary.%性别歧视作为一种普遍存在的社会现象,可以从语言和语言的使用中折射反映出来。性别歧视在西班牙语词汇层面体现得尤为突出。利用标记理论,从形式标记、分布标记、语义标记的角度探究男女性别词汇“有标记项”和“无标记项”的不对称性,从而揭示西班牙语词汇中的性别歧视现象。

  19. Children's Responses to Computer-Synthesized Speech in Educational Media: Gender Consistency and Gender Similarity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Min; Liao, Katharine; Ryu, Seoungho

    2007-01-01

    This study examines children's social responses to gender cues in synthesized speech in a computer-based instruction setting. Eighty 5th-grade elementary school children were randomly assigned to one of the conditions in a full-factorial 2 (participant gender) x 2 (voice gender) x 2 (content gender) experiment. Results show that children apply…

  20. Wavelet adaptation for automatic voice disorders sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Almasganj, Farshad

    2013-07-01

    Early diagnosis of voice disorders and abnormalities by means of digital speech processing is a subject of interest for many researchers. Various methods are introduced in the literature, some of which are able to extensively discriminate pathological voices from normal ones. Voice disorders sorting, on the other hand, has received less attention due to the complexity of the problem. Although, previous publications show satisfactory results in classifying one type of disordered voice from normal cases, or two different types of abnormalities from each other, no comprehensive approach for automatic sorting of vocal abnormalities has been offered yet. In this paper, a solution for this problem is suggested. We create a powerful wavelet feature extraction approach, in which, instead of standard wavelets, adaptive wavelets are generated and applied to the voice signals. Orthogonal wavelets are parameterized via lattice structure and then, the optimal parameters are investigated through an iterative process, using the genetic algorithm (GA). GA is guided by the classifier results. Based on the generated wavelet, a wavelet-filterbank is constructed and the voice signals are decomposed to compute eight energy-based features. A support vector machine (SVM) then classifies the signals using the extracted features. Experimental results show that six various types of vocal disorders: paralysis, nodules, polyps, edema, spasmodic dysphonia and keratosis are fully sorted via the proposed method. This could be a successful step toward sorting a larger number of abnormalities associated with the vocal system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  2. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  3. Cor, gênero e classe: dinâmicas da discriminação entre jovens de grupos populares cariocas Color, gender and social class: dynamics of discrimination of lower income youth from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Monteiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as dinâmicas de discriminação entre moças e rapazes das camadas populares do Rio de Janeiro, considerando o papel que as hierarquias de cor/raça, gênero e classe social desempenham na configuração das práticas sociais. A análise tem por base entrevistas em profundidade com 42 jovens, de 18 a 24 anos. As situações de discriminação são referidas com maior frequência pelos rapazes. Entre os homens tais experiências estão associadas principalmente aos espaços públicos e ao mercado de trabalho, enquanto entre as mulheres a discriminação está mais vinculada aos espaços privados e ao local de moradia. Os dados estimulam uma discussão sobre a heterogeneidade das experiências de discriminação, na qual a cor/raça está associada às condições sociais e às relações de gênero.This work discuss the dynamics of discrimination of lower income male and female youths from Rio de Janeiro, considering the impact of the color/race, gender and social class hierarchies in the configurations of social practices. The analysis is based on in-depth interviews of 42 young people from 18 to 24 years of age. Situations of discrimination are much more referred to by men. The public spaces and the labor market are cited mainly by the boys. In the girls' view the discrimination is more associated to the place of residence and the private sphere. These data stimulate an analysis about the heterogeneity of the experiences of discrimination, where color/race is associated to social condition and gender relations.

  4. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  5. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included.

  6. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  7. Voice and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dramatic voice changes are those during childhood and adolescence. The larynx (or voice box) and vocal cord tissues do not fully mature until late teenage years. Hormone-related changes during adolescence are ...

  8. Gender and Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    Because of widespread acceptance of Kohlberg's theory of moral development other aspects of moral thinking and behavior linked with the feminine voice have not received attention. Four areas of Kohlberg's theory relevant to the gender issue are critiqued, and work by Carol Gilligan, suggesting alternative theories for thinking and behavior, is…

  9. Voice parameters and videonasolaryngoscopy in children with vocal nodules: a longitudinal study, before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Victor; Ysunza, Antonio; Ocharan-Hernandez, Esther; Garrido-Bustamante, Norma; Sanchez-Valerio, Araceli; Pamplona, Ma C

    2012-09-01

    Vocal Nodules (VN) are a functional voice disorder associated with voice misuse and abuse in children. There are few reports addressing vocal parameters in children with VN, especially after a period of vocal rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to describe measurements of vocal parameters including Fundamental Frequency (FF), Shimmer (S), and Jitter (J), videonasolaryngoscopy examination and clinical perceptual assessment, before and after voice therapy in children with VN. Voice therapy was provided using visual support through Speech-Viewer software. Twenty patients with VN were studied. An acoustical analysis of voice was performed and compared with data from subjects from a control group matched by age and gender. Also, clinical perceptual assessment of voice and videonasolaryngoscopy were performed to all patients with VN. After a period of voice therapy, provided with visual support using Speech Viewer-III (SV-III-IBM) software, new acoustical analyses, perceptual assessments and videonasolaryngoscopies were performed. Before the onset of voice therapy, there was a significant difference (ptherapy period, a significant improvement (pvocal nodules were no longer discernible on the vocal folds in any of the cases. SV-III software seems to be a safe and reliable method for providing voice therapy in children with VN. Acoustic voice parameters, perceptual data and videonasolaryngoscopy were significantly improved after the speech therapy period was completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Voice and endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    KVS Hari Kumar; Anurag Garg; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Rakesh Datta

    2016-01-01

    Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consistin...

  11. DLMS Voice Data Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    between operator and computer displayed on ADM-3A 20c A-I Possible Hardware Configuration for a Multistation Cartographic VDES ...this program a Voice Recognition System (VRS) which can be used to explore the use of voice data entry ( VDE ) in the DIMS or other cartographic data...Multi-Station Cartographic Voice Data Entry System An engineering development model voice data entry system ( VDES ) could be most efficiently

  12. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  13. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social interaction as well as for most people’s occupation. Proper care and use of your voice will give you the best chance for having a healthy voice for your entire lifetime. Hoarseness or roughness in your voice is often ...

  14. Age Estimation from Faces and Voices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Moyse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Age estimation is a skill that we use in everyday life and that is also important in more specific settings such as police testimony. Researchers investigated age estimation either from faces or voices but a direct comparison between voices and faces was rather infrequently performed. This paper reviews the literature on age estimation from faces and voices and highlights some similarities and differences. Data from a series of experiments suggest that age estimation from faces and voices can be fairly accurate, but in some cases, a superiority of faces is observed. The age of participants and stimuli both seem to affect age estimation from faces and voices in the same way: (1 age estimation is more accurate for young stimuli than for older stimuli, (2 younger participants are more accurate than older participants irrespective of the age of stimuli, and (3 an own-age bias affects age estimation. By contrast, the influence of ethnicity and gender has been less documented. Available data support that ethnicity influence age estimation from faces but not clearly age estimation from voices. Regarding the effect of stimuli gender, results were opposite: in age estimation from faces, an advantage for male faces was reported whereas in age estimation from voices, the advantage is in favor of female voices.

  15. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  16. Gender Orders Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity.......During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...

  17. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  18. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  19. Sex Differences in Inhibition of Return in Face-gender Discrimination%面孔性别辨认中返回抑制效应的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹妮; 张佳悦; 李先春

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition of return (IOR) promotes the exploration of new and previous unattended objects in the scene during visual search or foraging by preventing attention from returning to already-attended objects. Many lines of evidence have shown that the different kinds of emotions have significant influence on the magnitude of inhibition of return (IOR) in the cue-response paradigm. Human faces, as the social and biological stimulus, play an important role in our social life, and face-gender information is also important in our social activity, especially during face-to-face communications. However, it still remains largely unknown how the face-gender information affects IOR and what the difference is between sexes in IOR effects. Using the cue-target paradigm as used in other studies, in the present study we explored the sex difference in IOR effect in the face-gender discrimination task. During the cue period, a green colored box (cue) was first shown on either the right or left side of a monitor screen with equal probability for 200 ms, which was followed by a central cue. Then, the target face (either a male or a female face with neutral emotion, randomly arranged) was then appeared on the valid position (the same position the cue had been) or invalid position (the position in the other side of the cue) with equal probability after the offset of central cue. Subjects were asked to discriminate the gender of the target face by pressing a button out of two as accurately and quickly as possible. We collected behavioral data from each subject, including correct rate and reaction time. Forty-six college participants including 22 males and 24 females were recruited in the present study. Our data showed that the reaction time to face-gender in valid-cued locations was significantly longer than that in invalid-cued locations, which indicates that there exists IOR in the face-gender discrimination task. Furthermore, the male subjects did not show any difference in the

  20. Voice handicap in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  1. METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  2. 基于多标签核判别分析的人脸身份与性别识别方法%Face and gender recognition method based on multi-label kernel discriminant analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓彦; 郑文明; 辛明海

    2014-01-01

    为解决多标签线性判别分析(MLDA)方法在非线性维数约简方面的局限性,提出了一种多标签核判别分析(MKDA)方法,并将其用于人脸的身份与性别识别中.该方法的基本思想是通过非线性映射将训练样本从输入空间映射到高维核特征空间中,并在该特征空间中进行基于MLDA的数据降维.在身份和性别识别中,首先采用MKDA方法对人脸图像特征向量进行降维,获取判别特征矢量集;其次,为每幅人脸图像赋予一个表征身份和性别的多标签类别矢量;最后,采用减秩回归模型(RRR)描述判别特征矢量与多标签类别矢量之间的回归关系,并利用该模型进行未知人脸的身份和性别识别.AR人脸数据库上的实验结果表明:在人脸身份和性别识别中,MKDA方法的识别率高于传统核判别分析(KDA)方法.%A multi-label kernel discriminant analysis(MKDA)method is proposed to overcome the limitation of multi-label linear discriminant analysis (MLDA)on nonlinear dimensionality reduction, and applied to the recognition of face and gender.The basic idea of the MKDA method is to map the training data samples from the input data space to a high-dimensional kernel feature space via a non-linear mapping and then to perform data reduction based on the MLDA method in the feature space. During the recognition of face and gender,the dimensionality of the face image feature vectors is firstly reduced by using the MKDA method and a set of discriminative feature vector set is obtained. Then,a multi-label class vector indicating the class membership of face and gender is assigned to each face image.Finally,a reduced-rank regression (RRR)model is built to describe the relation-ship between the discriminative facial feature vectors and multi-label class vectors,and is applied to the face and gender recognition of an unknown face image.The experimental results on AR face da-tabase show

  3. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  4. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  5. A Study of Gender Discrimination in English Language---from the Perspective of Conceptual Metaphor%从概念隐喻的视角看英语语言中的性别歧视现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凌燕

    2015-01-01

    英语语言中的性别歧视现象是语言学研究的一个重要课题,近来研究主要集中在语法性,词汇性,指代性和社会性,甚少从概念隐喻这个角度研究这个现象。本文从概念隐喻这个视角出发,从英语词汇形式、称谓、词序、指称男性词汇的泛化现象等方面探讨英语语言中的性别歧视现象,并且简要分析产生该现象的根源和消除语言歧视的方法。%Gender discrimination in English language is an important subject in the study of linguistics.Recently,most of the research has focused on grammar,vocabulary,reference and sociality,while little has been carried out from the perspective of cnceptual mtaphor.This paper studies the phenomenon of gender discrimination in English language from the aspects of the forms of English vocabulary,appellation,word order,the generalization of appellation and words referring to male,etc.based on conceptual metaphor.It has done a brief analysis of the root causes of this phenomenon and the way to eliminate language discrimination.

  6. Sexual orientation, gender identity and non-discrimination - The Albanian labor legislation and its effects on employment and vocational training potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Shtylla

    2013-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian labour legislation and the legislation generally, are inspired in accordance with the non-discrimination principles, objectives and definitions of international acts, promoting and expressing protection of human rights and freedoms in general, and in particular in the field of employment and vocational training. This paper will analyze, if the sexual orientation, is one of the causes of discrimination for employment and vocational training, in Albanian legislation, especially how it is expressed this issue on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian Labour Code, the Albanian law “On the protection against discrimination” ect.

  7. From A Language Sociological Perspective to See Our Gender Discrimination%语言社会学视阈下的性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚云

    2011-01-01

    The sexual discrimination is a fixed sexual concept and a reflection of the social inequality between men and women in our life.It hinders the process of the social equality,has a bad effect to the socialized youngsters,bind the development of the female sex and it is also unfavorable to the harmonious development between male and female.The language sexual discrimination is difficult to disappear naturally with the social progress.We must break the man-centered culture and push on the cultural direction against the sexual discriminations.We should push on the education of sexual equality and build the cultural atmosphere of non-discrimination.%语言性别歧视在现实中大量存在,它固化性别歧视观念,构建女性思维模式,束缚女性自身发展,也不利于两性关系和社会和谐发展。语言性别歧视并非能随社会的发展而自然消失,我们必须构建非性别歧视文化氛围,修改性别歧视语言。

  8. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Out of the Beautiful Ivory Tower to a Long Job-Hunting Way--The Analysis on Gender Discrimination behind the Employment Difficulty of Female College Students%探究女大学生就业难背后的就业性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井莹; 宋国英

    2013-01-01

    Behind the phenomenon of the difficult employment of female college students , gender discrimination accounts for a large proportion .In addition to overt discrimination , there is also invisible discrimination which shows discrimination for job opportunities and employment benefits .Causes of gender discrimination in employ-ment mainly lie in the traditional gender structure , more supply of female college students than demanded in em-ployment market and the female students'self-quality.To explore gender discrimination in employment can help to create harmonious employment environment and enable society to develop towards the just and fair trend . Therefore , to eliminate gender discrimination in employment , it is necessary to improve employment system , op-timize female students'employment environment , provide guidance for employment and develop female students'self comprehensive quality .%女大学生就业难现象的背后,性别歧视占了很大比重,除显性歧视外还有隐形歧视,表现为就业机会和就业待遇的歧视。究其原因,主要有传统性别结构束缚、就业市场供大于求和女大学生自身素质等因素。探究女大学生就业中的性别歧视不仅可以回答其就业难的原因,也有利于营造和谐的就业环境,促使社会走向公正公平。解决就业性别歧视应完善就业制度,优化女大学生就业环境,也要加强对女大学生就业提供指导,提高女大学生自身综合素质。

  10. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina von Kriegstein

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  11. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how the t...... the temporal dynamics of the voice in Asperger's patients enable us to automatically reconstruct the diagnosis, and assess the Autism quotient score. We then generalise the findings to Danish and American children with autism....

  12. The Economics of Discrimination: Evidence from Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    This Chapter reviews evidence on discrimination in basketball, primarily examining studies on race but with some discussion of gender as well. I focus on discrimination in pay, hiring, and retention against black NBA players and coaches and pay disparities by gender among college coaches. There was much evidence for each of these forms of discrimination against black NBA players in the 1980s. However, there appears to be less evidence of racial compensation, hiring and retention discriminatio...

  13. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information ... entnet.org . Could Your Medication Be Affecting Your Voice? Some medications including prescription, over-the-counter, and ...

  14. 社会性别学视角下女大学生就业性别歧视分析与解决对策%Gender Discrimination Analysis and Solutions to Female University Graduates Employment in the Social Gender Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马一; 邓颖婷

    2015-01-01

    There exist gender differences between males and females, yet treating the differences unreasonably would lead to gender discrimination and to the fact that female university graduates are taken unfairly during job-hunting and have suffered from employment gender discrimination. What’ s worse, female students are particularly disadvantaged, facing such a severe employment situation that their employment quality and living conditions vary with those of male students, which will undermine social harmony and stability. The relevant departments such as governments, society and colleges should cooperate and carry out the work pertinently to remove the barriers of female employment and development. Only in this way can we promote gender equality of employment and solve the problem of female university students′unemployment.%男女两性存在必然的性别差异,而不合理对待这种差异就会造成性别歧视,导致女大学生在求职过程中被区别对待,遭受就业性别歧视,弱势地位明显,就业形势严峻,就业质量、生存状况与男生产生明显差距,不利于社会的和谐、稳定。政府、社会、学校等相关部门应密切协作,因势利导,有针对性地开展工作,清除不利于女性就业、发展的障碍,促进就业性别平等,解决女大学生就业难的问题。

  15. Onset and Maturation of Fetal Heart Rate Response to the Mother's Voice over Late Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FIRMWARE FOR INPUT AND EXTRACTION OF USER’S VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific task for improving the signal-to-noise ratio for user’s voice signal in computer systems and networks during the process of user’s voice authentication is considered. The object of study is the process of input and extraction of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of the voice signal on the background of external interference signals are investigated. Ways for quality improving of the user’s voice signal in systems of voice authentication are investigated experimentally. Firmware means for experimental unit of input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are considered. As modern computer means, including mobile, have two-channel audio card, two microphones are used in the voice signal input. The distance between sonic-wave sensors is 20 mm and it provides forming one direction pattern lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. According to the results of experimental studies, the usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array and space-time processing of the recorded signals with implementation of constant and adaptive weighting factors has made it possible to reduce considerably the influence of interference signals. The results of firmware experimental studies for input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are shown. The proposed solutions will give the possibility to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker discrimination.

  17. 女大学生就业性别歧视问题研究%A Study on the Issue of Gender Discrimination against Female College Students in Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 张尹莉; 余凯

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , with the expansion of college enrollment ,employment situation for graduates is becoming increasingly grim .For various reasons ,female college students undergo gender discrimination in em-ployment .How to successfully resolve this difficult problem has become a general concern for the academia and political circles of society .Analyzing the issue of gender discrimination against female college students in Employment , probing into the deep reasons and offering the corresponding countermeasures not only can help female college students to treat this problem rationally ,but also can maintain the equal employment rights and interests of women and promote the harmonious development of the whole society .%近年来伴随着高校扩招,我国大学生就业形势日益严峻。女大学生由于种种原因,更遭受着求职就业中的性别歧视。如何破解这一难题应成为当今政界和学界共同关注的重要课题。分析女大学生的就业性别歧视问题及其背后的深层次原因,并给出相应对策建议,不仅能够帮助女大学生理性地对待这一问题,也有利于维护女性的平等就业权,促进全社会的和谐发展。

  18. Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys recent economic research on price discrimination, both in monopoly and oligopoly markets. Topics include static and dynamic forms of price discrimination, and both final and input markets are considered. Potential antitrust aspects of price discrimination are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper argues that the informational requirements to make accurate policy are very great, and with most forms of price discrimination a laissez-faire policy may be the best availabl...

  19. 高职院校毕业生就业中的性别歧视问题分析%Analysis of Gender Discrimination in Employment of College Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: At present gender discrimination in employment of college graduates is increasingly serious. On the basis of an analysis of the present situation and its negative effects of sex discrimination, the paper made an in - depth analysis of the causes of g~nder from the labour market, enterprises, the social security system and social prejudice, to specifically give suggestions, hoping to offer the resolution to employment problem of female students.%目前高校毕业生就业中的性别歧视问题日益严重。在对我国高职院校毕业生就业中性别歧视的现状及其不良后果进行分析的基础上,从劳动力市场、企业、社会保障制度、社会偏见等方面对高职院校毕业生就业中的性别歧视产生的原因进行了深入分析,从而有针对性地给出对策建议,希望为高职院校女生就业问题的解决提供参考。

  20. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  1. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how...

  2. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  3. Voice and endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders.

  4. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La...

  5. Voice integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  6. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  7. Imaginary Audience and Voice in Emerging Adulthood: The Undergraduate Student Experience. Volume 756

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyszig, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    The author explores the experiences and beliefs of emerging adult students, concerning their sense of voice and use of imaginary audience. Quantitative analyses revealed differences in voice and academic standing, and women reported higher feminine gender orientation than did men. Through qualitative analyses, participants stressed a need for…

  8. Sexual orientation, gender identity and non-discrimination - The Albanian labor legislation and its effects on employment and vocational training potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Shtylla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albania is undergoing an important moment in its integration process to European Union. In this context, the Albanian legislation should compare with the best international standards, in guaranteeing the implementation of the rule of law, democratic principals, the citizen’s equity and the observance of fundamental human rights and freedoms. The promotion, protection and the guaranteeing of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, including the LGBT person’s rights, must have the same attention and consideration, irrespective of the fact that the individual is being part of a social minor group, or part of the majority of the society. The community of the Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT in Albania, based on the legislation in force, should enjoy equal rights and freedoms like all other members of the society. The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian labour legislation and the legislation generally, are inspired in accordance with the non-discrimination principles, objectives and definitions of international acts, promoting and expressing protection of human rights and freedoms in general, and in particular in the field of employment and vocational training. This paper will analyze, if the sexual orientation, is one of the causes of discrimination for employment and vocational training, in Albanian legislation, especially how it is expressed this issue on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian Labour Code, the Albanian law “On the protection against discrimination” ect.

  9. Perceptions of Voice Teachers Regarding Students' Vocal Behaviors During Singing and Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Shellie A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined voice teachers' perceptions of their instruction of healthy singing and speaking voice techniques. An online, researcher-generated questionnaire based on the McClosky technique was administered to college/university voice teachers listed as members in the 2012-2013 College Music Society directory. A majority of participants believed there to be a relationship between the health of the singing voice and the health of the speaking voice. Participants' perception scores were the most positive for variable MBSi, the monitoring of students' vocal behaviors during singing. Perception scores for variable TVB, the teaching of healthy vocal behaviors, and variable MBSp, the monitoring of students' vocal behaviors while speaking, ranked second and third, respectively. Perception scores for variable TVB were primarily associated with participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, gender, and familiarity with the McClosky technique. Perception scores for variable MBSi were primarily associated with participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, gender, type of student taught, and instruction of a student with a voice disorder. Perception scores for variable MBSp were correlated with the greatest number of characteristics, including participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, familiarity with the McClosky technique, type of student taught, years of teaching experience, and instruction of a student with a voice disorder. Voice teachers are purportedly working with injured voices and attempting to include vocal health in their instruction. Although a voice teacher is not obligated to pursue further rehabilitative training, the current study revealed a positive relationship between familiarity with specific rehabilitation techniques and vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EasyVoice: Integrating voice synthesis with Skype

    CERN Document Server

    Condado, Paulo A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents EasyVoice, a system that integrates voice synthesis with Skype. EasyVoice allows a person with voice disabilities to talk with another person located anywhere in the world, removing an important obstacle that affect these people during a phone or VoIP-based conversation.

  11. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...... discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  12. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  13. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andics, A.V.; McQueen, J.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Gal, V.; Rudas, G.; Vidnyanszky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training expli

  14. Voice-based assessments of trustworthiness, competence, and warmth in blind and sighted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Kinga; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i.e., voice pitch). Groups of 27 congenitally or early-blind adults and 23 sighted controls assessed the trustworthiness, competence, and warmth of men and women speaking a series of vowels, whose voice pitches had been experimentally raised or lowered. Blind and sighted listeners judged both men's and women's voices with lowered pitch as being more competent and trustworthy than voices with raised pitch. In contrast, raised-pitch voices were judged as being warmer than were lowered-pitch voices, but only for women's voices. Crucially, blind and sighted persons did not differ in their voice-based assessments of competence or warmth, or in their certainty of these assessments, whereas the association between low pitch and trustworthiness in women's voices was weaker among blind than sighted participants. This latter result suggests that blind persons may rely less heavily on nonverbal cues to trustworthiness compared to sighted persons. Ultimately, our findings suggest that robust perceptual associations that systematically link voice pitch to the social and personal dimensions of a speaker can develop without visual input.

  15. Violence in schools and the voice of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Rodrigo; Santos, Thaynara Alves Dos; Oliveira, Daniela Sena de; Irineu, Roxane de Alencar; Brito, Aline; Silva, Kelly

    2017-08-10

    To correlate self-reporting of voice disorders with habits that impact voice production and situations of violence experienced by teachers. The study involved 41 elementary-school teachers of rural and urban areas. Two instruments were used for data collection: The Vocal Production Condition - Teacher (CPV-P) questionnaire and the Screening Index for Voice Disorders - ITDV. The chi-square test was used to verify association among variables with a significance level of 5%. The sample consisted of 8 men and 33 women aged 25-66 years with a median of 39 years. Regarding vocal habits, 33 people (80.5%) mentioned the screaming as usual practice, 40 people (97.5%) declared they talk a lot. As for voice care, 31 people (73.1%) reported drinking water while using their voice. As for the ITDV total score, 30 teachers (73.1%) were above the score threshold set for predisposition to vocal disorders. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between female participants and complaint of graffiti writings as a type of violence. No significant correlation between the ITDV results with gender and the ITDV with forms of violence evaluated in the study was indicated. Self-reporting of voice disorders showed no significant relationship with acts of violence. However, analysis of the context of violence in schools and vocal problems are issues worthy of attention, particularly the observed naturalization of gender inssues, which is seldom problematized.

  16. Gender Discrimination, Ability and Trust:Based on a Trust Game with Selection%性别歧视、 能力和信任——基于可选择的信任博弈实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪思绮; 郭文敏; 虞爽; 李江南; 陈叶烽

    2015-01-01

    本文运用信任博弈实验, 同时结合GSS问卷的方法, 运用计算机程序, 测度男女两性被试的信任水平. 通过在实验设计中引入选择机制, 能力变量, 对男女两性在选择和投资两个方面上的信任水平、 信任歧视和被歧视的现象进行探索并对其产生的原因进行解释. 在歧视的存在性上, 两性在选择上都倾向于女性, 但在投资额上并没有显著的歧视现象, 搭档的能力是影响一个人信任和选择的重要原因, 这种现象在男性身上有着更显著的体现. 在歧视产生的原因上, 真实返还额和期望影响了投资. 选择环境的构建提高了人的信任水平, 这种情况在女性被试中更为显著, 但选择对歧视并没有明显的影响.%This paper focus on gender discrimination by performing trust game experiment in the lab. This experiment introduces the selection mechanism and ability as a variable in the experiment with GSS questionnaire to test the trust and trustworthiness of subjects to discuss the trust performance trust discrimination on both selection and investment between men and women. Based on the statistics, we conclude people tend to choose women while there is no significant difference in the amount sent. Ability, especially men''s, plays an important role in both trust invest and the choice. On the reason of discrimination, return percent and expectation play important role on invest. Selection mechanism improves more women''s amount sent, but has little influence on discrimination.

  17. Constructed criteria: redefining merit to justify discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Ericluis; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2005-06-01

    This article presents an account of job discrimination according to which people redefine merit in a manner congenial to the idiosyncratic credentials of individual applicants from desired groups. In three studies, participants assigned male and female applicants to gender-stereotypical jobs. However, they did not view male and female applicants as having different strengths and weaknesses. Instead, they redefined the criteria for success at the job as requiring the specific credentials that a candidate of the desired gender happened to have. Commitment to hiring criteria prior to disclosure of the applicant's gender eliminated discrimination, suggesting that bias in the construction of hiring criteria plays a causal role in discrimination.

  18. Electroglottographic evaluation of age and gender effects during sustained phonation and connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Love, Amanda L

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of age and gender on selected vocal fold vibratory behaviors during vowel prolongation and connected speech using electroglottography (EGG). Forty-six young and older individuals (23 males and 23 females) with normal voices participated in this study. EGG parameters including fundamental frequency and contact quotient were measured during sustained vowel prolongation and connected speech tasks. Significant age-by-gender interactions were found for both parameters. Moreover, results from discriminant function analyses revealed that the overall accuracies of the parameters in predicting different age and gender groups were higher for the connected speech tasks than for the sustained vowel prolongation task (89.1% and 73.9% for passage and phrase tasks vs 71.7% for vowel prolongation). These findings suggest that reliability of EGG measures can be affected by the test stimuli. Therefore, one should carefully consider the use of the speech material when assessing vocal fold behaviors using EGG. The findings also support the use of connected speech stimulus, preferably at passage level, in electroglottographic evaluation for a better representation of vocal fold vibrating behaviors. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dominant Voice in Hamlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Tragedy of Hamlet dramatizes the revenge Prince Hamlet exacts on his uncle Claudius for murdering King Hamlet,Claudius’s brother and Prince Hamlet’s father,and then succeeding to the throne and taking as his wife Gertrude,the old king’s widow and Prince Hamlet’s mother.This paper will discuss something about dominant voice in the play.Dominant voice is the major voice in the country,the society,or the whole world.Those people who have the power or

  20. Influence of complaints and singing style in singers voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Felipe; Ávila, Maria Emília Barros de; Rocha, Clara; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify whether the difference of singing styles and the presence of vocal complaints influence the perception of voice handicap of singers. One hundred eighteen singing voice handicap self-assessment protocols were selected: 17 popular singers with vocal complaints, 42 popular singers without complaints, 17 classic singers with complaints, and 42 classic singers without complaints. The groups were similar regarding age, gender and voice types. Both protocols used--Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) and Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI)--have specific questions to their respective singing styles, and consist of 30 items equally divided into three subscales: disability (functional domain), handicap (emotional domain) and impairment (organic domain), answered according to the frequency of occurrence. Each subscale has a maximum of 40 points, and the total score is 120 points. The higher the score, the higher the singing voice handicap perceived. For statistical analysis, we used the ANOVA test, with 5% of significance. Classical and popular singers referred higher impairment, followed by disability and handicap. However, the degree of this perception varied according to the singing style and the presence of vocal complaints. The classical singers with vocal complaints showed higher voice handicap than popular singers with vocal complaints, while the classic singers without complaints reported lower handicap than popular singers without complaints. This evidences that classical singers have higher perception of their own voice, and that vocal disturbances in this group may cause greater voice handicap when compared to popular singers.

  1. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  2. Superior voice timbre processing in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Belin, Pascal

    2006-09-25

    After several years of exposure to musical instrument practice, musicians acquire a great expertise in processing auditory features like tonal pitch or timbre. Here we compared the performance of musicians and non-musicians in two timbre discrimination tasks: one using instrumental timbres, the other using voices. Both accuracy (d-prime) and reaction time measures were obtained. The results indicate that the musicians performed better than the non-musicians at both tasks. The musicians also took more time to respond at both tasks. One interpretation of this result is that the expertise musicians acquired with instrumental timbres during their training transferred to timbres of voice. The musician participants may also have used different cognitive strategies during the experiment. Higher response times found in musicians can be explained by a longer verbal-auditory memory and the use of a strategy to further process auditory features.

  3. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  4. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  5. 城市外来劳动力的性别收入差距与工资歧视——基于非条件分位数回归的分解方法%The Gender Wage Gap and Discrimination of Migrant Labors in Urban China——Base on the Unconditional Quantiles Regression Decomposition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 周兴

    2012-01-01

    文章利用非条件分位数回归的分解方法对2011年城市外来劳动力群体的性别工资差距进行了分析。研究发现:(1)城市外来劳动力群体中,性别间受教育程度的差异已经变得不太显著,但在职业方面针对女性外来劳动力的"粘性地板"现象仍然十分突出。(2)人力资本禀赋和就业职业特征对男性与女性外来劳动力工资的影响程度有所不同,不同收入分位数上的影响系数也有明显的差异。(3)性别歧视是造成外来劳动力性别间收入差距的主要原因,而男性与女性劳动者工作经验的差距以及工作经验收益率的差异已经取代教育因素成为了性别收入差距中的突出问题。%Based on the micro income data of migrate labors in the urban China,This paper use unconditional quantiles regression to analysis the Gender wage gap of migrate labors at different quantiles and decompose the gender wage gap.The results show that:(1) Since the labor market segmentation and gender discrimination,female migrate labors are segregated from the state sectors.(2) The gender wage gap is caused by differences in personal characteristics and gender discrimination,but gender discrimination is the main reason for the gender wage gap.(3)The gender gap of work experience has replaced the education to become the main factor cause the gender discrimination and gender wage gap.

  6. 基于中文人名用字特征的性别判定方法%A method of gender discrimination based on character feature of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于江德; 赵红丹; 郑勃举; 余正涛

    2014-01-01

    Based on the strong gender discrimination of Chinese names, a method of gender discrimination based on character feature of Chinese names using naïve Bayes classifier was presented.In this method, the first character of each Chinese name ( Zi1 ) , the second character ( Zi2 ) , the first and the second characters ( Zi1 Zi2 ) were regarded as distin-guishing features.The naïve Bayes classification method was used for gender discrimination of Chinese names.Training and testing were done on 412 775 Chinese names corpus using 10 fold cross validation method, and comparative experi-ments were done according to the different feature combinations, they were Zi1 , Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi1 Zi2 , Zi2 +Zi1 Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi2 +Zi1 Zi2 ( all the distinguishing features) .The average accuracy were as followings in turn, 72.75%, 86.92%, 88.84%, 87.37%, 89.35%, 90.06%, of which the best average accuracy was 90.06%.%基于中文人名用字具有的较强的性别区分性,提出一种利用朴素贝叶斯分类器对中文人名性别进行判定的方法,该方法将每个中文人名中的第一个字(字1)、第二个字(字2)、第一和第二个字组合(字1字2)作为区分特征,利用朴素贝叶斯分类方法对该人名所属性别进行判定。在412775个中文人名语料上采用10重交叉验证法进行训练和测试,对比了依据不同区分特征组合进行性别判定的准确率,分别采用字1,字2,字1+字2,字1+字1字2,字2+字1字2,字1+字2+字1字2(全部区分特征)构成的特征组合进行性别判定,平均判定准确率分别为72.75%,86.92%,88.84%,87.37%,89.35%,90.06%,取得的最好平均判定准确率为90.06%。

  7. Perceptions of Competence, Strength, and Age Influence Voters to Select Leaders with Lower-Pitched Voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey A Klofstad

    Full Text Available Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three.

  8. Ethnographic Voice Memo Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    1800-01-01

    -based technique which actively involves actors in producing ethnography-based data concerning their everyday practice. With the help from smartphone technology it is possible to complement ethnography-based research methods when involving the actors and having them create small voice memo narratives. The voice...... memos create insights of actors‟ everyday practice, without the direct presence of a researcher and could be considered a step towards meeting the dilemmas of research in complex fieldwork settings....

  9. Image/Music/Voice: Song Dubbing in Hollywood Musicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Marsha

    1995-01-01

    Uses the practice of song dubbing in the Hollywood film musical to explore the implications and consequences of the singing voice for imaging practices in the 1930s through 1960s. Discusses the ideological, technological, and socioeconomic basis for song dubbing. Discusses gender, race, and ethnicity patterns of image-sound practices. (SR)

  10. Female Middle School Principals' Voices: Implications for School Leadership Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathy; Ovando, Martha; High, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This study was an attempt to add the voices of women to the discourse of school leadership. It focused on the nature of the middle school leadership experiences of three female middle school principals, their social interactions based on gender role expectations and their own leadership perspectives. Findings suggest that middle school leadership…

  11. Voice Onset Time Production in Speakers with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Julie; Ryalls, Jack; Brice, Alejandro; Whiteside, Janet

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, voice onset time (VOT) measurements were compared between a group of individuals with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a group of healthy age- and gender-matched peers. Participants read a list of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words, which included the six stop consonants. The VOT measurements were made from…

  12. Mouths Wide Shut: Gender-Quiet Teenage Males on Gender-Bending, Gender-Passing and Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Samuel M.

    2009-11-01

    Through individual narratives, three adolescent males of colour reflect on their fluid masculinities in relation to ethnicity, spirituality and sexuality. The self-described gender benders examine their complex relationships and hybrid identities, which cross the various boundaries of heteronormativity routinely legitimatised through peer norms and educational practices. They voice experiences and gender performances in context of the reshaping of the school's official and unofficial heterosexist climate in which gender-bending males are often marginalised.

  13. Manifestation of gender discrimination in the process of human resources development——A content analysis based on interview data%企业人力资源开发中性别歧视的表现形式——基于内容分析的访谈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜士梅; 颜士之; 张曼

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the issue of gender discrimination manifested in the process of human resources development (HRD).A theoretical model is developed based on prior literature.Scenarios of gender discrimination in enterprises are obtained from in-depth interviews.Results of content analysis indicate that gender discrimination in HRD have four forms of manifestation,namely occupational gender segregation,employment gender discrimination,glass ceiling,and gender salary discrimination.Compared with top and middle-level managers,employees can perceive more employment-related gender discrimination and less glass ceiling.There is no significant difference between female and male in the above four manifestations.Compared with other types of enterprises,gender salary discrimination is more likely to happen in private enterprises,and occupational gender segregation and glass ceiling are more prevalent in foreign funded enterprises.It is also found that gender discrimination often occurs at the stage of job arrangement in the process of HRD.%聚焦在企业人力资源开发中性别歧视的表现形式问题,先基于以往文献构建了人力资源开发中性别歧视表现形式的理论模型;然后,通过深度访谈法获取企业性别歧视的情景性资料,运用内容分析技术结构化地分析资料来验证模型.研究发现,企业人力资源开发中性别歧视主要表现在雇佣性别歧视、职业性别隔离、玻璃天花板和薪酬性别歧视四个方面;并且相对于高层和中层,低层职员往往会更多地感知到雇佣性别歧视,而更少地感知到玻璃天花板;男性与女性职员在性别歧视四种表现形式的感知上不存在显著差异;相对于其它类型企业而言,民营企业更可能产生薪酬歧视问题,外(合)资企业更容易出现职业性别隔离和玻璃天花板现象;相对于其它人力资源开发阶段,在工作安排阶段,更容易出现各种性别歧视现象.

  14. DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET OF SR AND MODELS OF DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík

    2012-01-01

    IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...

  15. Wage Discrimination in the Reemployment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Rudolph, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    Wage discrimination by gender in reemployment was examined by decomposing the wage gap upon reemployment. Results suggest that employers are using discriminatory hiring practices that are less likely to be detected and harder to prove in court. (SK)

  16. Voice Matching Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA for voice recognition is described. The practical application of Genetic Algorithm (GA to the solution of engineering problem is a rapidly emerging approach in the field of control engineering and signal processing. Genetic algorithms are useful for searching a space in multi-directional way from large spaces and poorly defined space. Voice is a signal of infinite information. Digital processing of voice signal is very important for automatic voice recognition technology. Nowadays, voice processing is very much important in security mechanism due to mimicry characteristic. So studying the voice feature extraction in voice processing is very necessary in military, hospital, telephone system, investigation bureau and etc. In order to extract valuable information from the voice signal, make decisions on the process, and obtain results, the data needs to be manipulated and analyzed. In this paper, if the instant voice is not matched with same person’s reference voices in the database, then Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied between two randomly chosen reference voices. Again the instant voice is compared with the result of Genetic Algorithm (GA which is used, including its three main steps: selection, crossover and mutation. We illustrate our approach with different sample of voices from human in our institution.

  17. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  18. Recognition of emotional expressions in blended faces and gender discrimination by children with autism%孤独症儿童混合面部表情识别及面孔性别区分能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫瑾; 姜志梅; 郭岚敏; 吕洋; 孙奇峰; 李兴洲; 王立苹

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To test the ability of the recognition of emotional expression in blended faces and gender discrimination of eyes and mouths by children with autism. [Methods] Thirty-two male children with autism and thirty-two typically developing children matched on developmental age and gender were selected. They were tested with the Emotional Expressions Recognition Software System developed in this research which took recognition accuracy rate and response time in different presentation manners as analysis indexes. [Results] 1)The accuracy rates of emotional expression were significantly lower in children with autism than in typically developing[(58. 0 ± 15. 6)%vs(78. 4±13. 5)%,i=- 5. i,P = 0. 000],the response time was delayed[(9 948. 3 ± 3 116. 2)ms vs(5 617.0±1 362. 9)ms,t=4. 7,P = 0. 000]. 2)The accuracy rates of gender discrimination was significantly lower in children with autism than in typically developing[eye: (76. 7 ± 11. 5)%vs(86. 6 ±10. 9)%,mouth: (66. 2 ± 12. 8)%vs(73. 1 ±10. 7)%], the response time was delayed[eye: (4 138.7 ± 542. 0)ms vs(2 721. 9±636. 6)ms,mouth:(3 807. 8 ± 710. Dms vs(2 836. 5 ± 619. 9)ms). [Conclusions] Children with autism are inclined to attend to the lower face when making judgments about emotional expressions; they can use information from eyes for gender discrimination,and do not appear to be superior to typically developing children at using mouth information to process gender information.%[目的] 测试孤独症儿童混合面部表情的识别能力及通过眼和嘴对面孔性别进行区分的能力. [方法] 采用自制计算机系统对32例孤独症儿童和32例正常儿童进行测试并分析,以正确率、反应时和错误类型为分析指标,两组儿童在发展年龄上进行匹配. [结果] 1)孤独症组儿童识别混合面部表情的平均正确率小于正常对照组[(58.0±15.6)%和(78.4±13.5)%,t=-5.4,P=0.000],平均反应时长于正常对照组[(9 948.3±3 116.2) ms和(5 617.0

  19. What cause the gender wage among countries ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯家琦

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to figure out the surface reasons and the potential reasons resulting in the gender wage gap between Japan, the US and Sweden. This paper starts from three points which are occupation segregation, human capital and discrimination. After writing this literature review, I realize that the biggest problem which cause the big gender wage gap difference is discrimination.

  20. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  1. Voice in early glottic cancer compared to benign voice pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gogh, C. D. L.; Mahieu, H. F.; Kuik, D. J.; Rinkel, R. N. P. M.; Langendijk, J. A.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare (Dutch) Voice Handicap Index (VHIvumc) scores from a selected group of patients with voice problems after treatment for early glottic cancer with patients with benign voice disorders and subjects from the normal population. The study included a group of 35 pat

  2. The inner voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Ridgway

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The inner voice- we all know what it is because we all have it and use it when we are thinking or reading, for example. Little work has been done on it in our field, with the notable exception of Brian Tomlinson, but presumably it must be a cognitive phenomenon which is of great importance in thinking, language learning, and reading in a foreign language. The inner voice will be discussed as a cognitive psychological phenomenon associated with short-term memory, and distinguished from the inner ear. The process of speech recoding will be examined (the process of converting written language into the inner voice and the importance of developing the inner voice, as a means of both facilitating the production of a new language and enhancing the comprehension of a text in a foreign language, will be emphasized. Finally, ways of developing the inner voice in beginning and intermediate readers of a foreign language will be explored and recommended.

  3. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...

  4. The Problem of Education-Based Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    While the research, theory and policy literature on race, class and gender discrimination in education is extensive, the problem of education-based discrimination itself has been widely overlooked. Indeed, the dominant ideologies of meritocracy and human capital (into which we are inculcated throughout our lives by schools, media and the state)…

  5. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Iranian Primary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Sandoughdar, Nazila

    2017-03-01

    The voice is the sound produced by vibration of our vocal cords and has an important role in verbal communication. A child's voice disorder may significantly impair his or her ability to be heard and understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice disorders in primary school students. In this descriptive-analytical study, a total of 501 fourth through fifth grade primary school students (boys = 51.6%, girls = 48.4%) with the age range of 10-12 years were selected from nine public school systems in Tehran that were assessed in October 2013 through March 2014. Presence of a voice disorder characterized by hoarseness was identified by a dual approach including investigator screening and parent identification. We used the grade of overall dysphonia, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain scale for perceptual evaluation of voice. All children were assessed with video laryngoscopy examination by an otorhinolaryngologist. The recordings were made during spontaneous speech, counting numbers, sustained utterance of the (/a/) vowel, reading a standard passage in Farsi, and the ratio of /s/ and /z/. Statistical analysis was done via chi-square test and t test. Results indicated that the prevalence of voice disorders in primary school students is 53.2%. The results indicated significant differences between gender and subjects with lesions (P = 0.00000), gender and vocal disorders (P = 0.04), and s/z ratio and type of lesion (P = 0.0002). Phonotrauma seems to play an important role in child dysphonia, with nodules as main diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speaking in Character: Voice Communication in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Greg; Gibbs, Martin R.

    This chapter summarizes 5 years of research on the implications of introducing voice communication systems to virtual worlds. Voice introduces both benefits and problems for players of fast-paced team games, from better coordination of groups and greater social presence of fellow players on the positive side, to negative features such as channel congestion, transmission of noise, and an unwillingness by some to use voice with strangers online. Similarly, in non-game worlds like Second Life, issues related to identity and impression management play important roles, as voice may build greater trust that is especially important for business users, yet it erodes the anonymity and ability to conceal social attributes like gender that are important for other users. A very different mixture of problems and opportunities exists when users conduct several simultaneous conversations in multiple text and voice channels. Technical difficulties still exist with current systems, including the challenge of debugging and harmonizing all the participants' voice setups. Different groups use virtual worlds for very different purposes, so a single modality may not suit all.

  7. Transgender Voice and Communication Treatment: A Retrospective Chart Review of 25 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B.; Garabedian, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People transitioning from male to female (MTF) gender seek speech-language pathology services when they feel their voice is betraying their genuine self or perhaps is the last obstacle to representing their authentic gender. Speaking fundamental frequency (pitch) and resonance are most often targets in treatment because the combination…

  8. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover......, Pragmatist and Status Seeker. Expedient use of the voices in creating design strategies is discussed, thus contributing directly to the practice of high level design managers. The main academic contribution of this paper is demonstrating how applied anthropology can be used to generate insights...... into disruptive emergence of product service systems, where quantitative user analyses rely on historical continuation....

  9. VoiceRelay: voice key operation using visual basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Lise; Jennings, David T

    2004-11-01

    Using a voice key is a popular method for recording vocal response times in a variety of language production tasks. This article describes a class module called VoiceRelay that can be easily utilized in Visual Basic programs for voice key operation. This software-based voice key offers the precision of traditional voice keys (although accuracy is system dependent), as well as the flexibility of volume and sensitivity control. However, VoiceRelay is a considerably less expensive alternative for recording vocal response times because it operates with existing PC hardware and does not require the purchase of external response boxes or additional experiment-generation software. A sample project demonstrating implementation of the VoiceRelay class module may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive, www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  10. The effect of speakers' sex on voice onset time in Mandarin stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang

    2013-02-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine the effect of speakers' gender on voice onset time in Mandarin speakers' stop productions. Word-initial lingual stops were elicited from 10 male and 10 female Mandarin speakers using a word-repetition task. The results revealed differentiated voice onset time (VOT) patterns between the two genders for all four lingual stops on raw VOT values. After factoring out speech rate variation, gender-related differences remained for voiced stops only with females' VOTs being shorter than males. The results, together with previous findings from other languages, suggest a sociolinguistic/stylistic account on the relation between gender and VOT that vary in a language-specific manner.

  11. Preference for leaders with masculine voices holds in the case of feminine leadership roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Human voice pitch research has focused on perceptions of attractiveness, strength, and social dominance. Here we examine the influence of pitch on selection of leaders, and whether this influence varies by leadership role. Male and female leaders with lower-pitched (i.e., masculine voices are generally preferred by both men and women. We asked whether this preference shifts to favor higher-pitch (i.e., feminine voices within the specific context of leadership positions that are typically held by women (i.e., feminine leadership roles. In hypothetical elections for two such positions, men and women listened to pairs of male and female voices that differed only in pitch, and were asked which of each pair they would vote for. As in previous studies, men and women preferred female candidates with masculine voices. Likewise, men preferred men with masculine voices. Women, however, did not discriminate between male voices. Overall, contrary to research showing that perceptions of voice pitch can be influenced by social context, these results suggest that the influence of voice pitch on perceptions of leadership capacity is largely consistent across different domains of leadership.

  12. Voice application development for Android

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po

  13. A retrospective study concerning the psychosocial impact of voice disorders: Voice Handicap Index change in patients with benign voice disorders after treatment (measured with the Dutch version of the VHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwers, Frans; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this study was to gain better understanding of psychosocial effects of benign voice problems as measured with the Dutch version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The effect of voice problems on daily life differs from person to person. Over the last few decades there has been a growing understanding of the fact that the psychosocial effect of this medical problem needs to be acknowledged. The VHI is a known voice specific Quality-of-Life measuring instrument, which is often used for this purpose. In the University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, patients with voice problems are analyzed at a Voice Clinic by a multidisciplinary team of voice specialists. In this study, we have analyzed patients with benign voice problems before and after treatment in the period of April 2004 to October 2006. The study group consisted of 68 patients (39 female). For comparison reason, we included a control group (n=68), matched for age and gender. The mean VHI score of the patient group before treatment was 48.9 (SD=20.9). After treatment, there was a significant improvement to 28.3 (SD=20.5) (PVHI scores of men and women. As could be expected, voice disorders of different etiology showed different VHI scores. Before and after treatment, the patient group showed a statistically significantly higher VHI score (PVHI score of 3.62, SD=3.82). Patients with different voice problems seem to have different results with the VHI. Treatment leads to statistically significant improvement in VHI scores. The VHI has proven to be a good instrument to evaluate the psychosocial consequences of voice problems.

  14. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  15. Voices of courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Abdullah Karim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.

  16. Listen to a voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2001-01-01

    Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and he...

  17. Political animal voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I develop a theory of political animal voices. The first part of the thesis focuses on non-human animal languages and forming interspecies worlds. I first investigate the relation between viewing language as exclusively human and seeing humans as categorically different from other

  18. Finding a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  19. the Voice of Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlanBurdick

    2003-01-01

    Have you heard Mide? Coule be.Mike is a professional reader,and he's everywhere these days. On MapQuest, the Web-based map service,he'll read aloud whatever directions you ask for. If you like to have AOL or Yahoo! e-mail read aloud to you over the phone, that's Mike's voice you 're hearing. Soon

  20. What the voice reveals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted voca

  1. The Inner Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Anthony James

    2009-01-01

    The inner voice- we all know what it is because we all have it and use it when we are thinking or reading, for example. Little work has been done on it in our field, with the notable exception of Brian Tomlinson, but presumably it must be a cognitive phenomenon which is of great importance in thinking, language learning, and reading in a foreign…

  2. Moving beyond Youth Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serido, Joyce; Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    This study combines research documenting the benefits of positive relationships between youth and caring adults on a young person's positive development with studies on youth voice to examine the mechanisms through which participation in youth programs contributes to positive developmental outcomes. Specifically, the study explores whether youth's…

  3. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  4. Voices for Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Edwin G.; Kapadia, Madhu

    Listed in this annotated bibliography are 502 cassette tapes of value to career exploration for Grade 7 through the adult level, whether as individualized instruction, small group study, or total class activity. Available to New Jersey educators at no charge, this Voices for Careers System is also available for duplication on request from the New…

  5. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted voca

  6. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  7. Adaptation and validation of the Malayalam pediatric voice handicap index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Usha; Dhanya, M; Gunjawate, Dhanshree

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the English version of pediatric voice handicap index (pVHI) into Malayalam language. The English version of pediatric voice handicap index was translated into Malayalam language using parallel back translation. The translated version was content validated by three qualified speech language pathologists. The content familiarity was carried out by 10 parents of children with voice problems. This was distributed to 136 parents (57 parents of children with dysphonia, 79 parents of children with no voice problems). The internal consistency and test--retest reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was used to assess the difference in means. Kappa coefficient was used to determine the correlation between overall severity of the problem and total pVHI. Discriminant analysis was used to identify thresholds for differentiating between normal and dysphonic participants. The results obtained revealed that the Malayalam version of pVHI has an excellent internal consistency; total (α=0.974), functional (α=0.922), physical (α=0.953), and emotional (α=0.923). There was an excellent test-retest reliability; total (r=0.937), functional (r=0.954), physical (r=0.95), and emotional (r=0.929). The prediction probability of the dysphonics is 98.2% using the discriminant score function. The translated and validated pVHI tool can be effectively used in the assessment of children with voice problems. It can provide a better insight into the parents' perception of their child's voice problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is there an effect of dysphonic teachers' voices on children's processing of spoken language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Jemma; Dodd, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    There is a vast body of literature on the causes, prevalence, implications, and issues of vocal dysfunction in teachers. However, the educational effect of teacher vocal impairment is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of impaired voice quality on children's processing of spoken language. One hundred and seven children (age range, 9.2 to 10.6, mean 9.8, SD 3.76 months) listened to three video passages, one read in a control voice, one in a mild dysphonic voice, and one in a severe dysphonic voice. After each video passage, children were asked to answer six questions, with multiple-choice answers. The results indicated that children's perceptions of speech across the three voice qualities differed, regardless of gender, IQ, and school attended. Performance in the control voice passages was better than performance in the mild and severe dysphonic voice passages. No difference was found between performance in the mild and severe dysphonic voice passages, highlighting that any form of vocal impairment is detrimental to children's speech processing and is therefore likely to have a negative educational effect. These findings, in light of the high rate of vocal dysfunction in teachers, further support the implementation of specific voice care education for those in the teaching profession.

  9. Pitch deviation analysis of pathological voice in connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflen, J Brandon; Lazarus, Cathy L; Amin, Milan R

    2008-02-01

    This study compares normal and pathologic voices using a novel voice analysis algorithm that examines pitch deviation during connected speech. The study evaluates the clinical potential of the algorithm as a mechanism to distinguish between normal and pathologic voices using connected speech. Adult vocalizations from normal subjects and patients with known benign free-edge vocal fold lesions were analyzed. Recordings had been previously obtained in quiet under controlled conditions. Two phrases and sustained /a/ were recorded per subject. The subject populations consisted of 10 normal and 31 abnormal subjects. The voice analysis algorithm generated 2-dimensional patterns that represent pitch deviation in time and under variable window widths. Measures were collected from these patterns for window widths between 10 and 250 ms. For comparison, jitter and shimmer measures were collected from sustained /a/ by means of the Computerized Speech Lab (CSL). A t-test and tests of sensitivity and specificity assessed discrimination between normal and abnormal populations. More than 58% of the measures collected from connected speech outperformed the CSL jitter and shimmer measures in population discrimination. Twenty-five percent of the experimental measures (including /a/) indicated significantly different populations (p connected speech.

  10. French native speakers in the making: from language-general to language-specific voicing boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonhorst, Ingrid; Colin, Cécile; Markessis, Emily; Radeau, Monique; Deltenre, Paul; Serniclaes, Willy

    2009-12-01

    By examining voice onset time (VOT) discrimination in 4- and 8-month-olds raised in a French-speaking environment, the current study addresses the question of the role played by linguistic experience in the reshaping of the initial perceptual abilities. Results showed that the language-general -30- and +30-ms VOT boundaries are better discriminated than the 0-ms boundary in 4-month-olds, whereas 8-month-olds better discriminate the 0-ms boundary. These data support explanations of speech development stressing the effects of both language-general boundaries and linguistic environment (attunement theory and coupling theory). Results also suggest that the acquisition of the adult voicing boundary (at 0 ms VOT in French vs. +30 ms VOT in English) is faster and more linear in French than in English. This latter aspect of the results might be related to differences in the consistency of VOT distributions of voiced and voiceless stops between languages.

  11. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  12. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  13. April 16th : The World Voice Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, Jan G.; Behlau, Mara

    2007-01-01

    Although the voice is used as an everyday basis of speech, most people realize its importance only when a voice problem arises. Increasing public awareness of the importance of the voice and alertness to voice problems are the main goals of the World Voice Day, which is celebrated yearly on April 16

  14. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  15. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  16. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  17. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  18. Effects of vocal training on singing and speaking voice characteristics in vocally healthy adults and children based on choral and nonchoral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Lycke, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study examines the effects of voice training on vocal capabilities in vocally healthy age and gender differentiated groups measured by voice range profile (VRP) and speech range profile (SRP). Frequency and intensity measurements of the VRP and SRP using standard singing and speaking voice protocols were derived from 161 trained choir singers (21 males, 59 females, and 81 prepubescent children) and from 188 nonsingers (38 males, 89 females, and 61 children). When compared with nonsingers, both genders of trained adult and child singers exhibited increased mean pitch range, highest frequency, and VRP area in high frequencies (PVRP area. The logistic regression analysis showed that VRP pitch range, highest frequency, maximum voice intensity, and maximum-minimum intensity range, and SRP slope of speaking curve were the key predictors of voice training. Age, gender, and voice training differentiated norms of VRP and SRP parameters are presented. Significant positive effect of voice training on vocal capabilities, mostly singing voice, was confirmed. The presented norms for trained singers, with key parameters differentiated by gender and age, are suggested for clinical practice of otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrimination in Macedonian companies: Case studies research and analysis of current discrimination grounds, forms and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ananiev, Jovan; Poposka, Zaneta

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination which is evident in in companies in the Republic of Macedonia is mostly done by the owners or management and on the ground of personal status, gender, ethnicity and age and mostly in the form of harassment and direct discrimination.

  20. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  1. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  2. Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick; Thompson, Vetta; Lambert, David; Sangster, Yvette; Noel, Jeffrey G; Campbell, Jean

    2003-08-01

    The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation. A total of 1,824 persons with serious mental illness who participated in a baseline interview for a multistate study on consumer-operated services completed a two-part discrimination questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire assessed participants' perceptions about discrimination due to mental illness as well as more than half a dozen other group characteristics. The second part of the questionnaire asked participants who reported some experience with discrimination to identify areas in which this discrimination occurred, such as employment, education, and housing. More than half of the study participants (949 participants, or 53 percent) reported some experience with discrimination. The most frequent sources of this discrimination were mental disability, race, sexual orientation, and physical disability. Areas in which discrimination frequently occurred included employment, housing, and interactions with law enforcement. Areas in which discrimination was experienced did not significantly differ among groups of study participants characterized by mental disability, race, gender, sexual orientation, or physical disability. Discrimination based on group characteristics other than mental illness does not diminish the impact of stigma associated with mental illness. Antistigma programs need to target not only discrimination related to mental illness but also that associated with other group characteristics, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability.

  3. Singing voice handicap mapped by different self-assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoliello, Karla; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2013-01-01

    To map voice handicap of popular singers with a general voice and two singing voice self-assessment questionnaires. Fifty singers, 25 male and 25 female, 23 with vocal complaint and 27 without vocal complaint answered randomly the questionnaires. For the comparison of data, the following statistical tests were performed: Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman and Correlation. Data showed that the VHI yielded a smaller handicap when compared to the other two questionnaires (VHI x S-VHI - p=0.001; VHI x MSVH - p=0.004). The S-VHI and MSVH produced similar results (p=0.723). Singers with vocal complaint had a VHI total score of 17.5. The other two instruments showed more deviated scores (S-VHI - 24.9; MSVH - 25.2). There was no relationship between gender and singing style with the handicap perceived. A weak negative correlation between the perceived handicap and the time of singing experience was found (-37.7 to -13.10%), that is, the smaller the time of singing experience, the greater the handicap is. The questionnaires developed for the assessment of singing voice, S-VHI and MSVH, showed to be more specific and correspondent to each other for the evaluation of vocal handicap in singers. Findings showed that the more the time of singer's singing experience, the smaller the handicap is. Gender and singing styles did not influence the perception of the handicap.

  4. Keyboard With Voice Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  5. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Is My Voice Changing? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Is My Voice ... deeper than a girl's, though. What Causes My Voice to Change? At puberty, guys' bodies begin producing ...

  6. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... near you Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Patient ... that traditionally accompany gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Voice Misuse and Overuse Speaking is a physical task ...

  7. Who gets credit for input? Demographic and structural status cues in voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Taeya M; Harrison, David A; Burris, Ethan R; Detert, James R

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigate the employee features that, alongside overall voice expression, affect supervisors' voice recognition. Drawing primarily from status characteristics and network position theories, the authors propose and find in a study of 693 employees from 89 different credit union units that supervisors are more likely to credit those reporting the same amount of voice if the employees have higher ascribed or assigned (by the organization) status--cued by demographic variables such as majority ethnicity and full-time work hours. Further, supervisors are more likely to recognize voice from employees who have higher achieved status--cued by their centrality in informal social structures. The authors also find that even when certain groups of lower status employees speak up more, they cannot compensate for the negative effect of their demographic membership on voice recognition by their boss. The authors underscore how recognition of employee voice by supervisors matters for employees. It carries (mediates) the effects of voice expression and status onto performance evaluations 1 year later, which means that demographic differences in the assignment of credit for voice can serve as an implicit pathway for discrimination.

  8. Voice and silence in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaşa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.

  9. VOICE REHABILITATION FOLLOWING TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuing advances in surgical management of laryngeal malignancy, total laryngectomy is still the treatment of choice in advanced laryngeal malignancies. Considering the longevity of the patient following total laryngectomy, various measures have been adopted in order to provide voice function to the patient. Significant advancements have taken place in voice rehabilitation of post laryngectomy patients. Advancements in oncological surgical techniques and irradiation techniques have literally cured laryngeal malignancies. Among the various voice rehabilitation techniques available TEP (Tracheo oesophageal puncture is considered to be the gold standard. This article attempts to explore the various voice rehabilitation technique available with primary focus on TEP.

  10. The impact of voice on speech realization

    OpenAIRE

    Jelka Breznik

    2014-01-01

    The study discusses spoken literary language and the impact of voice on speech realization. The voice consists of a sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming… The human voice is specifically the part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are the primary sound source. Our voice is our instrument and identity card. How does the voice (voice tone) affect others and how do they respond, positively or negatively? ...

  11. Profesyonel Ses Eğitimi Alan Bireylerin Ses Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi (An Analysis of Individuals’ Voice Characteristics with Professional Voice Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satı DOĞANYİĞİT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is conducted with 12 students at Selçuk University Dilek Sabancı State Conservatory Cantation Art Department. It aims to investigate the voice characteristics of individuals with professional voice training. A Videolarengostroboscopy (VLS was used to analyze visual characteristics, a Computerized Speech Laboratory (CSL 4500 for acoustic features, and a chronometer for the aerodynamic features of their voices. Data obtained was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis Test, and Pearson Correlation Test. Furthermore, voice features were correlated to some criteria such as voice type, gender, age, height, and weight. No statistically significant differences were found in relation with class, age, and weight. However, significant differences were present in voice type and F0, F3, F4 formant frequencies, jitter, and shimmer. Differences were observed related to gender in F0, F3, F4, F5 formant frequencies and related to height in F0 and jitter as well. Comparing baritones and sopranos, differences were in F0, F3, F4 formant frequencies, jitter, shimmer. Besides, the taller they were, the lower were their jitter and F0 values. All the participants were able to form singer’s formant (F3.

  12. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  13. Theorizing Gender for Community College Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Brigitte H.

    2008-01-01

    Feminist theory uses gender as a lens to evaluate society's institutions and power hierarchies. Gender evolves as a social construction rather than an essential difference between the sexes, and it supports the so-called "hegemony of dominant men" in society. Socialization by gender enables discrimination in gender roles and occupations, and its…

  14. Effects of Narrator Gender on Conceptual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Betty D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effects of sex stereotyping and non-sex stereotyping in the use of narrators for instructional videotape materials designed for nursing students. All variables but gender of narrator were controlled, and no effects on learning were found using male and female voices. (Author/BK)

  15. Freire, Literacy and Emancipatory Gender Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2014-01-01

    The contributions to education of one of the great Latin American thinkers, Paulo Freire, have been enormous. His voice and wisdom have inspired educators globally. Three particular contributions--to emancipation, to literacy, and to dialogue--are explored in this article through a critical lens. From a gender perspective, Freire's path to…

  16. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees'…

  17. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  18. Evaluation of Voice Parameters in People with Head and Neck Cancers: An Investigational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zacharia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck cancer severely affects the voice and compromises a patient’s vocal independence. In the present study we have investigated the difference in three vital components of the voice - pitch, jitter, and shimmer in head and neck cancer patients and compared the findings with age matched healthy volunteers. Methods: Voice parameters were ascertained in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients and controls using voice analysis software (PRAAT and a Dynamic Unidirectional AUD-59 XLR microphone in a sound proof voice recording laboratory. Results: We observed considerable changes in the three voice indices of pitch, jitter and shimmer. According to gender, there were significant changes in all three indices for men (P<0.015 to 0.0001, whereas only pitch significantly changed in women (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The results have suggested that individuals with any form of head and neck cancer will have a degree of voice problems even before the initiation of cancer treatments. Voice assessment is a vital aspect to be considered before initiation of treatment.

  19. VOT Discrimination by Four to Six and a Half Month Old Infants from Spanish Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Robert E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Thirty infants from monolingual Spanish-speaking homes were tested for discrimination of bilabial stop consonants differing in voice onset time (VOT). Discrimination was determined by the habituation and dishabituation of the orienting reflex as indexed by cardiac deceleration. (Author/GO)

  20. 外资进入与性别就业歧视--基于倾向评分匹配估计的经验研究%The Entry of Foreign Capital and Gender Employment Discrimination:Empirical Atudy Based on the Propensity Score Matching Estimator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚大学; 吕连菊

    2014-01-01

    Based on the micro data of Chinese industrial enterprise database from 2004 to 2011, the pa-per uses propensity score matching estimation method to empirical study on the impact of foreign capital on gender employment discrimination .The results shows that the gender discrimination in employment has been in some extent intensified with the entry of foreign capitals , while alleviated without the entry;as per the indus-try, the gender discrimination , the gender discrimination in employment has been intensified with the entry of foreign capitals in the eastern region , while alleviated in the central and western regions;as per the origin area of the capitals, the gender employment discrimination has been alleviated with the entry of foreign capitals from Hong Kong , Macao and Taiwan regions , while aggravated with the entry of foreign capital from other countries and regions .Therefore , we should pay attention to gender discrimination in employment effect of for-eign entry and improve the quality of foreign investment to promote employment equity .%基于2004-2011年中国工业企业数据库的微观数据,利用倾向评分匹配估计法实证研究外资进入对性别就业歧视的影响。结果发现,外资进入的企业在一定程度上加剧了性别就业歧视,外资未进入的企业缓解了性别就业歧视。分行业看,外资进入的资本密集型企业和技术密集型企业加剧了性别就业歧视,外资进入的劳动密集型企业缓解了性别就业歧视;分地区看,东部地区外资进入的企业加剧了性别就业歧视,中西部地区外资进入的企业缓解了性别就业歧视;分来源地看,来源于港澳台地区的外资进入缓解了性别就业歧视,来源于其他国家、地区的外资进入则加剧了性别就业歧视。因此,需注意外资进入的性别就业歧视效应,提高外资进入的质量,促进就业公平。

  1. Implicit phonetic symbolism in voicing of consonants and visual lightness using Garner's speeded classification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Sachiko; Ukita, Jun; Kita, Shinichi

    2011-12-01

    The present study examines implicit phonetic symbolism which posits that arbitrary linguistic sound is related to certain aspects of characteristics of other modalities, such as color, touch, or emotion. In consonant discrimination and lightness discrimination using Garner's speeded classification paradigm, spoken sounds (voiced/voiceless consonants) and lightness of visual stimuli (black/white squares) were systematically varied to assess cross-modal interactions. Congruent audio-visual pairs (voiced consonants and black, and between voiceless consonants and white) facilitated consonant discrimination. In lightness discrimination, no congruent facilitation or congruence effect was observed. These results indicated that cross-modal interactions in implicit phonetic symbolism can be found in correlations between linguistic spoken sounds and visual lightness.

  2. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  3. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  4. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  5. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  6. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  7. Voices in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Leudar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of “hearing voices” nowadays usually count as verbal hallucinations and they indicate serious mental illness. Some are first rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and the mass media, at least in Britain, tend to present them as antecedents of impulsive violence. They are, however, also found in other psychiatric conditions and epidemiological surveys reveal that even individuals with no need of psychiatric help can hear voices, sometimes following bereavement or abuse, but sometimes for no discernible reason. So do these experiences necessarily mean insanity and violence, and must they be thought of as pathogenic hallucinations; or are there other ways to understand them and live with them, and with what consequences?One way to make our thinking more flexible is to turn to history. We find that hearing voices was always an enigmatic experience, and the people who had it were rare. The gallery of voice hearers is, though, distinguished and it includes Galilei, Bunyan and St Teresa. Socrates heard a daemon who guided his actions, but in his time this did not signify madness, nor was it described as a hallucination. Yet in 19th century French psychological medicine the daemon became a hallucination and Socrates was retrospectively diagnosed as mentally ill. This paper examines the controversies which surrounded the experience at different points in history as well as the practice of retrospective psychiatry. The conclusion reached on the basis of the historical materials is that the experience and the ontological status it is ascribed are not trans-cultural or trans-historic but situated both in history and in the contemporary conflicts.

  8. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  9. Voice over IP Security

    CERN Document Server

    Keromytis, Angelos D

    2011-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  10. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Questioning Photovoice Research: Whose Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice is an important participatory research tool for advancing health equity. Our purpose is to critically review how participant voice is promoted through the photovoice process of taking and discussing photos and adding text/captions. PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from the years 2008 to 2014 using the keywords photovoice, photonovella, photovoice and social justice, and photovoice and participatory action research. Research articles were reviewed for how participant voice was (a) analyzed, (b) exhibited in community forums, and (c) disseminated through published manuscripts. Of 21 studies, 13 described participant voice in the data analysis, 14 described participants' control over exhibiting photo-texts, seven manuscripts included a comprehensive set of photo-texts, and none described participant input on choice of manuscript photo-texts. Photovoice designs vary in the advancement of participant voice, with the least advancement occurring in manuscript publication. Future photovoice researchers should expand approaches to advancing participant voice.

  12. Voice quality of psychological origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lídia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F0, jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a ventricular band voice whereas in a controlled production he was able to use a more normal phonation process. A small corpus was recorded which included sustained vowels and short sentences in both registers. A normal speaker was also recorded in similar tasks. Annotation and extraction of parameters were made using Praat's voice report function. Application of the Hoarseness Diagram to sustained productions situates this case in the pseudo-glottic phonation region. Analysis of several different parameters related to F0, jitter, shimmer, and harmonicity revealed that the speaker with psychogenic voice was capable of controlling certain parameters (e.g. F0 maximum) but was unable to correct others such as shimmer.

  13. Articular saúde mental e relações de gênero: dar voz aos sujeitos silenciados Articulate mental health and social gender relations: giving voice to silenced subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corbi Caldas dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a experiência do sofrimento psíquico a partir de relatos de homens e mulheres usuários de serviço público de saúde do município de Araraquara (SP. Considera-se a construção social do sofrimento psíquico e, portanto, a conformação dos valores e normas de determinada sociedade e época histórica. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas com usuários do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS, homens e mulheres, analisadas sob a ótica das relações sociais de gênero e do contexto das mudanças no sistema psiquiátrico brasileiro a partir da luta antimanicomial. Conclui-se que o desafio a ser enfrentado pela sociedade brasileira contemporânea na construção de políticas públicas para saúde mental deve levar em conta questões postas pela perspectiva das relações sociais de gênero. Portanto, significa, ao incorporar o tema gênero no âmbito da saúde mental, questionar uma concepção reducionista e biologizante da saúde mental das mulheres. Verificou-se que o adoecimento psíquico feminino mantém estreita correlação com a violência contra as mulheres e a repressão sexual ainda vigente na sociedade. No que tange à vivência do adoecimento psíquico masculino, requer enfrentar a questão do estigma. Estes, ao adoecerem, são excluídos do espaço público e enfrentam maiores dificuldades de reinserção social e de reconstrução da identidade anterior.The experience of the psychological suffering based on testimonies of male and female users of a public health service in the municipality of Araraquara (SP. It is considered the social construction of the psychological suffering and, therefore, the arrangement of values and norms of a certain society and historical period. Semi-structured interviews were applied in male and female users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS. These interviews were analyzed through the perspective of social gender relations and under the context of changes at the

  14. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Oudes, M.J.; Huinck, W.J.; Acht, H. van; Graamans, K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The st

  15. Elimination of Sexual Discrimination in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小文

    2008-01-01

    Gender discrimination is a social attitude that is re- flected in language. The representation of gender discrimination in the English language has a variety of forms, and can be eliminated by vari- ous means. English teachers are supposed to observe these phenomenon, avoiding using sexual prejudical words and helping students to learn to use neuter words so that they can communicate with English native speakers effortlessly without hurting the latter. This thesis is tending to talk about the ways of removing sexism in English study.

  16. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  17. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  18. Una aproximación a las valoraciones en torno a la discriminación de género en tres medios de la prensa chilena AN APPROACH TO THE APPRAISAL OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THREE CHILEAN NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerrero González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se analiza, desde el punto de vista cualitativo, el modo cómo tres medios de prensa escrita nacional, representada por ElMercurio, La Nación y ElMostrador, construyen la representación de las valoraciones sobre el tema de la discriminación de género a propósito del caso zamudio y la Ley Antidiscriminación, a la luz de la Teoría de la Valoración (White 2004; Martin 2005; Martin y White 2005; y Martin y Rose 2007; Hood 2010; Kaplan 2004; Oteíza 2006; Oteíza y Pinuer 2012. Para tal efecto, se seleccionaron seis crónicas noticiosas aparecidas en el marco de la noticia sobre la golpiza a Daniel zamudio, en las que fue de gran importancia analizar cómo se presentaron las identidades de un nosotros no homosexual y contrario a esta tendencia sexual, frente a un ellos homosexual y/o defensor de la homosexualidad. Los hallazgos de la investigación dieron cuenta de la relevancia de las valoraciones en la prensa chilena. El Mercurio se confirma como un medio de tendencia conservadora dirigido a un nivel sociocultural alto, preocupado por las decisiones que regulan la vida en sociedad. La Nación se propone como el canal del Gobierno, ocupado en valorar las acciones del Gobierno anterior y actual. Por último, El Mostrador se posiciona como un medio más combativo, donde se transmite sin censura la discusión entre los diferentes actores sociales, que tienen cabida en este medio. En consecuencia, se trata aquí de una práctica social -el discurso de los medios de comunicación- cuyo poder es generalmente simbólico y persuasivo, donde se despliega una gama de recursos propios de los sistemas semánticos analizados.This research study analyzes, from a qualitative point of view, the manner in wich three national newspapers -El Mercurio, La Nación and ElMostrador- build the evaluation representation on the subject of gender discrimination within the context of the zamudio case and the Antidiscrimination Law, in light of

  19. Gender determination by odontometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litha; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay; Savita, J K

    2017-01-01

    Gender determination is central in establishing personal identification from human skeletal remains. The study was conducted to find out the accuracy with which gender can be determined by odontometric methods. To investigate the mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions of all the teeth of permanent dentition to find new parameters to differentiate between male and female teeth and to assess whether each type of linear measurement can be used independently in odontometric sex differentiation. The study was conducted at a dental college on a composite group of 500 individuals comprising 250 males and 250 females. Impressions of upper and lower jaws were made with alginate impression material and casts prepared with dental stone. A digital Vernier calliper was used to measure the BL and MD dimensions of all the upper teeth except the third molars. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using univariate analysis and linear stepwise discriminant function analysis to find the variables which discriminate gender significantly. The MD and BL dimensions between males and females were statistically significant. The predicted value for correct classification of gender was also statistically significant. The ability to differentiate gender in the population using stepwise discriminant functions was found to be very high with 99.8% accuracy with males showing statistically larger teeth than females. This is similar to the near 100% success in gender determination using pelvic and skull bones.

  20. Lexical frequency and voice assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, R Harald

    2006-08-01

    Acoustic duration and degree of vowel reduction are known to correlate with a word's frequency of occurrence. The present study broadens the research on the role of frequency in speech production to voice assimilation. The test case was regressive voice assimilation in Dutch. Clusters from a corpus of read speech were more often perceived as unassimilated in lower-frequency words and as either completely voiced (regressive assimilation) or, unexpectedly, as completely voiceless (progressive assimilation) in higher-frequency words. Frequency did not predict the voice classifications over and above important acoustic cues to voicing, suggesting that the frequency effects on the classifications were carried exclusively by the acoustic signal. The duration of the cluster and the period of glottal vibration during the cluster decreased while the duration of the release noises increased with frequency. This indicates that speakers reduce articulatory effort for higher-frequency words, with some acoustic cues signaling more voicing and others less voicing. A higher frequency leads not only to acoustic reduction but also to more assimilation.

  1. [Nursing education: integrating gender equity consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Shih, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Gender sensitivity influences the way a nurse handles the nursing process and can influence both patient care and public perception of the nursing profession. Nurses unaware of the influences of gender are unable to perform holistic nursing, the practice of which centers on patient-centered care. Education is essential to promote gender consciousness. Providing scenario-based education to apply gender consciousness can help nursing students integrate gender and nursing care concepts and improve nursing care quality. In addition to raising attention to this important issue, this article makes comprehensive suggestions on how to apply gender concepts in nursing education. These suggestions include requiring instructors to consider and assess their own gender consciousness in order to enhance positive gender consciousness; reviewing teaching materials to identify and remove content tainted by sexual discrimination, and emphasizing gender education in the nursing education curriculum.

  2. Voices of the Unheard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2014-01-01

    . They were in two different classes at both schools, i.e. four classes in total. The families were followed for 18 months. Formal interviews were conducted with mothers and teachers, parent-teacher conferences were recorded, participant observations were conducted in classrooms and playgrounds, afterschool...... is that Somali diaspora parents (and with special focus on mothers as these where the parents who took most responsibility in the four cases of this research) have difficulty expressing their opinions as there are structural, historical and social dynamics that create conditions in which their voices...... are silenced, or at least restricted significantly, resulting in marginalizing consequences. The focus in each article is on here-and-now interactional dynamics but in order to understand these constitutive negotiations, it is argued that the analysis must be situated in a description of the constituted...

  3. Passing on power & voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Vibeke Røn; Nielsen, Cathrine Sand

    2014-01-01

    . The education lasts for 3,5 years and the landmark of the educational model is the continuously shifts between teaching in classroom and teaching in clinical practice. Clinical teaching takes place at approved clinical placement institutions in hospitals and in the social and health care services outside...... intention of gaining knowledge about other possible ways to perform the education. The class, named the E-class, followed what in the field was named ‘an experimental educational model based on experienced-based learning’ (Nielsen et al. 2011). The experiential educational model is argued as an experiment.......aspx Higher degree of student involvement in planning as well as teaching was in the field presented as a part of ‘the overall educational approach’. In the course ‘Acute, Critical Nursing & Terminal, Palliative Care’ this was transferred into an innovative pedagogy with intend to pass on power and voice...

  4. Voice stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  5. Voice over IP

    OpenAIRE

    Mantula, Juha

    2006-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Voice over Internet Protocol -tekniikkaa ja sen tuomia mahdollisuuksia yrityselämässä. Teoriaosa käsittelee VoIP:n kannalta tärkeitä pro-tokollia ja standardeja, VoIP:n ominaisuuksia sekä esittelee erilaisia puheohjelmia, jotka käyttävät VoIP-tekniikkaa hyväkseen. Empiirinen osuus tutkii Viestintä Ky Pitkärannan Skype-ohjelman käyttöä. Työn tarkoituksena on selvittää VoIP:n hyviä ja huonoja puolia ja sitä kuinka tek-niikkaa voidaan käyttää hyväksi päivittäisessä ...

  6. SPEECH EMOTION RECOGNITION USING MODIFIED QUADRATIC DISCRIMINATION FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quadratic Discrimination Function(QDF)is commonly used in speech emotion recognition,which proceeds on the premise that the input data is normal distribution.In this Paper,we propose a transformation to normalize the emotional features,then derivate a Modified QDF(MQDF) to speech emotion recognition.Features based on prosody and voice quality are extracted and Principal Component Analysis Neural Network (PCANN) is used to reduce dimension of the feature vectors.The results show that voice quality features are effective supplement for recognition.and the method in this paper could improve the recognition ratio effectively.

  7. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  8. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous...... communication. Method Twelve subjects produced speech in 3 conditions: rote speech (weekdays), sentences in a set form, and semispontaneous speech. Subjects simultaneously performed a secondary visual discrimination task for which response times were measured. On completion of each speech task, subjects rated...... their experience on a questionnaire. Results Response times from the secondary, visual task were found to be shortest for the rote speech, longer for the semispontaneous speech, and longest for the sentences within the set framework. Principal components derived from the subjective ratings were found to be linked...

  9. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  10. [Voice-related quality of life: structure, validity and factors of the German questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanfelder, Carla; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank; Graessel, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, structure and validity of the German version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) questionnaire and its correlation to age, gender, and type of dysphonia (organic vs. functional) were assessed. Correlations of the V-RQOL result on the one hand and emotional and physical complaints on the other hand were investigated. Data were collected in 62 adult patients with dysphonia of benign origin and the following results were found: the German version of the V-RQOL questionnaire describes voice-related quality of life in one single value. Age, gender and type of dysphonia do not influence its result. Dysphonic patients present with an increased number of emotional and physical complaints when compared with normative values derived from the literature. However, not all of these complaints correlate with voice-related quality of life at a significant level.

  11. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  12. The Christian voice in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  13. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  14. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  15. Feature Extraction of Voice Segments Using Cepstral Analysis for Voice Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, P. S.; Baisakhi Chakraborty; Jaya Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Even though a lot of work has been done on areas of speech to text and vice versa or voice detection or similarity analysis of two voice samples but very less emphasis has be given to voice regeneration. General algorithms for distinct voice checking for two voice sources paved way for our endeavor in reconstructing the voice from the source voice samples provided. By utilizing these algorithms and putting further stress on the feature extraction part we tried to fabricate the source voice wi...

  16. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.

  17. Work-related voice disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny; Luciana Tironi Sanson Przysiezny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia), vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related...

  18. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  19. Gender bias in academic recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that women are underrepresented in the academic systems of many countries. Gender discrimination is one of the factors that could contribute to this phenomenon. This study considers a recent national academic recruitment campaign in Italy, examining whether women are subject to m...

  20. The Prevalence of Stuttering, Voice, and Speech-Sound Disorders in Primary School Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Reilly, Sheena

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were threefold: to report teachers' estimates of the prevalence of speech disorders (specifically, stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders); to consider correspondence between the prevalence of speech disorders and gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status; and to describe the level of support provided to…

  1. Inequality, Capabilities and Poverty in Four African Countries: Girls' Voice, Schooling, and Strategies for Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Children's adaptive preference and capabilities are considered in relation to literature on children's voice, agency and adult adaptation. Data collected for projects on gender and schooling in South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria are analysed to show how adaptation and distinctions between absolute and relative poverty are helpful in…

  2. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  3. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  4. Voice Collection under Different Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the short-time Fourier transform theory and principle of digital filtering, this paper established a mathematical model called collection of voice signal collection at different spectrum. The voice signal was a non-stationary process, while the standard Fourier transform only applied to the periodic signal, transient signals or stationary random signal. Therefore, the standard Fourier transform could not be directly used for the speech signal. By controlling the input different types and parameters, this paper analyzed the collected original voice signal spectrum with the use of MATLAB software platform. At the same time, it realized the extraction, recording and playback of the speech signal at different frequencies. Therefore, the waveforms could be displayed obviously on the graphic user interface and voice effect could be more clearly. Meanwhile, the result was verified by the hardware platforms, which consisted of TMS320VC5509A [1] chip and TLV320AIC23 voice chip. The results showed that the extraction of voice signal under different spectrum model was scientific, rational and effective.

  5. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  6. The impact of voice on speech realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Breznik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses spoken literary language and the impact of voice on speech realization. The voice consists of a sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming… The human voice is specifically the part of human sound production in which the vocal folds (vocal cords are the primary sound source. Our voice is our instrument and identity card. How does the voice (voice tone affect others and how do they respond, positively or negatively? How important is voice (voice tone in communication process? The study presents how certain individuals perceive voice. The results of the research on the relationships between the spoken word, excellent speaker, voice and description / definition / identification of specific voices done by experts in the field of speech and voice as well as non-professionals are presented. The study encompasses two focus groups. One consists of amateurs (non-specialists in the field of speech or voice who have no knowledge in this field and the other consists of professionals who work with speech or language or voice. The questions were intensified from general to specific, directly related to the topic. The purpose of such a method of questioning was to create relaxed atmosphere, promote discussion, allow participants to interact, complement, and to set up self-listening and additional comments.

  7. Gender Inequality and Role-Strained among Male Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institution, Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folami, Florence F.

    2017-01-01

    Gender discrimination remains problem in the world as a whole and unfortunately, nursing profession is not immune to this problem. Gender discrimination is rejection or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles which prevents a person from relishing full human rights. Role strain has been defined as when an individual is…

  8. Parameter Estimations for Signal Type Classification of Korean Disordered Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeoun Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many signal-typing studies have been published, they are primarily based on manual inspection and experts’ judgments of voice samples’ acoustic content. Software may be required to automatically and objectively classify pathological voices into the four signal types and to facilitate experts’ opinion formation by providing specific signal type determination criteria. This paper suggests the coefficient of normalized skewness variation (CSV, coefficient of normalized kurtosis variation (CKV, and bicoherence value (BV based on the linear predictive coding (LPC residual to categorize voice signals. Its objective is to improve the performances of acoustic parameters such as jitter, shimmer, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in signal type classification. In this study, the classification and regression tree (CART was used to estimate the performances of the acoustic, CSV, CKV, and BV parameters by using the LPC residual. In the investigation of acoustic parameters such as jitter, shimmer, and the SNR, the optimal tree generated by jitter alone yielded an average accuracy of 78.6%. When the acoustic, CSV, CKV, and BV parameters together were used to generate the decision tree, the average accuracy was 82.1%. In this case, the optimal tree formed by jitter and the BV effectively discriminated between the signal types. To perform accurate acoustic pathological voice analysis, signal type quantification is of great interest. Automatic pathological voice classification can be an important objective tool as the signal type can be numerically measured. Future investigations will incorporate multiple pathological data in classification methods to improve their performance and implement more reliable detectors.

  9. My Views on Gender Issues in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    I once believed that gender discrimination was not a major issue in China, compared with many other countries. With so many other problems demanding urgent solutions (e.g. poverty, environmental pollution), working on gender issues was like "gilding the lily"—it was simply a luxury for China at the present stage. My failure to realize the seriousness of the gender problem China derived from at least two aspects. First, Chinese traditional culture emphasizes balance of yin

  10. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Analyzing the developments which have characterized EU gender equality policies and women's transnational activism since the introduction of multiple discrimination policies in the 1990s, this book identifies two interrelated challenges: diversity of women's interests, and degendering of policies....... Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...

  11. L’usage des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales en Belgique : une perspective de genre The use of racial antidiscrimination laws in Belgium:a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Carles-Berkowitz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de l’article est d’évaluer l’effectivité des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales à partir du point de vue du sujet et dans une perspective de genre. L’hypothèse principale est que les femmes et les hommes utilisent le droit de manière différente lorsqu’ils sont confrontés à une discrimination raciale, parce qu’ils développent différentes représentations du droit et ont des expériences différenciées de la discrimination.  L’usage ou le non-usage du droit dépend également de l’identité personnelle et sociale que la personne entend se construire. Pour le démontrer, nous nous appuierons sur des méthodes quantitatives (analyse de la jurisprudence et de dossiers de plainte et qualitatives (entretiens avec des juristes et des plaignants. Les différences par genre seront analysées à trois niveaux : celui de l’expérience différenciée de la discrimination raciale, celui de l’utilisation des ressources, celui enfin, des motivations du recours au droit.

  12. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically stronger. The mortality and morbidity indicators are unfavourable to the females. Maternal mortality in developing countries including India is unacceptably high. There is a failure of achievement of Millennium Development Goals in relation to maternal mortality and gender equality and empowerment of women. Crime against women is increasing. Violence is domestic or at workplace or occurring in public places. Social factors like male dominance and subordinate status of women make them vulnerable to unfair treatment, discrimination, denial of basic human rights to survival, education, health, inheritance, etc. The preventive measures in the form of education of masses for effective change in behaviour against gender discrimination, provision of facilities for achieving gender equality, and legislative measures for controlling violence against women at domestic and public level need intensification to achieve social justice of gender equality.

  13. Discrimination-Aware Classifiers for Student Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ling; Koprinska, Irena; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider discrimination-aware classification of educational data. Mining and using rules that distinguish groups of students based on sensitive attributes such as gender and nationality may lead to discrimination. It is desirable to keep the sensitive attributes during the training of a classifier to avoid information loss but…

  14. Employment Discrimination against LGBT People: Existence and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Although various authorities have found that sexual orientation and gender identity have no relationship to workplace performance, during the past four decades a large body of research using a variety of methodologies has consistently documented high levels of discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people at work. This chapter reviews recent research regarding such discrimination as well as regarding the effects of such discrimination on LGBT people. The latter ...

  15. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  16. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination. PMID:27647943

  17. Mechanics of human voice production and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed. PMID:27794319

  18. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  19. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  20. Voicing the Technological Body. Some Musicological Reflections on Combinations of Voice and Technology in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heesch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with interrelations of voice, body and technology in popular music from a musicological perspective. It is an attempt to outline a systematic approach to the history of music technology with regard to aesthetic aspects, taking the identity of the singing subject as a main point of departure for a hermeneutic reading of popular song. Although the argumentation is based largely on musicological research, it is also inspired by the notion of presentness as developed by theologian and media scholar Walter Ong. The variety of the relationships between voice, body, and technology with regard to musical representations of identity, in particular gender and race, is systematized alongside the following cagories: (1 the “absence of the body,” that starts with the establishment of phonography; (2 “amplified presence,” as a signifier for uses of the microphone to enhance low sounds in certain manners; and (3 “hybridity,” including vocal identities that blend human body sounds and technological processing, whereby special focus is laid on uses of the vocoder and similar technologies.

  1. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  2. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  3. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2015-01-01

    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  4. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  5. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  6. Human voice recognition depends on language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Gabrieli, John D E

    2011-07-29

    The ability to recognize people by their voice is an important social behavior. Individuals differ in how they pronounce words, and listeners may take advantage of language-specific knowledge of speech phonology to facilitate recognizing voices. Impaired phonological processing is characteristic of dyslexia and thought to be a basis for difficulty in learning to read. We tested voice-recognition abilities of dyslexic and control listeners for voices speaking listeners' native language or an unfamiliar language. Individuals with dyslexia exhibited impaired voice-recognition abilities compared with controls only for voices speaking their native language. These results demonstrate the importance of linguistic representations for voice recognition. Humans appear to identify voices by making comparisons between talkers' pronunciations of words and listeners' stored abstract representations of the sounds in those words.

  7. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...

  8. Introduction: Textual and contextual voices of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...

  9. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender equality is…

  10. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  11. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  12. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  13. Voicing Consciousness: The Mind in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Catlin, Susan; Sumara, Dennis; Kocher, Philomene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the enduring power of voice as a concept in writing pedagogy. They argue that one can benefit from considering Elbow's assertion that both text and voice be considered as important aspects of written discourse. In particular, voice is a powerful metaphor for the material, social and historical nature of…

  14. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2016-07-20

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  16. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  17. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method o...... of analysis of the mediated voice...

  18. Analyzing the mediated voice - a datasession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    Broadcasted voices are technologically manipulated. In order to achieve a certain autencity or sound of “reality” paradoxically the voices are filtered and trained in order to reach the listeners. This “mis-en-scene” is important knowledge when it comes to the development of a consistent method...... of analysis of the mediated voice...

  19. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  20. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool for non...... for nonverbal orientation and information both to our selves and others. Focus on training on the voice instrument, the effect and impact of the human voice, and listening perspectives...

  1. Reliability of speaking and maximum voice range measures in screening for dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella; Robertson, Jennie; Radford, Claire; Vagne, Sarah; El-Halabi, Ruba; Yiu, Edwin

    2007-07-01

    Speech range profile (SRP) is a graphical display of frequency-intensity occurring interactions during functional speech activity. Few studies have suggested the potential clinical applications of SRP. However, these studies are limited to qualitative case comparisons and vocally healthy participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of voice disorders on speaking and maximum voice ranges in a group of vocally untrained women. It also aimed to examine whether voice limit measures derived from SRP were as sensitive as those derived from voice range profile (VRP) in distinguishing dysphonic from healthy voices. Ninety dysphonic women with laryngeal pathologies and 35 women with normal voices, who served as controls, participated in this study. Each subject recorded a VRP for her physiological vocal limits. In addition, each subject read aloud the "North Wind and the Sun" passage to record SRP. All the recordings were captured and analyzed by Soundswell's computerized real-time phonetogram Phog 1.0 (Hitech Development AB, Täby, Sweden). The SRPs and the VRPs were compared between the two groups of subjects. Univariate analysis results demonstrated that individual SRP measures were less sensitive than the corresponding VRP measures in discriminating dysphonic from normal voices. However, stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed that the combination of only two SRP measures was almost as effective as a combination of three VRP measures in predicting the presence of dysphonia (overall prediction accuracy: 93.6% for SRP vs 96.0% for VRP). These results suggest that in a busy clinic where quick voice screening results are desirable, SRP can be an acceptable alternate procedure to VRP.

  2. Voice, space and gender in youth cultures at school

    OpenAIRE

    Tolonen, Tarja

    2001-01-01

    Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Statsvetenskapliga biblioteket (Unionsgatan 35). Dessa avhandlingar fjÀrrutlånas endast som microfiche. Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Library of Social Sciences (Unioninkatu 35) . Microfiche copies of these theses are available for interlibrary loans. Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden sidotut arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa ...

  3. Investigation and Research on Gender Discrimination in Employment of College Students:A Case Study of Shaanxi Province%对大学生就业中性别歧视问题的调查研究--以陕西省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝安迪; 曲峡; 张冬敏

    2016-01-01

    在中国高等教育大众化,大学扩招的背景下,高校毕业生急剧增加,就业成为高校毕业生面临的首要问题,而在大学生就业过程中,女大学生就业中的性别歧视问题尤为突出,成为社会关注的焦点。本文通过对大学生、企业、高校三方面对女大学生就业性别歧视问题进行调研,结合国内外文献研究成果,系统分析女大学生就业性别歧视问题的成因、现状及影响,并在此基础上从高校、用人单位、政府和女大学生自身等方面提出对策建议。%With the popularization of higher education and expansion of college enrollment, a sharp increase in the number of college graduates, employment has become the first issue for college graduates. In the process of employment of college students, the gender discrimination against female undergraduates' employment was a especially serious problem, which has become the focus of public attention. By investigation of college students, universities and enterprises on gender discrimination problem, referring to the results of home and abroad, we systematically analyzed the causes, state and effect. Then based on those, we make recommendations from the following aspects:university, employer, government and female undergraduates.

  4. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  5. Improvement of Tone Intelligibility for Average-Voice-Based Thai Speech Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tone intelligibility in speech synthesis is an important attribute that should be taken into account. The tone correctness of the synthetic speech is degraded considerably in the average-voice-based HMM-based Thai speech synthesis. The tying mechanism in the decision tree based context clustering without appropriate criterion causes unexpected tone neutralization. Incorporation of the phrase intonation to the context clustering process in the training stage was proposed early. However, the tone correctness is not satisfied. Approach: This study proposes a number of tonal features including tone-geometrical features and phrase intonation features to be exploited in the context clustering process of HMM training stage. Results: In the experiments, subjective evaluations of both average voice and adapted voice in terms of the intelligibility of tone are conducted. Effects on decision trees of the extracted features are also evaluated. By considering gender in training speech, two core experiments were conducted. The first experiment shows that the proposed tonal features can improve the tone intelligibility for female speech model above that of male speech model, while the second experiment shows that the proposed tonal features improve the tone intelligibility for gender dependent model than for gender independent model. Conclusion: All of the experimental results confirm that the tone correctness of the synthesized speech from the average-voice-based HMM-based Thai speech synthesis is significantly improved when using most of the extracted features.

  6. Transgender women and the sex work industry: roots in systemic, institutional, and interpersonal discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L; Davidoff, Kristin C; Fujii-Doe, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Because transgender people face discrimination on systemic, institutional, and interpersonal levels, the previous literature has supported that many transgender women view the sex work industry as their only viable career option. The current article reviews the literature on discrimination against transgender people, explores how discrimination influences their participation in sex work, and discusses how institutional discrimination against transgender women manifests within the criminal justice system. Furthermore, recommendations are provided for advocating for the rights of transgender people while promoting healthy behaviors and higher quality of life. Throughout the article, quotes from previous qualitative research are used to illustrate the experiences of transgender women through their own voices and perspectives.

  7. [Gender in view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  8. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  9. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  10. 7 CFR 771.7 - Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, gender, or other prohibited... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements... opportunity and non-discrimination requirements. No recipient of a boll weevil eradication loan shall...

  11. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…

  12. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3…

  13. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…

  14. Voice-Specialized Speech-Language Pathologist's Criteria for Discharge from Voice Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda I; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2017-08-07

    No standard protocol exists to determine when a patient is ready and able to be discharged from voice therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine what factors speech-language pathologists (SLPs) deem most important when discharging a patient from voice therapy. A second aim was to determine if responses differed based on years of voice experience. Step 1: Seven voice-specialized SLPs generated a list of items thought to be relevant to voice therapy discharge. Step 2: Fifty voice-specialized SLPs rated each item on the list in terms of importance in determining discharge from voice therapy. Step 1: Four themes emerged-outcome measures, laryngeal appearance, SLP perceptions, and patient factors-as important items when determining discharge from voice therapy. Step 2: The top five most important criteria for discharge readiness were that the patient had to be able to (1) independently use a better voice (transfer), (2) function with his or her new voice production in activities of daily living (transfer), (3) differentiate between good and bad voice, (4) take responsibility for voice, and (5) sound better from baseline. Novice and experienced clinicians agreed between 94% and 97% concerning what was deemed "very important." SLPs agree that a patient's ability to use voice techniques in conversation and real-life situations outside of the therapy room are the most important determinants for voice therapy discharge. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GOVERNING GENDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese women are starting to have a stronger voice in politics, but the female leadership gap might widen in the years ahead When Duan Liqing, a female member of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, walked into Beijng's Great Hall of the People for the annual congress this year, on her mind was a proposal to equalize the retirement

  16. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    .... We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices...

  17. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  18. Risk Factors And Quality Of Life Of Adult Patients With Chronic Voice Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. El-Moselhy, Y. A. Barka, E. S. Abd-Allah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to determine the common causes of chronic voice disorders, to determine the sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors for patients with chronic voice disorders and to study the QOL of them. The ORL Outpatient Clinics, Al-Azhar University hospitals were chosen to carry out this study. A total of 495 patients with chronic voice disorders and a control group of the same number were enrolled in the study. A case-control, hospital based study design was used. The most common causes of chronic voice disorders among these patients were chronic laryngitis (35.6%, vocal fold nodules (22.6%, functional dysphonia (18.6% and vocal fold polyps (13.5%. The 25-44 years age group, low social class, sale man occupation, urban residence and female gender were the most important significant sociodemographic risk factors for patients with chronic voice disorders (ORs= 4.17, 2.01, 1.71, 1.60 and 1.32, respectively. The +ve reflux symptoms index, voice abuse and smoking were an important significant clinical risk factors (ORs=16.94, 8.33 and 6.01, respectively. Also, patients with chronic voice disorders had a significantly poorer self-reported health related domain scores than the controls on all eight SF-36 domains (P=0.00. Moreover, patients with chronic voice disorders due to different laryngeal diseases had a significantly poorer self-reported health related domain scores than the controls on all eight SF-36 domains except in the miscellaneous diseases group.

  19. Postoperative functional voice changes after conventional open or robotic thyroidectomy: a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghun; Na, Kuk Young; Kim, Ra Mi; Oh, Yeonju; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jandee; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Chul-Ho; Soh, Euy-Young; Chung, Woong Youn

    2012-09-01

    To use objective and subjective voice function analysis to compare outcomes in patients who had undergone conventional open thyroidectomy or robotic thyroidectomy. The study involved 88 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid surgery between May 2009 and December 2009; 46 patients underwent a conventional open thyroidectomy, and 42 underwent a robotic thyroidectomy. Auditory perceptual evaluation was used to make subjective assessments of voice function, and videolaryngostroboscopy, acoustic voice analysis with aerodynamic study, electroglottography, and voice range profile were used to make objective assessments. Each assessment was made before surgery, and at 1 week and 3 months after surgery. The conventional open and robotic thyroidectomy groups were similar in terms of age, gender ratio, and disease profile. We found that 18 (20.5%) of the 88 patients showed some level of voice dysfunction at 1 week after surgery; that the dysfunction resolved by 3 months after surgery in all cases; and that it was not permanent according to postoperative videolaryngostroboscopy. The conventional open and robotic thyroidectomy groups were found to have similar levels of dysfunction at 1 week after surgery, except for jitter, which was greater in the robotic group. For both groups, any such dysfunction spontaneously resolved by 3 months after surgery, and there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of any voice function parameter. Voice dysfunction was present after both open and robotic thyroidectomy (without any evident laryngeal nerve injury). However, function subsequently normalized to preoperative levels at 3 months after surgery in both groups. Voice function outcomes after robotic thyroidectomy are similar to those after conventional open thyroidectomy.

  20. Enhanced syllable discrimination thresholds in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zuk

    Full Text Available Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities.