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Sample records for voice fundamental frequency

  1. Two-voice fundamental frequency estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cheveigné, Alain

    2002-05-01

    An algorithm is presented that estimates the fundamental frequencies of two concurrent voices or instruments. The algorithm models each voice as a periodic function of time, and jointly estimates both periods by cancellation according to a previously proposed method [de Cheveigné and Kawahara, Speech Commun. 27, 175-185 (1999)]. The new algorithm improves on the old in several respects; it allows an unrestricted search range, effectively avoids harmonic and subharmonic errors, is more accurate (it uses two-dimensional parabolic interpolation), and is computationally less costly. It remains subject to unavoidable errors when periods are in certain simple ratios and the task is inherently ambiguous. The algorithm is evaluated on a small database including speech, singing voice, and instrumental sounds. It can be extended in several ways; to decide the number of voices, to handle amplitude variations, and to estimate more than two voices (at the expense of increased processing cost and decreased reliability). It makes no use of instrument models, learned or otherwise, although it could usefully be combined with such models. [Work supported by the Cognitique programme of the French Ministry of Research and Technology.

  2. Fundamental frequency estimation of singing voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cheveigné, Alain; Henrich, Nathalie

    2002-05-01

    A method of fundamental frequency (F0) estimation recently developped for speech [de Cheveigné and Kawahara, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published)] was applied to singing voice. An electroglottograph signal recorded together with the microphone provided a reference by which estimates could be validated. Using standard parameter settings as for speech, error rates were low despite the wide range of F0s (about 100 to 1600 Hz). Most ``errors'' were due to irregular vibration of the vocal folds, a sharp formant resonance that reduced the waveform to a single harmonic, or fast F0 changes such as in high-amplitude vibrato. Our database (18 singers from baritone to soprano) included examples of diphonic singing for which melody is carried by variations of the frequency of a narrow formant rather than F0. Varying a parameter (ratio of inharmonic to total power) the algorithm could be tuned to follow either frequency. Although the method has not been formally tested on a wide range of instruments, it seems appropriate for musical applications because it is accurate, accepts a wide range of F0s, and can be implemented with low latency for interactive applications. [Work supported by the Cognitique programme of the French Ministry of Research and Technology.

  3. Influence of orthognathic surgery on voice fundamental frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Tatiane M; Brasolotto, Alcione G; Gonçales, Eduardo S; Filho, Hugo Nary; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2009-01-01

    Considering that orthognathic surgery promotes changes in orofacial structures constituting the resonating system, functional changes secondary to surgery are expected to affect speech, leading to the need for further speech and voice adjustments. Thus, understanding the possible relationships of these structures with voice production is important. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the changes in voice fundamental frequency of a patient submitted to orthognathic surgery and observe if there is a relationship with hyoid bone positioning at the different treatment periods. The results revealed that voice fundamental frequency increased after surgery, returning to values close to the preoperative condition, which corresponded to vertical movement of the hyoid bone.

  4. Control of voice fundamental frequency in speaking versus singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natke, Ulrich; Donath, Thomas M.; Kalveram, Karl Th.

    2003-03-01

    In order to investigate control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) in speaking and singing, 24 adults had to utter the nonsense word ['ta:tatas] repeatedly, while in selected trials their auditory feedback was frequency-shifted by 100 cents downwards. In the speaking condition the target speech rate and prosodic pattern were indicated by a rhythmic sequence made of white noise. In the singing condition the sequence consisted of piano notes, and subjects were instructed to match the pitch of the notes. In both conditions a response in voice F0 begins with a latency of about 150 ms. As predicted, response magnitude is greater in the singing condition (66 cents) than in the speaking condition (47 cents). Furthermore the singing condition seems to prolong the after-effect which is a continuation of the response in trials after the frequency shift. In the singing condition, response magnitude and the ability to match the target F0 correlate significantly. Results support the view that in speaking voice F0 is monitored mainly supra-segmentally and controlled less tightly than in singing.

  5. Influences of Fundamental Frequency, Formant Frequencies, Aperiodicity, and Spectrum Level on the Perception of Voice Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuk, Verena G.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative importance of acoustic parameters (fundamental frequency [F0], formant frequencies [FFs], aperiodicity, and spectrum level [SL]) on voice gender perception, the authors used a novel parameter-morphing approach that, unlike spectral envelope shifting, allows the application of nonuniform scale factors to transform…

  6. Effects of frequency-modulated auditory tones on the voice fundamental frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, S; McClean, M D; Luschei, E S

    1983-03-01

    The sensitivity of audio-laryngeal reflex pathways to sinusoidal changes in the fundamental frequency of complex auditory tones (AF0) was assessed indirectly in three young adult human subjects. The subjects sustained phonation at constant voice fundamental frequency (VF0) and voice intensity while listening to a sawtooth tone whose AF0 varied over time in a sinusoidal fashion (rates = 5-13 Hz). The subjects phonated at a low voice intensity so that the intensity of the auditory tone (80-85 dB SL) completely masked their voice. Using computer signal averaging and Fourier analysis techniques it was found that the sinusoidally modulated AF0 induced similar modulations in the VF0 signal. The VF0 modulations were extremely small in amplitude and showed large phase shifts relative to the auditory input. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of auditory feedback in phonatory control.

  7. Reflexive and volitional voice fundamental frequency responses to an anticipated feedback pitch error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Theresa A; McCurdy, Katie E; Bright, Jessica C

    2008-11-01

    The pitch-shift reflex is a corrective voice fundamental frequency (F0) response triggered by a sudden shift or "error" in auditory feedback pitch. We investigated how anticipating a voice pitch error affects the pitch-shift reflex and volitional voice F0 responses. Adults sustained the vowel/u/at a comfortable pitch and pressed a button to deliver a 100 cent, 100 ms auditory feedback pitch shift immediately or after a random delay. Pitch shift direction was either constant (up) or randomized (up or down). Onset anticipation often resulted in an anticipatory voice F0 change, but stimulus direction predictability did not affect the responses. When pitch error onset and direction were both anticipated, some participants produced an ideomotor voice F0 change that partially imitated the error, but they produced no apparent pitch-shift reflex. Results imply that when voice pitch errors are anticipated, volitional voice F0 responses may reduce or enhance voice F0 stability.

  8. Fundamental Frequency and Formants Before and After Prolonged Voice Use in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Ariane Damasceno; Fontes, Alice Ramos; Santos, Francisco Flavio; Pellicani, Aline Damasceno; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto

    2017-06-20

    This study aimed to describe and correlate the fundamental frequency behavior and the first four formants before and after exposure to usual and routinely prolonged voice use from teachers with over 4 years of experience in teaching. The study design is observational and transversal with quantitative and descriptive evaluations. A total of 28 female teachers were subjected to the Screening Index for Voice Disorder (SIVD) and to recordings of the sustained vowel /a/ before and after exposure to prolonged voice use. Data were obtained about the fundamental frequency and the first four formants before and after voice use. Descriptive analysis and statistical processing were performed with P ≤ 0.05 for the general sample and in groups according to the outcome of the SIVD (normal and altered) and the evaluation period (morning or afternoon). The average exposure time to prolonged voice use was 176 minutes. There was no statistical difference in any of the variables studied. Correlations were positive and similar across all assessments before the class, something not observed in evaluations conducted after exposure to prolonged voice use. In the general sample, altered SIVD and afternoon period groups, the second formant from before-class measurements seems to interfere negatively in the fourth formant from after-class measurements. There were no changes in vocal behavior before and after exposure to prolonged voice use in the occupational environment. However, formants F1 and F2 measured before class correlated inversely with F4 after exposure to prolonged voice use. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tactile presentation of voice fundamental frequency as an aid to the perception of speech pattern contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnath-Chisolm, T; Kishon-Rabin, L

    1988-12-01

    The perception of initial consonant voicing, final consonant voicing, pitch change, and word stress, was measured in six normal subjects, by speechreading alone, by tactile transmission of fundamental voice frequency alone, and by the two in combination. Two tactile displays were used: a single-channel (temporal) display and a 16-channel (spatial) display. By speechreading alone, all contrasts except initial consonant voicing were partially perceptible. By both tactile aids alone, all four contrasts were partially perceptable. The addition of tactile input to speechreading provided better performance than that obtained by speechreading alone. The multichannel display was found to be significantly more effective than the single-channel for perception of pitch rise/fall only.

  10. Multimodal standardization of voice among four multicultural populations: fundamental frequency and spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianopoulos, A V; Darrow, K N; Chen, J

    2001-06-01

    A stratified random sample of 20 males and 20 females matched for physiological factors and cultural-linguistic markers were examined to determine differences in fundamental frequency and spectral characteristics during prolongation of three vowels: [a], [i], and [u]. The ethnic-gender breakdown included four sets of five male and five female subjects comprised of Caucasian and African-American speakers of standard American English, native Hindi Indian speakers, and native Mandarin Chinese speakers. Acoustic measures were analyzed using the Multidimensional Voice Program (Kay Elemetrics, Lincoln Park, NJ) (Model 4305) from which fundamental frequency and associated acoustic spectra were extracted from a 200-ms sample of each vowel token. Statistically significant group differences for the main effects of culture, race, and gender were found. The acoustic differences found are attributed to biomechanical, physiological, cultural, and linguistic factors.

  11. Variability in voice fundamental frequency of sustained vowels in speakers with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, the low-frequency modulation extent (LFP) of the vocal fundamental frequency (F(0)) showed a significant increase in the presence of binaural noise masking for the healthy individuals. This study was to investigate the F(0) of subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using sustained phonations to explore the changes of F(0) modulations in SNHL. Twenty-three SNHL subjects and 14 age-matched subjects without hearing loss were enrolled in the study. Sustained vocalizations of vowel /a/ for more than 5 seconds were digitally recorded. The F(0) contour of each phonation was acquired using digital signal processing. The modulation extent at different frequencies was obtained using Fourier transformation of F(0) contour. The LFP of F(0) (Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequential stream segregation of voiced and unvoiced speech sounds based on fundamental frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Differences in fundamental frequency (F0) between voiced sounds are known to be a strong cue for stream segregation. However, speech consists of both voiced and unvoiced sounds, and less is known about whether and how the unvoiced portions are segregated. This study measured listeners' ability to integrate or segregate sequences of consonant-vowel tokens, comprising a voiceless fricative and a vowel, as a function of the F0 difference between interleaved sequences of tokens. A performance-based measure was used, in which listeners detected the presence of a repeated token either within one sequence or between the two sequences (measures of voluntary and obligatory streaming, respectively). The results showed a systematic increase of voluntary stream segregation as the F0 difference between the two interleaved sequences increased from 0 to 13 semitones, suggesting that F0 differences allowed listeners to segregate speech sounds, including the unvoiced portions. In contrast to the consistent effects of voluntary streaming, the trend towards obligatory stream segregation at large F0 differences failed to reach significance. Listeners were no longer able to perform the voluntary-streaming task reliably when the unvoiced portions were removed from the stimuli, suggesting that the unvoiced portions were used and correctly segregated in the original task. The results demonstrate that streaming based on F0 differences occurs for natural speech sounds, and that the unvoiced portions are correctly assigned to the corresponding voiced portions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Voice training and changing weight--are they reflected in speaking fundamental frequency, voice range, and pitch breaks of 13-year-old girls? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth C; Kenny, Dianna T

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of the voice-change progress of 20 girls (12-13 years) over 1 year by observing changes in speaking fundamental frequency (SFo), voice range, and register pitch breaks in the context of weight, height, voice training, and self-perception. One-year longitudinal collective case study. Twenty girls were recorded at the beginning and end of a year; nine girls were recorded another three times. SFo, vocal range, and characteristics were analyzed and interactions between these data assessed against weight and height to indicate pubertal development, and to test the hypothesis that changes in weight, height, SFo, and pitch breaks were related. Effects of training and the girls' self-perception of their voice use were also assessed. Vocal characteristics changed as the girls passed through different weight ranges. During 47.5-52.4 kg (called band 2) and 52.4-57.5 kg (band 3), there was progressive contraction of vocal range and in some girls a slight rise in SFo between recording times 1 and 5. Both high- and low-pitch breaks were present in 45% of girls' voices. Girls in band 4 (pitch breaks in vocal-range areas that indicated the development of adult vocal registers. In this study, voice-trained girls were heavier, had higher SFo, used wider speech-range inflection, had a higher vocal range, and greater voice-use confidence; all girls lost confidence in their voice use over the year. In this longitudinal study of twenty 13-year-old girls, voice changes in SFo, vocal range, and pitch-break frequency were synchronous with certain weight ranges. Girls with training registered higher maximum phonational frequency and were more confident in their voice use than girls without training. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variations in Intensity, Fundamental Frequency, and Voicing for Teachers in Occupational Versus Non-Occupational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study creates a more concise picture of the vocal demands placed on teachers by comparing occupational voice use with non-occupational voice use. Methods The National Center for Voice and Speech voice dosimetry databank was used to calculate voicing percentage per hour, as well as average dB SPL and F0. Occupational voice use (9am-3 PM, weekdays) and non-occupational voice use (4 PM-10 PM, weekends) were compared (57 teachers, two weeks each). Results Five key findings were uncovered: [1] similar to previous studies, occupational voicing percentage per hour is more than twice that of non-occupational; [2] teachers experienced a wide range of occupational voicing percentages per hour (30±11%/hr); [3] average occupational voice was about 1 dB SPL louder than the non-occupational voice and remained constant throughout the day; [4] occupational voice exhibited an increased pitch and trended upward throughout the day; [5] some apparent gender differences were shown. Conclusions Data regarding voicing percentages, F0 and dB SPL provide critical insight into teachers’ vocal health. Further, because non-occupational voice use is added to an already overloaded voice, it may add key insights into recovery patterns, and should be the focus of future studies. PMID:20689046

  15. Seven and up: individual differences in male voice fundamental frequency emerge before puberty and remain stable throughout adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Meddy; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Mathevon, Nicolas; Reby, David

    2016-10-01

    Voice pitch (the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency, F0) varies considerably even among individuals of the same sex and age, communicating a host of socially and evolutionarily relevant information. However, due to the almost exclusive utilization of cross-sectional designs in previous studies, it remains unknown whether these individual differences in voice pitch emerge before, during or after sexual maturation, and whether voice pitch remains stable into adulthood. Here, we measured the F0 parameters of men who were recorded once every 7 years from age 7 to 56 as they participated in the British television documentary Up Series. Linear mixed models revealed significant effects of age on all F0 parameters, wherein F0 mean, minimum, maximum and the standard deviation of F0 showed sharp pubertal decreases between age 7 and 21, yet remained remarkably stable after age 28. Critically, men's pre-pubertal F0 at age 7 strongly predicted their F0 at every subsequent adult age, explaining up to 64% of the variance in post-pubertal F0. This finding suggests that between-individual differences in voice pitch that are known to play an important role in men's reproductive success are in fact largely determined by age 7, and may therefore be linked to prenatal and/or pre-pubertal androgen exposure.

  16. Relationship between weight, speaking fundamental frequency, and the appearance of phonational gaps in the adolescent male changing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth C; Kenny, Dianna T

    2008-07-01

    This 12-month prospective longitudinal study used acoustic analysis to identify phonational gaps in the vocal range of adolescent boys undergoing voice change and to investigate the relationship between the appearance of phonational gaps, weight gain, and changes in speaking fundamental frequency (SF0). Eighteen pubescent boys were recorded producing three descending and three ascending glides over their physiological voice range using the vowel "ah." Recordings were digitized over the range 0-16 kHz and then analyzed to determine both the frequency range and appearance and frequency characteristics of the phonational gaps. Data were plotted against changes in weight and SF0 both as an indicator of pubertal development and to test the hypothesis that changes in weight and SF0 were related to the appearance of phonational gaps. Results indicated that minimum F0 decreased significantly over the time period and phonational gaps increased significantly, but there were no significant changes in maximum F0 or range. Individual data indicated the initial appearance of a lower-frequency gap followed by a higher-frequency gap before the long-term establishment of a midrange gap. At time 5, all boys in the weight range 42.7-44.9 kg had either low- or high-range gaps. The SF0 for this group varied from 117 to 216 Hz. All boys heavier than 54.8 kg had highly variable phonational gaps. SF0 range for this group was 99.5-151 Hz. Transitory low- then high-frequency phonational gaps appeared before the establishment of a midrange phonational gap. In this study, these phonational gaps were associated with certain weight ranges and rapid weight gain, with changes to boys' speaking voices, and with loss of ability to use the mid- and falsetto vocal range.

  17. Instantaneous Fundamental Frequency Estimation with Optimal Segmentation for Nonstationary Voiced Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In speech processing, the speech is often considered stationary within segments of 20–30 ms even though it is well known not to be true. In this paper, we take the non-stationarity of voiced speech into account by using a linear chirp model to describe the speech signal. We propose a maximum like...... of the chirp model than the harmonic model to the speech signal. The methods are based on an assumption of white Gaussian noise, and, therefore, two prewhitening filters are also proposed....

  18. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  19. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  20. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda......Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate...... the fundamental frequency, and the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is the most accurate estimator in statistical terms. When the noise is assumed to be white and Gaussian, the ML estimator is identical to the non-linear least squares (NLS) estimator. Despite being optimal in a statistical sense, the NLS...... estimator has a high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for lowering this complexity significantly by showing that the NLS estimator can be computed efficiently by solving two Toeplitz-plus-Hankel systems of equations and by exploiting the recursive-in-order matrix structures...

  1. Predicting fundamental frequency from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients to enable speech reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xu; Milner, Ben

    2005-08-01

    This work proposes a method to reconstruct an acoustic speech signal solely from a stream of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) as may be encountered in a distributed speech recognition (DSR) system. Previous methods for speech reconstruction have required, in addition to the MFCC vectors, fundamental frequency and voicing components. In this work the voicing classification and fundamental frequency are predicted from the MFCC vectors themselves using two maximum a posteriori (MAP) methods. The first method enables fundamental frequency prediction by modeling the joint density of MFCCs and fundamental frequency using a single Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The second scheme uses a set of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to link together a set of state-dependent GMMs, which enables a more localized modeling of the joint density of MFCCs and fundamental frequency. Experimental results on speaker-independent male and female speech show that accurate voicing classification and fundamental frequency prediction is attained when compared to hand-corrected reference fundamental frequency measurements. The use of the predicted fundamental frequency and voicing for speech reconstruction is shown to give very similar speech quality to that obtained using the reference fundamental frequency and voicing.

  2. Effects of age on the amplitude, frequency and perceived quality of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Thibeault, Mélanie; Guitton, Matthieu J; Tremblay, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    The manner and extent to which voice amplitude and frequency control mechanisms change with age is not well understood. The related question of whether the assessment of one's own voice evolves with age, concomitant with the acoustical changes that the voice undergoes, also remains unanswered. In the present study, we characterized the aging of voice production mechanisms (amplitude, frequency), compared the aging voice in different experimental contexts (vowel utterance, connected speech) and examined the relationship between voice self-assessment and age-related voice acoustical changes. Eighty healthy adults (20 to 75 years old) participated in the study, which involved computation of several acoustical measures of voice (including measures of fundamental frequency, voice amplitude, and stability) as well as self-assessments of voice. Because depression is frequent in older adults, depression and anxiety scores were also measured. As was expected, analyses revealed age effects on most acoustical measures. However, there was no interaction between age and the ability to produce high/low voice amplitude/frequency, suggesting that voice amplitude and frequency control mechanisms are preserved in aging. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between age and voice self-assessment was moderated by depression and anxiety scores. Taken together, these results reveal that while voice production undergoes important changes throughout aging, the ability to increase/decrease the amplitude and frequency of voice are preserved, at least within the age range studied, and that depression and anxiety scores have a stronger impact on perceived voice quality than acoustical changes themselves.

  3. Speaking fundamental frequency characteristics of institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M J; Gilbert, H R

    1978-11-01

    Mean speaking fundamental frequency was obtained from 16 institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome (8 males, 8 females) and from 16 nonretarded adults of similar age and sex. Both male and female adults with Down's syndrome exhibited a higher mean speaking fundamental frequency than did the nonretarded adults of the same sex. This finding does not support early reports of a characteristically low-pitched voice among Down's syndrome individuals.

  4. Implicações do efeito Lombard sobre a intensidade, freqüência fundamental e estabilidade da voz de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson Lombard's effect's implication in intensity, fundamental frequency and stability on the voice of individuals with Parkinson's disease

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    Araken Quedas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Parkinson afeta o sistema nervoso central resultando em alterações qualitativas da voz que pouco melhoram com o tratamento farmacológico e com a fonoterapia tradicional. Estudos mostram que o mascaramento auditivo leva ao aumento da intensidade da voz em indivíduos normais (Efeito Lombard. OBJETIVO: Avaliar implicações do efeito Lombard sobre a intensidade, freqüência fundamental e estabilidade da voz de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson (N=17. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo clínico e experimental. Material e Métodos: Através de análise acústica, avaliamos as alterações de intensidade e freqüência fundamental, antes e depois da exposição a mascaramento auditivo "white noise", em 40, 70 e 90 dBNS, bem como as variações durante cada emissão e comparamos com um grupo controle (N=16. RESUTADOS: A intensidade de emissão vocal variou de acordo com a intensidade de mascaramento, tendendo a aumento não-linear, ocorrendo também nos grupos Parkinson e controle, não sendo influenciado pelo sexo. A freqüência fundamental da emissão vocal variou, tendendo a aumento não-linear, em ambos os grupos e sexos. Ocorreu melhora da estabilidade, tanto com relação à freqüência quanto à intensidade de emissão vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O Efeito Lombard elevou a intensidade e freqüência fundamental e melhorou a estabilidade da voz desses pacientes.Parkinson's disease affects the central nervous system resulting in voice quality alterations. It is typically resistant to drug therapy and often persists despite extensive behavioural speech and language therapy. Previous findings show that masking noise will produce a consistent increase in voice intensity in most normal individuals (Lombard's effect. AIM: we evaluated Lombard's effect's implication in intensity, fundamental frequency and stability on the voice of individuals with Parkinson's disease (N=17. MATERIAL AND METHODS: through acoustic analysis, we evaluated intensity

  5. The Voiced Oral High-frequency Oscillation Technique's Immediate Effect on Individuals With Dysphonic and Normal Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saters, Thais Lenharo; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Marotti, Beatriz Dantas; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the voiced oral high-frequency oscillation (VOHFO) on voice quality in acoustic voice symptoms and self-reported sensations in individuals with voice complaints and dysphonic voices, and in individuals with normal voices. The participants, which included 60 individuals from 18 to 45 years of age, both genders, were divided into two groups: G1, 30 individuals without voice complaints and normal voices; and G2, 30 individuals with voice complaints and dysphonic voices. We used the following measures: acoustic analysis, voice and larynx symptom investigation, and phonation time before and after 3 minutes of performing the VOHFO technique. The sensations were reported only after the VOHFO technique. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test (P ≤ 0.05), paired t test (P ≤ 0.05), and the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). After the VOHFO, in G1, there was an increased fundamental frequency (both genders), a higher voice turbulence index, and a decrease in dryness symptoms (women); in G2, there was a decrease in the following symptoms: strong voice, dryness and lump in the throat, sensitive throat (women), and roughness and weak voice (men). The phonation measures and sensations did not present differences. The soft phonation index decreased in G1 and increased in G2 (women), in addition to a significant decrease in strong voice and sensitive throat (women) and roughness (men) in G2. The VOHFO technique improves the source-filter relationship and the severity of voice and larynx symptoms in dysphonic and normal individuals. Women improved more in terms of larynx symptoms, whereas men improved more in terms of voice symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The siren song of vocal fundamental frequency for romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusthoff, Sarah; Baucom, Brian R; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of factors contribute to why and how romantic relationships are formed as well as whether they ultimately succeed or fail. Drawing on evolutionary models of attraction and speech production as well as integrative models of relationship functioning, this review argues that paralinguistic cues (more specifically the fundamental frequency of the voice) that are initially a strong source of attraction also increase couples' risk for relationship failure. Conceptual similarities and differences between the multiple operationalizations and interpretations of vocal fundamental frequency are discussed and guidelines are presented for understanding both convergent and non-convergent findings. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  7. The Siren song of vocal fundamental frequency for romantic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eWeusthoff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors contribute to why and how romantic relationships are formed as well as whether they ultimately succeed or fail. Drawing on evolutionary models of attraction and speech production as well as integrative models of relationship functioning, this review argues that paralinguistic cues (more specifically the fundamental frequency of the voice that are initially a strong source of attraction also increase couples’ risk for relationship failure. Conceptual similarities and differences between the multiple operationalizations and interpretations of vocal fundamental frequency are discussed and guidelines are presented for understanding both convergent and non-convergent findings. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  8. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  9. An Approximate Bayesian Fundamental Frequency Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2012-01-01

    and the model order is based on a probability model which corresponds to a minimum of prior information. From this probability model, we give the exact posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order, and we also present analytical approximations of these distributions which lower......Joint fundamental frequency and model order estimation is an important problem in several applications such as speech and music processing. In this paper, we develop an approximate estimation algorithm of these quantities using Bayesian inference. The inference about the fundamental frequency...

  10. Fast and Statistically Efficient Fundamental Frequency Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental frequency estimation is a very important task in many applications involving periodic signals. For computational reasons, fast autocorrelation-based estimation methods are often used despite parametric estimation methods having superior estimation accuracy. However, these parametric...

  11. Fundamental frequency changes of Persian speakers across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Majid; Ashayeri, Hasan; Modarresi, Yahya; Salavati, Mahyar; Ghomashchi, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in fundamental frequency (F0) across the life span in Persian speakers. Four hundred children and adults were asked to produce a sustained phonation of vowel /a/ and their voice samples were studied in 10 age groups. F0 was analyzed using the software Praat (Version 5.1.17.). The results revealed that (1) the mean F0 in both sexes decreases from childhood to adulthood; (2) significant F0 differences between boys and girls begin at the age of 12 years; and (3) the range of F0 changes in the life span is greater in men (178.38 Hz) than in women (113.57 Hz). These findings provide new data for Persian-speaking children, women, and men and could be beneficial for Iranian speech and language pathologists. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Default Bayesian Estimation of the Fundamental Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Joint fundamental frequency and model order esti- mation is an important problem in several applications. In this paper, a default estimation algorithm based on a minimum of prior information is presented. The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework, and it can be applied to both real......- and complex-valued discrete-time signals which may have missing samples or may have been sampled at a non-uniform sampling frequency. The observation model and prior distributions corre- sponding to the prior information are derived in a consistent fashion using maximum entropy and invariance arguments....... Moreover, several approximations of the posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order are derived, and one of the state-of-the-art joint fundamental frequency and model order estimators is demonstrated to be a special case of one of these approximations. The performance...

  13. YIN, a fundamental frequency estimator for speech and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cheveigné, Alain; Kawahara, Hideki

    2002-04-01

    An algorithm is presented for the estimation of the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech or musical sounds. It is based on the well-known autocorrelation method with a number of modifications that combine to prevent errors. The algorithm has several desirable features. Error rates are about three times lower than the best competing methods, as evaluated over a database of speech recorded together with a laryngograph signal. There is no upper limit on the frequency search range, so the algorithm is suited for high-pitched voices and music. The algorithm is relatively simple and may be implemented efficiently and with low latency, and it involves few parameters that must be tuned. It is based on a signal model (periodic signal) that may be extended in several ways to handle various forms of aperiodicity that occur in particular applications. Finally, interesting parallels may be drawn with models of auditory processing.

  14. ERP correlates of pitch error detection in complex tone and voice auditory feedback with missing fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2012-04-11

    Previous studies have shown that the pitch of a sound is perceived in the absence of its fundamental frequency (F0), suggesting that a distinct mechanism may resolve pitch based on a pattern that exists between harmonic frequencies. The present study investigated whether such a mechanism is active during voice pitch control. ERPs were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch shifts in the auditory feedback of self-vocalizations and complex tones with and without the F0. The absence of the fundamental induced no difference in ERP latencies. However, a right-hemisphere difference was found in the N1 amplitudes with larger responses to complex tones that included the fundamental compared to when it was missing. The P1 and N1 latencies were shorter in the left hemisphere, and the N1 and P2 amplitudes were larger bilaterally for pitch shifts in voice and complex tones compared with pure tones. These findings suggest hemispheric differences in neural encoding of pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. Data from the present study suggest that the right cortical auditory areas, thought to be specialized for spectral processing, may utilize different mechanisms to resolve pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. The left hemisphere seems to perform faster processing to resolve pitch based on the rate of temporal variations in complex sounds compared with pure tones. These effects indicate that the differential neural processing of pitch in the left and right hemispheres may enable the audio-vocal system to detect temporal and spectral variations in the auditory feedback for vocal pitch control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lexical frequency and voice assimilation in complex words in Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, Harald

    2004-05-01

    Words with higher token frequencies tend to have more reduced acoustic realizations than lower frequency words (e.g., Hay, 2000; Bybee, 2001; Jurafsky et al., 2001). This study documents frequency effects for regressive voice assimilation (obstruents are voiced before voiced plosives) in Dutch morphologically complex words in the subcorpus of read-aloud novels in the corpus of spoken Dutch (Oostdijk et al., 2002). As expected, the initial obstruent of the cluster tends to be absent more often as lexical frequency increases. More importantly, as frequency increases, the duration of vocal-fold vibration in the cluster decreases, and the duration of the bursts in the cluster increases, after partialing out cluster duration. This suggests that there is less voicing for higher-frequency words. In fact, phonetic transcriptions show regressive voice assimilation for only half of the words and progressive voice assimilation for one third. Interestingly, the progressive voice assimilation observed for higher-frequency complex words renders these complex words more similar to monomorphemic words: Dutch monomorphemic words typically contain voiceless obstruent clusters (Zonneveld, 1983). Such high-frequency complex words may therefore be less easily parsed into their constituent morphemes (cf. Hay, 2000), favoring whole word lexical access (Bertram et al., 2000).

  16. Freddie Mercury-acoustic analysis of speaking fundamental frequency, vibrato, and subharmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T; Hertegard, Stellan; Zangger-Borch, Daniel; Lindestad, Per-Åke

    2017-04-01

    Freddie Mercury was one of the twentieth century's best-known singers of commercial contemporary music. This study presents an acoustical analysis of his voice production and singing style, based on perceptual and quantitative analysis of publicly available sound recordings. Analysis of six interviews revealed a median speaking fundamental frequency of 117.3 Hz, which is typically found for a baritone voice. Analysis of voice tracks isolated from full band recordings suggested that the singing voice range was 37 semitones within the pitch range of F#2 (about 92.2 Hz) to G5 (about 784 Hz). Evidence for higher phonations up to a fundamental frequency of 1,347 Hz was not deemed reliable. Analysis of 240 sustained notes from 21 a-cappella recordings revealed a surprisingly high mean fundamental frequency modulation rate (vibrato) of 7.0 Hz, reaching the range of vocal tremor. Quantitative analysis utilizing a newly introduced parameter to assess the regularity of vocal vibrato corroborated its perceptually irregular nature, suggesting that vibrato (ir)regularity is a distinctive feature of the singing voice. Imitation of subharmonic phonation samples by a professional rock singer, documented by endoscopic high-speed video at 4,132 frames per second, revealed a 3:1 frequency locked vibratory pattern of vocal folds and ventricular folds.

  17. Fundamentals of sum-frequency spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y R

    2016-01-01

    The first book on the topic, and written by the founder of the technique, this comprehensive resource provides a detailed overview of sum-frequency spectroscopy, its fundamental principles, and the wide range of applications for surfaces, interfaces, and bulk. Beginning with an overview of the historical context, and introductions to the basic theory of nonlinear optics and surface sum-frequency generation, topics covered include discussion of different experimental arrangements adopted by researchers, notes on proper data analysis, an up-to-date survey commenting on the wide range of successful applications of the tool, and a valuable insight into current unsolved problems and potential areas to be explored in the future. With the addition of chapter appendices that offer the opportunity for more in-depth theoretical discussion, this is an essential resource that integrates all aspects of the subject and is ideal for anyone using, or interested in using, sum-frequency spectroscopy.

  18. The Profile of Fundamental Frequency Changes in Normal Persian-Speaking Individuals 9-50 Years Old

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghorbani; Arezoo Saffarian; Farhad Torabinezhad; Yoonos Amiri Shavaki; Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: The voice of human being changes during lifetime with different patterns in males and females. In addition to assessment of changes due to aging, some studies examined the voice changes among various languages and ethnical groups. This study is performed to evaluate the fundamental frequency changes in normal 9-50 year-old Persian (Farsi) speaking individuals.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 320 voice samples in normal voiceless environment were recorded. The mean o...

  19. Identification of minerals by frequency analysis of voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baluch Dušan

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the collecting method, proceding and evaluating of voice signals developed during rotary drilling of minerals is described. Utilizing the frequency analysis of voice signals is suitable for recognizing types of minerals. In the laboratory identification of three other minerals was done.

  20. Effect of Formant Frequency Spacing on Perceived Gender in Pre-Pubertal Children's Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Reby, David

    2013-01-01

    Background It is usually possible to identify the sex of a pre-pubertal child from their voice, despite the absence of sex differences in fundamental frequency at these ages. While it has been suggested that the overall spacing between formants (formant frequency spacing - ΔF) is a key component of the expression and perception of sex in children's voices, the effect of its continuous variation on sex and gender attribution has not yet been investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In the present study we manipulated voice ΔF of eight year olds (two boys and two girls) along continua covering the observed variation of this parameter in pre-pubertal voices, and assessed the effect of this variation on adult ratings of speakers' sex and gender in two separate experiments. In the first experiment (sex identification) adults were asked to categorise the voice as either male or female. The resulting identification function exhibited a gradual slope from male to female voice categories. In the second experiment (gender rating), adults rated the voices on a continuum from “masculine boy” to “feminine girl”, gradually decreasing their masculinity ratings as ΔF increased. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the role of ΔF in voice gender perception, which has been reported in adult voices, extends to pre-pubertal children's voices: variation in ΔF not only affects the perceived sex, but also the perceived masculinity or femininity of the speaker. We discuss the implications of these observations for the expression and perception of gender in children's voices given the absence of anatomical dimorphism in overall vocal tract length before puberty. PMID:24312517

  1. Relative Fundamental Frequency Distinguishes between Phonotraumatic and Non-Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth S. Heller; Lien, Yu-An S.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Noordzij, J. Pieter; Stepp, Cara E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the ability of an acoustic measure, relative fundamental frequency (RFF), to distinguish between two subtypes of vocal hyperfunction (VH): phonotraumatic (PVH) and non-phonotraumatic (NPVH). Method: RFF values were compared among control individuals with typical voices (N = 49), individuals with…

  2. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  3. Fundamental frequency, phonation maximum time and vocal complaints in morbidly obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de SOUZA, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; PEREIRA, Rayane Medeiros; dos SANTOS, Marquiony Marques; GODOY, Cynthia Meida de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese people have abnormal deposition of fat in the vocal tract that can interfere with the acoustic voice. Aim To relate the fundamental frequency, the maximum phonation time and voice complaints from a group of morbidly obese women. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study that included 44 morbidly obese women, mean age of 42.45 (±10.31) years old, observational group and 30 women without obesity, control group, with 33.79 (±4.51)years old. The voice recording was done in a quiet environment, on a laptop using the program ANAGRAF acoustic analysis of speech sounds. To extract the values ​​of fundamental frequency the subjects were asked to produce vowel [a] at usual intensity for a period in average of three seconds. After the voice recording, participants were prompted to produce sustained vowel [ a] , [ i] and [ u] at usual intensity and height, using a stopwatch to measure the time that each participant could hold each vowel. Results The majority, 31(70.5%), had vocal complaints, with a higher percentage for complaints of vocal fatigue 20(64.51%) and voice failures 19(61.29%) followed by dryness of the throat in 15 (48.38%) and effort to speak 13(41.93%). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the mean fundamental frequency of the voice in both groups, but there was significance between the two groups regarding maximum phonation. Conclusion Increased adipose tissue in the vocal tract interfered in the vocal parameters. PMID:24676298

  4. The Fundamental Theorem of Flood Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J. P.

    The Fundamental Theorem of hazardous events, regarded as a stochastic point pro- cess, says that the return period, or average interval, between events is equal to the reciprocal of their frequency in time. We start with the special cases. There are three ways of defining a discrete time Bernoulli process of hazardous events: by specifying (a) the probability p that an event occurs at a given point in time, (b) the probability that m events occur in an interval of time of duration n - the Bernoulli distribution, or (c) the probability that the return period (recurrence interval) between events is n in- tervals - the geometric distribution. Any one of these implies the other two. It is easily shown that the expected return period between hazardous Bernoulli events in discrete time is the reciprocal of the probability of this event at any point in discrete time. The analogous process in continuous time is a Poisson process which can also be defined in three ways: by specifying (a) the probability r.dt that one and only one event occurs during a small interval of duration dt, (b) the probability that m events occur in an interval of duration t U the Poisson distribution, or (c) the probability that the return period (recurrence interval) between hazardous events is t units of time U the negative exponential distribution. Any one of these implies the other two. Also the expected return period between hazardous Poisson events is the reciprocal of the probability rate, r, of this event per unit of continuous time. A (2x2) transition matrix P describes a correlated discrete-time Markov process of hazardous events. The Bernoulli process is a special case. Since P is ergodic it has a limiting probability vector (p1, p2) of the unconditional probabilities of a hazardous event occurring, p1, or of not occurring, p2, at a randomly chosen point in time. The return period between hazardous Markov events can be shown to be 1/p1 in agreement with the Bernoulli process. Now it is

  5. Speaking and Nonspeaking Voice Professionals: Who Has the Better Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitguppi, Chandala; Raj, Anoop; Meher, Ravi; Rathore, P K

    2017-04-18

    Voice professionals can be classified into two major subgroups: the primarily speaking and the primarily nonspeaking voice professionals. Nonspeaking voice professionals mainly include singers, whereas speaking voice professionals include the rest of the voice professionals. Although both of these groups have high vocal demands, it is currently unknown whether both groups show similar voice changes after their daily voice use. Comparison of these two subgroups of voice professionals has never been done before. This study aimed to compare the speaking voice of speaking and nonspeaking voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology or voice-related complaints on the day of assessment. After obtaining relevant voice-related history, voice analysis and videostroboscopy were performed in 50 speaking and 50 nonspeaking voice professionals. Speaking voice professionals showed significantly higher incidence of voice-related complaints as compared with nonspeaking voice professionals. Voice analysis revealed that most acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter percent, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in speaking voice professionals, whereas videostroboscopy did not show any significant difference between the two groups. This is the first study of its kind to analyze the effect of daily voice use in the two subgroups of voice professionals with no obvious vocal fold pathology. We conclude that voice professionals should not be considered as a homogeneous group. The detrimental effects of excessive voice use were observed to occur more significantly in speaking voice professionals than in nonspeaking voice professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fast fundamental frequency determination via adaptive autocorrelation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Staudacher, Michael; Steixner, Viktor; Griessner, Andreas; Zierhofer, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    .... The method is based on an autocorrelation of a signal with a segment of the same signal. During operation, frequency estimates are calculated and the segment is updated whenever a period of the signal is detected...

  7. A Kalman-based Fundamental Frequency Estimation Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental frequency estimation is an important task in speech and audio analysis. Harmonic model-based methods typically have superior estimation accuracy. However, such methods usually as- sume that the fundamental frequency and amplitudes are station- ary over a short time frame. In this paper......, we propose a Kalman filter-based fundamental frequency estimation algorithm using the harmonic model, where the fundamental frequency and amplitudes can be truly nonstationary by modeling their time variations as first- order Markov chains. The Kalman observation equation is derived from the harmonic...... model and formulated as a compact nonlinear matrix form, which is further used to derive an extended Kalman filter. Detailed and continuous fundamental frequency and ampli- tude estimates for speech, the sustained vowel /a/ and solo musical tones with vibrato are demonstrated....

  8. A Kalman-based Fundamental Frequency Estimation Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental frequency estimation is an important task in speech and audio analysis. Harmonic model-based methods typically have superior estimation accuracy. However, such methods usually as- sume that the fundamental frequency and amplitudes are station- ary over a short time frame. In this paper...... model and formulated as a compact nonlinear matrix form, which is further used to derive an extended Kalman filter. Detailed and continuous fundamental frequency and ampli- tude estimates for speech, the sustained vowel /a/ and solo musical tones with vibrato are demonstrated....

  9. Human Auditory Frequency-Following Responses to a Missing Fundamental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Results support the concept that perception of a missing fundamental is based on periodic neural activity. Suggests that the pitch of the missing fundamental is mediated by elements sensitive to frequencies other than those within the band of the masking noise. (Author/MA)

  10. Fundamental Frequency Tracking and Applications to Musical Signal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith C.

    The constant-Q spectral transform (Brown, 1991) can be used to analyze musical signals and can be effectively employed as a front end for measurements of fundamental frequency. This transform also has advantages for the analysis of musical signals over the conventional discrete Fourier transform, or FFT in its fast-Fouriertransform implementation. Because the FFT computes frequency components on a linear scale with a particular fixed resolution or bandwidth (frequency spacing between components), it frequently results in too little resolution for low musical frequencies and better resolution than needed at high frequencies.

  11. Design of Corrugated Plates for Optimal Fundamental Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Alshabatat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates shifting the fundamental frequency of plate structures by corrugation. Creating corrugations significantly improves the flexural rigidities of plate and hence increases its natural frequencies. Two types of corrugations are investigated: sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugations. The finite element method (FEM is used to model the corrugated plates and extract the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The effects of corrugation geometrical parameters on simply supported plate fundamental frequency are studied. To reduce the computation time, the corrugated plates are modeled as orthotropic flat plates with equivalent rigidities. To demonstrate the validity of modeling the corrugated plates as orthotropic flat plates in studying the free vibration characteristics, a comparison between the results of finite element model and equivalent orthotropic models is made. A correspondence between the results of orthotropic models and the FE models is observed. The optimal designs of sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates are obtained based on a genetic algorithm. The optimization results show that plate corrugations can efficiently maximize plate fundamental frequency. It is found that the trapezoidal corrugation can more efficiently enhance the fundamental frequency of simply supported plate than the sinusoidal corrugation.

  12. Orthogonal frequency division multiple access fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Supported by the expert-level advice of pioneering researchers, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the foundations and applications of one of the most promising access technologies for current and future wireless networks. It includes authoritative coverage of the history, fundamental principles, key techniques, and critical design issues of OFDM systems. Covering various techniques of effective resource management for OFDM/OFDMA-based wireless communication systems, this cutting-edge reference:Add

  13. Consistency of voice frequency and perturbation measures in children using cepstral analyses: a movement toward increased recording stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, Gillian R; Ojha, Shilpa; Infusino, Scott; Maurer, Rie; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the pediatric voice objectively using acoustic measurements. Furthermore, consistency of these measurements across time, particularly for continuous speech, has not been evaluated. (1) To evaluate normal pediatric voice frequency and perturbation using both time-based and frequency-based acoustic measurements, and (2) to determine if continuous speech samples facilitate increased recording stability. DESIGN Prospective, longitudinal study. Pediatric otolaryngology practice within a tertiary hospital. Forty-three children, ages 4 to 17 years. INTERVENTION OR EXPOSURE: Sustained vowel utterances and continuous speech samples, which included 4 Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) sentences and the first sentence of the "rainbow passage" ("A rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors that takes the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above and its 2 ends apparently beyond the horizon") were obtained at 2 time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess reliability between speech samples. Fundamental frequency of sustained vowel utterances had excellent reliability (ICC ≥ 0.94). Time-based analyses of perturbation in sustained vowel utterances demonstrated poor reliability (ICC 0.40). Fundamental frequency of continuous speech sample had excellent reliability (ICC > 0.94). Frequency-based analyses of continuous speech samples demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC > 0.75) for all but 1 variable, which demonstrated good reliability (cepstral-spectral index of dysphonia of the all voiced sample; ICC =0.72). Sustained vowel utterance and continuous speech samples provide consistent measures of fundamental frequency. Frequency-based analysis of sustained vowel recordings improves the reliability of perturbation measures. Continuous speech recordings can be obtained in children and demonstrate good to excellent reliability across recordings. This suggests that

  14. Fundamental Frequency and Model Order Estimation Using Spatial Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    parameters. In this paper, we present an estimation procedure for harmonic-structured signals in situations with strong interference using spatial filtering, or beamforming. We jointly estimate the fundamental frequency and the constrained model order through the output of the beamformers. Besides that, we...... extend this procedure to account for inharmonicity using unconstrained model order estimation. The simulations show that beamforming improves the performance of the joint estimates of fundamental frequency and the number of harmonics in low signal to interference (SIR) levels, and an experiment...

  15. On the design of membranes with increasing fundamental frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl B. González De Paz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By means of a relaxation approach, we study the shape design of a stiff inclusion with given area in a membrane in order to maximize its fun- damental frequency. As an eigenvalue control problem, the fundamental frequency is a concave function of the control, which is not described by the membrane shape, but by an element in a function space. First order optimality conditions allow to describe the optimal shape by means of a free boundary value problem.

  16. The Role of Fundamental Frequency in Phonetic Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an Unfiltered Condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a Filtered…

  17. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Bilinguals' Fundamental Frequency Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail; Mennen, Ineke

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated cross-linguistic differences in fundamental frequency range (FFR) in Welsh-English bilingual speech. This is the first study that reports gender-specific behavior in switching FFRs across languages in bilingual speech. Method: FFR was conceptualized as a behavioral pattern using measures of span (range of fundamental…

  18. Articulation and vocal tract acoustics at soprano subject's high fundamental frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Birkholz, Peter; Traser, Louisa; Flügge, Tabea V; Kamberger, Robert; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    The role of the vocal tract for phonation at very high soprano fundamental frequencies (F0s) is not yet understood in detail. In this investigation, two experiments were carried out with a single professional high soprano subject. First, using two dimensional (2D) dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (24 fps) midsagittal and coronal vocal tract shapes were analyzed while the subject sang a scale from Bb5 (932 Hz) to G6 (1568 Hz). In a second experiment, volumetric vocal tract MRI data were recorded from sustained phonations (13 s) for the pitches C6 (1047 Hz) and G6 (1568 Hz). Formant frequencies were measured in physical models created by 3D printing, and calculated from area functions obtained from the 3D vocal tract shapes. The data showed that there were only minor modifications of the vocal tract shape. These changes involved a decrease of the piriform sinus as well as small changes of tongue position. Formant frequencies did not exhibit major differences between C6 and G6 for F1 and F3, respectively. Only F2 was slightly raised for G6. For G6, however, F2 is not excited by any voice source partial. Therefore, this investigation was not able to confirm that the analyzed professional soprano subject adjusted formants to voice source partials for the analyzed F0s.

  19. Effects of voice enhancement technology and relaxing music on the frequency of imagery among break dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Smith, Danielle L; Priest, David-Lee

    2012-03-01

    A device was developed in 2008 by Hypnoke International Ltd. for use by performance consultants and hypnotherapists. It enhances a practitioner's voice and blocks out auditory distractions while delivering imagery inductions, thereby increasing their effectiveness. This study examined the impact of voice-enhancement technology and relaxing music on the frequency of imagery experienced by a sample of elite British break dancers (N = 20; mean age = 26.5 years, SD = 1.5 years). An imagery script was administered to participants under four conditions: voice enhancement with music, voice enhancement only, a music-only control, and a no-voice-enhancement-and-no-music control. Frequency of imagery was assessed using the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. There was a higher incidence of imagery in the voice enhancement with music, voice enhancement only, and music-only conditions when compared to the no-voice-enhancement-and-no-music control. The key finding was that imagery was most frequent when voice enhancement was combined with music in a complementary manner. Thus, it is concluded that the use of voice enhancement technology can improve the efficacy of relaxation and imagery training for break dancers, and potentially, dancers in general.

  20. The effect of oxandrolone on voice frequency in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Koningsbrugge, S.H. van; Ridder, M.A. de; Zandwijken, G.R.; Boersma, B.; Dejonckere, P.H.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain but may also cause voice deepening in growth hormone (GH)-treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS). We assessed the effect of Ox on objective and subjective speaking voice frequency in GH-treated girls with TS. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter,

  1. Joint fundamental frequency and order estimation using optimal filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsson Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the problem of jointly estimating the number of harmonics and the fundamental frequency of periodic signals is considered. We show how this problem can be solved using a number of methods that either are or can be interpreted as filtering methods in combination with a statistical model selection criterion. The methods in question are the classical comb filtering method, a maximum likelihood method, and some filtering methods based on optimal filtering that have recently been proposed, while the model selection criterion is derived herein from the maximum a posteriori principle. The asymptotic properties of the optimal filtering methods are analyzed and an order-recursive efficient implementation is derived. Finally, the estimators have been compared in computer simulations that show that the optimal filtering methods perform well under various conditions. It has previously been demonstrated that the optimal filtering methods perform extremely well with respect to fundamental frequency estimation under adverse conditions, and this fact, combined with the new results on model order estimation and efficient implementation, suggests that these methods form an appealing alternative to classical methods for analyzing multi-pitch signals.

  2. Changes of rhythm of vocal fundamental frequency in sensorineural hearing loss and in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Lin, Sheng-Huang

    2009-12-31

    The neurological control of speech is a complex process that involves phonation organs, respiratory and auditory systems. In the instance of a steady-as-possible sustained phonation, the vocal fundamental frequency (F0) is rhythmic and oscillating in varied degree. The present study examines the changes in the rhythm of F0 in subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) as well as in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) after being orally administered with dopamine. The sustained steady vocalizations of vowel [a:] from 19 subjects with SNHL and from 13 subjects with normal hearing were collected and statistically compared. In addition, the phonations of 14 subjects with PD before and after oral medication with oral dopamine were collected and statistically compared. The F0 of a phonation was retrieved by digital signal processing of voice signals, and were then analyzed using Fourier transformation to acquire the amplitude of oscillation at different frequency components. Our study showed that subjects with SNHL had significantly larger fluctuation in the low frequency (< 3 Hz) than the subjects with normal hearing. In addition, dopamine medication significantly reduced the fluctuation in the mid-frequency (3-8 Hz) in subjects with PD. Our study indicates that power spectral analysis of F0 may potentially be very useful in the evaluation or detection of SNHL and PD. The rhythms of F0 are produced from neurological controls of phonation and may be used to access clinical diseases by a sustained phonation.

  3. Fundamental frequency and speech intelligibility in background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A; Bacon, Sid P

    2010-07-01

    Speech reception in noise is an especially difficult problem for listeners with hearing impairment as well as for users of cochlear implants (CIs). One likely cause of this is an inability to 'glimpse' a target talker in a fluctuating background, which has been linked to deficits in temporal fine-structure processing. A fine-structure cue that has the potential to be beneficial for speech reception in noise is fundamental frequency (F0). A challenging problem, however, is delivering the cue to these individuals. The benefits to speech intelligibility of F0 for both listeners with hearing impairment and users of CIs are reviewed, as well as various methods of delivering F0 to these listeners.

  4. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited

  5. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response. The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background.Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n=12 and older (n=12 adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR. To record Frequency Following Responses (FFR elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0 of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone were used as the stimulus.Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the

  6. The effect of oxandrolone on voice frequency in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Leonie A; Sas, Theo C J; van Koningsbrugge, Sophie H L; de Ridder, Maria A J; Zandwijken, Gladys R J; Boersma, Bart; Dejonckere, Philippe H; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan M

    2011-09-01

    Oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain but may also cause voice deepening in growth hormone (GH)-treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS). We assessed the effect of Ox on objective and subjective speaking voice frequency in GH-treated girls with TS. A multicenter, randomized, placebo (Pl)-controlled, double-blind study was conducted. One hundred thirty-three patients were included and treated with GH (1.33 mg/m2/d) from baseline, combined with Pl or Ox in a low (0.03 mg/kg/d) or conventional (0.06 mg/kg/d) dose from the age of 8 years and estrogens from the age of 12 years. Yearly from starting Ox/Pl until 6 months after discontinuing GH+Ox/Pl, voices were recorded and questionnaires were completed. At start, mean (±standard deviation [SD]) voice frequency SD score (SDS) was high for age (1.0±1.2, Pvoices tended to lower on GH+Ox 0.03 (P=0.09) and significantly lowered on GH+Ox 0.06 (P=0.007). At the last measurement, voice frequency SDS was still relatively high in GH+Pl group (0.6±0.7, P=0.002) but similar to healthy girls in both GH+Ox groups. Voice frequency became lower than -2 SDS in one patient (3%) on GH+Ox 0.03 and three patients (11%) on GH+Ox 0.06. The percentage of patients reporting subjective voice deepening was similar between the dosage groups. Untreated girls with TS have relatively high-pitched voices. The addition of Ox to GH decreases voice frequency in a dose-dependent way. Although most voice frequencies remain within the normal range, they may occasionally become lower than -2 SDS, especially on GH+Ox 0.06 mg/kg/d. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Average Ambulatory Measures of Sound Pressure Level, Fundamental Frequency, and Vocal Dose Do Not Differ Between Adult Females With Phonotraumatic Lesions and Matched Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zeitels, Steven M; Burns, James A; Barbu, Anca M; Hillman, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Paired t tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Linguistic modality effects on fundamental frequency in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, D; Allen, J

    1983-10-01

    This paper examines the effects on fundamental frequency (F0) patterns of modality operators, such as sentential adverbs, modals, negatives, and quantifiers. These words form inherently contrastive classes which have varying tendencies to produce emphasis deviations in F0 contours. Three speakers read a set of 186 sentences and three paragraphs to provide data for F0 analysis. The important words in each sentence were marked intonationally with rises or sharp falls in F0, compared to gradually falling F0 in unemphasized words. These emphasis deviations were measured in terms of F0 variations from the norm; they were larger toward the beginning of sentences, in longer sentences, on syllables surrounded by unemphasized syllables, and in contrastive contexts. Other results showed that embedded clauses tended to have lower F0, and negative contractions were emphasized on their first syllables. Individual speakers differed in overall F0 levels, while using roughly similar emphasis strategies. F0 levels changed in paragraphs, with emphasis going to contextually new information.

  9. Ambulatory Voice Biofeedback: Relative Frequency and Summary Feedback Effects on Performance and Retention of Reduced Vocal Intensity in the Daily Lives of Participants with Normal Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Sternad, Dagmar; Petit, Robert; Hillman, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory voice biofeedback has the potential to significantly improve voice therapy effectiveness by targeting carryover of desired behaviors outside the therapy session (i.e., retention). This study applies motor learning concepts (reduced frequency and delayed, summary feedback) that demonstrate increased retention to ambulatory voice…

  10. [Significance of voice constitution as a predisposition for occupational voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B; Cecon, M; Hanke, G; Wehner, S; Bigenzahn, W

    2004-05-01

    Occupational voice disorders have been increasing for years. The aim of this study was to examine whether a constitutionally weak voice should be regarded as a risk factor for developing such voice disorders. In a prospective study, 15 female teacher students with a normal vocal constitution were compared with 18 students with constitutionally weak voices during teaching practice. There was a significant difference in the mean fundamental frequency of both groups after teaching for 30 min. Students with constitutionally weak voices tended to have increased values. Taking into consideration the physiological aspects of an increasing fundamental frequency as a sign of vocal fatigue, a constitutionally weak voice has to be regarded as a potential risk factor for developing a voice disorder in vocally intensive occupations. To prevent future vocal problems by appropriate prophylactic intervention (i.e. voice therapy, introduction to vocal hygiene), a phoniatric examination of vocal constitution and endurance is recommended at the beginning of a voice dependent professional career.

  11. Objective voice parameters in Colombian school workers with healthy voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Cantor Cutiva (Lady Catherine); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional

  12. A comparison of a child's fundamental frequencies in structured elicited vocalizations versus unstructured natural vocalizations: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J

    2009-04-01

    Building on the concept that task type may influence fundamental frequency (F(0)) values, the purpose of this case study was to investigate the difference in a child's F(0) during structured, elicited tasks and long-term, unstructured activities. It also explores the possibility that the distribution in children's F(0) may make the standard statistical measures of mean and standard deviation less than ideal metrics. A healthy male child (5 years, 7 months) was evaluated. The child completed four voice tasks used in a previous study of the influence of task type on F(0) values: (1) sustaining the vowel /a/ in isolation; (2) sustaining the vowel /a/ embedded in a word at the end of a phrase; (3) repeating a sentence; and (4) counting from 1 to 10. The child also wore a National Center for Voice and Speech voice dosimeter, a device that collects voice data over the course of an entire day, during all activities for 34 h over 4 days. Throughout the structured vocal tasks within the clinical environment, the child's F(0), as measured by both the dosimeter and acoustic analysis of microphone data, was similar for all four tasks, with the counting task the most dissimilar. The mean F(0) (approximately 257 Hz) matched very closely to the average task results in the literature given for the child's age group. However, the child's mean fundamental frequency during the unstructured activities was significantly higher (approximately 376 Hz). Finally, the mode and median of the structured vocal tasks were 260 Hz and 259 Hz respectively (both near the mean), while the unstructured mode and median were 290 Hz and 355 Hz respectively. The results of this study suggest that children may produce a notably different voice pattern during clinical observations compared to routine daily activities. In addition, the child's long-term F(0) distribution is not normal. If this distribution is consistent in long-term, unstructured natural vocalization patterns of children, statistical mean

  13. Early maturation of frequency-following responses to voice pitch in infants with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Schnabel, Elizabeth A; Dickman, Brenda M; Hu, Jiong; Li, Ximing; Lin, Chia-Der; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang

    2010-12-01

    Neural plasticity of pitch processing mechanisms at the human brainstem, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, has been reported for normal-hearing adults. Characteristics and maturation of such a response during the first year of life have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in normal-hearing infants and to make a direct comparison with adults using the same stimulus and recording parameters. 9 infants and 9 adults were recruited. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch. The results demonstrated that infant FFRs showed slightly larger Pitch Strength but comparable Frequency Error, Slope Error, and Tracking Accuracy to those obtained from adults. Early maturation of FFRs was also observed in the infants starting from 1 to 3 mo. of age.

  14. Investigation of the relationship between electroglottogram waveform, fundamental frequency, and sound pressure level using clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been shown in previous research (Orlikoff, 1991; Henrich et al, 2005; Kuang et al, 2014; Awan, 2015) that there exists a relationship between the electroglottogram (EGG) waveform and the acoustic signal, this relationship is still not fully understood. To investigate this relationship, the EGG and acoustic signals were measured for four male amateur choir singers who each produced eight consecutive tones of increasing and decreasing vocal intensity. The EGG signals were processed cycle-synchronously to obtain the discrete Fourier transform, and the data were used as an input to a clustering algorithm. The acoustic signal was analyzed in terms of sound pressure level (dB SPL) and fundamental frequency (fo) of vibration, and the results of both EGG and acoustic analysis were depicted on a two-dimensional plane with fo on the x-axis and SPL on the y-axis. All the subjects were seen to have a weak, near-sinusoidal EGG waveform in their lowest SPL range, whereas increase in SPL coincided with progressive enrichment in harmonic content of the EGG waveforms. The results of the clustering were additionally used to classify waveforms across subjects to enable inter-subject comparisons and assessment of individual strategies of exploring the fo-SPL dimensions. In these male subjects, the EGG waveform shape appeared to vary with SPL and to remain essentially constant with fo over one octave. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal fundamental frequency and perturbation measurements of vowels by normal Malaysian Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Kim, Kang Soo; Sim, Siew Ling; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic properties of vowel phonation vary across cultures. These specific characteristics, including vowel fundamental frequency (F(0)) and perturbation measures (Absolute Jitter [Jita], Jitter [Jitt], Relative Average Perturbation [RAP], five-point Period Perturbation Quotient [PPQ5], Absolute Shimmer [ShdB], Shimmer [Shim], and 11-point Amplitude Perturbation Quotient [APQ11]) are not well established for Malaysian Chinese adults. This article investigates the F(0) and perturbation measurements of sustained vowels in 60 normal Malaysian Chinese adults using acoustical analysis. Malaysian Chinese females had significantly higher F(0) than Malaysian males in all six vowels. However, there were no significant differences in F(0) across the vowels for each gender. Significant differences between vowels were observed for Jita, Jitt, PPQ5, ShdB, Shim, and APQ11 among Chinese males, whereas significant differences between vowels were observed for all the perturbation parameters among Chinese females. Chinese males had significantly higher Jita and APQ11 in the vowels than Chinese females, whereas no significant differences were observed between males and females for Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, and Shim. Cross-ethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) of vowel phonation varies within the Chinese ethnic group and across other ethnic groups. The perturbation measures cannot be simply compared, where the measures may vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  16. Speech task effects on acoustic measure of fundamental frequency in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Lam, Nina L-N

    2015-12-01

    Speaking fundamental frequency (F0) is a voice measure frequently used to document changes in vocal performance over time. Knowing the intra-subject variability of speaking F0 has implications on its clinical usefulness. The present study examined the speaking F0 elicited from three speech tasks in Cantonese-speaking children. The study also compared the variability of speaking F0 elicited from different speech tasks. Fifty-six vocally healthy Cantonese-speaking children (31 boys and 25 girls) aged between 7.0 and 10.11 years participated. For each child, speaking F0 was elicited using speech tasks at three linguistic levels (sustained vowel /a/ prolongation, reading aloud a sentence and passage). Two types of variability, within-session (trial-to-trial) and across-session (test-retest) variability, were compared across speech tasks. Significant differences in mean speaking F0 values were found between speech tasks. Mean speaking F0 value elicited from sustained vowel phonations was significantly higher than those elicited from the connected speech tasks. The variability of speaking F0 was higher in sustained vowel prolongation than that in connected speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Fast Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood-based Fundamental Frequency Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2015-01-01

    Print Request Permissions Periodic signals are encountered in many applications. Such signals can be modelled by a weighted sum of sinusoidal components whose frequencies are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. Given a data set, the fundamental frequency can be estimated in many ways...

  18. Examination of prosodic features in speech signal using speech fundamental frequency and loudness duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Martin

    The most important prosodic parameters and their physical correlations in speech signal were evaluated. Processes for their acquisition, in particular the speech fundamental frequency, were described. Fundamental frequency structures in natural language were examined, using various syllabic forms in stressed and unstressed position. A hierarchic model was developed. The software used for the boundness duration measurement allowed the segmentation of speech signal in time domain. The fundamental frequency and loudness duration correlations were represented for the realization of accentuation structures.

  19. The influence of fundamental frequency on perceived duration in spectrally comparable sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived duration of a sound is affected by its fundamental frequency and intensity: higher sounds are judged to be longer, as are sounds with greater intensity. Since increasing intensity lengthens the perceived duration of the auditory object, and increasing the fundamental frequency increases the sound’s perceived loudness (up to ca. 3 kHz, frequency modulation of duration could be potentially explained by a confounding effect where the primary cause of the modulation would be variations in intensity. Here, a series of experiments are described that were designed to disentangle the contributions of fundamental frequency, intensity, and duration to perceived loudness and duration. In two forced-choice tasks, participants judged duration and intensity differences between two sounds varying simultaneously in intensity, fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency gliding range, and duration. The results suggest that fundamental frequency and intensity each have an impact on duration judgments, while frequency gliding range did not influence the present results. We also demonstrate that the modulation of perceived duration by sound fundamental frequency cannot be fully explained by the confounding relationship between frequency and intensity.

  20. Fundamental Frequency Tuning and Its Influence on LHC 200MHz ACN Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Tückmantel, Joachim; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    To study the influence of the tuner on the fundamental mode frequency, the Q factor as well as the shunt impedance of the LHC 200MHz ACN cavities, 3D simulations have been done in the frequency domain using MAFIA. Curves giving the variation of RF frequency and other RF parameters with tuner position relative to the inner surface of the cavity have been obtained for the fundamental mode. This paper details the simulation results.

  1. Recording frequency-following responses to voice pitch in guinea pigs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Meng-Shih; Lin, Chia-Der; Wang, Tang-Chuan; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng

    2014-06-01

    Although scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch has shown great potential to examine pitch processing mechanisms in human participants and animals, few reports have addressed the test-retest reliability of such a response in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of recording such a response in an animal model and to evaluate the extent to which the response could be separated from background noise. A Chinese monosyllable with a rising pitch was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in four guinea pigs. Four objective measures (Root-Mean-Square, Amplitude, Tracking Accuracy, Frequency Error, and Slope Error) were computed from recorded brain waves and were used to examine the phase-locking magnitude and test-retest reliability of the response. Results demonstrated that the animal model produced FFR trends that were repeatable, reliable, and significantly different from responses to the background noise.

  2. Frequência fundamental de crianças da cidade de Niterói Fundamental frequency for children in the municipality of Niterói

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Andrade Schott

    2009-06-01

    the boys, with an overall mean value of 238.44 Hz. Due to the small difference; we obtained 237.57 Hz for the girls and 233.31 Hz for the boys. CONCLUSION: the findings enabled the comparison with previously carried out research and contributed providing the literature with new data for the standardization of the fundamental frequency of Brazilian Children's Voices, opening a new channel for further research.

  3. Driving an Active Vibration Balancer to Minimize Vibrations at the Fundamental and Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations of a principal machine are reduced at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies by driving the drive motor of an active balancer with balancing signals at the fundamental and selected harmonics. Vibrations are sensed to provide a signal representing the mechanical vibrations. A balancing signal generator for the fundamental and for each selected harmonic processes the sensed vibration signal with adaptive filter algorithms of adaptive filters for each frequency to generate a balancing signal for each frequency. Reference inputs for each frequency are applied to the adaptive filter algorithms of each balancing signal generator at the frequency assigned to the generator. The harmonic balancing signals for all of the frequencies are summed and applied to drive the drive motor. The harmonic balancing signals drive the drive motor with a drive voltage component in opposition to the vibration at each frequency.

  4. Fundamental Frequency Estimation using Polynomial Rooting of a Subspace-Based Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the fundamental frequency of periodic signals such as audio and speech. A novel estimation method based on polynomial rooting of the harmonic MUltiple SIgnal Classification (HMUSIC) is presented. By applying polynomial rooting, we obtain two significant...... improvements compared to HMUSIC. First, by using the proposed method we can obtain an estimate of the fundamental frequency without doing a grid search like in HMUSIC. This is due to that the fundamental frequency is estimated as the argument of the root lying closest to the unit circle. Second, we obtain...

  5. Fundamental Frequency Extraction Method using Central Clipping and its Importance for the Classification of Emotional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Partila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a classification of emotional state. We implemented a method for extracting the fundamental speech signal frequency by means of a central clipping and examined a correlation between emotional state and fundamental speech frequency. For this purpose, we applied an approach of exploratory data analysis. The ANOVA (Analysis of variance test confirmed that a modification in the speaker's emotional state changes the fundamental frequency of human vocal tract. The main contribution of the paper lies in investigation, of central clipping method by the ANOVA.

  6. Playful Interaction with Voice Sensing Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesche, Bjarke; MacDonald, Ewen; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a voice sensor, suitable for modular robotic systems, which estimates the energy and fundamental frequency, F0, of the user’s voice. Through a number of example applications and tests with children, we observe how the voice sensor facilitates playful interaction between...... children and two different robot configurations. In future work, we will investigate if such a system can motivate children to improve voice control and explore how to extend the sensor to detect emotions in the user’s voice....

  7. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  8. Bayesian analysis of rotating machines - A statistical approach to estimate and track the fundamental frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thorkild Find

    2003-01-01

    Rotating and reciprocating mechanical machines emit acoustic noise and vibrations when they operate. Typically, the noise and vibrations are concentrated in narrow frequency bands related to the running speed of the machine. The frequency of the running speed is referred to as the fundamental...... frequency estimation techniques are considered for predicting the true fundamental frequency from measured acoustic noise or vibration signal. Among the methods are auto-correlation based methods, subspace methods, interpolated Fourier transform methods, and adaptive filters. A modified version...... for the probability density function (PDF) of the parameters conditioned on observation. Considering the fundamental frequency as a parameter and the acoustic and vibration signals as observations, a novel Bayesian frequency estimator is developed. With simulations the new estimator is shown to be superior to any...

  9. The interaction of formant frequency and pitch in the perception of voice category and jaw opening in female singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly L

    2004-03-01

    This study represents a first step toward understanding the contribution formant frequency makes to the perception of female voice categories. The effects of formant frequency and pitch on the perception of voice category were examined by constructing a perceptual study that used two sets of synthetic stimuli at various pitches throughout the female singing range. The first set was designed to test the effects of systematically varying formants 1 through 4. The second set was designed to test the relative effects of lower frequency formants (F1 and F2) versus higher frequency formants (F3 and F4) through construction of mixed stimuli. Generally, as the frequencies of all four formants decreased, perception of soprano voice category decreased at all but the highest pitch, A5. However, perception of soprano voice category also increased as a function of pitch. Listeners appeared to need agreement between all four formants to perceive voice categories. When upper and lower formants are inconsistent in frequency, listeners were unable to judge voice category, but they could use the inconsistent patterns to form perceptions about degree of jaw opening.

  10. Fundamental Frequency Estimation of the Speech Signal Compressed by MP3 Algorithm Using PCC Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILIVOJEVIC, Z. N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fundamental frequency estimation results of the MP3 modeled speech signal are analyzed. The estimation of the fundamental frequency was performed by the Picking-Peaks algorithm with the implemented Parametric Cubic Convolution (PCC interpolation. The efficiency of PCC was tested for Catmull-Rom, Greville and Greville two-parametric kernel. Depending on MSE, a window that gives optimal results was chosen.

  11. Evaluation of two algorithms for detecting human frequency-following responses to voice pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Hu, Jiong; Dickman, Brenda; Lin, Ching-Yu; Lin, Chia-Der; Wang, Ching-Yuan; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Li, Ximing

    2011-01-01

    Voice pitch carries important cues for speech perception in humans. Recent studies have shown the feasibility of recording the frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch in normal-hearing listeners. The presence of such a response, however, has been dependent on subjective interpretation of experimenters. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an automated procedure including a control-experimental protocol and response-threshold criteria suitable for extracting FFRs to voice pitch, and compare the results to human judgments. A set of four Mandarin tones (Tone 1 flat; Tone 2 rising; Tone 3 dipping; and Tone 4 falling) were prepared to reflect the four contrastive pitch contours. Two distinctive algorithms, short-term autocorrelation in the time domain and narrow-band spectrogram in the frequency domain, were used to estimate the Frequency Error, Slope Error, Tracking Accuracy, Pitch Strength and Pitch-Noise Ratio of the recordings from individual listeners as well as the power and false-positive rates of each algorithm. Eleven native speakers (five males; age: mean ± SD = 31.4 ± 4.7 years) of Mandarin Chinese were recruited. The results demonstrated that both algorithms were suitable for extracting FFRs and the objective measures showed comparable results to human judgments. The automated procedure used in this study, including the use of the control-experimental protocol and response thresholds used for each of the five objective indices, can be used for difficult-to-test patients and may prove to be useful as an assessment and diagnostic method in both clinical and basic research efforts.

  12. Mechanics of human voice production and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed. PMID:27794319

  13. Phonetogram voice range profile : assessment of voice capacities and its clinical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Voice range profile measurement is being used more and more as a practical clinical tool in the process of voice evaluation. In principle it means a graphical representation of a patient's or person's vocal capabilities concerning the fundamental frequency range and dynamic range on several

  14. Joint DOA and Fundamental Frequency Estimation Methods based on 2-D Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that filtering methods can be used for processing of signals in both time and space. This comprises, for example, fundamental frequency estimation and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. In this paper, we propose two novel 2-D filtering methods for joint estimation of the fundam......It is well-known that filtering methods can be used for processing of signals in both time and space. This comprises, for example, fundamental frequency estimation and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. In this paper, we propose two novel 2-D filtering methods for joint estimation...... of the fundamental frequency and the DOA of spatio-temporarily sampled periodic signals. The first and simplest method is based on the 2-D periodogram, whereas the second method is a generalization of the 2-D Capon method. In the experimental part, both qualitative and quantitative measurements show that the proposed...

  15. Frequency sensitivity in mammalian hearing from a fundamental nonlinear physics model of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanders, Karlis; Lorimer, Tom; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2017-08-30

    A dominant view holds that the outer and middle ear are the determining factors for the frequency dependence of mammalian hearing sensitivity, but this view has been challenged. In the ensuing debate, there has been a missing element regarding in what sense and to what degree the biophysics of the inner ear might contribute to this frequency dependence. Here, we show that a simple model of the inner ear based on fundamental physical principles, reproduces, alone, the experimentally observed frequency dependence of the hearing threshold. This provides direct cochlea modeling support of the possibility that the inner ear could have a substantial role in determining the frequency dependence of mammalian hearing.

  16. Accurate Estimation of Low Fundamental Frequencies from Real-Valued Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason for this is that the......In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason...... for this is that they employ asymptotic approximations that are violated when the harmonics are not well-separated in frequency, something that happens when the observed signal is real-valued and the fundamental frequency is low. To mitigate this, we analyze the problem and present some exact fundamental frequency estimators...... that are aimed at solving this problem. These esti- mators are based on the principles of nonlinear least-squares, harmonic fitting, optimal filtering, subspace orthogonality, and shift-invariance, and they all reduce to already published methods for a high number of observations. In experiments, the methods...

  17. The perceptual significance of high-frequency energy in the human voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B. Monson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While human vocalizations generate acoustical energy at frequencies up to (and beyond 20 kHz, the energy at frequencies above about 5 kHz has traditionally been neglected in speech perception research. The intent of this paper is to review (1 the historical reasons for this research trend and (2 the work that continues to elucidate the perceptual significance of high-frequency energy (HFE in speech and singing. The historical and physical factors reveal that, while HFE was believed to be unnecessary and/or impractical for applications of interest, it was never shown to be perceptually insignificant. Rather, the main causes for focus on low-frequency energy appear to be because the low-frequency portion of the speech spectrum was seen to be sufficient (from a perceptual standpoint, or the difficulty of HFE research was too great to be justifiable (from a technological standpoint. The advancement of technology continues to overcome concerns stemming from the latter reason. Likewise, advances in our understanding of the perceptual effects of HFE now cast doubt on the first cause. Emerging evidence indicates that HFE plays a more significant role than previously believed, and should thus be considered in speech and voice perception research, especially in research involving children and the hearing impaired.

  18. The perceptual significance of high-frequency energy in the human voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B.; Hunter, Eric J.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2014-01-01

    While human vocalizations generate acoustical energy at frequencies up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy at frequencies above about 5 kHz has traditionally been neglected in speech perception research. The intent of this paper is to review (1) the historical reasons for this research trend and (2) the work that continues to elucidate the perceptual significance of high-frequency energy (HFE) in speech and singing. The historical and physical factors reveal that, while HFE was believed to be unnecessary and/or impractical for applications of interest, it was never shown to be perceptually insignificant. Rather, the main causes for focus on low-frequency energy appear to be because the low-frequency portion of the speech spectrum was seen to be sufficient (from a perceptual standpoint), or the difficulty of HFE research was too great to be justifiable (from a technological standpoint). The advancement of technology continues to overcome concerns stemming from the latter reason. Likewise, advances in our understanding of the perceptual effects of HFE now cast doubt on the first cause. Emerging evidence indicates that HFE plays a more significant role than previously believed, and should thus be considered in speech and voice perception research, especially in research involving children and the hearing impaired. PMID:24982643

  19. The Relationship between Relative Fundamental Frequency and a Kinematic Estimate of Laryngeal Stiffness in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Heller Murray, Elizabeth S.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and a kinematic estimate of laryngeal stiffness. Method: Twelve healthy adults (mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 4.4; 10 women, 2 men) produced repetitions of /ifi/ while varying their vocal effort during simultaneous acoustic and video…

  20. Two stage DOA and Fundamental Frequency Estimation based on Subspace Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; So, Hing-Cheung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of fundamental frequency and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signal is addressed. The estimation procedure consists of two stages. Firstly, by making use of the subspace technique and Markov-based eigenanalysis, a multi- chann...

  1. Modified integration method for amplitude estimation of fundamental frequency measuring signal for power system protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Vanja N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration method for amplitude estimation of fundamental frequency signal, using appropriate integration interval, can be used when measuring signal is composed of fundamental and high harmonics of order 2n or fundamental and high harmonics of order 3n, n=1,2,3.... It is not possible to find the integration interval to get the integration method which is simultaneous immune to high harmonics of order 2n, 3n, 5n etc.. In this paper, the integration method is modified to get the method which is simultaneous immune to high harmonics of order 2n, 3n and 5n, n=1,2,3.... The obtained method is tested at miscellaneous form of measuring signals using Matlab.

  2. Protonated Nitrous Oxide, NNOH(+): Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies and Spectroscopic Constants from Quartic Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The interstellar presence of protonated nitrous oxide has been suspected for some time. Using established high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques, spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies are provided for the lower energy O-protonated isomer of this cation and its deuterated isotopologue. The vibrationally-averaged B0 and C0 rotational constants are within 6 MHz of their experimental values and the D(subJ) quartic distortion constants agree with experiment to within 3%. The known gas phase O-H stretch of NNOH(+) is 3330.91 cm(exp-1), and the vibrational configuration interaction computed result is 3330.9 cm(exp-1). Other spectroscopic constants are also provided, as are the rest of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for NNOH(+) and its deuterated isotopologue. This high-accuracy data should serve to better inform future observational or experimental studies of the rovibrational bands of protonated nitrous oxide in the ISM and the laboratory.

  3. Exponential modeling of human frequency-following responses to voice pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Lin, Chia-Der; Dickman, Brenda; Hu, Jiong

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch can be a useful method to evaluate the signal-processing mechanisms and neural plasticity in the human brainstem. The purpose of this study was to examine the quantitative properties of the FFR trends with an exponential curve-fitting model. FFR trends obtained with increasing number of sweeps (up to 8000 sweeps) at three stimulus intensities (30, 45, and 60 dB nHL) were fit to an exponential model that consisted of estimates of background noise amplitude, asymptotic response amplitude, and a time constant. Five objective indices (Frequency Error, Slope Error, Tracking Accuracy, Pitch Strength and RMS Ratio) were used to represent different perspectives of pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twenty-three native speakers (16 males; age = 24.7 ± 2.1 years) of Mandarin Chinese were recruited. The results demonstrated that the exponential model provided a good fit (r(2) = 0.89 ± 0.10) to the FFR trends with increasing number of sweeps for the five objective indices. The exponential model, combined with the five objective indices, can be used for difficult-to-test patients and may prove to be useful as an assessment and diagnostic method in both clinical and basic research efforts.

  4. Modeling hemoglobin at optical frequency using the unconditionally stable fundamental ADI-FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong

    2011-04-12

    This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.

  5. Fundamental Frequencies of Vibration of Footbridges in Portugal: From In Situ Measurements to Numerical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, we have been measuring the in situ dynamic characteristics of different types of footbridges built in Portugal (essentially steel and precast reinforced concrete decks with single spans running from 11 to 110 m long, using expedite exciting and measuring techniques. A database has been created, containing not only the fundamental dynamic characteristics of those structures (transversal, longitudinal, and vertical frequencies but also their most important geometric and mechanical properties. This database, with 79 structures organized into 5 main typologies, allows the setting of correlations of fundamental frequencies as a negative power function of span lengths L  (L-0.6 to L-1.4. For 63 footbridges of more simple geometry, it was possible to obtain these correlations by typology. A few illustrative cases representing the most common typologies show that linear numerical models can reproduce the in situ measurements with great accuracy, not only matching the frequencies of vibration but also the amplitudes of motion caused by several pedestrian load patterns.

  6. Joint Spatio-Temporal Filtering Methods for DOA and Fundamental Frequency Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Benesty, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, spatio-temporal filtering methods are proposed for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and fundamental frequency of periodic signals, like those produced by the speech production system and many musical instruments using microphone arrays. This topic has quite recently receiv...... iterative adaptive approach (IAA). Experiments demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed methods under adverse conditions compared to the state of the art using both synthetic signals and real signals, as well as illustrate the properties of the methods and the filters....

  7. The Effects of the Acute Hypoxia to the Fundamental Frequency of the Speech Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILIVOJEVIC, Z. N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When people that live at the small altitudes (up to 400 m above the sea level climb on the mountain, they are exposed to the effects of an acute hypoxia. As a consequence, theirs oxygen concentration decreases in the tissue. This paper presents the analysis of the acute hypoxia effects to the speech signal at the altitudes up to 2600 m above the sea level. For the experiment, the articulation of vowels (A, E, I, O, U from the test group of persons was recorded at different altitudes, which creates the speech signal database. The speech signal from database is processed by the original algorithm. As the results, the fundamental frequency and the energy of dissonant intervals of speech signal are obtained. Furthermore, the acute hypoxia effect to the energy distribution in the dissonant intervals of the speech signal is analyzed. At the end, the comparative analysis of the acute hypoxia effects shows that the level of the hypoxia can be determined by the change of the fundamental frequency and the energy of the dissonant intervals of speech signal. Hence, it is possible to bring conclusions about the degree of hypoxia, which in many situations can be of importance for avoiding catastrophic consequences.

  8. New test for determining fundamental transverse, longitudinal and torsional frequencies of concrete specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidis, J. M.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available For twenty-five years The ASTM method used to determine reductions in concrete durability after freeze-thaw cycling has been C215-60. In this test the fundamental frequencies of a concrete specimen are compared. This test is time consuming, noisy and often inaccurate. In this paper a new method is proposed for measuring the fundamental frequencies of concrete to a single tap via a Fast Fourier Transform. The new test is faster, simpler and more accurate.

    El método usado por la ASTM desde hace 25 años para la determinación de la durabilidad del hormigón después de sufrir ciclos hielo/deshielo ha sido el C215-60. En este ensayo se comparan las frecuencias fundamentales de una probeta de hormigón. Este ensayo es ruidoso, lleva bastante tiempo y es bastante impreciso. En este trabajo se pone un nuevo método para medias frecuencias fundamentales en el hormigón por simple golpe mediante la TRANSFORMADA RÁPIDA de FOURIER. El nuevo método es más rápido, más simple y más preciso.

  9. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  10. Voice and handgrip strength predict reproductive success in a group of indigenous African females

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, Jeremy; Pipitone, R Nathan; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Jr, Gordon G

    2012-01-01

    .... Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction...

  11. FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY AND EMOTIONS: A STUDY BASED ON ACTED SPEECH IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mara de Oliveira VASSOLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fundamental Frequency (F0 in emotional and neutral speech in Brazilian Portuguese was analyzed. Methods: Three professional actresses participated in the survey reading a text in two conditions: neutral speech and acted emotion speech. Four emotions were taken into account for this study: joy, anger, fear and sadness. For each situation, actresses repeated five times, totaling 75 recordings. Speech sample recording took place in the Multimedia Lab Studio Electronic Computing Center of the University of São Paulo (USP-CCE through specific equipment. A sentence was selected to be segmented and analyzed in smaller units (syllables. In order to obtain F0 values, the software PRAAT and some of its scripts were used. Results: Analyzing F0 average of each emotion, we found that joy shows higher frequency bands than sadness that has very low values of F0. Variation of F0 in anger remained similar among the actresses speech. On the other hand, fear did not offer any F0 range pattern. Conclusion: F0 values , both mean and variation, show to be important in the differentiation of emotions: joy, anger and sadness. Fear seems to suffer other acoustic and physiological influences – a those could be analyzed in a more broad study – other than F0.

  12. FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY AND EMOTIONS: A STUDY BASED ON ACTED SPEECH IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mara de Oliveira Vassoler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fundamental Frequency (F0 in emotional and neutral speech in Brazilian Portuguese was analyzed. Methods: Three professional actresses participated in the survey reading a text in two conditions: neutral speech and acted emotion speech. Four emotions were taken into account for this study: joy, anger, fear and sadness. For each situation, actresses repeated five times, totaling 75 recordings. Speech sample recording took place in the Multimedia Lab Studio Electronic Computing Center of the University of São Paulo (USP-CCE through specific equipment. A sentence was selected to be segmented and analyzed in smaller units (syllables. In order to obtain F0 values, the software PRAAT and some of its scripts were used. Results: Analyzing F0 average of each emotion, we found that joy shows higher frequency bands than sadness that has very low values of F0 . Variation of F0 in anger remained similar among the actresses speech. On the other hand, fear did not offer any F0 range pattern. Conclusion: F0 values , both mean and variation, show to be important in the differentiation of emotions: joy, anger and sadness. Fear seems to suffer other acoustic and physiological influences – a those could be analyzed in a more broad study – other than F

  13. Examining explanations for fundamental frequency's contribution to speech intelligibility in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Miller, Sharon E.; Watson, Peter J.

    2005-09-01

    Laures and Weismer [JSLHR, 42, 1148 (1999)] reported that speech with natural variation in fundamental frequency (F0) is more intelligible in noise than speech with a flattened F0 contour. Cognitive-linguistic based explanations have been offered to account for this drop in intelligibility for the flattened condition, but a lower-level mechanism related to auditory streaming may be responsible. Numerous psychoacoustic studies have demonstrated that modulating a tone enables a listener to segregate it from background sounds. To test these rival hypotheses, speech recognition in noise was measured for sentences with six different F0 contours: unmodified, flattened at the mean, natural but exaggerated, reversed, and frequency modulated (rates of 2.5 and 5.0 Hz). The 180 stimulus sentences were produced by five talkers (30 sentences per condition). Speech recognition for fifteen listeners replicate earlier findings showing that flattening the F0 contour results in a roughly 10% reduction in recognition of key words compared with the natural condition. Although the exaggerated condition produced results comparable to those of the flattened condition, the other conditions with unnatural F0 contours all yielded significantly poorer performance than the flattened condition. These results support the cognitive, linguistic-based explanations for the reduction in performance.

  14. Fundamental frequency and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in Malaysian Malay children between 7 and 12 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Chia, See-Yan; Manap, Hany Hazfiza; Ho, Ai-Hui; Tiu, Kian-Yean; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-07-01

    The study is going to investigate the fundamental frequency (F(0)) and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in 360 native Malaysian Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Praat software (Boersma and Weenink, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was used to analyze the F(0) and perturbation measures of the sustained vowels. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the significant differences in F(0) and perturbation measures across the vowels, sex, and age groups. The mean F(0) of Malaysian Malay male and female children were reported at 240±34.88 and 254.48±23.35Hz, respectively. The jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) of Malaysian male children were reported at 0.43±0.26%, 0.25±0.16%, 0.26±0.15%, 2.48±1.61%, and 1.75±1.04%, respectively. As for female children, the Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, Shim, and APQ11 were reported at 0.42±0.22%, 0.25±0.14%, 0.25±0.13%, 2.47±1.53%, and 1.75±1.10%, respectively. No significant differences in F(0) were reported across the Malay vowels for both males and females. Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that in Malay males at the age of 8, 10, and 12 years. Malaysian Malay children underwent the nonsystematic decrement in F(0) across the age groups. Significant differences in F(0) were found across the age groups. Significant differences in perturbation measures were observed across the vowels in certain age groups of Malay males and females. Generally, no significant differences in perturbation measures between the sex were observed in all the age groups and vowels. No significant differences in all the perturbation measures across the age groups were reported in both Malaysian Malay male and female children. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Changes in the Fundamental Frequency (f0) of Infants' Cries: A Study of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Episodes of crying with higher fundamental frequency (f0) are perceived as more aversive and distressful than lower frequency cries. Besides, previous studies have speculated that in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) higher f0 may account for evoking mental states of uneasiness in the caregiver. Moreover no evidence on developmental…

  16. Cross-linguistic comparison of frequency-following responses to voice pitch in American and Chinese neonates and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Hu, Jiong; Dickman, Brenda; Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Tong, Meiling; Wu, Guangqiang; Lin, Chia-Der

    2011-01-01

    Cross-language studies, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, have shown the influence of dominant linguistic environments on the encoding of voice pitch at the brainstem level in normal-hearing adults. Research questions that remained unanswered included the characteristics of the FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their immediate postnatal period and the relative contributions of the biological capacities present at birth versus the influence of the listener's postnatal linguistic experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their first few days of life and to examine the relative contributions of the "biological capacity" versus "linguistic experience" influences on pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twelve American neonates (five males, 1-3 days old) and 12 Chinese neonates (seven males, 1-3 days old) were recruited to examine the characteristics of the FFRs during their immediate postnatal days of life. Twelve American adults (three males; age: mean ± SD = 24.6 ± 3.0 yr) and 12 Chinese adults (six males; age: mean ± SD = 25.3 ± 2.6 yr) were also recruited to determine the relative contributions of biological and linguistic influences. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in all participants. Two-way analysis of variance (i.e., the language [English versus Chinese] and age [neonate versus adult] factors) showed a significant difference in Pitch Strength for language (p = 0.035, F = 4.716). A post hoc Tukey-Kramer analysis further demonstrated that Chinese adults had significantly larger Pitch Strength values than Chinese neonates (p = 0.024). This finding, coupled with the fact that American neonates and American adults had comparable Pitch Strength values, supported the linguistic experience model. On the other hand, Pitch Strength

  17. The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indexical properties influence time-varying amplitude and fundamental frequency contributions of vowels to sentence intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated how non-linguistic, indexical information about talker identity interacts with contributions to sentence intelligibility by the time-varying amplitude (temporal envelope) and fundamental frequency (F 0 ). Young normal-hearing adults listened to sentences that preserved the original consonants but replaced the vowels with a single vowel production. This replacement vowel selectively preserved amplitude or F 0 cues of the original vowel, but replaced cues to phonetic identity. Original vowel duration was always preserved. Three experiments investigated indexical contributions by replacing vowels with productions from the same or different talker, or by acoustically morphing the original vowel. These stimulus conditions investigated how vowel suprasegmental and indexical properties interact and contribute to intelligibility independently from phonetic information. Results demonstrated that indexical properties influence the relative contribution of suprasegmental properties to sentence intelligibility. F 0 variations are particularly important in the presence of conflicting indexical information. Temporal envelope modulations significantly improve sentence intelligibility, but are enhanced when either indexical or F 0 cues are available. These findings suggest that F 0 and other indexical cues may facilitate perceptually grouping suprasegmental properties of vowels with the remainder of the sentence. Temporal envelope modulations of vowels may contribute to intelligibility once they are successfully integrated with the preserved signal.

  19. Characterizing fundamental frequency in Mandarin: a functional principal component approach utilizing mixed effect models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipantelis, Pantelis Z; Aston, John A D; Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-06-01

    A model for fundamental frequency (F0, or commonly pitch) employing a functional principal component (FPC) analysis framework is presented. The model is applied to Mandarin Chinese; this Sino-Tibetan language is rich in pitch-related information as the relative pitch curve is specified for most syllables in the lexicon. The approach yields a quantification of the influence carried by each identified component in relation to original tonal content, without formulating any assumptions on the shape of the tonal components. The original five speaker corpus is preprocessed using a locally weighted least squares smoother to produce F0 curves. These smoothed curves are then utilized as input for the computation of FPC scores and their corresponding eigenfunctions. These scores are analyzed in a series of penalized mixed effect models, through which meaningful categorical prototypes are built. The prototypes appear to confirm known tonal characteristics of the language, as well as suggest the presence of a sinusoid tonal component that is previously undocumented.

  20. The Impact of Rate Reduction and Increased Loudness on Fundamental Frequency Characteristics in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the extent to which articulatory rate reduction and increased loudness were associated with adjustments in utterance-level measures of fundamental frequency (F0) variability for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls that have been shown to impact on intelligibility in previously published studies. More generally, the current study sought to compare and contrast how a slower-than-normal rate and increased vocal loudness impact on a variety of utterance-level F0 characteristics for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls. Patients and Methods Eleven speakers with Parkinson's disease, 15 speakers with multiple sclerosis, and 14 healthy control speakers were audio recorded while reading a passage in habitual, loud, and slow conditions. Magnitude production was used to elicit variations in rate and loudness. Acoustic measures of duration, intensity and F0 were obtained. Results and Conclusions For all speaker groups, a slower-than-normal articulatory rate and increased vocal loudness had distinct effects on F0 relative to the habitual condition, including a tendency for measures of F0 variation to be greater in the loud condition and reduced in the slow condition. These results suggest implications for the treatment of dysarthria. PMID:20938199

  1. Effects of Masking Noise on Laryngeal Resistance for Breathy, Normal, and Pressed Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Elizabeth U.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Lee, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of masking noise on laryngeal resistance for breathy, normal, and pressed voice in vocally trained women. Method: Eighteen vocally trained women produced breathy, normal, and pressed voice across 7 fundamental frequencies during a repeated CV utterance of /pi/ under normal and…

  2. Acoustic and perceptual characteristics of the voice in patients with vocal polyps after surgery and voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic-Lazic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Nadica; Kulic, Milan; Babac, Snezana; Jurisic, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of endolaryngeal phonomicrosurgery (EPM) and voice therapy in patients with vocal fold polyps using perceptual and acoustic analysis before and after both therapies. The acoustic tests and perceptual evaluation of voice were carried out on 41 female patients with vocal fold polyp before and after EPM and voice therapy. Both therapy strategies were performed. Used acoustic parameters were Jitter percent (Jitt), pitch perturbation quotient (PPQ), shimmer percent (Shim), amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), fundamental frequency variation (vF0), noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), Voice Turbulence Index (VTI). For perceptual evaluation, GRB scale was used. Results indicated higher values of investigated parameters in patients' group than in the control group (P voice parameters were observed. All analyzed acoustic parameters improved after the phonomicrosurgery and voice therapy and tend to approach to values of the control group. For Jitt percent, Shim percent, vF0, VTI, and NHR, there were statistically significant differences. Perceptual voice evaluation revealed statistically significantly (P voice therapy. Our data indicated that both acoustic and perceptual characteristic of voice in patients with vocal polyps significantly improved after phonomicrosurgical and voice treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experience with a second language affects the use of fundamental frequency in speech segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cho, Taehong; Kim, Sahyang; Martínez-García, Maria Teresa; Connell, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether listeners’ experience with a second language learned later in life affects their use of fundamental frequency (F0) as a cue to word boundaries in the segmentation of an artificial language (AL), particularly when the cues to word boundaries conflict between the first language (L1) and second language (L2). F0 signals phrase-final (and thus word-final) boundaries in French but word-initial boundaries in English. Participants were functionally monolingual French listeners, functionally monolingual English listeners, bilingual L1-English L2-French listeners, and bilingual L1-French L2-English listeners. They completed the AL-segmentation task with F0 signaling word-final boundaries or without prosodic cues to word boundaries (monolingual groups only). After listening to the AL, participants completed a forced-choice word-identification task in which the foils were either non-words or part-words. The results show that the monolingual French listeners, but not the monolingual English listeners, performed better in the presence of F0 cues than in the absence of such cues. Moreover, bilingual status modulated listeners’ use of F0 cues to word-final boundaries, with bilingual French listeners performing less accurately than monolingual French listeners on both word types but with bilingual English listeners performing more accurately than monolingual English listeners on non-words. These findings not only confirm that speech segmentation is modulated by the L1, but also newly demonstrate that listeners’ experience with the L2 (French or English) affects their use of F0 cues in speech segmentation. This suggests that listeners’ use of prosodic cues to word boundaries is adaptive and non-selective, and can change as a function of language experience. PMID:28738093

  4. Analysis of voice in patients with untreated active acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogazzi, F; Nacci, A; Campomori, A; La Vela, R; Rossi, G; Lombardi, M; Fattori, B; Bartalena, L; Ursino, F; Martino, E

    2010-03-01

    Voice changes are common clinical findings of acromegaly, although scanty data are available so far. To analyze features and quantify changes of voice in patients with untreated active acromegaly. This was a pilot case-control study. Voice was analyzed using the Multi Dimensional Voice Program software, which generates 33 parameters related to fundamental frequency (F0), micro-perturbation of F0 and amplitude, noise, tremor, voice breaks and irregularities, and diplophony. Thirteen consecutive patients (8 women, 5 men, mean age 48+/-9 yr) with active acromegaly, at first diagnosis, and 13 sex- and age-matched normal subjects (controls). Patients with untreated active acromegaly had mean values of parameters related to F0 significantly lower than those of controls, although mostly remaining in the normal range. Most acromegalic patients had micro-perturbation of F0, as indicated by higher mean of absolute or percentage jitter values than those of controls; micro-perturbation of amplitude was a common feature of voice in most acromegalic men. Noise-related parameters were also affected by acromegaly, being higher in male acromegalic patients than in controls and acromegalic women. On the contrary, parameters related to tremors, voice breaks, voice irregularities and diplophony did not differ in acromegalic patients and controls. Patients with untreated active acromegaly had low-pitched voice characterized by lowering F0 and increased values related to noise, micro perturbation of frequency, and amplitude.

  5. A Study of the Effect of Emotional State upon the Variation of the Fundamental Frequency of a Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vasile GHIURCAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Telephone banking or brokering, building accesssystems or forensics are some of the areas in which speakerrecognition is continuously developing. Fundamental frequencyrepresents an important speech feature used in theseapplications. In this paper we present a study of the effect ofemotional state of a speaker upon the variation of thefundamental frequency of the speech signal. Human beings arequite frequently overwhelmed by various emotions and most ofthe time one can not really control these emotional states. Forthe purpose of our work we have used the Berlin emotionalspeech database which contains utterances of 10 speakers indifferent emotional situations: happy, angry, fearful, bored andneutral. The mean fundamental frequency and also the standarddeviation for every speaker in all the emotional states werecomputed. The results show a very strong influence of theemotional state upon frequency variation.

  6. Mechanism of and threshold biomechanical conditions for falsetto voice onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Deguchi

    Full Text Available The sound source of a voice is produced by the self-excited oscillation of the vocal folds. In modal voice production, a drastic increase in transglottal pressure after vocal fold closure works as a driving force that develops self-excitation. Another type of vocal fold oscillation with less pronounced glottal closure observed in falsetto voice production has been accounted for by the mucosal wave theory. The classical theory assumes a quasi-steady flow, and the expected driving force onto the vocal folds under wavelike motion is derived from the Bernoulli effect. However, wavelike motion is not always observed during falsetto voice production. More importantly, the application of the quasi-steady assumption to a falsetto voice with a fundamental frequency of several hundred hertz is unsupported by experiments. These considerations suggested that the mechanism of falsetto voice onset may be essentially different from that explained by the mucosal wave theory. In this paper, an alternative mechanism is submitted that explains how self-excitation reminiscent of the falsetto voice could be produced independent of the glottal closure and wavelike motion. This new explanation is derived through analytical procedures by employing only general unsteady equations of motion for flow and solids. The analysis demonstrated that a convective acceleration of a flow induced by rapid wall movement functions as a negative damping force, leading to the self-excitation of the vocal folds. The critical subglottal pressure and volume flow are expressed as functions of vocal fold biomechanical properties, geometry, and voice fundamental frequency. The analytically derived conditions are qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable in view of reported measurement data of the thresholds required for falsetto voice onset. Understanding of the voice onset mechanism and the explicit mathematical descriptions of thresholds would be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment

  7. Mechanism of and threshold biomechanical conditions for falsetto voice onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Shinji

    2011-03-07

    The sound source of a voice is produced by the self-excited oscillation of the vocal folds. In modal voice production, a drastic increase in transglottal pressure after vocal fold closure works as a driving force that develops self-excitation. Another type of vocal fold oscillation with less pronounced glottal closure observed in falsetto voice production has been accounted for by the mucosal wave theory. The classical theory assumes a quasi-steady flow, and the expected driving force onto the vocal folds under wavelike motion is derived from the Bernoulli effect. However, wavelike motion is not always observed during falsetto voice production. More importantly, the application of the quasi-steady assumption to a falsetto voice with a fundamental frequency of several hundred hertz is unsupported by experiments. These considerations suggested that the mechanism of falsetto voice onset may be essentially different from that explained by the mucosal wave theory. In this paper, an alternative mechanism is submitted that explains how self-excitation reminiscent of the falsetto voice could be produced independent of the glottal closure and wavelike motion. This new explanation is derived through analytical procedures by employing only general unsteady equations of motion for flow and solids. The analysis demonstrated that a convective acceleration of a flow induced by rapid wall movement functions as a negative damping force, leading to the self-excitation of the vocal folds. The critical subglottal pressure and volume flow are expressed as functions of vocal fold biomechanical properties, geometry, and voice fundamental frequency. The analytically derived conditions are qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable in view of reported measurement data of the thresholds required for falsetto voice onset. Understanding of the voice onset mechanism and the explicit mathematical descriptions of thresholds would be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of voice diseases

  8. Finding your mate at a cocktail party: frequency separation promotes auditory stream segregation of concurrent voices in multi-species frog choruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Nityananda

    Full Text Available Vocal communication in crowded social environments is a difficult problem for both humans and nonhuman animals. Yet many important social behaviors require listeners to detect, recognize, and discriminate among signals in a complex acoustic milieu comprising the overlapping signals of multiple individuals, often of multiple species. Humans exploit a relatively small number of acoustic cues to segregate overlapping voices (as well as other mixtures of concurrent sounds, like polyphonic music. By comparison, we know little about how nonhuman animals are adapted to solve similar communication problems. One important cue enabling source segregation in human speech communication is that of frequency separation between concurrent voices: differences in frequency promote perceptual segregation of overlapping voices into separate "auditory streams" that can be followed through time. In this study, we show that frequency separation (ΔF also enables frogs to segregate concurrent vocalizations, such as those routinely encountered in mixed-species breeding choruses. We presented female gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis with a pulsed target signal (simulating an attractive conspecific call in the presence of a continuous stream of distractor pulses (simulating an overlapping, unattractive heterospecific call. When the ΔF between target and distractor was small (e.g., ≤3 semitones, females exhibited low levels of responsiveness, indicating a failure to recognize the target as an attractive signal when the distractor had a similar frequency. Subjects became increasingly more responsive to the target, as indicated by shorter latencies for phonotaxis, as the ΔF between target and distractor increased (e.g., ΔF = 6-12 semitones. These results support the conclusion that gray treefrogs, like humans, can exploit frequency separation as a perceptual cue to segregate concurrent voices in noisy social environments. The ability of these frogs to segregate

  9. Measurements of the Acoustic Speaking Voice After Vocal Warm-up and Cooldown in Choir Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Fernanda; Prado, Yuka de Almeida; Rojas, Gleidy Vannesa E; Garcia, Denny Marco; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acoustic measurements of the vowel /a/ in modal recording before and after a singing voice resistance test and after 30 minutes of absolute rest in female choir singers. This is a prospective cohort study. A total of 13 soprano choir singers with experience in choir singing were evaluated through analysis of acoustic voice parameters at three points in time: before continuous use of the voice, after vocal warm-up and a singing test 60 minutes in duration respecting the pauses for breathing, and after vocal cooldown and an absolute voice rest for 30 minutes. The fundamental frequency increased after the voice resistance test (P = 0.012) and remained elevated after the 30 minutes of voice rest (P = 0.01). The jitter decreased after the voice resistance test (P = 0.02) and after the 30 minutes of voice rest. A significant difference was detected for the acoustic voice parameters relative average perturbation (RAP), (P = 0.05), and pitch perturbation quotient (PPQ), (P = 0.04), compared with the initial time point. The fundamental frequency increased after 60 minutes of singing and remained elevated after vocal cooldown and absolute rest for 30 minutes, proving an efficient parameter for identifying the changes inherent to voice demand during singing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [The local and sensual conditions of delay of voice breaking in adolescent boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowska, Anna; Walczak, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of voice breaking in adolescent boys (mutational dysphonia) could be a result of local, hormonal, neuropsychiatric or sensual factors. The aim of this paper was the voice assessment of three subjects with incomplete mutation with particular additional factors, disturbing hearing, voice and speech: like hearing loss, hyperfunctional childhood dysphonia and speech dysfluency. Diagnostics included complete phoniatric examination with perceptive estimation, videostroboscopy and acoustic voice analysis, done before and after treatment. Rehabilitation process results were well seen in perceptive and objective voice analysis except significant improvement of fundamental frequency average. Analysis of incomplete mutation etiological factors need special attention due to coexist with another voice, speech and hearing disorders, which undergo with high tension of voice organ muscles or with the lack of phonation auditory feedback.

  11. Relative power of harmonics in human frequency-following responses associated with voice pitch in American and Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Costilow, Cassie E; Stangherlin, Daniela P; Lin, Chia-Der

    2011-08-01

    When the fundamental frequency (f0) is removed from a complex stimulus, the pitch of the f0 is still perceived by the listener. Through the use of the scalp-recorded frequency-following response, this study examined the relative contributions of thef0 and its harmonics in pitch processing by systematically manipulating the speech stimulus to remove component frequencies. 12 American and 12 Chinese adults were recruited. There were statistically significant effects of pitch strength and frequency error for the experimental-condition factor. There were significantly larger responses to the harmonics-only conditions than those obtained in the f0-only and control conditions. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of participants. These findings indicate that neural responses associated with individual harmonics dominate the pitch processing in the human brainstem, irrespective of whether the listener's native language is nontonal or tonal.

  12. High-Frequency Signal Injection Method Based on Duty Cycle Shifting Without Maximum Fundamental Voltage Magnitude Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2017-01-01

    position estimation algorithm using the proposed HFSI method is developed and applied to a synchronous reluctance machine drive system. The proposed algorithm focuses on the medium- to high-speed range with the advantage of no filter needed for position information extraction and a machine......-frequency signal at half of the switching frequency without the necessity to sacrifice the machine fundamental voltage amplitude. This may be utilized to develop a new position estimation algorithm without involving the machine inductance in the medium- to high-speed range. As an application example, a new...

  13. Fundamental-frequency and load-varying thermal cycles effects on lifetime estimation of DFIG power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guanguan; Zhou, Dao; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated....

  14. Rovibrational spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies for isotopologues of cyclic and bent singlet HC{sub 2}N isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inostroza, Natalia; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Huang, Xinchuan, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Through established, highly accurate ab initio quartic force fields, a complete set of fundamental vibrational frequencies, rotational constants, and rovibrational coupling and centrifugal distortion constants have been determined for both the cyclic 1 {sup 1} A' and bent 2 {sup 1} A' DCCN, H{sup 13}CCN, HC{sup 13}CN, and HCC{sup 15}N isotopologues of HCCN. Spectroscopic constants are computed for all isotopologues using second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2), and the fundamental vibrational frequencies are computed with VPT2 and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) theory. Agreement between VPT2 and VCI results is quite good, with the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the bent isomer isotopologues in accord to within a 0.1-3.2 cm{sup –1} range. Similar accuracies are present for the cyclic isomer isotopologues. The data generated here serve as a reference for astronomical observations of these closed-shell, highly dipolar molecules using new, high-resolution telescopes and as reference for laboratory studies where isotopic labeling may lead to elucidation of the formation mechanism for the known interstellar molecule: X {sup 3} A' HCCN.

  15. Voice parameters and videonasolaryngoscopy in children with vocal nodules: a longitudinal study, before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Victor; Ysunza, Antonio; Ocharan-Hernandez, Esther; Garrido-Bustamante, Norma; Sanchez-Valerio, Araceli; Pamplona, Ma C

    2012-09-01

    Vocal Nodules (VN) are a functional voice disorder associated with voice misuse and abuse in children. There are few reports addressing vocal parameters in children with VN, especially after a period of vocal rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to describe measurements of vocal parameters including Fundamental Frequency (FF), Shimmer (S), and Jitter (J), videonasolaryngoscopy examination and clinical perceptual assessment, before and after voice therapy in children with VN. Voice therapy was provided using visual support through Speech-Viewer software. Twenty patients with VN were studied. An acoustical analysis of voice was performed and compared with data from subjects from a control group matched by age and gender. Also, clinical perceptual assessment of voice and videonasolaryngoscopy were performed to all patients with VN. After a period of voice therapy, provided with visual support using Speech Viewer-III (SV-III-IBM) software, new acoustical analyses, perceptual assessments and videonasolaryngoscopies were performed. Before the onset of voice therapy, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in mean FF, S and J, between the patients with VN and subjects from the control group. After the voice therapy period, a significant improvement (p<0.05) was found in all acoustic voice parameters. Moreover, perceptual voice analysis demonstrated improvement in all cases. Finally, videonasolaryngoscopy demonstrated that vocal nodules were no longer discernible on the vocal folds in any of the cases. SV-III software seems to be a safe and reliable method for providing voice therapy in children with VN. Acoustic voice parameters, perceptual data and videonasolaryngoscopy were significantly improved after the speech therapy period was completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural-network-based voice-tracking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mary; Stevens, Charise; Chaparro, Brennen; Paschall, Dwayne

    2002-11-01

    A voice-tracking algorithm was developed and tested for the purposes of electronically separating the voice signals of simultaneous talkers. Many individuals suffer from hearing disorders that often inhibit their ability to focus on a single speaker in a multiple speaker environment (the cocktail party effect). Digital hearing aid technology makes it possible to implement complex algorithms for speech processing in both the time and frequency domains. In this work, an average magnitude difference function (AMDF) was performed on mixed voice signals in order to determine the fundamental frequencies present in the signals. A time prediction neural network was trained to recognize normal human voice inflection patterns, including rising, falling, rising-falling, and falling-rising patterns. The neural network was designed to track the fundamental frequency of a single talker based on the training procedure. The output of the neural network can be used to design an active filter for speaker segregation. Tests were done using audio mixing of two to three speakers uttering short phrases. The AMDF function accurately identified the fundamental frequencies present in the signal. The neural network was tested using a single speaker uttering a short sentence. The network accurately tracked the fundamental frequency of the speaker.

  17. The Speaking Voice in the General Population: Normative Data and Associations to Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Martin; Fuchs, Michael; Wirkner, Kerstin; Loeffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Berger, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Normative data concerning the speaking voice in the general population were gathered with the aim to establish standard values for clinical diagnostics. Associations between the speaking voice and sociodemographic factors were examined. This is a prospective cross-sectional population-based study. Speaking voice profiles were measured for 2472 (1154 male and 1318 female) participants between the ages of 40 and 79 years, using four speaking voice intensity levels: softest speaking voice (I), conversational voice (II), classroom voice (III), and shouting voice (IV). Smoking status and socioeconomic status were assessed. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression. The mean voice frequencies were 111.8 Hz for male and 161.3 Hz for female participants (I), 111.9 Hz for male and 168.5 Hz for female participants (II), 130.2 Hz for male and 198.0 Hz for female participants (III), and 175.5 Hz for male and 246.2 Hz for female participants (IV). Frequencies increased significantly with age for male but not for female participants. Sound pressure levels rose significantly with age at intensity levels I-III for both sexes, but decreased at intensity level IV. Frequencies and sound pressure levels were similar between nonsmokers and former smokers. Current smokers showed significantly lower frequencies as opposed to non- and former smokers. Speaking voice range and dynamics increased with higher socioeconomic status. The data are suitable as age-adjusted normative values for clinical measurement of the speaking voice. The mean fundamental speaking voice frequency of female participants was six to seven semitones lower than previously described. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smartphones Offer New Opportunities in Clinical Voice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Lebacq, J; Cantarella, G; Schoentgen, J; Orlandi, S; Bandini, A; DeJonckere, P H

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone technology provides new opportunities for recording standardized voice samples of patients and sending the files by e-mail to the voice laboratory. This drastically improves the collection of baseline data, as used in research on efficiency of voice treatments. However, the basic requirement is the suitability of smartphones for recording and digitizing pathologic voices (mainly characterized by period perturbations and noise) without significant distortion. In this experiment, two smartphones (a very inexpensive one and a high-level one) were tested and compared with direct microphone recordings in a soundproof room. The voice stimuli consisted in synthesized deviant voice samples (median of fundamental frequency: 120 and 200 Hz) with three levels of jitter and three levels of added noise. All voice samples were analyzed using PRAAT software. The results show high correlations between jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio measured on the recordings via both smartphones, the microphone, and measured directly on the sound files from the synthesizer. Smartphones thus appear adequate for reliable recording and digitizing of pathologic voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Voice acoustic profi le of males exposed to occupational infrasound and low-frequency noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Ana; Bonança, Íris; Jorge, Ana; Alves-Pereira, Mariana; Castelo-Branco, Nuno A. A.; Caetano, Marlene; Oliveira, Nádia; Graça, Andreia; Santos, Carolina; Ferraria, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is a systematic pathology characterized by the abnormal growth of extra-cellular matrices in the absence of infl ammatory processes, namely collagen and elastin, both of which are abundant in the basement membrane zone of the vocal folds. VAD can develop due to long-term exposure to infrasound and low-frequency noise (ILFN,

  20. Rydberg atoms in low-frequency fields : fundamental aspects and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürtler, Andreas Stefan

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate highly excited atoms, so-called Rydberg atoms, in oscillating fields with frequencies from the megahertz to the terahertz domain. The strong interaction of Rydberg atoms with external fields is used to establish a connection between the ionization of Rydberg atoms by

  1. Effects on the glottal voice source of vocal loudness variation in untrained female and male voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Fahlstedt, Ellinor; Morell, Anja

    2005-02-01

    Subglottal pressure is one of the main voice control factors, controlling vocal loudness. In this investigation the effects of subglottal pressure variation on the voice source in untrained female and male voices phonating at a low, a middle, and a high fundamental frequency are analyzed. The subjects produced a series of /pae/ syllables at varied degrees of vocal loudness, attempting to keep pitch constant. Subglottal pressure was estimated from the oral pressure during the /p/ occlusion. Ten subglottal pressure values, approximately equidistantly spaced within the pressure range used, were identified, and the voice source of the vowels following these pressure values was analyzed by inverse filtering the airflow signal as captured by a Rothenberg mask. The maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) was found to increase linearly with subglottal pressure, but a given subglottal pressure produced lower values for female than for male voices. The closed quotient increased quickly with subglottal pressure at low pressures and slowly at high pressures, such that the relationship can be approximated by a power function. For a given subglottal pressure value, female voices reached lower values of closed quotient than male voices. .

  2. Determination of the Fundamental Frequency of Perforated Rectangular Plates: Concentrated Negative Mass Approach for the Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran D. Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a vibration analysis of perforated rectangular plates with rectangular perforation pattern of circular holes. The study is particularly useful in the understanding of the vibration of sound absorbing screens, head plates, end covers, or supports for tube bundles typically including tube sheets and support plates used in the mechanical devices. An energy method is developed to obtain analytical frequencies of the perforated plates with clamped edge, support conditions. Perforated plate is considered as plate with uniformly distributed mass. Holes are considered as concentrated negative masses. The analytical procedure using the Galerkin method is adopted. The deflected surface of the plate is approximated by the cosine series which satisfies the boundary conditions. Finite element method (FEM results have been used to illustrate the validity of the analytical model. The comparisons show that the analytical model predicts natural frequencies reasonably well for holes of small size.

  3. The Physics of Ultrabroadband Frequency Comb Generation and Optimized Combs for Measurements in Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-02

    order phase-matched cascaded frequency gene, high harmonic generation, fine structure constant measurements, -envelope phase stabilization, ultra fast...partially) coherent seed. Figure 1: Experimental Setup used Our experiments showed control of both the spectral and noise properties of optical fibre...specifically linked to the studies funded by the grant are: D. M. Nguyen, T. Godin, S. Toenger, Y. Combes, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, et al

  4. Ageing Voices: The Effect of Changes in Voice Parameters on ASR Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichander Vipperla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With ageing, human voices undergo several changes which are typically characterized by increased hoarseness and changes in articulation patterns. In this study, we have examined the effect on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR and found that the Word Error Rates (WER on older voices is 10% absolute higher compared to those of adult voices. Subsequently, we compared several voice source parameters including fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, harmonicity, and cepstral peak prominence of adult and older males. Several of these parameters show statistically significant difference for the two groups. However, artificially increasing jitter and shimmer measures do not effect the ASR accuracies significantly. Artificially lowering the fundamental frequency degrades the ASR performance marginally but this drop in performance can be overcome to some extent using Vocal Tract Length Normalisation (VTLN. Overall, we observe that the changes in the voice source parameters do not have a significant impact on ASR performance. Comparison of the likelihood scores of all the phonemes for the two age groups show that there is a systematic mismatch in the acoustic space of the two age groups. Comparison of the phoneme recognition rates show that mid vowels, nasals, and phonemes that depend on the ability to create constrictions with tongue tip for articulation are more affected by ageing than other phonemes.

  5. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  6. Effects of Voice Therapy on Vocal Acoustic Characteristics in Patients With Vocal Cord Nodules

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    Yunos Amiri Shavaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal cord nodule is one of the voice disorders causes hoarseness and breathy voice. Voice therapy is one of the treatment approaches. We aimed to find out the effects of voice therapy on vocal acoustic characteristics in these patients.Methods: In this case series, five women with vocal nodule (14 to 45-year-old participated in a 9-week voice therapy program developed by Boone. Vocal hygiene and voice practices were measured every day using a questionnaire. Moreover, structure and movements of vocal folds were examined using videolaryngostroboscope by a laryngologist before and after voice therapy to evaluate the effectiveness of program. For collecting voice samples we used sustained /æ/ in comfortable loudness for all patients and data were analyzed using Speech Studio.Results: After voice therapy, fundamental frequency in four of five subjects were decreased but it was not significant (p=0.225. However, jitter in all of five subjects was significantly decreased (p=0.043. After voice therapy, shimmer in three of five subjects were decreased that was not significant (p=0.345.Conclusion: Voice therapy can be used for the remedy of acoustic vocal characteristics and elimination or contraction of vocal cord nodule.

  7. The effectiveness of melodic intonation therapy on fundamental frequency and intensity in Persian autistic children’s speech

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    Neda Ferdosi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder with several speech disorders such as prosodic and pragmatic impairments. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT based on Albert et al. model (1973 is a rehabilitation method, developed on prosodic features. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MIT on Persian autistic children’s prosody.Methods: An easy version of MIT, adopted for Persian language was designed by researchers. Then, after a successful pilot study on a 10-years-old boy for one month, 13 subjects were selected for the main study. All the subjects were autistic, male, right-handed, 7-10-years-old Persian children studied for 48 sessions (16 weeks. Background information gathered from the parents by a questionnaire. As pre- and post-test, some assessments about children’s fundamental frequency (Fº and intensity of the Persian vowel sounds and declarative and interrogative sentences were accomplished. The data analysis was done using Praat and SPSS softwares.Results: There was a statistically significant increase in acoustic features, such as intensity, and fundamental frequency of declarative and interrogative sentences; also all six vowels of Persian, excluding /â/ and /æ/ (p<0.05 for all.Conclusion: The widely reported unusual prosody in autistic children was quantified by this study, too. In addition, there was convincing evidence of the positive effects of melodic intonation therapy on acoustic features in Persian autistic children.

  8. Associations of Sex Hormones and Anthropometry with the Speaking Voice Profile in the Adult General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Lasse; Fuchs, Michael; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Juergen; Berger, Thomas; Engel, Christoph

    2017-07-21

    There is evidence that sexual hormone concentrations and anthropometric factors influence the human voice. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent body mass index (BMI), body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone are associated with the sound pressure level and the fundamental frequency of the speaking voice in a cross-sectional approach among adults in the general population. Speaking voice profiles with four different intensity levels, hormone concentrations, and anthropometric parameters were assessed for 2,381 individuals aged 40-79 years, who were randomly sampled from the population of a large city in Germany. Multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Taller body height was associated with lower frequencies. Higher body weight was associated with lower frequencies and higher sound pressure levels. The ratio of chest to abdominal circumference was associated with the sound pressure levels in males and females: participants with larger breast-to-abdomen-ratio were found to have higher sound pressure levels. Among the sexual hormones, higher concentrations of DHEA-S were associated with lower fundamental frequencies of the voice while using the normal speaking voice. In addition, bioavailable testosterone was associated with the sound pressure level of the normal speaking voice in men and the softest speaking voice in women. Our findings suggest that BMI, body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, bioavailable testosterone, and DHEA-S are associated with the speaking voice in adults. No associations between testosterone and the frequency of the speaking voice were found. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous Voice Gender Imitation Abilities in Adult Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Cowles, Heidi Wind; Reby, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequency components of the human voice play a major role in signalling the gender of the speaker. A voice imitation study was conducted to investigate individuals' ability to make behavioural adjustments to fundamental frequency (F0), and formants (Fi) in order to manipulate their expression of voice gender. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-two native British-English adult speakers were asked to read out loud different types of text (words, sentence, passage) using their normal voice and then while sounding as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ as possible. Overall, the results show that both men and women raised their F0 and Fi when feminising their voice, and lowered their F0 and Fi when masculinising their voice. Conclusions/Significance These observations suggest that adult speakers are capable of spontaneous glottal and vocal tract length adjustments to express masculinity and femininity in their voice. These results point to a “gender code”, where speakers make a conventionalized use of the existing sex dimorphism to vary the expression of their gender and gender-related attributes. PMID:22363628

  10. Acoustic analysis of voice in normal and high pitch phonation: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Venkataraja U; Bellur, Rajashekhar; John, Sunila; Varghese, Ciji; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of acoustic parameters of voice between normal and high pitch phonation in normal adults, and comparison between genders. A total of 48 normal laryngeal speakers were considered for this study. The acoustic parameters were analyzed using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis of the acoustic parameters across tasks and genders. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare measures between tasks. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare parameters between genders. Significant differences were found across tasks in the range of fundamental frequency and average fundamental frequency. Females showed a significant difference in the frequency perturbation measures – percent jitter and relative average perturbation, while males demonstrated a significant difference in the noise-to-harmonic ratio. While comparing mean differences between genders, significant differences were observed in fundamental frequency, range of the fundamental frequency, and smoothed pitch perturbation quotient during both phonation tasks. Comparison of acoustic parameters between normal and high pitch phonation would facilitate understanding the effect of high pitch phonation on voice parameters. Subsequently, this would help clinicians to focus on important acoustic parameters while assessing professional voice users who are at risk of developing voice problems.

  11. Análise da freqüência fundamental, jitter, shimmer e intensidade vocal em crianças com transtorno fonológico Analysis of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and vocal intensity in children with phonological disorders

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    Haydée F. Wertzner

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno fonológico é uma alteração de manifestação primária de causa indefinida que torna a fala ininteligível. A análise de parâmetros vocais torna-se importante no processo do diagnóstico deste transtorno, pois distúrbios de voz poderiam interferir na produção dos sons da fala. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as características vocais relacionadas à intensidade e freqüência fundamental - F0 - e seus índices de perturbação - jitter e shimmer - em crianças com transtorno fonológico. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico prospectivo com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram sujeitos 40 crianças distribuídas em dois grupos: 20 com transtorno fonológico e 20 sem alteração de fala e linguagem. Foram aplicadas provas de fonologia do Teste de Linguagem Infantil ABFW e de fala espontânea. Utilizou-se o Computer Speech Lab, para gravação e análise acústica das vogais /a/, /e/, /i/, por meio dos parâmetros vocais: freqüência fundamental, intensidade, jitter e shimmer. RESULTADOS: F0 - vogal /e/ é menor, em média, para o Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico (126Hz e 237Hz no Grupo Controle. Para o shimmer e jitter não há evidência de que as médias do Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico sejam diferentes das do Grupo Controle (p= 0,191, p=0,865 respectivamente. Quanto à intensidade, há evidência de que a média diferencia os dois grupos (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência da vogal /e/ é menor no Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico. Existe diferença entre grupos para as médias da intensidade das vogais /a/, /e/ e /i/, sendo estas menores no Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre grupos para as médias do jitter e do shimmer.Phonological Disorder is a disturbance of primary manifestation of undefined causes that makes speech become unintelligible. The analysis of vocal parameters becomes important in the process of diagnosis of this disorder, since voice disorders

  12. Vocal responses to perturbations in voice auditory feedback in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

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    Hanjun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most common symptoms of speech deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD is significantly reduced vocal loudness and pitch range. The present study investigated whether abnormal vocalizations in individuals with PD are related to sensory processing of voice auditory feedback. Perturbations in loudness or pitch of voice auditory feedback are known to elicit short latency, compensatory responses in voice amplitude or fundamental frequency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve individuals with Parkinson's disease and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects sustained a vowel sound (/α/ and received unexpected, brief (200 ms perturbations in voice loudness (±3 or 6 dB or pitch (±100 cents auditory feedback. Results showed that, while all subjects produced compensatory responses in their voice amplitude or fundamental frequency, individuals with PD exhibited larger response magnitudes than the control subjects. Furthermore, for loudness-shifted feedback, upward stimuli resulted in shorter response latencies than downward stimuli in the control subjects but not in individuals with PD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The larger response magnitudes in individuals with PD compared with the control subjects suggest that processing of voice auditory feedback is abnormal in PD. Although the precise mechanisms of the voice feedback processing are unknown, results of this study suggest that abnormal voice control in individuals with PD may be related to dysfunctional mechanisms of error detection or correction in sensory feedback processing.

  13. Acoustic analysis of voice in children with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice can provide instrumental data concerning vocal abnormalities. These findings can be used for monitoring clinical course in cases of voice disorders. Cleft palate severely affects the structure of the vocal tract. Hence, voice quality can also be also affected. To study whether the main acoustic parameters of voice, including fundamental frequency, shimmer and jitter are significantly different in patients with a repaired cleft palate, as compared with normal children without speech, language and voice disorders. Fourteen patients with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and persistent or residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) were studied. A control group was assembled with healthy volunteer subjects matched by age and gender. Hypernasality and nasal emission were perceptually assessed in patients with VPI. Size of the gap as assessed by videonasopharyngoscopy was classified in patients with VPI. Acoustic analysis of voice including Fundamental frequency (F0), shimmer and jitter were compared between patients with VPI and control subjects. F0 was significantly higher in male patients as compared with male controls. Shimmer was significantly higher in patients with VPI regardless of gender. Moreover, patients with moderate VPI showed a significantly higher shimmer perturbation, regardless of gender. Although future research regarding voice disorders in patients with VPI is needed, at the present time it seems reasonable to include strategies for voice therapy in the speech and language pathology intervention plan for patients with VPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceiving a stranger's voice as being one's own: a 'rubber voice' illusion?

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    Zane Z Zheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an illusion in which a stranger's voice, when presented as the auditory concomitant of a participant's own speech, is perceived as a modified version of their own voice. When the congruence between utterance and feedback breaks down, the illusion is also broken. Compared to a baseline condition in which participants heard their own voice as feedback, hearing a stranger's voice induced robust changes in the fundamental frequency (F0 of their production. Moreover, the shift in F0 appears to be feedback dependent, since shift patterns depended reliably on the relationship between the participant's own F0 and the stranger-voice F0. The shift in F0 was evident both when the illusion was present and after it was broken, suggesting that auditory feedback from production may be used separately for self-recognition and for vocal motor control. Our findings indicate that self-recognition of voices, like other body attributes, is malleable and context dependent.

  15. Fundamental-frequency and load-varying thermal cycles effects on lifetime estimation of DFIG power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Zhou, D.; Yang, J.

    2017-01-01

    In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been ...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated.......In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...

  16. Associations between respiratory arrhythmia and fundamental frequency of spontaneous crying in preterm and term infants at term‐equivalent age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated whether lower vagal function in preterm infants is associated with increased fundamental frequency (F 0; frequency of vocal fold vibration) of their spontaneous cries. We assessed respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during quiet sleep as a measure of vagal function, and its relationship with the F 0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and term infants at term‐equivalent age. The results showed that preterm infants have significantly lower RSA, and higher overall F 0 than term infants. Moreover, lower RSA was associated with higher overall F 0 in preterm infants, whereas higher RSA was positively associated with mean and maximum F 0, and a larger F 0 range in term infants. These results suggest that individual differences in vagal function may be associated with the F 0 of spontaneous cries via modulation of vocal fold tension in infants at an early developmental stage. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:724–733, 2016. PMID:27037599

  17. Vowel recognition at fundamental frequencies up to 1 kHz reveals point vowels as acoustic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Daniel; Maurer, Dieter; Rosen, Stuart; Dellwo, Volker

    2017-08-01

    The phonological function of vowels can be maintained at fundamental frequencies (f o ) up to 880 Hz [Friedrichs, Maurer, and Dellwo (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL36-EL42]. Here, the influence of talker variability and multiple response options on vowel recognition at high f o s is assessed. The stimuli (n = 264) consisted of eight isolated vowels (/i y e ø ε a o u/) produced by three female native German talkers at 11 f o s within a range of 220-1046 Hz. In a closed-set identification task, 21 listeners were presented excised 700-ms vowel nuclei with quasi-flat f o contours and resonance trajectories. The results show that listeners can identify the point vowels /i a u/ at f o s up to almost 1 kHz, with a significant decrease for the vowels /y ε/ and a drop to chance level for the vowels /e ø o/ toward the upper f o s. Auditory excitation patterns reveal highly differentiable representations for /i a u/ that can be used as landmarks for vowel category perception at high f o s. These results suggest that theories of vowel perception based on overall spectral shape will provide a fuller account of vowel perception than those based solely on formant frequency patterns.

  18. The Moderating Effect of Frequent Singing on Voice Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Rivard, Julie; Thibeault, Mélanie; Tremblay, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    The effects of aging on voice production are well documented, including changes in loudness, pitch, and voice quality. However, one important and clinically relevant question that remains concerns the possibility that the aging of voice can be prevented or at least delayed through noninvasive methods. Indeed, discovering natural means to preserve the integrity of the human voice throughout aging could have a major impact on the quality of life of elderly adults. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potentially positive effect of singing on voice production. To this aim, a group of 72 healthy nonsmoking adults (20-93 years old) was recruited and separated into three groups based on their singing habits. Several voice parameters were assessed (fundamental frequency [f0] mean, f0 standard deviation [SD], f0 minimum and f0 maximum, mean amplitude and amplitude SD, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio) during the sustained production of vowel /a/. Other parameters were assessed during standardized reading passage (speaking f0, speaking f0 SD). As was expected, age effects were found on most acoustic parameters with significant sex differences. Importantly, moderation analyses revealed that frequent singing moderates the effect of aging on most acoustic parameters. Specifically, in frequent singers, there was no decrease in the stability of pitch and amplitude with age, suggesting that the voice of frequent singers remains more stable in aging than the voice of non-singers, and more generally, providing empirical evidence for a positive effect of singing on voice in aging. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Color and texture associations in voice-induced synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of "voice quality" (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups-self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls-were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of "whispery" voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of "harsh" and "creaky" voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers.

  20. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

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    Anja eMoos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.

  1. Voice acoustic patterns of patients diagnosed with vibroacoustic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana; Alves-Pereira, Mariana; Castelo Branco, Nuno A A

    2006-01-01

    Long-term low frequency noise exposure (LFN) (vibroacoustic disease (VAD), a systemic pathology characterized by the abnormal growth of extra-cellular matrices. The respiratory system is a target for LFN. Fibrosis of the respiratory tract epithelia was observed in VAD patients through biopsy, and confirmed in animal models exposed to LFN. Voice acoustic analysis can detect vocal fold variations of mass, tension, muscular and neural activity. Frequency perturbation (jitter), amplitude perturbation (shimmer) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) are used in the evaluation of the vocal function, and can be indicators of the presence and degree of severity of vocal pathology. Since the respiratory system is the energy source of the phonation process, this raises questions about the effects of VAD on voice production. The purpose of this study was to determine if voice acoustic parameters of VAD patients are different from normative data. Nine individuals (5 males and 4 females) diagnosed with VAD were recorded performing spoken and sung tasks. The spoken tasks included sustaining vowels and fricatives. The sung tasks consisted of maximum phonational frequency range (MPFR). Voice acoustic parameters ana- lysed were: fundamental frequency (F0), jitter, shimmer, HNR and temporal measures. Compared with normative data, both males and females diagnosed with VAD exhibited increased F0, shimmer and HNR. Jitter, MPFR and one temporal measure were reduced. VAD individuals presented voice acoustic parameter differences in spectral, temporal and perturbation measures, which may be indicative of small morphological changes in the phonatory system.

  2. Effects of altered fundamental frequency on nasalance during vowel production by adult speakers at targeted sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandulak, Kerry C; Zajac, David J

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of altered fundamental frequency (F0) on nasalance levels of the vowels /i/ and /a/ produced by adults without cleft palate within a controlled sound pressure level (SPL) range. A prospective group design with convenience sampling from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was used. 20 men and 20 women participated, aged 18 to 55 years. All were native English speakers with normal speech and language skills and adequate velopharyngeal function. The outcome measures were percentage nasalance obtained from the Nasometer 6200 (KayPentax) headset and the Computerized Speech Lab Model 4400 (CSL, KayPentax) during vowel production while speakers (1) targeted an SPL range of 75 to 85 dB and (2) targeted the SPL plus F0 range of 165 to 175 Hz. A significant univariate effect was found for the vowels /i/ and /a/ in the targeted SPL condition such that /i/ was produced with higher nasalance than /a/. A significant univariate effect was also found during production of /a/ in the targeted SPL plus F0 condition such that men produced /a/ with higher nasalance than women did. SPL appears to largely account for percentage nasalance differences between the vowels /i/ and /a/ produced by adult male and female speakers. Increased F0 by male speakers appears to influence percentage nasalance during production of the vowel /a/. Clinical implications in regard to assessment of hypernasality are discussed.

  3. Effects of the Native Language on the Learning of Fundamental Frequency in Second-Language Speech Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie; Broersma, Mirjam; Coughlin, Caitlin E; Choi, Jiyoun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether the learning of prosodic cues to word boundaries in speech segmentation is more difficult if the native and second/foreign languages (L1 and L2) have similar (though non-identical) prosodies than if they have markedly different prosodies (Prosodic-Learning Interference Hypothesis). It does so by comparing French, Korean, and English listeners' use of fundamental-frequency (F0) rise as a cue to word-final boundaries in French. F0 rise signals phrase-final boundaries in French and Korean but word-initial boundaries in English. Korean-speaking and English-speaking L2 learners of French, who were matched in their French proficiency and French experience, and native French listeners completed a visual-world eye-tracking experiment in which they recognized words whose final boundary was or was not cued by an increase in F0. The results showed that Korean listeners had greater difficulty using F0 rise as a cue to word-final boundaries in French than French and English listeners. This suggests that L1-L2 prosodic similarity can make the learning of an L2 segmentation cue difficult, in line with the proposed Prosodic-Learning Interference Hypothesis. We consider mechanisms that may underlie this difficulty and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding listeners' phonological encoding of L2 words.

  4. Differential effects of perturbation direction and magnitude on the neural processing of voice pitch feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Meshman, Michelle; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined the differential effects of voice auditory feedback perturbation direction and magnitude on voice fundamental frequency (F(0)) responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) from EEG electrodes on the scalp. The voice F(0) responses and N1 and P2 components of ERPs were examined from 12 right-handed speakers when they sustained a vowel phonation and their mid-utterance voice pitch feedback was shifted ±100, ±200, and ±500 cents with 200 ms duration. Downward voice pitch feedback perturbations led to larger voice F(0) responses than upward perturbations. The amplitudes of N1 and P2 components were larger for downward compared with upward pitch-shifts for 200 and 500 cents stimulus magnitudes. Shorter N1 and P2 latencies were also associated with larger magnitudes of pitch feedback perturbations. Corresponding changes in vocal and neural responses to upward and downward voice pitch feedback perturbations suggest that the N1 and P2 components of ERPs reflect neural concomitants of the vocal responses. The findings of interactive effects between the magnitude and direction of voice feedback pitch perturbation on N1 and P2 ERP components indicate that the neural mechanisms underlying error detection and correction in voice pitch auditory feedback are differentially sensitive to both the magnitude and direction of pitch perturbations. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of simultaneous pitch encoding: infants show a high voice superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Céline; Trainor, Laurel J

    2013-03-01

    Infants must learn to make sense of real-world auditory environments containing simultaneous and overlapping sounds. In adults, event-related potential studies have demonstrated the existence of separate preattentive memory traces for concurrent note sequences and revealed perceptual dominance for encoding of the voice with higher fundamental frequency of 2 simultaneous tones or melodies. Here, we presented 2 simultaneous streams of notes (15 semitones apart) to 7-month-old infants. On 50% of trials, either the higher or the lower note was modified by one semitone, up or down, leaving 50% standard trials. Infants showed mismatch negativity (MMN) to changes in both voices, indicating separate memory traces for each voice. Furthermore, MMN was earlier and larger for the higher voice as in adults. When in the context of a second voice, representation of the lower voice was decreased and that of the higher voice increased compared with when each voice was presented alone. Additionally, correlations between MMN amplitude and amount of weekly music listening suggest that experience affects the development of auditory memory. In sum, the ability to process simultaneous pitches and the dominance of the highest voice emerge early during infancy and are likely important for the perceptual organization of sound in realistic environments.

  6. Voice F0 responses to pitch-shifted voice feedback during English speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie H; Liu, Hanjun; Xu, Yi; Larson, Charles R

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that motor control of segmental features of speech rely to some extent on sensory feedback. Control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) has been shown to be modulated by perturbations in voice pitch feedback during various phonatory tasks and in Mandarin speech. The present study was designed to determine if voice Fo is modulated in a task-dependent manner during production of suprasegmental features of English speech. English speakers received pitch-modulated voice feedback (+/-50, 100, and 200 cents, 200 ms duration) during a sustained vowel task and a speech task. Response magnitudes during speech (mean 31.5 cents) were larger than during the vowels (mean 21.6 cents), response magnitudes increased as a function of stimulus magnitude during speech but not vowels, and responses to downward pitch-shift stimuli were larger than those to upward stimuli. Response latencies were shorter in speech (mean 122 ms) compared to vowels (mean 154 ms). These findings support previous research suggesting the audio vocal system is involved in the control of suprasegmental features of English speech by correcting for errors between voice pitch feedback and the desired F0.

  7. Vocal Behavior in Environmental Noise: Comparisons Between Work and Leisure Conditions in Women With Work-related Voice Disorders and Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo Portela, Annika; Granqvist, Svante; Ternström, Sten; Södersten, Maria

    2017-05-24

    This study aimed to assess vocal behavior in women with voice-intensive occupations to investigate differences between patients and controls and between work and leisure conditions with environmental noise level as an experimental factor. Patients with work-related voice disorders, 10 with phonasthenia and 10 with vocal nodules, were matched regarding age, profession, and workplace with 20 vocally healthy colleagues. The sound pressure level of environmental noise and the speakers' voice, fundamental frequency, and phonation ratio were registered from morning to night during 1 week with a voice accumulator. Voice data were assessed in low (≤55 dBA), moderate, and high (>70 dBA) environmental noise levels. The average environmental noise level was significantly higher during the work condition for patients with vocal nodules (73.9 dBA) and their controls (73.0 dBA) compared with patients with phonasthenia (68.3 dBA) and their controls (67.1 dBA). The average voice level and the fundamental frequency were also significantly higher during work for the patients with vocal nodules and their controls. During the leisure condition, there were no significant differences in average noise and voice level nor fundamental frequency between the groups. The patients with vocal nodules and their controls spent significantly more time and used their voices significantly more in high-environmental noise levels. High noise levels during work and demands from the occupation impact vocal behavior. Thus, assessment of voice ergonomics should be part of the work environmental management. To reduce environmental noise levels is important to improve voice ergonomic conditions in communication-intensive and vocally demanding workplaces. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are Eyebrow Movements Linked to Voice Variations and Turn-Taking in Dialogue? An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaitella, Isabelle; Santi, Serge; Lagrue, Benoit; Cave, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Following our work on the relationship between eyebrow movements and the fundamental frequency of the voice, this article presents the results of a study on this phenomenon, and also on the temporal location of rapid eyebrow movements with respect to speaking turns during dialogue. We used an automatic movement-acquisition system coupled with the…

  9. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): A voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Bos, Lodewijk; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Marsh, Andy

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody

  10. Is voice a marker for autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lambrechts, Anna; Bang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    patterns in ASD. Search terms were: (prosody OR intonation OR inflection OR intensity OR pitch OR fundamental frequency OR speech rate OR voice quality OR acoustic) AND (autis* OR Asperger). Results were filtered to include only: empirical studies quantifying acoustic features of vocal production in ASD...

  11. Transgender Voice and Communication Treatment: A Retrospective Chart Review of 25 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B.; Garabedian, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People transitioning from male to female (MTF) gender seek speech-language pathology services when they feel their voice is betraying their genuine self or perhaps is the last obstacle to representing their authentic gender. Speaking fundamental frequency (pitch) and resonance are most often targets in treatment because the combination…

  12. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  13. Voice field measurements--a new method of examination: the influence of hearing on the human voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejska, Mojmír

    2004-06-01

    There are various methods to evaluate voice parameters. Original software was used to assess the voice quality by the staff of AUDIO-Fon centr Brno, Czech Republic. A group of hereditary deaf persons was examined. Deaf persons have all of the biological conditions to make voice except for the possibility of acoustic feedback. We examined the voices of 35 persons (20 men and 15 women) with hereditary profound hearing impairments, and we compared voice parameters with the voice of intact persons. To measure we used special software called voice field measurements (VFMs). The program graphically records voice frequency and intensity. VFM is an objective method that enables the assessment of basic physical voice characteristics. It is suitable for the examination of both intact and disturbed voice. The voice of the deaf has a higher basic voice frequency in men as well as in women. This type of voice production, ie, childlike voice, which is fixed only by a motor stereotype, is much more demanding for a mature larynx. Hearing influences both the voice development and speech production. The voice of persons with hearing impairments has a higher basic voice frequency regardless of their sex. This type of voice production, which is fixed only by a motor stereotype, ie, child voice, is much more demanding for a larynx of an adult. Thus, phonation of deaf people is more demanding and their voice production needs greater effort. Deaf people, despite an intact phonic apparatus, cannot produce more than one type of voice. They cannot modulate their voices concerning the frequency and dynamics. They cannot change their voices continually. The voice is limited in both of these parameters (frequency and dynamics). If a deaf person wants to change a voice characteristic, it is possible only by discontinuous changes-"skipping."

  14. Dielectric properties of agricultural products – fundamental principles, influencing factors, and measurement technirques. Chapter 4. Electrotechnologies for Food Processing: Book Series. Volume 3. Radio-Frequency Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, definitions of dielectric properties, or permittivity, of materials and a brief discussion of the fundamental principles governing their behavior with respect to influencing factors are presented. The basic physics of the influence of frequency of the electric fields and temperatur...

  15. Effects of Variability in Fundamental Frequency on L2 Vocabulary Learning: A Comparison between Learners Who Do and Do Not Speak a Tone Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies (Barcroft & Sommers, 2005; Sommers & Barcroft, 2007) have demonstrated that variability in talker, speaking style, and speaking rate positively affect second language vocabulary learning, whereas variability in overall amplitude and fundamental frequency (F0) do not, at least for native English speakers. Sommers and…

  16. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  17. Functional load of fundamental frequency in the native language predicts learning and use of these cues in second-language speech segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tremblay, A.; Broersma, M.; Coughlin, C.E.; Wagner, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether second-language (L2) learners make greater use of prosodic cues to word boundaries if these cues have a higher functional load in the native language (L1). It examines the use of fundamental-frequency (F0) rise in the segmentation of French speech by English- and

  18. Voice and speech changes in various phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Öner; Çelik, Aygen; Ateşpare, Altay; Boyacı, Zerrin; Çelebi, Saban; Gündüz, Tonguç; Aksungar, Fehime Benli; Yelken, Kürşat

    2013-09-01

    The reproductive system in females undergoes a regular cyclic change known as the menstrual cycle. Laryngeal changes are evident and fluctuate systematically during the reproductive years with the menstrual cycle. The impact of estrogens in concert with progesterone produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency (F(0)) higher than that of male. To characterize changes in voice and speech in adolescent females in different phases of the menstrual cycle--during menstruation, after menstruation, mid-menstrual cycle, and premenstruation. Sixteen adult females who were nonusers of oral contraceptives participated in a cross-sectional study of menstrual cycle influences on voicing and speaking tasks. Acoustic analysis (F(0), intensity, perturbation measurements [jitter and shimmer], and harmonic-to-noise ratio), maximum phonation time (MPT), s/z ratio, and perceptual assessments (grade [G], roughness [R], breathiness [B], asthenia [A], and strain [S] [GRBAS] and Voice Handicap Index-10 [VHI-10]) scales were performed during all phases. None of the acoustic analysis parameters and MPT and s/z ratio measurements revealed statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Perceptual voice assessment scales either clinician based or patients self-evaluated showed significant differences among phases (P menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobile Communication Devices, Ambient Noise, and Acoustic Voice Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Ysenbaert, Femke; Zarowski, Andrzej; Vanspauwen, Robby

    2017-03-01

    The ability to move with mobile communication devices (MCDs; ie, smartphones and tablet computers) may induce differences in microphone-to-mouth positioning and use in noise-packed environments, and thus influence reliability of acoustic voice measurements. This study investigated differences in various acoustic voice measures between six recording equipments in backgrounds with low and increasing noise levels. One chain of continuous speech and sustained vowel from 50 subjects with voice disorders (all separated by silence intervals) was radiated and re-recorded in an anechoic chamber with five MCDs and one high-quality recording system. These recordings were acquired in one condition without ambient noise and in four conditions with increased ambient noise. A total of 10 acoustic voice markers were obtained in the program Praat. Differences between MCDs and noise condition were assessed with Friedman repeated-measures test and posthoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, both for related samples, after Bonferroni correction. (1) Except median fundamental frequency and seven nonsignificant differences, MCD samples have significantly higher acoustic markers than clinical reference samples in minimal environmental noise. (2) Except median fundamental frequency, jitter local, and jitter rap, all acoustic measures on samples recorded with the reference system experienced significant influence from room noise levels. Fundamental frequency is resistant to recording system, environmental noise, and their combination. All other measures, however, were impacted by both recording system and noise condition, and especially by their combination, often already in the reference/baseline condition without added ambient noise. Caution is therefore warranted regarding implementation of MCDs as clinical recording tools, particularly when applied for treatment outcomes assessments. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors in the Development of a Lower-Pitched Voice After Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Ook; Bae, Ja-Sung; Lee, So-Hee; Shim, Mi-Ran; Hwang, Yeon-Shin; Joo, Young-Hoon; Park, Young Hak; Sun, Dong-Il

    2017-02-01

    Thyroid surgeons frequently encounter outpatients with mobile vocal cords complaining of lower-pitched voices following thyroidectomy. This study investigated the clinical and pathological parameters affecting voice pitch following thyroid surgery. We analyzed the data of 393 patients with mobile vocal cords and who also underwent thyroid surgery. Speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and fundamental frequency (F0) were compared before and after surgery. Approximately 26.7% of patients had significantly lowered SFFs (ΔSFF ≥ 12 Hz), and 30.2% exhibited significantly lower sustained vowel F0s (ΔF0 ≥ 12 Hz) following thyroid surgery. On multivariate analysis, only gender: female remained a significant predictor of a clinically significant change in SFF following thyroid surgery ( P pitched voice and related vocal symptoms early after thyroid surgery. Such problems develop more frequently in females who underwent total thyroidectomy.

  1. Teachers' Voice Use in Teaching Environments: A Field Study Using Ambulatory Phonation Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka; Pelegrin Garcia, David; Whitling, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This case-control designed field study examines the vocal behavior in teachers with self-estimated voice problems (VP) and their age- and school-matched voice healthy (VH) colleagues. It was hypothesized that teachers with and teachers without VP use their voices differently regarding...... fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), and in relation to the background noise. Methods: Teachers with self-estimated VP (n=14; two males and 12 females) were age and gender matched to VH school colleagues (n=14; two males and 12 females). The subjects, recruited from an earlier study, had been...... examined in laryngeal, vocal, hearing, and psychosocial aspects. The fundamental frequency, SPL, and phonation time were recorded with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor during one representative workday. The teachers reported their activities in a structured diary. The SPL (including teachers' and students...

  2. Preoperative and postoperative voice analysis of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R F; Sly, D E

    1991-12-01

    While clinical studies almost universally report few speech and voice complications from uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, there is a paucity of prospective studies concerned with formal acoustic and perceptual evaluation of these patients. This study compares preoperative and postoperative recordings of 32 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty patients. Fast Fourier Transform analyses were made of both long-term spectra of a reading passage and the resonant characteristics of three vowels. Fundamental frequency and reading time were quantified. Polysomnographic studies of these patients were also compared. Finally, listener judgments of "better voice" were made on preoperative and postoperative pairs of the same patients performing a reading task. While the polysomnographic data demonstrated statistically significant improvement in the physical condition of the patients, no perceptual or acoustic measure of voice or speech was significant when preoperative and postoperative scores were compared.

  3. Correlations between Sportsmen’s Morpho-Functional Measurements and Voice Acoustic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rexhepi Agron M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Since human voice characteristics are specific to each individual, numerous anthropological studies have been oriented to find significant relationships between voice and morpho-functional features. The goal of this study was to identify the correlation between seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters in sportsmen. Methods. Following the protocols of the International Biological Program, seven morpho-functional variables and six voice acoustic parameters have been measured in 88 male professional athletes from Kosovo, aged 17-35 years, during the period of April-October 2013. The statistical analysis was accomplished through the SPSS program, version 20. The obtained data were analysed through descriptive parameters and with Spearman’s method of correlation analysis. Results. Spearman’s method of correlation showed significant negative correlations (R = -0.215 to -0.613; p = 0.05 between three voice acoustic variables of the fundamental frequency of the voice sample (Mean, Minimum, and Maximum Pitch and six morpho-functional measures (Body Height, Body Weight, Margaria-Kalamen Power Test, Sargent Jump Test, Pull-up Test, and VO2max.abs. Conclusions. The significant correlations imply that the people with higher stature have longer vocal cords and a lower voice. These results encourage investigations on predicting sportsmen’s functional abilities on the basis of their voice acoustic parameters.

  4. The Voice and Voice Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshita Chakraborty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Voice may be regarded as the first instrument of man because mankind was endowed with voice even before the invention of instruments. It is a universal instrument of music. It is the only musical instrument common to all musical systems in the world. Voice is the medium of communication and expression. Voice is responsible for abstract creativity. A sweet, melodious, loud enough, energetic, smooth, steady, effective and flexible voice is always appreciable. Good voice helps to harmonize the head and heart, Inner and Outer, manifested and un-manifested etc. The process of enriching the voice is known as Voice Culture. This study includes traditional as well as scientific methods to improve the quality of voice for better voice modulation. This musical instrument “voice” consists of four parts namely – The vibrator, The resonator, The motor and The articulator. Many musical instruments have the first three parts in some form of or other. But the articulation is the uniqueness of humanvoice.

  5. Voice abnormality in adults with congenital and adult-acquired growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Shalet, Stephen; Manickam, Kathiresan; Willard, Terry; Maheshwari, Hiralal; Baumann, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    Adult males with congenital, untreated, severe GH deficiency (GHD) due to genetic GHRH receptor deficiency exhibit distinctive, high-pitched, and raspy voice characteristics. To determine the physical underpinning of this phenomenon, we performed voice recordings, translarynx impedance measurements, spectral analysis, and estimates of spectral complexity [approximate entropy (ApEn)] in four affected men. Results were compared with those obtained in four men with untreated adult-onset GHD and a normal male population. Congenital GHD subjects had a high-pitched voice with a fundamental frequency typical of normal females (174-266 Hz). Their frequency spectra were characterized by abnormal harmonics, with reversal/interruption of the normal amplitude decay among higher-order harmonics, findings consistent with a creaky quality of the voice. Patients with adult-onset GHD, acquired at ages 31, 38, and 40 yr, had a normal male pitch (fundamental frequency, 117-154 Hz) but pathologically low ApEn values, corresponding to a breathy quality of the voice and suggesting abnormal vocal fold function. A fourth patient who acquired GHD at age 22 yr had a pitch intermediate between male and female, high ApEn, and a spectral pattern similar to the congenital GHD patients. This study demonstrates an effect of GH on laryngeal size and vocal fold compliance that results in a high pitch and disordered spectral quality. The time of onset of GHD determines which type of abnormality predominates.

  6. Voice and speech range profiles and Voice Handicap Index for males--methodological issues and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Anna Eva; Fröst, Karin; Holmberg, Eva B; Södersten, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Reference data for speech range profiles (SRP), voice range profiles (VRP), and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) are presented for Swedish males (n = 30). For comparisons, individual data for four male contact granuloma patients are also reported. For the vocally healthy group mean values were: speaking fundamental frequency 123 Hz (SD 12.1), speaking equivalent level, Leq, 72.2 dB (SD 2.1), SRP area 142 ST*dB (SD 24.1), and VRP area 1,706 ST*dB (SD 340). Mean VHI was 5 (SD 4.8). Test-retest recordings of VRP and SRP for three subjects suggested good reliability. SRP and VRP values for three of the patients fell more than 2 SD outside the reference values. Protocols and results are discussed and standardized recording and analyses procedures are suggested.

  7. Voice Conversion Using Pitch Shifting Algorithm by Time Stretching with PSOLA and Re-Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Allam

    2010-01-01

    Voice changing has many applications in the industry and commercial filed. This paper emphasizes voice conversion using a pitch shifting method which depends on detecting the pitch of the signal (fundamental frequency) using Simplified Inverse Filter Tracking (SIFT) and changing it according to the target pitch period using time stretching with Pitch Synchronous Over Lap Add Algorithm (PSOLA), then resampling the signal in order to have the same play rate. The same study was performed to see the effect of voice conversion when some Arabic speech signal is considered. Treatment of certain Arabic voiced vowels and the conversion between male and female speech has shown some expansion or compression in the resulting speech. Comparison in terms of pitch shifting is presented here. Analysis was performed for a single frame and a full segmentation of speech.

  8. Understanding the neural mechanisms involved in sensory control of voice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Amy L; Flagmeier, Sabina G; Manes, Jordan L; Larson, Charles R; Rogers, Bill; Robin, Donald A

    2012-05-15

    Auditory feedback is important for the control of voice fundamental frequency (F0). In the present study we used neuroimaging to identify regions of the brain responsible for sensory control of the voice. We used a pitch-shift paradigm where subjects respond to an alteration, or shift, of voice pitch auditory feedback with a reflexive change in F0. To determine the neural substrates involved in these audio-vocal responses, subjects underwent fMRI scanning while vocalizing with or without pitch-shifted feedback. The comparison of shifted and unshifted vocalization revealed activation bilaterally in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in response to the pitch shifted feedback. We hypothesize that the STG activity is related to error detection by auditory error cells located in the superior temporal cortex and efference copy mechanisms whereby this region is responsible for the coding of a mismatch between actual and predicted voice F0. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Voice synthesis using the three-dimensional digital waveguide mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Matthew DA

    The acoustic response of the vocal tract is fundamental to our interpretation of voice production. As an acoustic filter, it shapes the spectral envelope of vocal fold vibration towards resonant modes, or formants, whose behaviours form the most basic building blocks of phonetics. Physical models of the voice exploit this effect by modelling the nature of wave propagation in abstracted cylindrical constructs. Whilst effective, the accuracy of such approaches is limited due to their limited geometrical analogue. Developments in numerical acoustics modelling meanwhile have seen the formalisation of higher dimensionality configurations of the same technologies, allowing a much closer geometrical representation of an acoustic field. The major focus of this thesis is the application of such a technique to the vocal tract, and comparison of its performance with lower dimensionality approaches. To afford the development of such models, a body of data is collected from Magnetic Resonance Imaging for a range of subjects, and procedures are developed for the decomposition of this imaging into suitable, efficient data structures for simulation. The simulation technique is exhaustively validated using a combination of bespoke measurement/inversion techniques and analytical determination of lower frequency behaviours. Finally, voice synthesis based on each numerical model is compared with acoustic recordings of the subjects involved and with equivalent simulations from lower dimensionality methods. It is found that application of a higher dimensionality method typically yields a more accurate frequency-domain representation of the voice, although in some cases lower dimensionality equivalents are seen to perform better at low frequencies..

  10. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Acoustic and aerodynamic measures of the voice during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Gross, Heather E

    2015-01-01

    Known influences of sex hormones on the voice would suggest pregnancy hormones could have an effect, yet studies using acoustic measures have not indicated changes. Additionally, no examination of the voice before the third trimester has been reported. Effect of pregnancy on the voice is relatively unexplored yet could be quite relevant to female speakers and singers. It is possible that spectral and aerodynamic measures would be more sensitive to tissue-level changes caused by pregnancy hormones. In this first longitudinal study of a 32-year-old woman's pregnancy, weekly voice samples were analyzed for acoustic (fundamental frequency, perturbation ratios of shimmer and jitter, Harmonic-to-Noise Ratio, spectral measures, and maximum phonation time) and aerodynamic (average airflow, peak flow, AC/DC ratio, open quotient, and speed quotient) parameters. All measures appeared generally stable during weeks 11-39 of pregnancy compared with 21 weeks postpartum. Slight decrease in minimum airflow and open speed quotient may reflect suspected vocal fold tissue changes. It is recommended that future studies monitor and test correlations among hormone levels, visual analyses of vocal fold mucosa, aerodynamic function, and glottal efficiency. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Voice quality and surgical detail in post-laryngectomy tracheoesophageal speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, I; Timmermans, A J; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess surgical parameters correlating with voice quality after total laryngectomy (TL) by relating voice and speech outcomes of TL speakers to surgical details. Seventy-six tracheoesophageal patients' voice recordings of running speech and sustained vowel were assessed in terms of voice characteristics. Measurements were related to data retrieved from surgical reports and patient records. In standard TL (sTL), harmonics-to-noise ratio was more favorable after primary TL + postoperative RT than after salvage TL. Pause/breathing time increased when RT preceded TL, after extensive base of tongue resection, and after neck dissections. Fundamental frequency (f0) measures were better after neurectomy. Females showed higher minimum f0 and higher second formants. While voice quality differed widely after sTL, gastric pull-ups and non-circumferential pharyngeal reconstructions using (myo-)cutaneous flaps scored worst in voice and speech measures and the two tubed free flaps best. Formant/resonance measures in/a/indicated differences in pharyngeal lumen properties and cranio-caudal place of the neoglottic bar between pharyngeal reconstructions, and indicate that narrower pharynges and/or more superiorly located neoglottic bars bring with them favorable voice quality. Ranges in functional outcome after TL in the present data, and the effects of treatment and surgical variables such as radiotherapy, neurectomy, neck dissection, and differences between partial or circumferential reconstructions on different aspects of voice and speech underline the importance of these variables for voice quality. Using running speech, next to sustained/a/, renders more reliable results. More balanced data, and better detail in surgical reporting will improve our knowledge on voice quality after TL.

  13. Perceptual and Acoustic Analyses of Good Voice Quality in Male Radio Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Samantha; Madill, Catherine; McCabe, Patricia; Ternström, Sten; Yiu, Edwin; Heard, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Good voice quality is an asset to professional voice users, including radio performers. We examined whether (1) voices could be reliably categorized as good for the radio and (2) these categories could be predicted using acoustic measures. Male radio performers (n = 24) and age-matched male controls performed "The Rainbow Passage" as if presenting on the radio. Voice samples were rated using a three-stage paired-comparison paradigm by 51 naive listeners and perceptual categories were identified (Study 1), and then analyzed for fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum, cepstral peak prominence, and pause or spoken-phrase duration (Study 2). Study 1: Good inter-judge reliability was found for perceptual judgments of the best 15 voices (good for radio category, 14/15 = radio performers), but agreement on the remaining 33 voices (unranked category) was poor. Study 2: Discriminant function analyses showed that the SD standard deviation of sounded portion duration, equivalent sound level, and smoothed cepstral peak prominence predicted membership of categories with moderate accuracy (R 2  = 0.328). Radio performers are heterogeneous for voice quality; good voice quality was judged reliably in only 14 out of 24 radio performers. Current acoustic analyses detected some of the relevant signal properties that were salient in these judgments. More refined perceptual analysis and the use of other perceptual methods might provide more information on the complex nature of judging good voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Long-Term Prognosis of Voice Pitch Change in Female Patients After Thyroid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Ook; Bae, Ja-Sung; Lee, So-Hee; Shim, Mi-Ran; Hwang, Yeon-Shin; Joo, Young-Hoon; Park, Young Hak; Sun, Dong-Il

    2016-10-01

    Relatively large numbers of patients complain of lower-pitched voices after thyroidectomy. However, little is known about the risk factors for, prognosis of, or progression over time of, such changes, in female patients. We analyzed the data of 217 patients who underwent thyroid surgery and postoperative (2 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery) voice work-ups. To identify patients with lower-pitched voices, speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs) were compared before and after surgery. The change was calculated for all patients (postoperative change in SFF, ΔSFF). The mean ΔSFF was 8.35 ± 17.06 Hz and significant changes in voice pitch (ΔSFF ≥12 Hz) were evident in 93 (42.85 %) patients after surgery, mostly within 6 months, and only 18.4 % of patients had lower-pitched voices 1 year after surgery. On multivariate analysis, age (≥52 vs. pitched voice after surgery. The ΔSFFs of older patients (≥52) were significantly greater than those of younger patients (pitched voice after thyroid surgery. Such problems develop more frequently in the early postoperative period, in aged patients, and in those who had undergone total thyroidectomy. However, over time, the changes usually decrease to levels similar to those of patients without these risk factors.

  15. Analysis of Temporal Change in Voice Quality After Thyroidectomy: Single-institution Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Ki Jeong; Hwang, Soo Min; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Jae-Gu; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Kwon, Soon-Young; Woo, Jeong-Soo; Jung, Kwang-Yoon

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the temporal changes of voice quality after thyroidectomy and assessed the predictive perioperative parameters of postthyroidectomy voice disorder (PTVD). This is a prospective cohort study. From March 2011 to July 2014, 559 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with or without central neck dissection were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent prospective voice evaluation using the subjective and objective comprehensive battery of assessments, preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Fundamental frequency (F0) was not significantly decreased during the postoperative follow-up. Maximal vocal pitch (MVP) and maximal intensity were not recovered, even at 1 year postoperatively, whereas the Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain scale reached preoperative value at postoperative 3-6 months and voice handicap index at 1 year. Postoperative 1-month MVP was the best predictor for PTVD, and the cut-off value was 80% of preoperative value. Wide surgical extent and high preoperative F0 were the parameters that significantly correlated with PTVD (P = 0.021 and P voice parameters should be considered in preoperative counseling. Intensive voice therapy may be needed for patients with the ability to produce higher pitch than normal preoperatively and wide surgical extent. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Voice disorders caused by neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, J; Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Mate, M A; Cobeta, I

    To review voice disorders in neurological diseases, with special emphasis to acoustic analysis. In the first part of this article we describe data regarding neural control of voice, physiology of phonation, and examination of the patient with voice disturbances, including the use of voice laboratory, acoustic analysis fundamentals, phonetometric measures and aerodynamic measures. In the second part, we review the voice disturbances associated to neurological diseases, emphasizing into movement disorders (specially Parkinson s disease, essential tremor, and spasmodic dysphonia). A number of neurological diseases causing alterations of corticospinal pathway, cerebellum, basal ganglia and upper and/or lower motoneurons can induce voice disturbances. Voice examination using ear, nose & throat examination, endoscopy and videorecording of laryngeal movements, acoustic analysis, elecroglottography, laryngeal electromyography, and aerodynamic measures, could be useful in the clinical examination of some neurological diseases.

  17. Wendler glottoplasty and voice-therapy in male-to-female transsexuals: results in pre and post-surgery assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Juan C; O'Connor, Carlos; Angulo, María S; Adrián, José A

    2016-01-01

    With the development of new ENT techniques, many male transsexuals who wish to become women usually request a surgical procedure to raise the fundamental frequency of the voice (feminization). The ENT specialist and the voice-therapist have to use an interdisciplinary approach to this growing social demand. The aim of this study was to show the results in a group of transsexual patients after Wendler's anterior synechiae, with additional voice-therapy treatment. Ten male transexulas who wish to become women patients who had Wendler glottoplasty and voice-therapy were assessed. The surgical procedure consisted of a de-epithelialization of the anterior third of both vocal folds; this area was sutured and the surface of both vocal folds was vaporised with laser diode. Pre- and postsurgery voice assessment consisted of measuring fundamental frequency (Fo) and maximum phonation time, administering the transgender self-assessment questionnaire (TSEQ) and obtaining perceptual voice assessment by inter-rater agreement. All the male transsexuals who wish to become women patients significantly increased their Fo (106 Hz on average) after the treatment. Furthermore, significant improvements were shown in self-reported satisfaction and in the degree of voice feminization. No improvements in the maximum phonation time were observed. Wendler glottoplasty is a surgical procedure to contribute to feminising the voice, with good medium-term results and without noteworthy medical complications. The increase in vocal tone was observed using several pre- and post-surgery control measures and voice therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  18. Voice low tone to high tone ratio--a new index for nasal airway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guoshe; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2003-09-30

    There are several methodology based on voice analysis to evaluate nasal airway. Here we introduce a new quantitative index based on voice spectrum analysis to evaluate nasal obstruction. Ten subjects of nasal blockage were instructed to produced the sustained consonant-vowel syllable /m partial partial differential/ at comfortable levels of speech for at least 5 seconds. After nasal decongestant treatment, the second voice sample was collected. Sound spectrum was obtained by the algorithm of fast Fourier transform and the fundamental frequency (F0) was calculated by the method of autocorrelation. Voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) was defined as the division of low frequency power (LFP) into high frequency power (HFP) of the sound power spectrum and was finally expressed in decibels. The cut-off frequency was the product of F0 and square root of (4 x 5). The VLHR after nasal decongestant treatment increased significantly as compared with that before treatment (P voice during treatment for nasal obstruction. The index is quantitative, non-invasive, and potentially useful for basic researches and clinical applications.

  19. Differences in acoustic and perceptual parameters of the voice between elderly and young women at habitual and high intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetto de Menezes, Keyla S; Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Bortnem, Cori; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare elderly and young female voices in habitual and high intensity. The effect of increased intensity on the acoustic and perceptual parameters was assessed. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic to noise ratio were obtained at habitual and high intensity voice in a group of 30 elderly women and 30 young women. Perceptual assessment was also performed. Both groups demonstrated an increase in sound pressure level and fundamental frequency from habitual voice to high intensity voice. No differences were found between groups in any acoustic variables on samples recorded with habitual intensity level. No significant differences between groups were found in habitual intensity level for pitch, hoarseness, roughness, and breathiness. Asthenia and instability obtained significant higher values in elderly than young participants, whereas, the elderly demonstrated lower values for perceived tension and loudness than young subjects. Acoustic and perceptual measures do not demonstrate evident differences between elderly and young speakers in habitual intensity level. The parameters analyzed may lack the sensitivity necessary to detect differences in subjects with normal voices. Phonation with high intensity highlights differences between groups, especially in perceptual parameters. Therefore, high intensity should be included to compare elderly and young voice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-linear function model of voice pitch dependency on physical and mental load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Bernd; Wittels, Peter; Enne, Robert; Eisinger, Günter; Castro, Carl A; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Adler, Amy B; Gerzer, Rupert

    2007-10-01

    The present work describes that under increasing physical load the voice fundamental frequency (voice pitch) remains on a given level as long as the physical load is well tolerated by the subject, whereas heart rate and blood pressure continuously increase during increasing physical load. This voice pitch level was compared to voice pitch levels under mental load. Using a word recognition system, 11 well trained, young male subjects had to solve 2 moderate mental load tasks. Before, during and after each task, there were structured relaxation phases. The physical load protocol was a standard bicycle stress test. In each protocol phase the subjects had to count from 1 to 10 in order to provide a standardized speech sample. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded in all phases. Voice frequency was at average 106 +/- 5.2 Hz in the relaxation phases ('rest level') and was increased under mental load (115.9 +/- 5.7 Hz, Pillais-P = 0.037). During physical stress testing, voice pitch remained unchanged ('tolerated load level') between 100 and 200 W (117.4 +/- 4.8 Hz) and increased shortly before physical exhaustion ('exhaustion level', 275-350 W, 142.9 +/- 5.6 Hz, Pillais-P = 0.007). In contrast, heart rate and blood pressure increased continuously with the physical load. Three voice pitch levels could be verified also individually for each subject. For the practical monitoring of emotional stress the individual anchor frequencies for these levels must be assessed. These data indicate that the relationship between both types of load and voice pitch is non-linear with multiple plateaus and transition functions between them.

  1. Listening preferences for voice types as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, H; Gelfer, M P; Carlson, T

    1991-04-01

    This experiment was designed primarily to generate information about the preferences of older listeners for various classes of voices. Speech samples for that purpose were elicited from 80 speakers, who provided the desired stimuli (sentences) under frequency and intensity control. Specifically, there were eight cells in the design, each represented by 10 speakers (5 male and 5 female); all combinations of low, medium, and high speaker fundamental frequency (SFF) were combined with soft, middle and loud vocal intensity (VI) productions--except for the low-SFF/high-VI combination, which proved impossible to obtain. Listeners were four groups of 20 individuals equally divided as to sex. The two older of these groups, designated as the experimental subjects, were: older adults (60-70 years of age) and the elderly (80-90 years). The two younger groups served as controls; they included young adults (20-30 years of age) and middle-aged adults (aged 40-50 years). Listeners rated each speech sample on a 5-point preference scale varying from "like very much" to "dislike very much." The results suggest that most listeners prefer medium intensity voices. Other preference tendencies were toward low-pitched voices and (slightly) toward male speakers; but these trends were not as marked as the first. Most importantly, there were no systematic differences in voice type preferences between or among the older and younger groups--or between male and female listeners.

  2. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main...... concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...

  3. Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the vocal cords. Other causes of voice disorders include infections, upward movement of stomach acids into ... throat, growths due to a virus, cancer, and diseases that paralyze the vocal cords. Signs that your ...

  4. Bioelectrical brain effects of one's own voice identification in pitch of voice auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzyukov, Oleg; Bronder, Alexander; Lee, Yunseon; Patel, Sona; Larson, Charles R

    2017-07-01

    Control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) relies in part on comparison of the intended F0 level and auditory feedback. This comparison impacts "sense of agency", or SoA, commonly defined as being the agent of one's own actions and plays a key role for self-awareness and social interactions. SoA is aberrant in several psychiatric disorders. Knowledge about brain activity reflecting SoA can be used in clinical practice for these disorders. It was shown that perception of voice feedback as one's own voice, reflecting the recognition of SoA, alters auditory sensory processing. Using a voice perturbation paradigm we contrasted vocal and bioelectrical brain responses to auditory stimuli that differed in magnitude: 100 and 400 cents. Results suggest the different magnitudes were perceived as a pitch error in self-vocalization (100 cents) or as a pitch shift generated externally (400 cents). Vocalizations and neural responses to changes in pitch of self-vocalization were defined as those made to small magnitude pitch-shifts (100 cents) and which did not show differential neural responses to upward versus downward changes in voice pitch auditory feedback. Vocal responses to large magnitude pitch shifts (400 cents) were smaller than those made to small pitch shifts, and neural responses differed according to upwards versus downward changes in pitch. Our results suggest that the presence of SoA for self-produced sounds may modify bioelectrical brain responses reflecting differences in auditory processing of the direction of a pitch shift. We suggest that this modification of bioelectrical response can be used as a biological index of SoA. Possible neuronal mechanisms of this modification of bioelectrical brain response are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contemporary Commercial Music Singing Students-Voice Quality and Vocal Function at the Beginning of Singing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Olszowska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-10-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016. Voice quality and vocal tract function were evaluated using videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, the perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Twenty-two percent of Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with vocal nodules. Palpation of the vocal tract structure showed in 50% correct motions and tension in speaking and in 39.3% in singing. Perceptual voice assessment showed in 80% proper speaking voice quality and in 82.4% proper singing voice quality. The mean vocal fundamental frequency while speaking in females was 214 Hz and in males was 116 Hz. Dysphonia Severity Index was at the level of 2, and maximum phonation time was 17.7 seconds. The Voice Handicap Index and the SVHI remained within the normal range: 7.5 and 19, respectively. Perceptual singing voice assessment correlated with the SVHI (P = 0.006). Twenty-two percent of the Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with organic vocal fold lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The electronic cry: Voice and gender in electroacoustic music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The voice provides an entrance to discuss gender and related fundamental issues in electroacoustic music that are relevant as well in other musical genres and outside of music per se: the role of the female voice; the use of language versus non-verbal vocal sounds; the relation of voice, embodiment

  7. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25 participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  8. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Bennett, Patrick J; Feinberg, David R

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  9. Keeping Your Voice Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Keeping Your Voice Healthy Keeping Your Voice Healthy Patient Health Information News ... voice-related. Key Steps for Keeping Your Voice Healthy Drink plenty of water. Moisture is good for ...

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of the Dual-Microphone Voice Range Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Trine; Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Godballe, Christian; Grøntved, Ågot Møller

    2018-01-01

    The voice range profile (VRP) measures vocal intensity and fundamental frequency. Phonosurgical and logopedic treatment outcome studies using the VRP report voice improvements of 3-6 semitones (ST) in ST range and 4-7 decibels (dB) in sound pressure level range after treatment. These small improvements stress the importance of reliable measurements. The aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the dual-microphone computerized VRP on participants with healthy voices. This is a prospective test-retest reliability study. Dual-microphone VRPs were repeated twice on healthy participants (n = 37) with an interval of 6-37 days. Voice frequency and intensity (minimum, maximum, and ranges) were assessed in combination with the area of the VRP. Correlations between VRP parameters were high (r > 0.60). However, in the retest, a statistically significant increase in voice frequency range (1.4 ST [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.8-2.1 ST], P VRP (148 cells [95% CI: 87-210 cells], P VRP is well below the differences seen after surgical or logopedic intervention, even when measuring in non-sound-treated rooms. There is a need for studies regarding inter-examiner reliability with a longer interval between test and retest before the assessment is fully reliable for clinical application. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency and analysis of non-clinical errors made in radiology reports using the National Integrated Medical Imaging System voice recognition dictation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyer, R E; Liddy, S; Torreggiani, W C; Buckley, O

    2016-11-01

    Voice recognition (VR) dictation of radiology reports has become the mainstay of reporting in many institutions worldwide. Despite benefit, such software is not without limitations, and transcription errors have been widely reported. Evaluate the frequency and nature of non-clinical transcription error using VR dictation software. Retrospective audit of 378 finalised radiology reports. Errors were counted and categorised by significance, error type and sub-type. Data regarding imaging modality, report length and dictation time was collected. 67 (17.72 %) reports contained ≥1 errors, with 7 (1.85 %) containing 'significant' and 9 (2.38 %) containing 'very significant' errors. A total of 90 errors were identified from the 378 reports analysed, with 74 (82.22 %) classified as 'insignificant', 7 (7.78 %) as 'significant', 9 (10 %) as 'very significant'. 68 (75.56 %) errors were 'spelling and grammar', 20 (22.22 %) 'missense' and 2 (2.22 %) 'nonsense'. 'Punctuation' error was most common sub-type, accounting for 27 errors (30 %). Complex imaging modalities had higher error rates per report and sentence. Computed tomography contained 0.040 errors per sentence compared to plain film with 0.030. Longer reports had a higher error rate, with reports >25 sentences containing an average of 1.23 errors per report compared to 0-5 sentences containing 0.09. These findings highlight the limitations of VR dictation software. While most error was deemed insignificant, there were occurrences of error with potential to alter report interpretation and patient management. Longer reports and reports on more complex imaging had higher error rates and this should be taken into account by the reporting radiologist.

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a voice training program for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizolato, Raquel Aparecida; Beltrati Cornacchioni Rehder, Maria Inês; dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; de Castro Meneghim, Marcelo; Bovi Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of a voice education program to teachers on vocal function exercise and voice hygiene and compare a pre- and post-vocal exercise for the teacher's voice quality. A random sample of 102 subjects was divided into two groups: experimental group (29 women and seven men) with vocal hygiene and training exercises and control group (52 women and 14 men) with vocal hygiene. Two sessions were held about voice hygiene for the control group and five sessions for the experimental group, one being with reference to the vocal hygiene habit and four vocal exercise sessions. Acoustic analysis of the vowel [i] was made pre- and post-vocal exercise and for the situations of initial and final evaluation of the educational program. Student t test (paired) and Proc MIXED (repeated measures) were used for analyses with level of significance (α = 0.05). The training exercises, posture and relaxation cervical, decreased the mean of fundamental frequency (f(0)) for men (P = 0.04), and for the phonation, intensity, and frequency exercises, there was a significant increase for f(0) in woman (P = 0.02) and glottal to noise excitation ratio (P = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference intergroup evaluations after 3 months. The control group presented increased mean voice intensity in the final evaluation (P = 0.01). Voice training exercises showed a positive and immediate impact on the teacher's quality of voice, but it was not sustained longitudinally, suggesting that actions for this purpose should be continued at schools. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of occupational voice disorders in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo, M; Di Maio, G; Costa, G; Angelillo, N; Barillari, U

    2009-03-01

    In Italy the number of teachers among private and public schools is around one million. Voice disorders are thought to be one of the major occupational hazards of school teaching; in fact the teachers often use their voice with high-intensity, in noisy classes, for a long time and without suitable breaks. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of voice problems in teachers of Naples district, identifying risk factors for developing voice pathology. In this study we evaluated 504 teachers (322 F-182 M) with an age ranging between 24 and 62 years, randomly choiced in 28 schools of the district of Naples submitted to a questionnaire to determine the prevalence of voice disorders. In our study we have also introduced a comparison group of not-teachers workers of 402 subjects (244 F-158 M); they were in the same age range as the teacher sample (range: 22-65 years). The control group was also submitted to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic characteristics, smoking and alcohol use, a self-report of voice problems, voice symptoms, frequency of acute and chronic voice problems, absenteeism due to voice problems. The prevalence of reporting a current voice problem was significantly greater in teachers compared with not-teachers (8.7% vs 2.9%), as the prevalence of voice disorders during their lifetime too (51.4% vs 25.9%), chi2 = 86.672, p teachers group (23.01%) have been forced, during their professional activity, to miss job for problems related to voice; only 22 subjects of control group (5.47%) instead, missed job for voice troubles. This study confirms that teachers have a higher rate of self-reported voice problems than subjects working in other occupations. Teachers, compared with not-teachers, were significantly more likely to have experienced multiple voice symptoms including hoarseness, discomfort while using their voice, difficulty projecting their voice and tiring or change in voice quality after short use. Large proportion of these problems

  14. The Human Voice in Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Björn; Sundberg, Johan

    This chapter speech describes various aspects of the human voice as a means of communication in speech and singing. From the point of view of function, vocal sounds can be regarded as the end result of a three stage process: (1) the compression of air in the respiratory system, which produces an exhalatory airstream, (2) the vibrating vocal folds' transformation of this air stream to an intermittent or pulsating air stream, which is a complex tone, referred to as the voice source, and (3) the filtering of this complex tone in the vocal tract resonator. The main function of the respiratory system is to generate an overpressure of air under the glottis, or a subglottal pressure. Section 16.1 describes different aspects of the respiratory system of significance to speech and singing, including lung volume ranges, subglottal pressures, and how this pressure is affected by the ever-varying recoil forces. The complex tone generated when the air stream from the lungs passes the vibrating vocal folds can be varied in at least three dimensions: fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectrum. Section 16.2 describes how these properties of the voice source are affected by the subglottal pressure, the length and stiffness of the vocal folds and how firmly the vocal folds are adducted. Section 16.3 gives an account of the vocal tract filter, how its form determines the frequencies of its resonances, and Sect. 16.4 gives an account for how these resonance frequencies or formants shape the vocal sounds by imposing spectrum peaks separated by spectrum valleys, and how the frequencies of these peaks determine vowel and voice qualities. The remaining sections of the chapter describe various aspects of the acoustic signals used for vocal communication in speech and singing. The syllable structure is discussed in Sect. 16.5, the closely related aspects of rhythmicity and timing in speech and singing is described in Sect. 16.6, and pitch and rhythm aspects in Sect. 16.7. The impressive

  15. The effects of stress on singing voice accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The quality of a music performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In addition, the quality of a sung performance requires control of the fundamental frequency of the voice, which is particularly sensitive to stress. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. Thirty-one music students were recorded in a stressful condition (ie, a music examination) and a nonstressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances was objectively analyzed. As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the nonstressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy but also the need to consider the challenge level and perception of the symptoms in experimental and pedagogical settings. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Objective analysis of the singing voice as a training aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, T; Manfredi, C; Bruscaglioni, P

    2005-01-01

    A new tool for robust tracking of fundamental frequency is proposed, along with an objective measure of main singing voice parameters, such as vibrato rate, vibrato extent, and vocal intonation. High-resolution Power Spectral Density estimation is implemented, based on AutoRegressive models of suitable order, allowing reliable formant tracking also in vocalizations characterized by highly varying values. The proposed techniques are applied to about 1000 vocalizations, coming from both professional and non-professional singers, and show better performance as compared to classical Fourier-based approaches. If properly implemented, and with a user-friendly interface, the new tool would allow real-time analysis of singing voice. Hence, it could be of help in giving non-professional singers and singing teachers reliable measures of possible improvements during and after training.

  17. Development of a double-membrane sound generator for application in a voice-producing element for laryngectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J W; Verkerke, G J; van der Houwen, E B; Mahieu, H F; Schutte, H K

    2006-12-01

    For voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy a shunt valve is usually placed in the tracheo-esophageal (TE) wall, thereby enabling the production of a TE voice. Some patients, however, are unable to produce a voice of sufficient quality. Furthermore, the TE voice is low pitched, which presents a problem especially for female laryngectomized patients. The voice quality after laryngectomy might be improved by introducing a voice-producing element (VPE) into the TE shunt valve. In this study a sound generator was developed that is suitable for application in such a VPE. This sound generator consists of two elastic membranes placed parallel inside a circular housing. A substitute voice source is created when the membranes start to vibrate via a constant flow of air passing between them. To determine the optimal membrane configuration for proper functioning under physiological conditions, up-scaled physical VPE models with different membrane geometries were evaluated using in vitro experimental tests. For certain membrane geometries the tests showed that a basic sound, containing multiple harmonics, could be successfully produced under physiological air pressure and airflow conditions. The fundamental frequency (60-95 Hz) and sound pressure level (57-78 dB, at 15 cm microphone distance) were regulated via changes in the driving pressure, thereby enabling the possibility of intonation in laryngectomized patients' speech. The obtained frequency range is considered appropriate for producing a substitute voice source for female patients. The geometry considerations in this study can be used for the development of a true scale VPE that can be evaluated clinically, to eventually replace the voice after laryngectomy.

  18. Voice characteristics, effects of voice therapy, and long-term follow-up of contact granuloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, R; Hammarberg, B

    2000-12-01

    This study evaluates the laryngoscopic findings and voice characteristics of male contact granuloma patients before and after voice therapy and at a follow-up about 9 years later. Pre- and posttherapy recordings as well as follow-up recordings were made for 19 granuloma patients. Pretherapy revealed the most salient perceptual voice characteristics were low pitch, monotony, and a high degree of vocal fry and hyperfunction. Interjudge reliability for these traits was high. Immediately following therapy the healed patients (n = 10) had a decrease in hyperfunction, vocal fry, and monotony, while the unhealed patients (n = 9) had an increase in hyperfunction and vocal fry decreased only marginally. Monotony decreased significantly in this group. As regards the acoustic analyses, no significant differences were found in mean fundamental frequency (F0) or perturbation. At the follow-up assessment 4 patients had granuloma while 15 had normal laryngeal status. Perceptually their voice characteristics resembled those pretherapy independently of the laryngeal findings. The results suggest that reduced hyperfunction and decreased vocal fry may create better circumstances for the healing process at the posterior glottis.

  19. Effects of simultaneous perturbations of voice pitch and loudness feedback on voice F0 and amplitude control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles R; Sun, Jean; Hain, Timothy C

    2007-05-01

    Perturbations in either voice pitch or loudness feedback lead to changes in a speaker's voice fundamental frequency (F0) or amplitude. Voice pitch or loudness perturbations were presented individually (either pitch or loudness shift stimuli) or simultaneously (pitch combined with loudness shift stimuli) to subjects sustaining a vowel to test the hypothesis that the mechanisms for these two response types are independent. For simultaneous perturbations, pitch and loudness both changed in the same direction or in opposite directions. Results showed that subjects responded with voice F0 or amplitude responses that opposed the direction of the respective pitch- or loudness shift stimuli. Thus, depending on the stimulus direction, both responses could either change in the same direction or in the opposite direction to each other. F0 response magnitudes were greatest with pitch-shift only stimuli (18 cents), smallest for loudness shift stimuli (10 cents) and intermediate with pitch combined with loudness shift stimuli (13 and 16 cents). Amplitude responses were largest with +3 dB stimuli (0.96 dB) and smallest with -3 dB stimuli (0.49 dB) but were not affected by the addition of pitch-shift stimuli. Results suggest the F0 and amplitude response mechanisms may be independent but interact in some conditions.

  20. Leveraging voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    researchers improve our practices and how could digital online video help offer more positive stories about research and higher education? How can academics in higher education be better to tell about our research, thereby reclaiming and leveraging our voice in a post-factual era? As higher education...

  1. Aero-acoustics of silicone rubber lip reeds for alternative voice production in laryngectomees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torn, M; Mahieu, H F; Festen, J M

    2001-11-01

    To improve voice quality after laryngectomy, a small pneumatic sound source to be incorporated in a regular tracheoesophageal shunt valve was designed. This artificial voice source consists of a single floppy lip reed, which performs self-sustaining flutter-type oscillations driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows through the tracheoesophageal shunt valve along the outward-striking lip reed. In this in vitro study, aero-acoustic data and detailed high-speed digital image sequences of lip reed behavior are obtained for 10 lip configurations. The high-speed visualizations provide a more explicit understanding and reveal details of lip reed behavior, such as the onset of vibration, beating of the lip against the walls of its housing, and chaotic behavior at high volume flow. We discuss several aspects of lip reed behavior in general and implications for its application as an artificial voice source. For pressures above the sounding threshold, volume flow, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level generated by the floppy lip reed are almost linear functions of the driving force, static pressure difference across the lip. Observed irregularities in these relations are mainly caused by transitions from one type of beating behavior of the lip against the walls of its housing to another. This beating explains the wide range and the driving force dependence of fundamental frequency, and seems to have a strong effect on the spectral content. The thickness of the lip base is linearly related to the fundamental frequency of lip reed oscillation.

  2. Immediate acoustic effects of straw phonation exercises in subjects with dysphonic voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Higueras, Diego; Fincheira, Catherine; Muñoz, Daniel; Guajardo, Carlos; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This study sought to measure any acoustic changes in the speaking voice immediately after phonation exercises involving plastic straws versus phonation exercises with the open vowel /a/. Forty-one primary school teachers with slightly dysphonic voices were asked to participate in four phonatory tasks. Phonetically balanced text at habitual intensity level and speaking fundamental frequency was recorded. Acoustical analysis with long-term average spectrum was performed. Significant changes after therapy for the experimental group include the alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio and ratio between 1-5 kHz and 5-8 kHz. The results indicate that the use of phonatory tasks with straw exercises can have immediate therapeutic acoustic effects in dysphonic voices. Long-term effects were not assessed in this study.

  3. Alterations in tone of voice in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción García-Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the tone of voice (acoustic perception in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R. Our goal was to study whether or not there is an alteration of the tone in restrictive anorexia nervosa when the disease has started in the puberty. The total sample consisted of 148 subjects divided in two groups: control (n=102 and AN-R (n=46. The voice´s fundamental frequencies (F0 were determined based on the repetition of two phonemes ("a" and "i" and measured by a microphone Plantonic 300 and a digital recorder. We analyzed the voice´s F0 using Praat software. We present the first data for the normal range of the F0 in Spanish healthy women from 9 to 17 years old who were Spanish native speakers. Finally, we show a comparison of data between AN-R patients and control group.

  4. A case report in changes in phonatory physiology following voice therapy: application of high-speed imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita R; Pickering, Jack; Stemple, Joseph; Donohue, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    To clinically evaluate changes in vocal fold vibration and voice production caused by voice therapy in hoarseness resulting from contact granuloma. Single-subject before-after prospective study using multiple measures of vocal function. A 6-week program of vocal function exercises (VFEs) was conducted using multiple assessments of vocal function to identify and measure the changes pre- and posttreatment, in a 51-year-old male with unilateral contact granuloma. Multiple outcome measures were recorded. High-speed digital imaging (HSDI) measures of voice onset time (milliseconds), open quotient, speed quotient, maximum amplitude, peak closing velocity, peak-to-average opening velocity, and peak-to-average closing velocity were derived from motion data. Acoustic measures of maximum phonation duration (seconds), noise-to-harmonic ratio, average fundamental frequency (hertz), the lowest fundamental frequency (hertz), and the highest fundamental frequency (hertz); aerodynamic measures of expiratory volume (milliliter) and mean expiratory airflow (liter/second); stroboscopic measures of glottal closure and phase closure; and perceptual assessment of voice quality (total score) using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice were obtained. Stroboscopic, acoustic, aerodynamic, and audioperceptual measures were minimally informative related to pre- and posttreatment vocal function in a patient with contact granuloma. HSDI measures provided multiple physiologic and kinematic measures demonstrating pre- and posttreatment efficiency of vocal function, including vibratory motion, closure, and impact stress. The results have implications for the use of high-speed imaging to identify and measure change in phonatory physiology in patients with contact granuloma. Changes in phonatory physiology support the use of voice therapy techniques, such as VFEs that facilitate a semioccluded vocal tract for treatment of contact granuloma. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Voice Range Change After Injection Laryngoplasty for Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Chang, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tzu-Ling; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Fang, Tuan-Jen

    2017-12-13

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) caused by nerve injury manifest with voice changes. This study investigated vocal performance measured by voice range profile (VRP) in patients with UVFP and changes in VRP in response to intracordal hyaluronate injection. Eighty-five patients with UVFP were enrolled prospectively, among whom 68 received intracordal hyaluronate injections. The outcome measurements included VRP, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses, peak turn frequency of thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex (TA-LCA) measured by laryngeal electromyography, and normalized glottal gap area by videolaryngostroboscopy. The peak turn frequency of the paralyzed TA-LCA showed a modest correlation with max fundamental frequency (F0) and F0 range. Closed-phase normalized glottal gap area showed modest negative correlations with max F0 and F0 semitone range. Regarding conventional acoustic and aerodynamic analyses, the paralyzed TA-LCA peak turn frequency was only correlated with maximal phonation time. Intracordal hyaluronate injection improved VRP performance by increasing max F0, decreasing min F0, increasing F0 range, and increasing semitone range (all P VRP provides a more sensitive reflection of the severity of neuromuscular impairment, compared with conventional voice analysis. The validity of VRP is further supported by a robust response to voice improvements following injection laryngoplasty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A Pitch Extraction Method with High Frequency Resolution for Singing Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

    This paper proposes a pitch estimation method suitable for singing evaluation incorporable in KARAOKE machines. Professional singers and musicians have sharp hearing for music and singing voice. They recognize that singer's voice pitch is “a little off key” or “be in tune”. In the same way, the pitch estimation method that has high frequency resolution is necessary in order to evaluate singing. This paper proposes a pitch estimation method with high frequency resolution utilizing harmonic characteristic of autocorrelation function. The proposed method can estimate a fundamental frequency in the range 50 ∼ 1700[Hz] with resolution less than 3.6 cents in light processing.

  7. Voice in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term androgen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Van Borsel, John; Wierckx, Katrien; Dedecker, David; Van de Peer, Fleur; Daelman, Tine; Laenen, Sofie; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to 1) document voice in a large sample of female-to-male transsexual persons (FMT), 2) compare their vocal characteristics with those of heterosexual biological males, and 3) determine hormonal factors with impact on their fundamental frequency. This was a controlled cross-sectional study. It is the largest study to date on voice and voice change in FMT, and the first to include a control group and FMT who were under long-term androgen administration. Thirty-eight FMT, ranging in age between 22 and 54 years, and 38 controls, frequency matched by age and smoking behavior, underwent a voice assessment that comprised the determination of pitch, intonation, and perturbation parameters measured during sustained vowel production, counting, and reading. Hormonal factors explored were hematocrit, total testosterone level, luteinizing hormone level, and biallelic mean length of the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat sequence in the androgen receptor gene. It was found that the FMT as a group did not differ significantly from controls for any of the acoustic voice variables studied. However, in about 10% pitch lowering was not totally unproblematic. The lowest-pitched (i.e., more male) voices were observed in FMT with higher hematocrit and longer CAG repeats. After long-term androgen therapy, FMT generally demonstrate an acceptable male voice. Pitch-lowering difficulties can be expected in about 10% of cases and appear, at least in part, to be associated with diminished androgen sensitivity. 3b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Voice Habits and Behaviors: Voice Care Among Flamenco Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón García, Marina; Muñoz López, Juana; Y Mendoza Lara, Elvira

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered. We interviewed 94 singers, divided into two groups: the flamenco experimental group (FEG, n = 48) and the classical control group (CCG, n = 46). Frequency analysis, a Likert scale, and discriminant and exploratory factor analysis were used to obtain a differential profile for each group. The FEG scored higher than the CCG in speaking voice symptomatology. The FEG scored significantly higher than the CCG in use of "inadequate vocal technique" when singing. Regarding voice habits, the FEG scored higher in "lack of practice and warm-up" and "environmental habits." A total of 92.6% of the subjects classified themselves correctly in each group. The Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire has proven effective in differentiating flamenco and classical singers. Flamenco singers are exposed to numerous vocal risk factors that make them more prone to vocal fatigue, mucosa dehydration, phonotrauma, and muscle stiffness than classical singers. Further research is needed in voice training in flamenco music, as a means to strengthen the voice and enable it to meet the requirements of this musical genre. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFECT OF SINGING TRAINING ON ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS OF VOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sibel Jagoda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of singing training on the acoustic properties of students’ voices. The participants of the stuy were 20 students between 19 and 32 without absenteeism ranging from the 1st to the 4th grade. The voices of 12 female and 8 male students, enrolled at Selcuk University Dilek Sabancı State Conservatory Opera Main-department, Sub-department of Vocal Arts were recorded throughout 2014-2015 academic year using Shure Sm 48 model microphone in order to determine their acoustic properties using CSL (Computerized Speech Laboratory 4500 to the computer with Kay Elemetrics MDVP (Multi Dimensional Voice Program. In order to determine changes in the acoustic parameters and evaluate the effectiveness of the singing training given, a single sample -pre and post-test research design was used. Hence, among the acoustic properties, F0, (Fundamental Frequency F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, formant frequencies, jitter (%, shimmer (%, NHR (Ratio of harmonic noise parameters were evaluated. The statistical analyses made for the comparison of MDVP parameters before and after the vocal training revealed no statistically significant difference in the students’ F0, Jitter, Shimmer, NHR, F1, F2, F3, and F4 acoustic parameters. However, the F5 formant value revealed statistically significant differences in all the students and a statistically significant difference was seen in the F0 parameter and F5 formant values of female students. Fundamental frequency (F0 is an important parameter changing throughout the singing training process among the female students’ acoustic characteristics. The increase in the F5 formant values of female students and the acoustic properties of all students within normal ranges could be considered as an indicator of the positive impact of the singing training received.

  10. A study of voice production characteristics of astronuat speech during Apollo 11 for speaker modeling in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengzhu; Hansen, John H L

    2017-03-01

    Human physiology has evolved to accommodate environmental conditions, including temperature, pressure, and air chemistry unique to Earth. However, the environment in space varies significantly compared to that on Earth and, therefore, variability is expected in astronauts' speech production mechanism. In this study, the variations of astronaut voice characteristics during the NASA Apollo 11 mission are analyzed. Specifically, acoustical features such as fundamental frequency and phoneme formant structure that are closely related to the speech production system are studied. For a further understanding of astronauts' vocal tract spectrum variation in space, a maximum likelihood frequency warping based analysis is proposed to detect the vocal tract spectrum displacement during space conditions. The results from fundamental frequency, formant structure, as well as vocal spectrum displacement indicate that astronauts change their speech production mechanism when in space. Moreover, the experimental results for astronaut voice identification tasks indicate that current speaker recognition solutions are highly vulnerable to astronaut voice production variations in space conditions. Future recommendations from this study suggest that successful applications of speaker recognition during extended space missions require robust speaker modeling techniques that could effectively adapt to voice production variation caused by diverse space conditions.

  11. Processing female and male voices: a word spotting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépiot, Erwan

    2013-12-01

    Several previous studies showed that synthetic vowel identification is more difficult for voices with a high f0 (the lowest frequency that defines voice pitch), but it is not clear whether this means that female voices, which generally have a higher f0, are processed more slowly than male voices. A word spotting experiment was conducted with 25 French native listeners (8 men, 17 women; M age = 27.6 yr., SD = 10.8). Words produced by four male and four female speakers were played to the participants. Their task was to press a button every time they identified the target word "étage." Response times were collected and compared in four different conditions: male voice preceded by male voices, female voice preceded by female voices, male voice preceded by female voices, and female voice preceded by male voices. Results showed that both sexes' voices were processed equally fast. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between mean f0 of the target word and response time. Nevertheless, when a target word produced by a male speaker occurred after several words produced by a female speaker (or vice-versa) the listener's RT decreased, suggesting that male and female voices are processed as two different entities.

  12. [Environmental factors and vocal habits regarding pre-school teachers and functionaries suffering voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrreto-Munévar, Deisy P; Cháux-Ramos, Oriana M; Estrada-Rangel, Mónica A; Sánchez-Morales, Jenifer; Moreno-Angarita, Marisol; Camargo-Mendoza, Maryluz

    2011-06-01

    Determining the relationship between vocal habits and environmental/ occupational conditions with the presence of vocal disturbance (dysphonia) in teachers and functionaries working at community-based, initial childhood education centres (kindergartens). This was a descriptive study which adopted across-sectional approach using 198 participants which was developed in three phases. Phase 1: consisted of identifying participants having the highest risk of presenting vocal disturbance. Phase 2consisted of observation-analysis concerning the voice use and vocal habits of participants who had been identified in phase 1. Phase 3consisted of perceptual and computational assessment of participants' voices using Wilson's vocal profile and the multidimensional voice program. Individuals having pitch breaks, throat clearing, increased voice intensity, and gastro-oesophageal reflux were found to present below standard fundamental frequency (FF). Subjects having altered breathing and increased voice intensity were identified as having above standard shimmer and jitter acoustic values. A high rate of inability to work was found due to vocal disturbance. It is thus suggested that there is a correlation between vocal habits and vocal disorders presented by preschool teachers in kindergarten settings.

  13. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  14. Acute effects of radioiodine therapy on the voice and larynx of basedow-Graves patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isolan-Cury, Roberta Werlang; Cury, Adriano Namo [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP); Monte, Osmar [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Physiology Department; Silva, Marta Assumpcao de Andrada e [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Speech Therapy School; Duprat, Andre [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Otorhinolaryngology Department; Marone, Marilia [Nuclimagem - Irmanity of the Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Almeida, Renata de; Iglesias, Alexandre [Sao Paulo Santa Casa de Misericordia, SP (Brazil). Medical Science School (FCMSCSP). Otorhinolaryngology Department. Endocrinology and Metabology Unit

    2008-07-01

    Graves's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three current therapeutic options: anti-thyroid medication, surgery, and radioactive iodine (I 131). There are few data in the literature regarding the effects of radioiodine therapy on the larynx and voice. The aim of this study was: to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the voice of Basedow-Graves patients. Material and method: A prospective study was done. Following the diagnosis of Grave's disease, patients underwent investigation of their voice, measurement of maximum phonatory time (/a/) and the s/z ratio, fundamental frequency analysis (Praat software), laryngoscopy and (perceptive-auditory) analysis in three different conditions: pre-treatment, 4 days, and 20 days post-radioiodine therapy. Conditions are based on the inflammatory pattern of thyroid tissue (Jones et al. 1999). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in voice characteristics in these three conditions. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy does not affect voice quality. (author)

  15. An Online Telepractice Model for the Prevention of Voice Disorders in Vocally Healthy Student Teachers Evaluated by a Smartphone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Elizabeth U.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Global Voice Prevention Model (GVPM) facilitated with student teachers at West Chester University and the VoiceEvalU8 smartphone application (app) used to assess the effectiveness of the GVPM. Twenty-one participants completed 1 of 3 conditions (i.e., in-person GVPM, telepractice GVPM, and control). The in-person and telepractice conditions ran for 4 weeks during fall 2016, with 1 week dedicated to vocal education and vocal hygiene and 3 weeks spent in vocal training. The control condition ran for 1 week and included only vocal education and vocal hygiene. The VoiceEvalU8 app was used at pre- and post-condition twice a day for 5 days to record acoustic, perceptual, and aerodynamic voice measures. The study is ongoing; therefore, preliminary acoustic results for fundamental frequency (F0) and jitter% are presented from pre- to post-condition. During spring 2017, the participants were student teaching and using the VoiceEvalU8 app to record the voice measures before and after teaching all day. A new group of participants will be enrolled fall 2017 for selection into 1 of the 3 conditions and then continue on to student teaching spring 2018. PMID:28890933

  16. An Online Telepractice Model for the Prevention of Voice Disorders in Vocally Healthy Student Teachers Evaluated by a Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Elizabeth U

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the Global Voice Prevention Model (GVPM) facilitated with student teachers at West Chester University and the VoiceEvalU8 smartphone application (app) used to assess the effectiveness of the GVPM. Twenty-one participants completed 1 of 3 conditions (i.e., in-person GVPM, telepractice GVPM, and control). The in-person and telepractice conditions ran for 4 weeks during fall 2016, with 1 week dedicated to vocal education and vocal hygiene and 3 weeks spent in vocal training. The control condition ran for 1 week and included only vocal education and vocal hygiene. The VoiceEvalU8 app was used at pre- and post-condition twice a day for 5 days to record acoustic, perceptual, and aerodynamic voice measures. The study is ongoing; therefore, preliminary acoustic results for fundamental frequency (F0) and jitter% are presented from pre- to post-condition. During spring 2017, the participants were student teaching and using the VoiceEvalU8 app to record the voice measures before and after teaching all day. A new group of participants will be enrolled fall 2017 for selection into 1 of the 3 conditions and then continue on to student teaching spring 2018.

  17. Clinical voice analysis of Carnatic singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Ravikumar; Boominathan, Prakash; Mahalingam, Shenbagavalli

    2014-01-01

    Carnatic singing is a classical South Indian style of music that involves rigorous training to produce an "open throated" loud, predominantly low-pitched singing, embedded with vocal nuances in higher pitches. Voice problems in singers are not uncommon. The objective was to report the nature of voice problems and apply a routine protocol to assess the voice. Forty-five trained performing singers (females: 36 and males: 9) who reported to a tertiary care hospital with voice problems underwent voice assessment. The study analyzed their problems and the clinical findings. Voice change, difficulty in singing higher pitches, and voice fatigue were major complaints. Most of the singers suffered laryngopharyngeal reflux that coexisted with muscle tension dysphonia and chronic laryngitis. Speaking voices were rated predominantly as "moderate deviation" on GRBAS (Grade, Rough, Breathy, Asthenia, and Strain). Maximum phonation time ranged from 4 to 29 seconds (females: 10.2, standard deviation [SD]: 5.28 and males: 15.7, SD: 5.79). Singing frequency range was reduced (females: 21.3 Semitones and males: 23.99 Semitones). Dysphonia severity index (DSI) scores ranged from -3.5 to 4.91 (females: 0.075 and males: 0.64). Singing frequency range and DSI did not show significant difference between sex and across clinical diagnosis. Self-perception using voice disorder outcome profile revealed overall severity score of 5.1 (SD: 2.7). Findings are discussed from a clinical intervention perspective. Study highlighted the nature of voice problems (hyperfunctional) and required modifications in assessment protocol for Carnatic singers. Need for regular assessments and vocal hygiene education to maintain good vocal health are emphasized as outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Penguins use the two-voice system to recognize each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, T; Jouventin, P; Hildebrand, C

    2000-06-07

    The sound-producing structure in birds is the syrinx, which is usually a two-part organ located at the junction of the bronchi. As each branch of the syrinx produces sound independently, many birds have two acoustic sources. Thirty years ago, we had anatomical, physiological and acoustical evidence of this two-voice phenomenon but no function was known. In songbirds, often these two voices with their respective harmonics are not activated simultaneously but they are obvious in large penguins and generate a beat pattern which varies between individuals. The emperor penguin breeds during the Antarctic winter, incubating and carrying its egg on its feet. Without the topographical cue of a nest, birds identify each other only by vocal means when switching duties during incubation or chick rearing. To test whether the two-voice system contains the identity code, we played back the modified call of their mate to both adults and also the modified call of their parents to chicks. Both the adults and the chicks replied to controls (two voices) but not to modified signals (one voice being experimentally suppressed). Our experiments demonstrate that the beat generated by the interaction of these two fundamental frequencies conveys information about individual identity and also propagates well through obstacles, being robust to sound degradation through the medium of bodies in a penguin colony. The two-voice structure is also clear in the call of other birds such as the king penguin, another non-nesting species, but not in the 14 other nesting penguins. We concluded that the two-voice phenomenon functions as an individual recognition system in species using few if any landmarks to meet. In penguins, this coding process, increasing the call complexity and resisting sound degradation, has evolved in parallel with the loss of territoriality.

  19. Four-day-follow-up study on the voice monitoring of primary school teachers: Relationships with conversational task and classroom acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppina Emma; Astolfi, Arianna; Cantor Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Carullo, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occupational voice use of 27 female primary school teachers over a four-day-follow-up. Sixty-one working-day voice samples were acquired with two contact sensor-based vocal analyzers in four schools with highly different classroom acoustics. The vocal parameters were compared with a conversational task that the teachers performed before each lesson and with the measured classroom acoustic parameters. The average equivalent sound pressure level at 1 m from the mouth, which refers to the teacher's vocal effort, and the voicing time percentage were 71.2 dB [standard error (SE) 1.0 dB] and 29%, respectively. The teachers' mean voice level and fundamental frequency were significantly higher in the occupational setting than in the conversational one, which is by 5.5 dB (SE 0.5 dB) and 50 Hz (SE 3 Hz), respectively. Higher voice levels were observed for higher background noise levels, at a rate of 0.53 dB/dB, and a tendency of the background noise to increase with increasing reverberation time was observed at a rate of 13 dB/s. An optimal reverberation time of 0.7 s was found to minimize the voice level, since teachers raised their voice at lower and higher reverberation times, the latter presumably due to higher background noise levels.

  20. About Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dull pain associated with voice use. Other voice problems may accompany a change in singing ability that is most notable in the upper singing range. A more serious problem is indicated by spitting up blood or when ... Voice? Voice changes sometimes follow an upper respiratory infection ...

  1. Acoustic prediction of voice type in women with functional dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Roy, Nelson

    2005-06-01

    The categorization of voice into quality type (ie, normal, breathy, hoarse, rough) is often a traditional part of the voice diagnostic. The goal of this study was to assess the contributions of various time and spectral-based acoustic measures to the categorization of voice type for a diverse sample of voices collected from both functionally dysphonic (breathy, hoarse, and rough) (n=83) and normal women (n=51). Before acoustic analyses, 12 judges rated all voice samples for voice quality type. Discriminant analysis, using the modal rating of voice type as the dependent variable, produced a 5-variable model (comprising time and spectral-based measures) that correctly classified voice type with 79.9% accuracy (74.6% classification accuracy on cross-validation). Voice type classification was achieved based on two significant discriminant functions, interpreted as reflecting measures related to "Phonatory Instability" and "F(0) Characteristics." A cepstrum-based measure (CPP/EXP ratio) consistently emerged as a significant factor in predicting voice type; however, variables such as shimmer (RMS dB) and a measure of low- vs. high-frequency spectral energy (the Discrete Fourier Transformation ratio) also added substantially to the accurate profiling and prediction of voice type. The results are interpreted and discussed with respect to the key acoustic characteristics that contributed to the identification of specific voice types, and the value of identifying a subset of time and spectral-based acoustic measures that appear sensitive to a perceptually diverse set of dysphonic voices.

  2. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J; Babu, Tara; Larson, Charles R

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present.

  3. Relationship between voice quality and vocal nodule size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Engel, Samuel H; Choi, Sukgi S

    2008-11-01

    To determine the effect of vocal nodule size on voice in pediatric patients. Vocal nodules were graded according to a validated grading scale by three pediatric otolaryngologists. Patients evaluated from 2003 to 2007 with a diagnosis of vocal nodules were included. Forty patients (21 female) with a mean age of 7.5 years were identified. Vocal nodules were rated as grade 1 (17 patients), grade 2 (15 patients), and grade 3 (8 patients). Pitch range was reduced in patients with larger nodules (P = 0.001). There was no statistical association between nodule grade and fundamental frequency abnormality, perturbation, shimmer, decreased respiratory support, air loss, or significant muscle tension. Voice characteristics in patients with vocal nodules were evaluated. Other than pitch reduction, objective and subjective voice measurements are not statistically different in varying vocal nodule sizes; however, many of the measures did show a trend towards significance. Vocal rehabilitation is complex in children with nodules and may not directly correlate with vocal nodule size.

  4. Discrimination of Voice Pitch and Vocal-Tract Length in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudrain, Etienne; Başkent, Deniz

    2017-08-09

    When listening to two competing speakers, normal-hearing (NH) listeners can take advantage of voice differences between the speakers. Users of cochlear implants (CIs) have difficulty in perceiving speech on speech. Previous literature has indicated sensitivity to voice pitch (related to fundamental frequency, F0) to be poor among implant users, while sensitivity to vocal-tract length (VTL; related to the height of the speaker and formant frequencies), the other principal voice characteristic, has not been directly investigated in CIs. A few recent studies evaluated F0 and VTL perception indirectly, through voice gender categorization, which relies on perception of both voice cues. These studies revealed that, contrary to prior literature, CI users seem to rely exclusively on F0 while not utilizing VTL to perform this task. The objective of the present study was to directly and systematically assess raw sensitivity to F0 and VTL differences in CI users to define the extent of the deficit in voice perception. The just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for F0 and VTL were measured in 11 CI listeners using triplets of consonant-vowel syllables in an adaptive three-alternative forced choice method. The results showed that while NH listeners had average JNDs of 1.95 and 1.73 semitones (st) for F0 and VTL, respectively, CI listeners showed JNDs of 9.19 and 7.19 st. These JNDs correspond to differences of 70% in F0 and 52% in VTL. For comparison to the natural range of voices in the population, the F0 JND in CIs remains smaller than the typical male-female F0 difference. However, the average VTL JND in CIs is about twice as large as the typical male-female VTL difference. These findings, thus, directly confirm that CI listeners do not seem to have sufficient access to VTL cues, likely as a result of limited spectral resolution, and, hence, that CI listeners' voice perception deficit goes beyond poor perception of F0. These results provide a potential common explanation not

  5. Vocal parameters and voice-related quality of life in adult women with and without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Pablo Rodrigo Rocha; Bertoldo, Simão Veras; Costa, Luanne Gabrielle Morais; Serra, Emmeliny Cristini Nogueira; Silva, Eduardo Magalhães; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptual and acoustic parameters of voice in adult women with and without ovarian function and its impact on quality of life related to voice. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 106 women divided into, two groups: G1, with ovarian function (n=43) and G2, without physiological ovarian function (n=63). The women were instructed to sustain the vowel "a" and the sounds of /s/ and /z/ in habitual pitch and loudness. They were also asked to classify their voices and answer the voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. The perceptual analysis of the vocal samples was performed by three speech-language pathologists using the GRBASI (G: grade; R: roughness; B: breathness; A: asthenia; S: strain; I: instability) scale. The acoustic analysis was carried out with the software VoxMetria 2.7h (CTS Informatica). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the perceptual analysis, both groups showed a mild deviation for the parameters roughness, strain, and instability, but only G2 showed a mild impact for the overall degree of dysphonia. The mean of fundamental frequency was significantly lower for the G2, with a difference of 17.41Hz between the two groups. There was no impact on V-RQOL in any of the V-RQOL domains for this group. With the menopause, there is a change in women's voices, impacting on some voice parameters. However, there is no direct impact on their quality of life related to voice. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preferences for Very Low and Very High Voice Pitch in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E Re; Jillian J M O'Connor; Bennett, Patrick J.; Feinberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. N...

  7. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  8. Voice and Handgrip Strength Predict Reproductive Success in a Group of Indigenous African Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251

  9. Voice and handgrip strength predict reproductive success in a group of indigenous African females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Atkinson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness. Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis.

  10. The Aging Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hassan Tarafder

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of voice is an unseen issue perceived by sounding ‘old’. This involves a widespread change throughout the upper and lower airway mainly affected by the change in anatomy and physiology of vocal fold/cord. Thinning of laryngeal mucosa, atrophy of vocal muscles, reduced movement of cricoarytenoid joint, reduced lung volume and capacities; reduced movement of tongue, jaw as well systemic conditions may all affect the normal voice in older ages. Higher pitch voice in men, lower pitch voice in women, ‘thin’ voice, vocal fatigue, difficulty in being heard in noisy situations, tremor or shakiness in the voice are common changes found in old people. Various pathological conditions of larynx may cause voice change similar to aging voice. This can be differentiated endoscopically by an experienced Otolaryngologist. Avoidance of smoking, shouting, gastric reflux, resting the throat during a cold attack are simple measures that can delay aging process of our voice. ‘Voice related quality of life index’ is a quick & easy measurement of voice quality based on changes in last two weeks. Voice therapy and phonosurgery with injectable materials in vocal fold can improve the voice in advanced age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.11033 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:83-86 

  11. Voice health of teachers in the north of Portugal: epidemiological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Marisa; Araújo, André; Andrade, Ana; Amaro, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is a fundamental requisite for teachers and other professionals in the education field. Teachers are considered professional voice users, as voice quality is central to their speech and communicative profile. In the last decades, teachers have been shown to be a risk group concerning voice disorders. Several studies have already identified specific risk factors within this population, and proposed voice health promotion measures, including prevention actions, and labou...

  12. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  13. The Aging Voice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamrul Hassan Tarafder; Pran Gopal Datta; Ahmed Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Aging of voice is an unseen issue perceived by sounding ‘old’. This involves a widespread change throughout the upper and lower airway mainly affected by the change in anatomy and physiology of vocal fold/cord. Thinning of laryngeal mucosa, atrophy of vocal muscles, reduced movement of cricoarytenoid joint, reduced lung volume and capacities; reduced movement of tongue, jaw as well systemic conditions may all affect the normal voice in older ages. Higher pitch voice in men, lower pitch voice ...

  14. Classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aid using multiple classifier fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Rahati, Saeed; Ghasemi, Mohammad Mahdi; Asadpour, Vahid; Tayarani, Hamid; Rajati, Mohsen

    2011-01-14

    Speech production and speech phonetic features gradually improve in children by obtaining audio feedback after cochlear implantation or using hearing aids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate automated classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aids. We considered 4 disorder categories in children's voice using the following definitions: Level_1: Children who produce spontaneous phonation and use words spontaneously and imitatively. Level_2: Children, who produce spontaneous phonation, use words spontaneously and make short sentences imitatively. Level_3: Children, who produce spontaneous phonations, use words and arbitrary sentences spontaneously. Level_4: Normal children without any hearing loss background. Thirty Persian children participated in the study, including six children in each level from one to three and 12 children in level four. Voice samples of five isolated Persian words "mashin", "mar", "moosh", "gav" and "mouz" were analyzed. Four levels of the voice quality were considered, the higher the level the less significant the speech disorder. "Frame-based" and "word-based" features were extracted from voice signals. The frame-based features include intensity, fundamental frequency, formants, nasality and approximate entropy and word-based features include phase space features and wavelet coefficients. For frame-based features, hidden Markov models were used as classifiers and for word-based features, neural network was used. After Classifiers fusion with three methods: Majority Voting Rule, Linear Combination and Stacked fusion, the best classification rates were obtained using frame-based and word-based features with MVR rule (level 1:100%, level 2: 93.75%, level 3: 100%, level 4: 94%). Result of this study may help speech pathologists follow up voice disorder recovery in children with cochlear implantation or hearing aid who are in the same age range.

  15. Classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aid using multiple classifier fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayarani Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speech production and speech phonetic features gradually improve in children by obtaining audio feedback after cochlear implantation or using hearing aids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate automated classification of voice disorder in children with cochlear implantation and hearing aids. Methods We considered 4 disorder categories in children's voice using the following definitions: Level_1: Children who produce spontaneous phonation and use words spontaneously and imitatively. Level_2: Children, who produce spontaneous phonation, use words spontaneously and make short sentences imitatively. Level_3: Children, who produce spontaneous phonations, use words and arbitrary sentences spontaneously. Level_4: Normal children without any hearing loss background. Thirty Persian children participated in the study, including six children in each level from one to three and 12 children in level four. Voice samples of five isolated Persian words "mashin", "mar", "moosh", "gav" and "mouz" were analyzed. Four levels of the voice quality were considered, the higher the level the less significant the speech disorder. "Frame-based" and "word-based" features were extracted from voice signals. The frame-based features include intensity, fundamental frequency, formants, nasality and approximate entropy and word-based features include phase space features and wavelet coefficients. For frame-based features, hidden Markov models were used as classifiers and for word-based features, neural network was used. Results After Classifiers fusion with three methods: Majority Voting Rule, Linear Combination and Stacked fusion, the best classification rates were obtained using frame-based and word-based features with MVR rule (level 1:100%, level 2: 93.75%, level 3: 100%, level 4: 94%. Conclusions Result of this study may help speech pathologists follow up voice disorder recovery in children with cochlear implantation or hearing aid who are

  16. Evaluating voice characteristics of first-year acting students in Israel: factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Primov-Fever, Adi; Kushnir, Tami; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat; Wolf, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Acting students require diverse, high-quality, and high-intensity vocal performance from early stages of their training. Demanding vocal activities, before developing the appropriate vocal skills, put them in high risk for developing vocal problems. A retrospective analysis of voice characteristics of first-year acting students using several voice evaluation tools. A total of 79 first-year acting students (55 women and 24 men) were assigned into two study groups: laryngeal findings (LFs) and no laryngeal findings, based on stroboscopic findings. Their voice characteristics were evaluated using acoustic analysis, aerodynamic examination, perceptual scales, and self-report questionnaires. Results obtained from each set of measures were examined using a factor analysis approach. Significant differences between the two groups were found for a single fundamental frequency (F(0))-Regularity factor; a single Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain perceptual factor; and the three self-evaluation factors. Gender differences were found for two acoustic analysis factors, which were based on F(0) and its derivatives, namely an aerodynamic factor that represents expiratory volume measurements and a single self-evaluation factor that represents the tendency to seek therapy. Approximately 50% of the first-year acting students had LFs. These students differed from their peers in the control group in a single acoustic analysis factor, as well as perceptual and self-report factors. No group differences, however, were found for the aerodynamic factors. Early laryngeal examination and voice evaluation of future professional voice users could provide a valuable individual baseline, to which later examinations could be compared, and assist in providing personally tailored treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Writing with Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  18. Voice and Speech Quality Perception Assessment and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Jekosch, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Foundations of Voice and Speech Quality Perception starts out with the fundamental question of: "How do listeners perceive voice and speech quality and how can these processes be modeled?" Any quantitative answers require measurements. This is natural for physical quantities but harder to imagine for perceptual measurands. This book approaches the problem by actually identifying major perceptual dimensions of voice and speech quality perception, defining units wherever possible and offering paradigms to position these dimensions into a structural skeleton of perceptual speech and voice quality. The emphasis is placed on voice and speech quality assessment of systems in artificial scenarios. Many scientific fields are involved. This book bridges the gap between two quite diverse fields, engineering and humanities, and establishes the new research area of Voice and Speech Quality Perception.

  19. Unique technological voice method (The YUBA Method) shows clear improvement in patients with cochlear implants in singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, T; Itoh, T; Kaga, K

    2009-01-01

    It is known that children with cochlear implants tend to sing off-key, monotonously, and flat. There are a few reports that it is possible to improve off-key singing mainly through instruction using the falsetto voice for people with normal hearing. We examined whether their singing skills could be improved through instruction. Eight subjects (five boys and three girls aged 10.4+/-2.4 years) with cochlear implants were selected. Speech perception scores of short sentences were on average 66.5%+/-26.5%. We diagnosed their singing acuity by letting them sing a nursery song, well known to all of them, before and after the instruction. The mean fundamental frequencies of their singing approached the mean Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)-specified frequencies as references and the deviation between fundamental frequencies of their singing and reference MIDI sounds became smaller. This study shows a clear improvement in the singing ability of children with cochlear implants through a unique technological voice method, mainly focused on the falsetto voice in this experiment.

  20. Analyses of Sustained Vowels in Down Syndrome (DS): A Case Study Using Spectrograms and Perturbation Data to Investigate Voice Quality in Four Adults With DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tracy; Cunningham, Stuart; Whiteside, Sandra P

    2017-09-21

    Automatic acoustic measures of voice quality in people with Down syndrome (DS) do not reliably reflect perceived voice qualities. This study used acoustic data and visual spectral data to investigate the relationship between perceived voice qualities and acoustic measures. Participants were four young adults (two males, two females; mean age 23.8 years) with DS and severe learning disabilities, at least one of whom had a hearing impairment. Participants imitated sustained /i/, /u/, and /a/ vowels at predetermined target pitches within their vocal range. Medial portions of vowels were analyzed, using Praat, for fundamental frequency, harmonics-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer. Spectrograms were used to identify the presence and the duration of subharmonics at onset and offset, and mid-vowel. The presence of diplophonia was assessed by auditory evaluation. Perturbation data were highest for /a/ vowels and lowest for /u/ vowels. Intermittent productions of subharmonics were evident in spectrograms, some of which coincided with perceived diplophonia. The incidence, location, duration, and intensity of subharmonics differed between the four participants. Although the acoustic data do not clearly indicate atypical phonation, diplophonia and subharmonics reflect nonmodal phonation. The findings suggest that these may contribute to different perceived voice qualities in the study group and that these qualities may result from intermittent involvement of supraglottal structures. Further research is required to confirm the findings in the wider DS population, and to assess the relationships between voice quality, vowel type, and physiological measures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Loud voice during environmental noise exposure in patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Carina; Bohman, Mikael; Ternström, Sten; Södersten, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to investigate how female patients with vocal nodules use their voices when trying to make themselves heard over background noise. Ten patients with bilateral vocal fold nodules and 23 female controls were recorded reading a text in four conditions, one without noise and three with noise from cafés/pubs, played over loudspeakers at 69, 77 and 85 dBA. The noise was separated from the voice signal using a high-resolution channel estimation technique. Both patients and controls increased voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), subglottal pressure (Ps) and their subjective ratings of strain significantly as a main effect of the increased background noise. The patients used significantly higher Ps in all four conditions. Despite this they did not differ significantly from the controls in voice SPL, F0 or perceived strain. It was concluded that speaking in background noise is a risk factor for vocal loading. Vocal loading tests in clinical settings are important and further development of assessment methods is needed.

  2. Effects of perturbation magnitude and voice F0 level on the pitch-shift reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Larson, Charles R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the responsiveness of the pitch-shift reflex to small magnitude stimuli and voice fundamental frequency (F(0)) level. English speakers received pitch-shifted voice feedback (+/-10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cents, 200 ms duration) during vowel phonations at a high and a low F(0) level. Mean pitch-shift response magnitude increased as a function of pitch-shift stimulus magnitude, but when expressed as a percent of stimulus magnitude, declined from 100% with +/-10 cents to 37% with +/-50 cents stimuli. Response magnitudes were larger and latencies were shorter with a high F(0) level (16 cents;130 ms) compared to a low F(0) level (13 cents;152 ms). Data from the present study demonstrate that vocal response magnitudes are equal to small perturbation magnitudes, and they are larger and faster with a high F(0) voice. These results suggest that the audio-vocal system is optimally suited for compensating for small pitch rather than larger perturbations. Data also suggest the sensitivity of the audio-vocal system to voice perturbation may vary with F(0) level.

  3. Enhanced neural responses to self-triggered voice pitch feedback perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R

    2010-05-12

    This study investigated the effect of self-triggered voice fundamental frequency (F0) feedback perturbation on auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during vocalization and listening. Auditory ERPs were examined in response to self-triggered and computer-triggered -200 cents pitch-shift stimuli while participants vocalized or listened to the playback of their self-vocalizations. The stimuli were either presented with a delay of 500-1000 ms after the participants pressed a button or delivered by a computer with an interstimulus interval of 500-1000 ms. Results showed that self-triggered stimuli elicited larger ERPs compared with computer-triggered stimuli during both vocalization and listening conditions. These findings suggest that self-triggered perturbation of self-vocalization auditory feedback may enhance auditory responses to voice feedback pitch perturbation during vocalization and listening.

  4. Correcting low-frequency phase distortion in electroglottograph waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Dynamic high-pass filtering with a -3 dB frequency that is a factor of ten or more below the voice fundamental frequency has a negligible effect on the amplitudes of the Fourier components of an EGG waveform. However, such a filter can significantly distort the waveform due to distortion in the phase or time alignment of these Fourier components. Such high-pass filtering can be introduced purposefully to stabilize the waveform by attenuating low-frequency noise, or may be an undesired effect of using an amplification or data acquisition system designed for acoustic signals. For a given voice fundamental frequency, the amount of distortion depends greatly on the order or attenuation characteristics of the filter and on the type of EGG waveform. Both a high-order filter and a breathy voice tend to increase the amount of distortion. If the characteristics of the high-pass filter are known, there are a number of digital filter techniques that can be used to reduce the phase distortion. However, it is shown that a relatively simple analogue network can also be used to obtain a correction that suffices for most applications. If the precise characteristics of the filter are not known, the response to a square wave can be used to adjust the compensator parameters for an optimal correction.

  5. The voice-hearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Angela

    2013-06-01

    For 25 years, the international Hearing Voices Movement and the U.K. Hearing Voices Network have campaigned to improve the lives of people who hear voices. In doing so, they have introduced a new term into the mental health lexicon: "the voice-hearer." This article offers a "thick description" of the figure of "the voice-hearer." A selection of prominent texts (life narratives, research papers, videos and blogs), the majority produced by people active in the Hearing Voices or consumer/survivor/ex-patient movements, were analysed from an interdisciplinary medical humanities perspective. "The voice-hearer" (i) asserts voice-hearing as a meaningful experience, (ii) challenges psychiatric authority and (iii) builds identity through sharing life narrative. While technically accurate, the definition of "the voice-hearer" as simply "a person who has experienced voice-hearing or auditory verbal hallucinations" fails to acknowledge that this is a complex, politically resonant and value-laden identity. The figure of "the voice-hearer" comes into being through a specific set of narrative practices as an "expert by experience" who challenges the authority and diagnostic categories of mainstream psychiatry, especially the category of "schizophrenia."

  6. Window anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty in the management of high-pitched voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Ismail; Dogan, Muzeyyen; Tadihan, Elcin; Alkan Cakir, Zeynep; Bengisu, Serkan; Akpinar, Meltem

    2008-12-01

    To present the success rate of a less invasive modification of Isshiki type III anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty technique in patients with high-pitched voice disorders. Prospective case series. KBB Major Private Clinic of Istanbul Surgery Hospital and the University of Yeditepe Hospital. Twenty-one adult patients who believed that their high-pitched voices conflicted with their body image and/or gender identity. Type III thyroplasty for pitch alteration. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative (>6 months) fundamental frequency levels, diplophonia, perception of body image and pitch, and subjective ratings of comfort during vocalization. The patients were mostly male (mean age, 30.5 years). The most frequent cause of high-pitched voice was sulcus vocalis (n = 14), followed by constitutional causes (n = 5), mutational falsetto (n = 1), and severe glottic scarring secondary to childhood diphtheria (n = 1). After surgery, the fundamental frequency dropped significantly from a mean of 213.81 Hz to 149.86 Hz (P < .001), equaling a mean postoperative semitone drop of 6.23. Misperception leading to an abnormal body image was reduced by 86%. Fourteen patients who originally had feelings of tension and fatigue during phonation and vocalization gained comfort postoperatively. Diplophonia with subharmonic signals observed in 11 cases preoperatively was reduced or disappeared in 6 cases. No complications or failures were observed during the follow-up period. Window anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty is an efficient, easy, less invasive, and safe procedure in the surgical management of organic and functional high-pitched voice disorders.

  7. Teachers' voice use in teaching environments: a field study using ambulatory phonation monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka; Pelegrín García, David; Whitling, Susanna; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders

    2014-11-01

    This case-control designed field study examines the vocal behavior in teachers with self-estimated voice problems (VP) and their age- and school-matched voice healthy (VH) colleagues. It was hypothesized that teachers with and teachers without VP use their voices differently regarding fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), and in relation to the background noise. Teachers with self-estimated VP (n = 14; two males and 12 females) were age and gender matched to VH school colleagues (n = 14; two males and 12 females). The subjects, recruited from an earlier study, had been examined in laryngeal, vocal, hearing, and psychosocial aspects. The fundamental frequency, SPL, and phonation time were recorded with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor during one representative workday. The teachers reported their activities in a structured diary. The SPL (including teachers' and students' activity and ambient noise) was recorded with a sound level meter; the room temperature and air quality were measured simultaneously. The acoustic properties of the empty classrooms were measured. Teachers with VP behaved vocally different from their VH peers, in particular during teaching sessions. The phonation time was significantly higher in the group with VP, and the number of vibratory cycles differed between the female teachers. The F0 pattern, related to the vocal SPL and room acoustics, differed between the groups. The results suggest a different vocal behavior in subjects with subjective VP and a higher vocal load with fewer possibilities for vocal recovery. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Voice disorders in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Stickler, B

    2012-07-01

    Voice disorders in the pediatric population are relatively common. The education of families, teachers and clinical staff on etiology and treatment of pediatric voice disorders have led to greater attention being paid to hoarseness in childhood and improving early detection of pediatric voice disorders. Pediatric voice problems can have a number of causes. Most commonly, childhood dysphonia is caused by vocal fold nodules due vocal ab- and misuse. Other reasons might be congenital laryngeal dysplasia, vocal fold cysts and laryngeal papilloma. Medical examination is necessary in order to initiate appropriate treatment. In the case of vocal fold cysts and laryngeal papilloma, phonosurgery is indicated. Vocal fold nodules should be treated by voice therapy in order to change vocal behaviour. If voice therapy fails, phonosurgical intervention is recommended, since vocal fold nodules can persist into adulthood with a negative impact on voice quality.

  9. Expression of gender in the human voice: investigating the “gender code”

    OpenAIRE

    Cartei, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We can easily and reliably identify the gender of an unfamiliar interlocutor over\\ud the telephone. This is because our voice is “sexually dimorphic”: men typically speak\\ud with a lower fundamental frequency (F0 - lower pitch) and lower vocal tract resonances\\ud (ΔF – “deeper” timbre) than women. While the biological bases of these differences are\\ud well understood, and mostly down to size differences between men and women, very\\ud little is known about the extent to which we can play with ...

  10. Effects of obstruent voicing on vowel F0: Evidence from "true voicing" languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, James P; Ladd, D Robert

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates consonant-related F0 perturbations ("CF0") in French and Italian by comparing the effects of voiced and voiceless obstruents on F0 to those of voiced sonorants. The voiceless obstruents /p f/ in both languages are found to have F0-raising properties similar to American English voiceless obstruents, while F0 following the (pre)voiced obstruents /b v/ in French and Italian patterns together with /m/, again similar to English [Hanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(1), 425-441]. In both languages, F0 is significantly depressed, relative to sonorants, during the closure for voiced obstruents, but cannot be differentiated from sonorants following the release of oral constriction. These findings are taken as support for a model on which F0 perturbations are fundamentally the result of laryngeal maneuvers initiated to sustain or inhibit phonation, regardless of other language-particular aspects of phonetic realization.

  11. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  12. Voice Range Profiles of Middle School and High School Choral Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are significant, and this challenge is compounded for choral directors who depend on the voice for communicating information or demonstrating music concepts. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and intensity of middle and high school choral directors' voices and to compare choral directors' voices with…

  13. Nonlinear acoustic analysis in the evaluation of occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over recent years numerous papers have stressed that production of voice is subjected to the nonlinear processes, which cause aperiodic vibrations of vocal folds. These vibrations cannot always be characterized by means of conventional acoustic parameters, such as measurements of frequency and amplitude perturbations. Thus, special attention has recently been paid to nonlinear acoustic methods. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of nonlinear cepstral analysis, including the evaluation of mel cepstral coefficients (MFCC, in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and methods: The study involved 275 voice samples of pathologic voice (sustained vowel "a" and four standardized sentences registered in female teachers with the occupation-related benign vocal fold masses (BVFM, such as vocal nodules, polyps, and 200 voice samples of normal voices from the control group of females. The mean age of patients and controls was similar (45 vs. 43 years. Voice samples from both groups were analyzed, including MFCC evaluation. Results: MFCC classification using the Sammon Mapping and Support Vector Machines yielded a considerable accuracy of the test. Voice pathologies were detected in 475 registered voice samples: for vowel "a" with 86% sensitivity and 90% specificity, and for the examined sentences the corresponding values varied between 87% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Nonlinear voice analysis with application of mel cepstral coefficients could be a useful and objective tool for confirming occupational-related lesions of the glottis. Further studies addressing this problem are being carried out. Med Pr 2013;64(1:29–35

  14. METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  15. Clinical Voices - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan

    Anomalous aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality, are reported to characterise many mental disorders. However, it has proven difficult to quantify and explain this oddness of speech by employing traditional statistical methods. In this talk we will show how the t...... the temporal dynamics of the voice in Asperger's patients enable us to automatically reconstruct the diagnosis, and assess the Autism quotient score. We then generalise the findings to Danish and American children with autism....

  16. A Device for Tracking the Fundamental Frequency of Speech and its Application in the Assessment of ’Strain’ in Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    methods render accuracies of around 0.5% they are obviously unsuitable for large quantities of speech and of course 6 do not permit automatic tracking of...response which removes the dc component of the signal and any low frequency syllabic modulations. 15 5.1.4 Tracking low pass filter The tracking low pass...5 (1976) 42 C.A. McGonegal et at A semi automatic pitch detector (SAPD). IEEE Trans, Acoust. Speech and Sig. Proc., Vol ASSP- 23, No.6 (1975) C 31

  17. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  18. Short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A-L; Sibai, A; Mahfoud, L; Oubari, D; Ashkar, J; Fuleihan, N

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice. Prospective study. Eighteen non-dysphonic subjects (seven men and 11 women) with a history of hubble-bubble smoking and no history of cigarette smoking underwent acoustic analysis and laryngeal video-stroboscopic examination before and 30 minutes after hubble-bubble smoking. On laryngeal video-stroboscopy, none of the subjects had vocal fold erythema either before or after smoking. Five patients had mild vocal fold oedema both before and after smoking. After smoking, there was a slight increase in the number of subjects with thick mucus between the vocal folds (six, vs four before smoking) and with vocal fold vessel dilation (two, vs one before smoking). Acoustic analysis indicated a drop in habitual pitch, fundamental frequency and voice turbulence index after smoking, and an increase in noise-to-harmonics ratio. Even 30 minutes of hubble-bubble smoking can cause a drop in vocal pitch and an increase in laryngeal secretions and vocal fold vasodilation.

  19. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring voice hearers’ relationships with their voices: Can voices serve an adaptive function?

    OpenAIRE

    Nevard, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice hearers’ relationships with their voices can mirror their wider social relating (e.g. Paulik, 2012). Research has found a relationship between social isolation and beliefs about voices being benevolent (e.g. Favrod et al., 2004). Attachment style impacts on aspects on the voice hearing experience (e.g. Berry et al., 2012) but no previous study has used a measure of attachment to investigate voice hearers’ relationship with their voices. Aims To investigate whether vo...

  1. Voice and endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders.

  2. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  3. Voice and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so professional guidance from a voice therapist or voice coach is very helpful. Some things you may do on your own though include: reading a book or paper aloud for 10-15 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, as well as singing with the radio. Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 ...

  4. Fundamental processes of fuel removal by cyclotron frequency range plasmas and integral scenario for fusion application studied with carbon co-deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möller, S., E-mail: s.moeller@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wauters, T. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Kreter, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Petersson, P.; Carrasco, A.G. [Fusion Plasma Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 31, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Plasma impact removal using radio frequency heated plasmas is a candidate method to control the co-deposit related tritium inventory in fusion devices. Plasma parameters evolve according to the balance of input power to losses (transport, radiation, collisions). Material is sputtered by the ion fluxes with impact energies defined by the plasma sheath. H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and {sup 18}O{sub 2} plasmas are produced in the carbon limiter tokamak TEXTOR. Pre-characterised a-C:D layers are exposed to study local removal rates. The D{sub 2} plasma exhibits the highest surface release rate of 5.7 ± 0.9 ∗ 10{sup 19} D/m{sup 2}s. Compared to this the rate of the O{sub 2} plasma is 3-fold smaller due to its 11-fold lower ion flux density. Re-deposition of removed carbon is observed, indicating that pumping and ionisation are limiting the removal in TEXTOR. Presented models can explain the observations and allow tailoring removal discharges. An integral application scenario using ICWC and thermo-chemical removal is presented, allowing to remove 700 g T from a-C:DT co-deposits in 20 h with fusion compatible wall conditions using technical specifications similar to ITER.

  5. [Influence of resistance to voices on depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestès, J L; Vavasseur-Desperriers, J; Villatte, M; Denizot, L; Loas, G; Rusinek, S

    2015-02-01

    Beliefs about voices and reactions to voices have been proposed as important variables influencing the course of depression in schizophrenia. Consequences of auditory hallucinations are different according to identity, goals, omnipotence, omniscience, and meanings attributed to voices by the client. Ten to 15 % of the general population experience auditory hallucinations during lifetime without any distress or need for medical care. In addition, neither frequency of voices, nor their topography, influence the emotional consequences of auditory hallucinations experiences, but the relationships to voices. The Revised Belief about Voices Questionnaire analyzes voices along 5 dimensions: malevolence, benevolence, omnipotence, resistance, and engagement. Malevolent voices are related to depression, whereas benevolent voices engender more positive emotions. Subjects usually engage with benevolent voices, and resist to malevolent voices. But resistance strategies are barely efficient and often backfire. Patients resisting to their voices consider them more malevolent and present with more depressive symptoms. This research aims at studying the influence of resistance to auditory hallucinations on depression in a group of patients suffering from schizophrenia and experiencing auditory hallucinations, using the Revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R). It also provides a study of the psychometrics properties of the French language version of the BAVQ-R. Thirty-eight patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, have been tested with the French versions of the Revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Each patient presented with auditory hallucinations during the week before evaluation, with a minimum score of 3 on P3 item of PANSS. Mean age was 39.39 years (SD 11.33); mean duration of

  6. [Intra-amniotic transmission of the human voice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querleu, D; Renard, X; Versyp, F; Paris-Delrue, L; Vervoort, P

    1988-01-01

    New acoustic measurements in amniotic environment permit to specify the conditions of transmission of human voices: voices emerge, incompletely covered by a low background noise, but however higher pitched near the placenta. The recognition of phonemes in utero is rather weak, approximately 30 per cent and appreciably identical for all voices and different mode of emission. Therefore this type of recognition is likely to play a minor role: the voices are evenly toneless by lack of high-pitch, and there is no obvious superiority of the intelligibility of direct maternal voice. The recognition of vowels by their second forming, as well as the emergence (demonstrated with special microphones) of impulse noises with very high-pitch components and of synthetic speech, confirm the possibility of transmission of frequencies exceeding 1,500 Hz to the intra-amniotic environment. On the contrary, melody recognition is excellent: probably major role of this factor. The loudness of the maternal voice transmitted to the uterus exceeds markedly that of outside voices, and this voice is certainly accessible to the fetus, most of the time. The demonstration of the transmission to the amniotic fluid of noises and voices enables to consider the possibility of perception.

  7. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  9. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andics, A.V.; McQueen, J.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Gal, V.; Rudas, G.; Vidnyanszky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training

  10. Musculoskeletal Pain and Occupational Variables in Teachers With Voice Disorders and in Those With Healthy Voices-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vitor, Jhonatan; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare musculoskeletal pain perception in teachers with voice disorders and in those with healthy voices, and to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal pain and occupational variables (ie, work journey per week and working period). Forty-three classroom teachers were divided into two groups: dysphonic group (DG), 32 classroom teachers with voice complaints and voice disorders; and non-DG, 11 classroom teachers without voice complaints and who are vocally healthy. The musculoskeletal pain investigation survey was used to investigate the frequency and intensity of the pain. Occupational variables, such as work journey per week and working period, were investigated by the Voice Production Condition-Teacher questionnaire. The statistical tests used were the Spearman correlation (P ≤ 0.05) and the Mann-Whitney U test (P ≤ 0.05). There was no difference between the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain regarding dysphonia. Work journey per week was positively related to the frequency and the intensity of laryngeal pain in the DG. The working period had a negative relationship to the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain in the submandibular region in the DG. Classroom teachers with voice disorders and those with healthy voices do not have differences regarding the frequency and the intensity of musculoskeletal pain. Besides dysphonia the pain is an important symptom to be considered in classroom teachers. The occupational variables contributed to the presence of musculoskeletal pain in the region near the larynx, which appears to be directly proportional to work journey per week and inversely proportional to the working period. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pitch Estimation, Voicing Decision, and Noise Spectrum Estimation for Speech Corrupted by High Levels of Additive Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubsack, David Allan

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation presents two algorithms that extract parameters which are important to speech processing in high levels of noise. The first algorithm determines whether a signal containing noise corrupted human speech is voiced or not and estimates the fundamental frequency (pitch) of voiced speech. The second algorithm produces an estimate of the additive noise which is corrupting the speech. Previous research related to the voicing decision and pitch estimation has been concentrated at signal-to -noise ratios (SNRs) above 0 dB. Consequently, speech processing requiring the extraction of these parameters in higher levels of noise could not be performed with much success. The research presented in this dissertation concentrates on SNRs around and below 0 dB. Although the algorithm, based on the autocorrelation function, is designed to work well for high levels of noise, good results for the no noise case have been maintained. The idea of a confidence measure for parameter estimation is introduced. Confidence measures are defined and developed for both the voicing decision and the pitch estimation algorithms. Estimation of noise that is corrupting a speech signal has been motivated by the need to enhance the corrupted speech. Previous research has concentrated on speech which is band limited to about 3500 Hz. Therefore, the estimation of the noise corrupting high frequency speech had not been considered. The noise estimation algorithm presented in this dissertation considers the effects of high frequency speech on the noise estimate in addition to the effects of low frequency speech. A new spectral averaging method is introduced which significantly reduces the corrupting effect of the speech components on the noise estimate for SNRs above 0 dB. The algorithm is tested for stationary white noise, stationary non-white noise, and non-stationary white noise.

  12. Objective and subjective voice outcomes after total laryngectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sluis, Klaske E; van der Molen, Lisette; van Son, Rob J J H; Hilgers, Frans J M; Bhairosing, Patrick A; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2017-10-31

    Esophageal speech (ES), tracheoesophageal speech (TES) and/or electrolarynx speech (ELS) are three speech rehabilitation methods which are commonly provided after total laryngectomy (TL). A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate comparative acoustic, perceptual, and patient-reported outcomes for ES, TES, ELS and healthy speakers. Twenty-six articles could be included. In most studies, methodological quality was low. It is likely that an inclusion bias exists, many studies only included exceptional speakers. Significant better outcomes are reported for TES compared to ES for the acoustic parameters, fundamental frequency, maximum phonation time and intensity. Perceptually, TES is rated with a significant better voice quality and intelligibility than ES and ELS. None of the speech rehabilitation groups reported clearly better outcomes in patient-reported outcomes. Studies on speech outcomes after TL are flawed in design and represent weak levels of evidence. There is an urge for standardized measurement tools for evaluations of substitute voice speakers. TES is the favorable speech rehabilitation method according to acoustic and perceptual outcomes. All speaker groups after TL report a degree of voice handicap. Knowledge of caretakers and differences in health care and insurance systems play a role in the speech rehabilitation options that can be offered.

  13. Spectral characterization of jitter, shimmer, and additive noise in synthetically generated voice signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P J

    2000-02-01

    Alteration of the harmonic structure in voice source spectra, taken over at least two periods of the waveform, may occur due to the presence of fundamental frequency (f0) perturbation, amplitude perturbation, additive noise, or changes within the glottal source signal itself. In order to make accurate inferences regarding glottal-flow dynamics or perceptual evaluations based on spectral measurements taken from the acoustic speech waveform, investigation of the spectral features of each aperiodic component is required. Based on a heuristic development involving a consideration of the partial sum of the Fourier series taken for two periods of a jittered, shimmered, and (additive, random) noise-contaminated signal, the corresponding spectral characteristics are hypothesized. Subsequent to this, the Fourier series coefficients are calculated for the two periods in order to test the hypotheses. Definite spectral differences are found for each aperiodic component; based on these findings differential quantitative spectral measurements are suggested. Further supportive evidence is obtained through use of Fourier transform and periodogram-averaged calculations. The analysis is carried out on synthetically generated glottal-pulse waveforms and on radiated speech waveforms. A discussion of the results is given in terms of voice aperiodicity in general and in terms of their implication for future studies involving human voice signals.

  14. Return to Oz: voice pitch facilitates assessments of men's body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Feinberg, David R

    2014-08-01

    Listeners associate low voice pitch (fundamental frequency and/or harmonics) and formants (vocal-tract resonances) with large body size. Although formants reliably predict size within sexes, pitch does not reliably predict size in groups of same-sex adults. Voice pitch has therefore long been hypothesized to confound within-sex size assessment. Here we performed a knockout test of this hypothesis using whispered and 3-formant sine-wave speech devoid of pitch. Listeners estimated the relative size of men with above-chance accuracy from voiced, whispered, and sine-wave speech. Critically, although men's pitch and physical height were unrelated, the accuracy of listeners' size assessments increased in the presence rather than absence of pitch. Size assessments based on relatively low pitch yielded particularly high accuracy (70%-80%). Results of Experiment 2 revealed that amplitude, noise, and signal degradation of unvoiced speech could not explain this effect; listeners readily perceived formant shifts in manipulated whispered speech. Rather, in Experiment 3, we show that the denser harmonic spectrum provided by low pitch allowed for better resolution of formants, aiding formant-based size assessment. These findings demonstrate that pitch does not confuse body size assessment as has been previously suggested, but instead facilitates accurate size assessment by providing a carrier signal for vocal-tract resonances.

  15. The future nursing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Verena

    2003-01-01

    Based on some articles in the journal Nursing Ethics, the author outlines some of the areas of major importance for nursing in the future. These areas--the care of elderly people, long-term home-based care, genetics, international research and conflict and war--demand a new voice of nursing, which is a political voice. The rationale for a political voice is the ICN Code of ethics for nurses and the fourfold responsibilities laid on nurses: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health, and to alleviate suffering. Some indications are given on how nurses can engage in political work.

  16. The future nursing voice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschudin,Verena

    2003-01-01

    Based on some articles in the journal Nursing Ethics, the author outlines some of the areas of major importance for nursing in the future. These areas - the care of elderly people, long-term home-based care, genetics, international research and conflict and war - demand a new voice of nursing, which is a political voice. The rationale for a political voice is the ICN Code of ethics for nurses and the fourfold responsibilities laid on nurses: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore h...

  17. Dyscravia: voicing substitution dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2010-06-01

    We report a new type of dysgraphia, which we term dyscravia. The main error type in dyscravia is substitution of the target letter with a letter that differs only with respect to the voicing feature, such as writing "coat" for "goat", and "vagd" for "fact". Two Hebrew-speaking individuals with acquired dyscravia are reported, TG, a man aged 31, and BG, a woman aged 66. Both had surface dysgraphia in addition to their dyscravia. To describe dyscravia in detail, and to explore the rate and types of errors made in spelling, we administered tests of writing to dictation, written naming, and oral spelling. In writing to dictation, TG made voicing errors on 38% of the words, and BG made 17% voicing errors. Voicing errors also occurred in nonword writing (43% for TG, 56% for BG). The writing performance and the variables that influenced the participants' spelling, as well as the results of the auditory discrimination and repetition tasks indicated that their dyscravia did not result from a deficit in auditory processing, the graphemic buffer, the phonological output lexicon, the phonological output buffer, or the allographic stage. The locus of the deficit is the phoneme-to-grapheme conversion, in a function specialized in the conversion of phonemes' voicing feature into graphemes. Because these participants had surface dysgraphia and were forced to write via the sublexical route, the deficit in voicing was evident in their writing of both words and nonwords. We further examined whether the participants also evinced parallel errors in reading. TG had a selective voicing deficit in writing, and did not show any voicing errors in reading, whereas BG had voicing errors also in the reading of nonwords (i.e., she had dyslegzia in addition to dyscravia). The dissociation TG demonstrated indicated that the voicing feature conversion is separate for reading and writing, and can be impaired selectively in writing. BG's dyslegzia indicates that the grapheme-to-phoneme conversion

  18. Voice disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Victoria; Hartley, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the management of voice disorders in children. We describe the relevant anatomy and development of the larynx throughout childhood, which affects voice. We consider the epidemiologic data to establish the size of the problem. The assessment of the patient in the clinic is described stepwise through the history, examination, laryngoscopy, and extra tests. We then review the common voice disorders encountered and their management, concluding with discussion of future directions, which may herald advances in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Voice recognition through phonetic features with Punjabi utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasdeep; Juglan, K. C.; Sharma, Vishal; Upadhyay, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with perception and disorders of speech in view of Punjabi language. Visualizing the importance of voice identification, various parameters of speaker identification has been studied. The speech material was recorded with a tape recorder in their normal and disguised mode of utterances. Out of the recorded speech materials, the utterances free from noise, etc were selected for their auditory and acoustic spectrographic analysis. The comparison of normal and disguised speech of seven subjects is reported. The fundamental frequency (F0) at similar places, Plosive duration at certain phoneme, Amplitude ratio (A1:A2) etc. were compared in normal and disguised speech. It was found that the formant frequency of normal and disguised speech remains almost similar only if it is compared at the position of same vowel quality and quantity. If the vowel is more closed or more open in the disguised utterance the formant frequency will be changed in comparison to normal utterance. The ratio of the amplitude (A1: A2) is found to be speaker dependent. It remains unchanged in the disguised utterance. However, this value may shift in disguised utterance if cross sectioning is not done at the same location.

  20. Spatial inattention abolishes voice adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zäske, Romi; Fritz, Christiane; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-04-01

    Adaptation to male voices causes a subsequent voice to be perceived as more female, and vice versa. Similar contrastive aftereffects have been reported for phonetic perception, and in vision for face perception. However, while aftereffects in the perception of phonetic features of speech have been reported to persist even when adaptors were processed inattentively, face aftereffects were previously reported to be abolished by inattention to adaptors. Here we demonstrate that auditory aftereffects of adaptation to voice gender are eliminated when the male and female adaptor voices are spatially unattended. Participants simultaneously heard gender-specific male or female adaptor voices in one ear and gender-neutral (androgynous) adaptor voices in the contralateral ear. They selectively attended to the adaptor voices in a designated ear, by either classifying voice gender (Exp. 1) or spoken syllable (Exp. 2). Voice aftereffects were found only if the gender-specific voices were spatially attended, suggesting capacity limits in the processing of voice gender for the unattended ear. Remarkably, gender-specific adaptors in the attended ear elicited comparable aftereffects in test voices, regardless of prior attention to voice gender or phonetic content. Thus, within the attended ear, voice gender was processed even when it was irrelevant for the task at hand, suggesting automatic processing of gender along with linguistic information. Overall, voice gender adaptation requires spatial, but not dimensional, selective attention.

  1. Mares prefer the voices of highly fertile stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion's voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males' fertility.

  2. Mares prefer the voices of highly fertile stallions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lemasson

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion's voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males' fertility.

  3. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  4. Whose voice matters? LEARNERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Keywords: educator assessment feedback; journal entries; learner feelings; learner motivation; learners' voices; understanding of assessment feedback. Introduction. International and national studies have revealed the poor mathematics skills of South African learners. The performance of Grade 8 learners in the Trends.

  5. [Preliminary design for a VI system combining the voice acoustic analyzing and glottal image analyzing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Liu, Yan; Cai, Xiaolan; Li, Qiao; Meng, Yan; Xu, Xin; Sun, Wenhong; Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xin; Qi, Yan

    2008-04-01

    This work is directed at developing a virtual instrument system as an accessorial diagnostic instrument for laryngeal diseases. Programmed with LabWindows/CVI, the system combines the voice acoustic analyzing function with the glottal image measuring function. The voice acoustic analyzing system can sample, store and replay vocal signals; can extract and analyze parameters, including fundamental frequency (F0), frequency perturbation quotient (FPQ), amplitude perturbation quotient(APQ), harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter frequency (JF), Shimmer; and can do 3D sound graph analysis. The glottal image analyzing system can sample and store the image observed by the laryngostroboscope; can display any phase in one cycle of the vibration of the vocal cords or a slow and continuous movement of vibrating vocal cords; can snap and save the diagnostic frame of image; and can extract the parameters of the image such as the length and area of the glottis, the length and area of the vocal cords and the diseased part.

  6. Voice disorders in teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Ficko, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Voice and speech are the result of coordination of many organic systems; upper and lower respiratory tract including the throat, central and peripheral nervous system and articulators. A voice disorder can become an occupational disease, including functional dysphonia which can affect the quality of life of people who talk a lot at work. Teacher and pedagogical workers belong to a group of occupations with severe vocal loading and they experience overload of speech organs. This can lead to...

  7. Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, A.; Mercure, E.; Lloyd-Fox, S.; Thomson, A.; Brammer, M.; Sauter, D.; Deeley, Q.; Barker, G.J.; Renvall, V.; Deoni, S.; Gasston, D.; Williams, S.C.R.; Johnson, M.H.; Simmons, A.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human voices play a fundamental role in social communication, and areas of the adult "social brain" show specialization for processing voices and their emotional content (superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal cortex, premotor cortical regions, amygdala, and insula) [ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5],

  8. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors and voice symptoms, voice handicap, and respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FIRMWARE FOR INPUT AND EXTRACTION OF USER’S VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific task for improving the signal-to-noise ratio for user’s voice signal in computer systems and networks during the process of user’s voice authentication is considered. The object of study is the process of input and extraction of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of the voice signal on the background of external interference signals are investigated. Ways for quality improving of the user’s voice signal in systems of voice authentication are investigated experimentally. Firmware means for experimental unit of input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are considered. As modern computer means, including mobile, have two-channel audio card, two microphones are used in the voice signal input. The distance between sonic-wave sensors is 20 mm and it provides forming one direction pattern lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. According to the results of experimental studies, the usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array and space-time processing of the recorded signals with implementation of constant and adaptive weighting factors has made it possible to reduce considerably the influence of interference signals. The results of firmware experimental studies for input and extraction of the user’s voice signal against external interference influence are shown. The proposed solutions will give the possibility to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker discrimination.

  10. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality among College/University Singing Students Ages 18–24 through Ambulatory Monitoring with a Full Accelerometer Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloneger, Matthew; Hunter, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18–24 y/o, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal were analyzed traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, LTAS slope, alpha ratio, dB SPL 1–3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between non-singing, solo singing and choral singing. PMID:26897545

  11. Qualities of a voice emeritus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, Gerrit; Pabon, Peter

    The effects of vocal ageing are investigated in a professional mezzo-soprano singer, for which the phonetogram, and 45 vowels, each sung at fundamental frequencies of 220, 392, and 659 Hz, were recorded at the age of 52 and 74 years. The comparison demonstrates a serious loss in the vocal range,

  12. The psychophysics of roughness applied to dysphonic voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, David A; Kopf, Lisa M; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2015-12-01

    Roughness is a sound quality that has been related to the amplitude modulation characteristics of the acoustic stimulus. Roughness also is considered one of the primary elements of voice quality associated with natural variations across normal voices and is a salient feature of many dysphonic voices. It is known that the roughness of tonal stimuli is dependent on the frequency and depth of amplitude modulation and on the carrier frequency. Here, it is determined if similar dependencies exist for voiced speech stimuli. Knowledge of such dependencies can lead to a better understanding of the acoustic characteristics of vocal roughness along the continuum of normal to dysphonic and may facilitate computational estimates of vocal roughness. Synthetic vowel stimuli were modeled after talkers selected from the Satloff/Heman-Ackah disordered voice database. To parametrically control amplitude modulation frequency and depth, synthesized stimuli had minimal amplitude fluctuations, and amplitude modulation was superimposed with the desired frequency and depth. Perceptual roughness judgments depended on amplitude modulation frequency and depth in a manner that closely matched data from tonal carriers. The dependence of perceived roughness on amplitude modulation frequency and depth closely matched the roughness of sinusoidal carriers as reported by Fastl and Zwicker [(2007) Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models, 3rd ed. (Springer, New York)].

  13. Double Fourier analysis for Emotion Identification in Voiced Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Sosa, D; Bastidas, M.; Ortiz P., D.; Quintero, O.L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel analysis alternative, based on two Fourier Transforms for emotion recognition from speech -- Fourier analysis allows for display and synthesizes different signals, in terms of power spectral density distributions -- A spectrogram of the voice signal is obtained performing a short time Fourier Transform with Gaussian windows, this spectrogram portraits frequency related features, such as vocal tract resonances and quasi-periodic excitations during voiced sounds -- Emotions i...

  14. Continuous Speech Classification Systems for Voice Pathologies Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Hugo; Meneses, Carlos; Fonseca, José

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Signal Processing in Medicine; International audience; Voice pathologies identification using speech processing methods can be used as a preliminary diagnostic. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of sustained vowel /a/ and continuous speech task in identification systems to diagnose voice pathologies. The system recognizes between three classes consisting of two different pathologies sets and healthy subjects. The signals are evaluated using MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstr...

  15. The inner voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Ridgway

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The inner voice- we all know what it is because we all have it and use it when we are thinking or reading, for example. Little work has been done on it in our field, with the notable exception of Brian Tomlinson, but presumably it must be a cognitive phenomenon which is of great importance in thinking, language learning, and reading in a foreign language. The inner voice will be discussed as a cognitive psychological phenomenon associated with short-term memory, and distinguished from the inner ear. The process of speech recoding will be examined (the process of converting written language into the inner voice and the importance of developing the inner voice, as a means of both facilitating the production of a new language and enhancing the comprehension of a text in a foreign language, will be emphasized. Finally, ways of developing the inner voice in beginning and intermediate readers of a foreign language will be explored and recommended.

  16. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  17. Voice in early glottic cancer compared to benign voice pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gogh, C. D. L.; Mahieu, H. F.; Kuik, D. J.; Rinkel, R. N. P. M.; Langendijk, J. A.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M.

    The purpose of this study is to compare (Dutch) Voice Handicap Index (VHIvumc) scores from a selected group of patients with voice problems after treatment for early glottic cancer with patients with benign voice disorders and subjects from the normal population. The study included a group of 35

  18. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  19. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...

  20. Voice Data on Female Smokers: Coherence between the Voice Handicap Index and Acoustic Voice Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios Tafiadis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Voice disorders are common in the general population, affecting daily communication for nearly one-third. Prevalence of voice disorders has been studied extensively in certain professions, such as teachers, as well as students. The impact on voice characteristics of different risk factors has been studied and also correlated to cigarette smoking. This study was designed to examine the relationship between Voice Handicap Index and acoustic parameters of voice university student smokers in Greece. One hundred and ten female non-dysphonic students (aged 18 to 34 that smoked were recruited. Participants answered the Voice Handicap Index and their voice was recorded. Acoustic analysis of voice characteristics was performed with Dr. Speech software system. Results indicated that some measures were predictive of overall, functional and emotional Voice Handicap Index scores. Other voice parameters had no cohesive or predictable pattern on Voice Handicap Index scores. Significant relationships between Voice Handicap Index individual statements and smokers’ voice characteristics were also observed. Lack of correlation and subsequent clinical implications are discussed, as well as the direction for future research.

  1. Issues in forensic voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synchronous-Voice Computer-Mediated Communication: Effects on Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, Maria Camino

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is the ultimate goal of most learners of a second language and intelligible pronunciation a fundamental part of it. Unfortunately, learners often lack the opportunity to explore how intelligible their speech is for different audiences. Our research investigates whether synchronous-voice computer-mediated communication…

  3. Assessment of effectiveness of acoustic analysis of voice for monitoring the evolution of vocal nodules after vocal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Wasim Elhendi; Rodríguez Fernández Freire, Antonio; Muñoz, Irene Vázquez; Pérez, Sofía Santos

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we report the results of acoustic analysis of voice in 97 patients diagnosed with vocal nodules before and after the vocal logopedic treatment, to evaluate its effectiveness in monitoring the evolution. We analyzed five parameters: the mean fundamental frequency (F0) and its standard deviation, jitter, shimmer, and normalized noise energy (NNE). Our results indicate that most patients showed a reduction of fundamental frequency, an increase of perturbation (jitter and shimmer), and an increase of NNE before the treatment. We did not find any statistically significant relationship between previous values of the five parameters analyzed and the clinical course. We did not find significant differences between the two groups (with and without clinical improvement) in the evolution of any of the five parameters, although these differences were greater in the case of jitter. We conclude that the acoustic analysis of voice can be useful as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of vocal nodules, but the parameter values analyzed before treatment did not correlate with the clinical course and we believe that its usefulness in the evaluation of results after the vocal treatment is limited.

  4. Effects of a music therapy voice protocol on speech intelligibility, vocal acoustic measures, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Music Therapy Voice Protocol (MTVP) on speech intelligibility, vocal intensity, maximum vocal range, maximum duration of sustained vowel phonation, vocal fundamental frequency, vocal fundamental frequency variability, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Four female patients, who demonstrated voice and speech problems, served as their own controls and participated in baseline assessment (study pretest), a series of MTVP sessions involving vocal and singing exercises, and final evaluation (study posttest). In study pre and posttests, data for speech intelligibility and all acoustic variables were collected. Statistically significant increases were found in speech intelligibility, as rated by caregivers, and in vocal intensity from study pretest to posttest as the results of paired samples t-tests. In addition, before and after each MTVP session (session pre and posttests), self-rated mood scores and selected acoustic variables were collected. No significant differences were found in any of the variables from the session pretests to posttests, across the entire treatment period, or their interactions as the results of two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures. Although not significant, the mean of mood scores in session posttests (M = 8.69) was higher than that in session pretests (M = 7.93).

  5. Acoustic correlates of Japanese expressions associated with voice quality of male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Hideki

    2004-05-01

    Japanese expressions associated with the voice quality of male adults were extracted by a series of questionnaire surveys and statistical multivariate analysis. One hundred and thirty-seven Japanese expressions were collected through the first questionnaire and careful investigations of well-established Japanese dictionaries and articles. From the second questionnaire about familiarity with each of the expressions and synonymity that were addressed to 249 subjects, 25 expressions were extracted. The third questionnaire was about an evaluation of their own voice quality. By applying a statistical clustering method and a correlation analysis to the results of the questionnaires, eight bipolar expressions and one unipolar expression were obtained. They constituted high-pitched/low-pitched, masculine/feminine, hoarse/clear, calm/excited, powerful/weak, youthful/elderly, thick/thin, tense/lax, and nasal, respectively. Acoustic correlates of each of the eight bipolar expressions were extracted by means of perceptual evaluation experiments that were made with sentence utterances of 36 males and by a statistical decision tree method. They included an average of the fundamental frequency (F0) of the utterance, speaking rate, spectral tilt, formant frequency parameter, standard deviation of F0 values, and glottal noise, when SPL of each of the stimuli was maintained identical in the perceptual experiments.

  6. Voice data mining for laryngeal pathology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerling, Daria; Skalski, Andrzej; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different methods of speech signal analysis in the detection of voice pathologies. Firstly, an initial vector was created consisting of 28 parameters extracted from time, frequency and cepstral domain describing the human voice signal based on the analysis of sustained vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ all at high, low and normal pitch. Afterwards we used a linear feature extraction technique (principal component analysis), which enabled a reduction in the number of parameters and choose the most effective acoustic features describing the speech signal. We have also performed non-linear data transformation which was calculated using kernel principal components. The results of the presented methods for normal and pathological cases will be revealed and discussed in this paper. The initial and extracted feature vectors were classified using the k-means clustering and the random forest classifier. We found that reasonably good classification accuracies could be achieved by selecting appropriate features. We obtained accuracies of up to 100% for classification of healthy versus pathology voice using random forest classification for female and male recordings. These results may assist in the feature development of automated detection systems for diagnosis of patients with symptoms of pathological voice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived control and voice handicap in patients with voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Patricia; Merians, Addie; Misono, Stephanie

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to replicate and extend previous research on the relation between perceived present control and voice handicap and to further examine the psychometric properties of a present control scale adapted for patients with voice disorders (Misono, Meredith, Peterson, & Frazier, 2016). Sample 1 consisted of 1,129 patients recruited from a voice disorder clinic who completed measures of perceived present control, distress, and voice handicap in the clinic. Sample 2 consisted of 62 patients from the same clinic who completed measures of present control, distress, voice handicap, and general control beliefs online at baseline and measures of present control and voice handicap again 3 weeks later (n = 59). With regard to the psychometric properties of the voice-adapted present control scale, alpha coefficients were above .80 and the 3-week test-reliability coefficient was .69. There was mixed support for the hypothesized 1-factor structure of the scale. In Sample 1, present control was more strongly associated with lower voice handicap than was distress and accounted for significant variance in voice handicap controlling for distress. In Sample 2, present control at baseline predicted later voice handicap, controlling for general control beliefs and distress. Present control appears to be a promising target for adjunctive interventions for patients with voice disorders. An evidence-based online present control intervention (Hintz, Frazier, & Meredith, 2015) is being adapted for this patient population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. T'ain't the way you say it, it's what you say--perceptual continuity of voice and top-down restoration of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jeanne; Gaudrain, Etienne; Chatterjee, Monita; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-09-01

    Phonemic restoration, or top-down repair of speech, is the ability of the brain to perceptually reconstruct missing speech sounds, using remaining speech features, linguistic knowledge and context. This usually occurs in conditions where the interrupted speech is perceived as continuous. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether voice continuity was necessary for phonemic restoration. Restoration benefit was measured by the improvement in intelligibility of meaningful sentences interrupted with periodic silent gaps, after the gaps were filled with noise bursts. A discontinuity was induced on the voice characteristics. The fundamental frequency, the vocal tract length, or both of the original vocal characteristics were changed using STRAIGHT to make a talker sound like a different talker from one speech segment to another. Voice discontinuity reduced the global intelligibility of interrupted sentences, confirming the importance of vocal cues for perceptually constructing a speech stream. However, phonemic restoration benefit persisted through all conditions despite the weaker voice continuity. This finding suggests that participants may have relied more on other cues, such as pitch contours or perhaps even linguistic context, when the vocal continuity was disrupted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a three-week vocal exercise program using the Finnish Kuukka exercises on the speaking voice of Norwegian broadcast journalism students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Sipilä, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Nine broadcast journalism students attended 10 hours in Kuukka vocal exercises, which aims at producing a ringing vocal quality. Nine control subjects received no training. A text was read at habitual loudness before and after the course. Five speech specialists evaluated the text samples for perceptual voice quality and analyzed mean fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), and long-term average spectrum (LTAS). For the Training Group, voice quality improved and correlated negatively with firmness and timbre (less firm and darker qualities being considered more desirable), and F0 increased slightly. Leq increased significantly in both groups. The results show positive and perceivable differences after the course. However, the aimed ring was not reached, may be due to too short time.

  10. Female-pitched sound-producing voice prostheses--initial experimental and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torn, M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J M; de Vries, M P; Mahieu, H F

    2001-10-01

    In order to improve voice quality in female laryngectomees and/or laryngectomees with a hypotonic pharyngo-oesophageal segment, a sound-producing voice prosthesis was designed. The new source of voice consists of either one or two bent silicone lips which perform an oscillatory movement driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows along the outward-striking lips through the tracheo-oesophageal shunt valve. Four different prototypes of this pneumatic sound source were evaluated in vitro and in two female laryngectomees, testing the feasibility and characteristics of this new mechanism for alternative alaryngeal voice production. In vivo evaluation included acoustic analyses of both sustained vowels and read-aloud prose, videofluoroscopy, speech rate, and registration of tracheal phonatory pressure and vocal intensity. The mechanism proved feasible and did not result in unacceptable airflow resistance. The average pitch of voice increased and clarity improved in female laryngectomees. Pitch regulation of this prosthetic voice is possible with sufficient modulation to avoid monotony. The quality of voice attained through the sound-producing voice prostheses depends on a patient's ability to let pulmonary air flow easily through the pharyngo-oesophageal segment without evoking the low-frequency mucosal vibrations that form the regular tracheo-oesophageal shunt voice. These initial experimental and clinical results provide directions for the future development of sound-producing voice prostheses. A single relatively long lip in a container with a rectangular lumen that hardly protrudes from the voice prosthesis may have the most promising characteristics.

  11. Influence of complaints and singing style in singers voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Felipe; Ávila, Maria Emília Barros de; Rocha, Clara; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify whether the difference of singing styles and the presence of vocal complaints influence the perception of voice handicap of singers. One hundred eighteen singing voice handicap self-assessment protocols were selected: 17 popular singers with vocal complaints, 42 popular singers without complaints, 17 classic singers with complaints, and 42 classic singers without complaints. The groups were similar regarding age, gender and voice types. Both protocols used--Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) and Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI)--have specific questions to their respective singing styles, and consist of 30 items equally divided into three subscales: disability (functional domain), handicap (emotional domain) and impairment (organic domain), answered according to the frequency of occurrence. Each subscale has a maximum of 40 points, and the total score is 120 points. The higher the score, the higher the singing voice handicap perceived. For statistical analysis, we used the ANOVA test, with 5% of significance. Classical and popular singers referred higher impairment, followed by disability and handicap. However, the degree of this perception varied according to the singing style and the presence of vocal complaints. The classical singers with vocal complaints showed higher voice handicap than popular singers with vocal complaints, while the classic singers without complaints reported lower handicap than popular singers without complaints. This evidences that classical singers have higher perception of their own voice, and that vocal disturbances in this group may cause greater voice handicap when compared to popular singers.

  12. A prospective crossover trial of botulinum toxin chemodenervation versus injection augmentation for essential voice tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Christine; Sadoughi, Babak; Coleman, Rachel; Sarva, Harini; Mauer, Elizabeth; Sulica, Lucian

    2018-02-01

    Botulinum toxin chemodenervation (BTX) is used to treat essential voice tremor (EVT), but results are not uniformly satisfactory. This study sought to assess the comparative utility of injection augmentation (IA) for EVT. Prospective crossover treatment study. Patients with EVT underwent BTX. After washout patients underwent IA. Multidimensional assessment carried out prior to and 30 days after each treatment included 1) videostroboscopy graded by the Vocal Tremor Scoring System (VTSS), 2) acoustic and aerodynamic assessment (cepstral peak prominence, cepstral spectral index of dysphonia, cepstral peak prominence fundamental frequency, airflow, peak air pressure and intensity, maximum phonation time, and amplitude/frequency of tremor), 3) audio-perceptual assessment via Consensus Audio-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V), and 4) patient self-assessment via Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and Percent of Normal Function (PNF) scale. Findings were analyzed via paired t tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Seven patients (five female and two male; mean age 67 years old; range, 46-82 years old) participated. VTSS grading showed divergent outcomes for certain individual sites of tremor, but without significant differences. Airflow increased following BTX and decreased following IA, and VHI-10 scores indicated slight improvement post-BTX (26.29-23.57), and decline post-IA (25.86-29.86), although differences were not significant. Only changes in audio-perceptual ratings of loudness achieved significance, which decreased with BTX and increased with IA. Five patients chose to resume BTX; two elected long-term IA. No findings supported patient preferences. IA demonstrated no advantage over BTX in the treatment of EVT. 2b. Laryngoscope, 128:437-446, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Effects of Voice Therapy on Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Pereira, Gabriela; de Oliveira Lemos, Isadora; Dalbosco Gadenz, Camila; Cassol, Mauriceia

    2017-07-21

    The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the effects of voice therapy on individuals diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) or hyperfunctional dysphonia. This is a systematic literature review on the databases Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Lilacs using a search strategy related to the theme of the study. The selection included clinical trials that assessed the effects of speech therapy intervention on patients diagnosed with MTD or hyperfunctional dysphonia published over the last 10 years in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The Physiotherapy Evidence-Based Database (PEDro) Scale was used to assess the methodology of the studies. Of the 634 publications, 12 studies were included in this review, of which three were excluded due to a low score on the PEDro Scale, resulting in a final number of nine publications. Regarding the techniques approached, semioccluded vocal tract exercises (22.22%), nasal sound and frequency modulation (22.22%), maximum phonation time (MPT) technique and vocal hygiene (11.11%), vocal function exercises (11.11%), respiratory exercises along with phonoarticulatory sounds (11.11%), manual laryngeal therapy (11.11%), and manual laryngeal therapy associated with respiratory exercises (11.11%) were identified. These techniques promoted the following effects: improvement in intraoral and subglottal pressure, positive alterations in the glottal contact quotient, significant changes in fundamental frequency measures, increased MPT, and reduced voice roughness. Methodology was identified to be a shortcoming in the studies. The clinical trials reviewed showed positive results in using the therapeutic techniques selected in the speech therapy approach. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Voice application development for Android

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book will give beginners an introduction to building voice-based applications on Android. It will begin by covering the basic concepts and will build up to creating a voice-based personal assistant. By the end of this book, you should be in a position to create your own voice-based applications on Android from scratch in next to no time.Voice Application Development for Android is for all those who are interested in speech technology and for those who, as owners of Android devices, are keen to experiment with developing voice apps for their devices. It will also be useful as a starting po

  15. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted

  16. Mending Misused Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoer, Vicki L.; Swank, Helen

    1978-01-01

    This article, addressed to singing and choral teachers, examines functional voice disorders resulting from incorrect or abused functions of the laryngeal mechanism. Symptoms, testing methods, and correction techniques, short of medical help, are outlined for disorders of resonance, registration, articulation, and of the vocal fold mass.…

  17. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered,...

  18. I Have a Voice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the opportunities she had for putting her cultural and language skills to use. She shares her experiences at the Asian Voices of Organized Youth for Community Empowerment (A-VOYCE) program and at the Participatory Chinatown project. The author never thought that learning about her identity and using what she…

  19. Voices of Columbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Emily

    2004-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Columbine school shootings, Principal Frank DeAngelis felt, in his own words, "the weight of the world on my shoulders." Five years later, he still struggles for answers--and still loves his job. In this article, the author presents excerpts of her interview with DeAngelis, a man whose face and voice have become…

  20. Listen to a voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2001-01-01

    Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and her...

  1. Voices of courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Abdullah Karim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children1 presented its annual Voices of Courage awards to three displaced people who have dedicated their lives to promoting economic opportunities for refugee and displaced women and youth. These are their (edited testimonies.

  2. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  3. Political animal voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I develop a theory of political animal voices. The first part of the thesis focuses on non-human animal languages and forming interspecies worlds. I first investigate the relation between viewing language as exclusively human and seeing humans as categorically different from other

  4. Science for Two Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf-Trujillo, Julie; Straits, William

    2015-01-01

    During inquiry investigations with third graders, the authors urge their students not to just make observations but also to record them. Inspired by Joel Fleishman's "A Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices" (1988), the authors developed an activity that increases students' motivation to record accurate and detailed observations. This…

  5. Double Fourier analysis for Emotion Identification in Voiced Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Sosa, D.; Bastidas, M.; Ortiz P., D.; Quintero, O. L.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel analysis alternative, based on two Fourier Transforms for emotion recognition from speech. Fourier analysis allows for display and synthesizes different signals, in terms of power spectral density distributions. A spectrogram of the voice signal is obtained performing a short time Fourier Transform with Gaussian windows, this spectrogram portraits frequency related features, such as vocal tract resonances and quasi-periodic excitations during voiced sounds. Emotions induce such characteristics in speech, which become apparent in spectrogram time-frequency distributions. Later, the signal time-frequency representation from spectrogram is considered an image, and processed through a 2-dimensional Fourier Transform in order to perform the spatial Fourier analysis from it. Finally features related with emotions in voiced speech are extracted and presented.

  6. Acoustic analysis of pathological voices compressed with MPEG system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Julio; Cervera, Teresa; Llau, M José

    2003-06-01

    The MPEG-1 Layer 3 compression schema of audio signal, commonly known as mp3, has caused a great impact in recent years as it has reached high compression rates while conserving a high sound quality. Music and speech samples compressed at high bitrates are perceptually indistinguishable from the original samples, but very little was known about how compression acoustically affects the voice signal. A previous work with normal voices showed a high fidelity at high-bitrate compressions both in voice parameters and the amplitude-frequency spectrum. In the present work, dysphonic voices were tested through two studies. In the first study, spectrograms, long-term average spectra (LTAS), and fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra of compressed and original samples of running speech were compared. In the second study, intensities, formant frequencies, formant bandwidths, and a multidimensional set of voice parameters were tested in a set of sustained phonations. Results showed that compression at high bitrates (96 and 128 kbps) preserved the relevant acoustic properties of the pathological voices. With compressions at lower bitrates, fidelity decreases, introducing some important alterations. Results from both works, Gonzalez and Cervera and this paper, open up the possibility of using MPEG-compression at high bitrates to store or transmit high-quality speech recordings, without altering their acoustic properties.

  7. Hearing performance and voice acoustics of cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ana Cristina; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedino; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Moret, Adriane Lima Mortari; Bahmad Júnior, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    The voice of hearing-impaired individuals has been described extensively, and exhibits abnormalities in quality, articulation and resonance. Having an understanding of the aspects that may have an impact on voice characteristics of cochlear implant users is important for users and for professionals in this field. To verify the existence of correlation between age, time of device use, voice detection threshold, hearing category score and language category score with acoustic data of voices of cochlear implanted children. Retrospective study. Fifty-one children ranging in age from 3 years to 5 years and 11 months who unilaterally used cochlear implants participated. Acoustic analysis of the sustained vowel/a/, sequential speech and spontaneous speech was performed. The results were correlated with demographic data and hearing test results. Children with worse voice detection threshold showed higher frequency in the sustained vowel (p≤0.001) and in the spontaneous speech (p≤0.005). There was a correlation between the voice detection threshold and the frequency values of the sustained vowel and spontaneous speech of the studied population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Hearing performance and voice acoustics of cochlear implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Coelho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The voice of hearing-impaired individuals has been described extensively, and exhibits abnormalities in quality, articulation and resonance. Having an understanding of the aspects that may have an impact on voice characteristics of cochlear implant users is important for users and for professionals in this field. OBJECTIVE: To verify the existence of correlation between age, time of device use, voice detection threshold, hearing category score and language category score with acoustic data of voices of cochlear implanted children. METHODS: Retrospective study. Fifty-one children ranging in age from 3 years to 5 years and 11 months who unilaterally used cochlear implants participated. Acoustic analysis of the sustained vowel/a/, sequential speech and spontaneous speech was performed. The results were correlated with demographic data and hearing test results. RESULTS: Children with worse voice detection threshold showed higher frequency in the sustained vowel ( p ≤ 0.001 and in the spontaneous speech ( p ≤ 0.005. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the voice detection threshold and the frequency values of the sustained vowel and spontaneous speech of the studied population.

  9. Voices to reckon with: perceptions of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Johanna C; Chhabra, Saruchi

    2013-01-01

    The current review focuses on the perception of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers. Identity perception in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is grounded in the mechanisms of human (i.e., real, external) voice perception, and shapes the emotional (distress) and behavioral (help-seeking) response to the experience. Yet, the phenomenological assessment of voice identity is often limited, for example to the gender of the voice, and has failed to take advantage of recent models and evidence on human voice perception. In this paper we aim to synthesize the literature on identity in real and hallucinated voices and begin by providing a comprehensive overview of the features used to judge voice identity in healthy individuals and in people with schizophrenia. The findings suggest some subtle, but possibly systematic biases across different levels of voice identity in clinical hallucinators that are associated with higher levels of distress. Next we provide a critical evaluation of voice processing abilities in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers, including recent data collected in our laboratory. Our studies used diverse methods, assessing recognition and binding of words and voices in memory as well as multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgments. The findings overall point to significant difficulties recognizing familiar speakers and discriminating between unfamiliar speakers in people with schizophrenia, both with and without AVH. In contrast, these voice processing abilities appear to be generally intact in non-clinical hallucinators. The review highlights some important avenues for future research and treatment of AVH associated with a need for care, and suggests some novel insights into other symptoms of psychosis.

  10. Voices to reckon with: Perceptions of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on the perception of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers. Identity perception in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH is grounded in the mechanisms of human (i.e. real, external voice perception, and shapes the emotional (distress and behavioural (help-seeking response to the experience. Yet, the phenomenological assessment of voice identity is often limited, for example to the gender of the voice, and has failed to take advantage of recent models and evidence on human voice perception. In this paper we aim to synthesize the literature on identity in real and hallucinated voices and begin by providing a comprehensive overview of the features used to judge voice identity in healthy individuals and in people with schizophrenia. The findings suggest some subtle, but possibly systematic biases across different levels of voice identity in clinical hallucinators that are associated with higher levels of distress. Next we provide a critical evaluation of voice processing abilities in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers, including recent data collected in our laboratory. Our studies used diverse methods, assessing recognition and binding of words and voices in memory as well as multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgements. The findings overall point to significant difficulties recognizing familiar speakers and discriminating between unfamiliar speakers in people with schizophrenia, both with and without AVH. In contrast, these voice processing abilities appear to be generally intact in non-clinical hallucinators. The review highlights some important avenues for future research and treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations associated with a need for care, and suggests some novel insights into other symptoms of psychosis.

  11. Comparison of the produced and perceived voice range profiles in untrained and trained classical singers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Svec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Frequency and intensity ranges (in true decibel sound pressure level, 20 mu Pa at 1 m) of voice production in trained and untrained vocalists were compared with the perceived dynamic range (phons) and units of loudness (sones) of the ear. Results were reported in terms of standard voice range

  12. Fundamental symmetries and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, KP

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear physics numerous possibilities exist to investigate fundamental symmetries and interactions. In particular, the precise measurements of properties of fundamental fermions, searches for new interactions in beta-decays, and violations of discrete symmeties offer possibilities to search for

  13. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    fundamental assumptions.A recent focus set in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, titled Focus on Exploring Fundamental Physics with Extragalactic Transients, consists of multiple published studies doing just that.Testing General RelativitySeveral of the articles focus on the 4th point above. By assuming that the delay in photon arrival times is only due to the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, these studies set constraints on the deviation of our galaxys gravitational potential from what GR would predict. The study by He Gao et al. uses the different photon arrival times from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints at eVGeV energies, and the study by Jun-Jie Wei et al. complements this by setting constraints at keV-TeV energies using photons from high-energy blazar emission.Photons or neutrinos from different extragalactic transients each set different upper limits on delta gamma, the post-Newtonian parameter, vs. particle energy or frequency. This is a test of Einsteins equivalence principle: if the principle is correct, delta gamma would be exactly zero, meaning that photons of different energies move at the same velocity through a vacuum. [Tingay Kaplan 2016]S.J. Tingay D.L. Kaplan make the case that measuring the time delay of photons from fast radio bursts (FRBs; transient radio pulses that last only a few milliseconds) will provide even tighter constraints if we are able to accurately determine distances to these FRBs.And Adi Musser argues that the large-scale structure of the universe plays an even greater role than the Milky Way gravitational potential, allowing for even stricter testing of Einsteins equivalence principle.The ever-narrower constraints from these studies all support GR as a correct set of rules through which to interpret our universe.Other Tests of Fundamental PhysicsIn addition to the above tests, Xue-Feng Wu et al. show that FRBs can be used to provide severe constraints on the rest mass of the photon, and S. Croft et al. even touches on what we

  14. Two-dimensional model of vocal fold vibration for sound synthesis of voice and soprano singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Seiji; Yu, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Voiced sounds were simulated with a computer model of the vocal fold composed of a single mass vibrating both parallel and perpendicular to the airflow. Similarities with the two-mass model are found in the amplitudes of the glottal area and the glottal volume flow velocity, the variation in the volume flow waveform with the vocal tract shape, and the dependence of the oscillation amplitude upon the average opening area of the glottis, among other similar features. A few dissimilarities are also found in the more symmetric glottal and volume flow waveforms in the rising and falling phases. The major improvement of the present model over the two-mass model is that it yields a smooth transition between oscillations with an inductive load and a capacitive load of the vocal tract with no sudden jumps in the vibration frequency. Self-excitation is possible both below and above the first formant frequency of the vocal tract. By taking advantage of the wider continuous frequency range, the two-dimensional model can successfully be applied to the sound synthesis of a high-pitched soprano singing, where the fundamental frequency sometimes exceeds the first formant frequency. .

  15. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  16. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  17. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  18. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  19. Comparison of Post-therapy Dysphonic Voices and Normal Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Natalie; Fuse, Akiko

    2018-02-12

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the voices of post-therapy dysphonic participants with participants who have normal voices to determine how close the corrected voices approached normal vocal levels. The present investigation is a follow-up to the authors' previous research in which dysphonic participants, with voices ranging from moderate-to-severe dysphonia, were evaluated pre- and post therapy using the Dysphonic Severity Percentage scale and the interval scale. In the present study, five raters, three speech-language pathologists experienced in assessing dysphonia, and two trained speech-language pathology college students evaluated 20 participants with normal voices under the same two conditions as those of the corrected participants-when reading a paragraph aloud and during spontaneous speech. While listening to the recordings of the normal voices, the raters tallied any dysphonic syllables produced by the participants to obtain a Dysphonic Severity Percentage for both paragraph reading and spontaneous speech. The raters also evaluated the normal voices on the interval scale. These data were compared with those of the post-therapy participants, who were evaluated under the same conditions and methods pre- and post therapy. The dysphonic participants' voices improved significantly post therapy in comparison with their pretherapy result; their improvement, however, was not commensurate with the voices of the normal participants, and the data showed a significant difference between the two groups. Both evaluation scales reflected a high agreement among raters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Finding voices through writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, P

    1994-01-01

    Assisting students to find their writing "voices" is another way to emphasize writing as a professional tool for nursing. The author discusses a teaching strategy that required students to write using a variety of styles. Students wrote fables, poetry, and letters, and used other creative writing styles to illustrate their views and feelings on professional nursing issues. Creation of a class book empowered students to see versatility with writing styles can be a powerful communication tool to use with peers, clients, and society.

  1. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p pitches E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest predictor of subjects' ability to sing the notes E and F♯; (3) mean speech frequency

  2. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality Among College/University Singing Students Ages 18-24 Through Ambulatory Monitoring With a Full Accelerometer Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloneger, Matthew J; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still-developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hertz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and the estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18-24 years old, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal, traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose were analyzed. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, long-term average spectrum slope, alpha ratio, dB sound pressure level 1-3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between nonsinging, solo singing, and choral singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Voice and silence in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaşa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous research on voice and silence, this article breaksthe distance between the two and declines to treat them as opposites. Voice and silence are interrelated and intertwined strategic forms ofcommunication which presuppose each other in such a way that the absence of one would minimize completely the other’s presence. Social actors are not voice, or silence. Social actors can have voice or silence, they can do both because they operate at multiple levels and deal with multiple issues at different moments in time.

  4. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): a voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

  5. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  6. Stigma and need for care in individuals who hear voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

    2017-02-01

    Voice hearing experiences, or auditory verbal hallucinations, occur in healthy individuals as well as in individuals who need clinical care, but news media depict voice hearing primarily as a symptom of mental illness, particularly schizophrenia. This article explores whether, and how, public perception of an exaggerated association between voice hearing and mental illness might influence individuals' need for clinical care. A narrative literature review was conducted, using relevant peer-reviewed research published in the English language. Stigma may prevent disclosure of voice hearing experiences. Non-disclosure can prevent access to sources of normalizing information and lead to isolation, loss of social support and distress. Internalization of stigma and concomitantly decreased self-esteem could potentially affect features of voices such as perceived voice power, controllability, negativity and frequency, as well as distress. Increased distress may result in a decrease in functioning and increased need for clinical care. The literature reviewed suggests that stigma has the potential to increase need for care through many interrelated pathways. However, the ability to draw definitive conclusions was constrained by the designs of the studies reviewed. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this review.

  7. Rapid voice tremor, or "flutter," in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, A E; Ramig, L O; Winholtz, W S; Silber, S R

    1992-06-01

    In an attempt to clarify the origin and frequency characteristics of a rapid voice tremor, or "flutter," in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients (four men and four women; ages 42 to 70 years) who had ALS and rapid voice tremor and an age- and sex-matched control group of eight subjects were asked to sustain the vowel /a/ and their voices were recorded for later analysis. Each segment of phonation was demodulated into amplitude and frequency components. From each subject's 8-second amplitude and frequency signals, a fast Fourier transform analysis was done on a 1-second segment previously identified perceptually as having the most apparent tremor or flutter. The results showed that patients with ALS had multiple combinations of levels and frequencies for amplitude and frequency modulations in comparison with control subjects, who had consistently low levels of modulations. In an attempt to quantify the tremor or flutter in ALS, amplitude and frequency modulations were not clearly or predominantly represented at one point along the spectrum. Nevertheless, these frequency and amplitude modulations are more prominent in patients with ALS than in normal subjects. The origins of these aberrant frequency and amplitude modulations in ALS patients remain obscure, although speculation is that they are of peripheral rather than central nervous system origin.

  8. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs.

  9. A prospective longitudinal study of voice characteristics and health-related quality of life outcomes following laryngeal cancer treatment with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Therese; Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth; Finizia, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Background To investigate potential changes in perceptual, acoustic and patient-reported outcomes over 12 months for laryngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and methods A total of 40 patients with Tis-T3 laryngeal cancer treated with curative intent by radiotherapy were included in this prospective longitudinal descriptive study. Patients were followed pre-radiotherapy, one month, six months and 12 months post-radiotherapy, where voice recordings and patient-reported outcome instruments (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core30, Head and Neck35, Swedish Self-Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer) were completed at each appointment. Perceptual analysis, using the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain scale and vocal fry parameters, and acoustic measures including harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter, shimmer and mean spoken fundamental frequency (MSFF) were produced from voice recordings. Results All patients presented with dysphonic voices pre-radiotherapy, where 95% demonstrated some degree of vocal roughness. This variable improved significantly immediately post-radiotherapy, however, then deteriorated again between six and 12 months. Vocal fry also increased significantly at 12 months. Acoustic measures were abnormal pre- and post-treatment with no significant change noted except for MSFF, which lowered significantly by 12 months. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) deteriorated post-radiotherapy but returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months. Conclusion By 12 months, most perceptual, acoustic, patient-reported voice and HRQL outcomes for laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy had showed no significant improvements compared to pretreatment function. Further studies are required to investigate potential benefits of voice rehabilitation following radiotherapy.

  10. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees'…

  11. Use of Vocalic Cues to Consonant Voicing and Native Language Background: The Influence of Experimental Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crowther, Court S; Mann, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    For native speakers of English and several other languages, preceding vocalic duration and F1 offset frequency are two of the cues that convey the stop consonant voicing distinction in word-final position...

  12. Multidimensional assessment of voice quality of future elite vocal performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresan RODICA-ELENA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study correlates the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI scores with videostrobolaryngoscopy and acoustic analysis in healthy professional singers, as a measure of self-perceived vocal health, versus actual pathology diagnosed during examination by stroboscopy, or by modification at the acoustic voice evaluation. The objectives of the study were to measure the strength of self-assessment among professional singers and to determine whether there is a benefit of combining SVHI, acoustic analysis and videostrobolaryngoscopy for the routine assessment of singers who have no obvious singing voice problem. Method: Prospective cross-sectional study. The voice quality of 40 students of the Music Academy, Cluj-Napoca, was assessed by means of a multidimensional test battery containing a singing voice handicap index (SVHI, as well as SVHI-10, videolaryngostroboscopy, maximum phonation time on vowel /a/, S/Z ratio, Jitter, Shimmer and NHR (Harmonic Noise Ratio, at lowest, highest and conversational frequency. Additionally, in a questionnaire on daily habits has been recorded for the participants, covering the prevalence of smoking, eating habits, and vocal abuse. The correlation between SVHI scores, acoustic analysis and pathologic findings seen on videostrobolaryngoscopy was analyzed using linear regression and serial t tests to draw the conclusions of this study. Results: Both SVHI and SVHI-10 scores showed, as previously expected, normal values for healthy singers (SVHI-10 being the singers preferred metric. However, although all participants self-identified as healthy, laryngeal abnormalities were relatively common. Acoustic analysis of students voices identified relative instability of pitches, problems with F0 variation, TMF (Maximum Phonation Time and S/Z ratio. No Significant correlation (P = 0.9501 between SVHI scores, acoustic analysis and videostrobolaryngoscopy findings were shown by the linear regression

  13. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  14. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States...

  15. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  16. Employee voice and employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed.

  17. Finding a Voice, Finding Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeath, John

    2006-01-01

    The term "pupil voice" has, in recent years, become part of a wider discourse but tends to refer to a limited conception of young people "having a say" within the bounds of school convention. This article is about what Henry Giroux terms "border crossings," in which voice develops through a physical and intellectual…

  18. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Could Your Medication Be Affecting Your Voice? Some medications including prescription, over-the-counter, and herbal supplements can affect the function of your voice. If your doctor prescribes a ...

  19. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  20. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  1. Paralinguistic Qualifiers: Our Many Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A case is made for the increased study of paralinguistic voice qualifiers, which include variations in breathing, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, velopharyngeal, lingual, labial, mandibular, articulatory, articulatory tension, and objectual control. It is proposed that attention to these voice qualities has a variety of practical, literary,…

  2. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Voice analysis for the measurement of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1977-12-01

    A recently developed technique for the acoustical analysis of speech is described. Speech is analysed electronically for the presence or absence of a microtremor having a frequency of about 10 Hz. This tremor is said to be attenuated in states of psychological stress. The paper present data supporting the validity of this as a measure of anxiety, using states of both normal and pathological anxiety. An objective scoring system is proposed to overcome some of the problems of unreliability. A number of practical advantages of the voice technique are described.

  4. Classification of functional voice disorders based on phonovibrograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Daniel; Döllinger, Michael; Braunschweig, Thomas; Yang, Anxiong; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Lohscheller, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    This work presents a computer-aided method for automatically and objectively classifying individuals with healthy and dysfunctional vocal fold vibration patterns as depicted in clinical high-speed (HS) videos of the larynx. By employing a specialized image segmentation and vocal fold movement visualization technique - namely phonovibrography - a novel set of numerical features is derived from laryngeal HS videos capturing the dynamic behavior and the symmetry of oscillating vocal folds. In order to assess the discriminatory power of the features, a support vector machine is applied to the preprocessed data with regard to clinically relevant diagnostic tasks. Finally, the classification performance of the learned nonlinear models is evaluated to allow for conclusions to be drawn about suitability of features and data resulting from different examination paradigms. As a reference, a second feature set is determined which corresponds to more traditional voice analysis approaches. For the first time an automatic classification of healthy and pathological voices could be obtained by analyzing the vibratory patterns of vocal folds using phonovibrograms (PVGs). An average classification accuracy of approximately 81% was achieved for 2-class discrimination with PVG features. This exceeds the results obtained through traditional voice analysis features. Furthermore, a relevant influence of phonation frequency on classification accuracy was substantiated by the clinical HS data. The PVG feature extraction and classification approach can be assessed as being promising with regard to the diagnosis of functional voice disorders. The obtained results indicate that an objective analysis of dysfunctional vocal fold vibration can be achieved with considerably high accuracy. Moreover, the PVG classification method holds a lot of potential when it comes to the clinical assessment of voice pathologies in general, as the diagnostic support can be provided to the voice clinician in a

  5. The role of the maxillary sinus on the voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Kwon, Soon Bok; Chon, Kyong Myong; Kim, Yang Jae; Kim, Young Joong

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the maxillary sinus on the voice. The prospective study was conducted at an academic secondary referral center. A prospective chart review of 43 patients (17 males, 26 females) who conducted a voice recording and survey before and 3 months after middle meatal antrostomy whose lesion was confined to the maxillary sinus. Subjective voice changes were surveyed using a questionnaire. After phonation [∧m ma: the Korean pronunciation of 'mother'], [Nu Na: the Korean pronunciation of 'sister'], we analyzed the nasal consonant [m] of [∧m ma] and nasalized vowel [a] of [∧m ma] and [a] of [Nu Na]. In the poll conducted, the change rates for males and females were 41.1 % (7/17) and 15.4 % (4/26), respectively; of the male patients, 85.7 % (6/7) felt that the sound quality was better and 14.3 % (1/6) that it was worse. However, all the female patients felt it was better. Among of the patients with an improved voice, reduced nasal sound was the most frequent observation. In an objective analysis, a tendency to lowered frequencies was observed for nasalized vowels after surgery. Significant differences were observed at second formant frequencies of [a] of [∧m ma] and first formant frequencies of [a] of [Nu Na] in female subjects (P < 0.005). Our findings indicated that the maxillary sinus plays a role in the modification of voice quality. Preoperative counseling is important for patients concerning expected changes in the voice after maxillary sinus surgery.

  6. The eye-voice span during reading aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eLaubrock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS, the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations. For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of single fixation durations during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the eye-voice span is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the eye-voice span gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

  7. Bodies, Spaces, Voices, Silences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Mazzoleni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A good architecture should not only allow functional, formal and technical quality for urban spaces, but also let the voice of the city be perceived, listened, enjoyed. Every city has got its specific sound identity, or “ISO” (R. O. Benenzon, made up of a complex texture of background noises and fluctuation of sound figures emerging and disappearing in a game of continuous fadings. For instance, the ISO of Naples is characterized by a spread need of hearing the sound return of one’s/others voices, by a hate of silence. Cities may fall ill: illness from noise, within super-crowded neighbourhoods, or illness from silence, in the forced isolation of peripheries. The proposal of an urban music therapy denotes an unpublished and innovative enlarged interdisciplinary research path, where architecture, music, medicine, psychology, communication science may converge, in order to work for rebalancing spaces and relation life of the urban collectivity, through the care of body and sound dimensions.

  8. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  9. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Pencina, Karol M; Coady, Jeffry A; Beleva, Yusnie M; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-06-01

    To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice.

  10. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Karol M.; Coady, Jeffry A.; Beleva, Yusnie M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Methods: Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Results: Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Conclusion: Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice. PMID:25875779

  11. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Oudes, M.J.; Huinck, W.J.; Acht, H. van; Graamans, K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The

  12. When the eyes no longer lead: Familiarity and length effects on Eye-Voice Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During oral reading, the eyes tend to be ahead of the voice (eye-voice span. It has been hypothesized that the extent to which this happens depends on the automaticity of reading processes, namely on the speed of print-to-sound conversion. We tested whether EVS is affected by another automaticity component - immunity from interference. To that end, we manipulated word familiarity (high-frequency, low-frequency and pseudowords and word length as proxies of immunity from interference, and we used linear mixed effects models to measure the effects of both variables on the time interval at which readers do parallel processing by gazing at word N+1 while not having articulated word N yet (offset eye-voice span. Parallel processing was enhanced by automaticity, as shown by familiarity x length interactions on offset eye-voice span, and it was impeded by lack of automaticity, as shown by the transformation of offset eye-voice span into voice-eye span (voice ahead of the offset of the eyes in pseudowords. The relation between parallel processing and automaticity was strengthened by the fact that offset eye-voice span predicted reading velocity. Our findings contribute to understand how the offset eye-voice span, an index that is obtained in oral reading, may tap into different components of automaticity that underlie reading ability, oral or silent. In addition, we compared the duration of the offset eye-voice span with the average reference duration of stages in word production, and we saw that the offset eye-voice span may accommodate for more than the articulatory programming stage of word N.

  13. Relativities of fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    2017-08-01

    S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.

  14. The voice clinic: an interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, L A; Nichol, H; Morrison, M D

    1983-10-01

    The University of British Columbia Voice Clinic provides care to patients with various types of voice disorder, and the effectiveness of therapy is enhanced by an interdisciplinary approach. The Voice Clinic team includes an otolaryngologist, speech pathologist, psychiatrist, and singing teacher consultant. This paper particularly highlights the interactions between the speech pathologist and psychiatrist in their therapy programs for voice disordered patients.

  15. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  16. Voice examination in patients with decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-06-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified as the group of female with no decreased high pitch (group A, n = 52), decreased high pitch (group B, n = 6) and the group of male with no decreased high pitch (group C, n = 9). VRP and laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) was performed in group B. The preoperative frequency range of group A and B were statistically not different. In Group B, the result of VRP showed that the frequency range was 443.11 ± 83.97, 246.67 ± 49.41, 181.37 ± 80.13 Hz showing significant decrease after the surgery compared to that of the preoperative result. (P VRP revealed no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative result. VRP is a noninvasive, quick, and practical test to demonstrate decreased frequency range visually and helps to evaluate EBSLN injury in patient with thyroidectomy.

  17. Dysphonic Voice Pattern Analysis of Patients in Parkinson’s Disease Using Minimum Interclass Probability Risk Feature Selection and Bagging Ensemble Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of quantified voice patterns is useful in the detection and assessment of dysphonia and related phonation disorders. In this paper, we first study the linear correlations between 22 voice parameters of fundamental frequency variability, amplitude variations, and nonlinear measures. The highly correlated vocal parameters are combined by using the linear discriminant analysis method. Based on the probability density functions estimated by the Parzen-window technique, we propose an interclass probability risk (ICPR method to select the vocal parameters with small ICPR values as dominant features and compare with the modified Kullback-Leibler divergence (MKLD feature selection approach. The experimental results show that the generalized logistic regression analysis (GLRA, support vector machine (SVM, and Bagging ensemble algorithm input with the ICPR features can provide better classification results than the same classifiers with the MKLD selected features. The SVM is much better at distinguishing normal vocal patterns with a specificity of 0.8542. Among the three classification methods, the Bagging ensemble algorithm with ICPR features can identify 90.77% vocal patterns, with the highest sensitivity of 0.9796 and largest area value of 0.9558 under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The classification results demonstrate the effectiveness of our feature selection and pattern analysis methods for dysphonic voice detection and measurement.

  18. Dysphonic Voice Pattern Analysis of Patients in Parkinson's Disease Using Minimum Interclass Probability Risk Feature Selection and Bagging Ensemble Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Chen, Pinnan; Yao, Yuchen; Ye, Xiaoquan; Xiao, Yugui; Liao, Lifang; Wu, Meihong; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of quantified voice patterns is useful in the detection and assessment of dysphonia and related phonation disorders. In this paper, we first study the linear correlations between 22 voice parameters of fundamental frequency variability, amplitude variations, and nonlinear measures. The highly correlated vocal parameters are combined by using the linear discriminant analysis method. Based on the probability density functions estimated by the Parzen-window technique, we propose an interclass probability risk (ICPR) method to select the vocal parameters with small ICPR values as dominant features and compare with the modified Kullback-Leibler divergence (MKLD) feature selection approach. The experimental results show that the generalized logistic regression analysis (GLRA), support vector machine (SVM), and Bagging ensemble algorithm input with the ICPR features can provide better classification results than the same classifiers with the MKLD selected features. The SVM is much better at distinguishing normal vocal patterns with a specificity of 0.8542. Among the three classification methods, the Bagging ensemble algorithm with ICPR features can identify 90.77% vocal patterns, with the highest sensitivity of 0.9796 and largest area value of 0.9558 under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The classification results demonstrate the effectiveness of our feature selection and pattern analysis methods for dysphonic voice detection and measurement.

  19. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  20. Voice synthesis application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, P. C.; Davidson, W. M.

    1982-04-01

    The military detection assessment laboratory houses an experimental field system which assesses different alarm indicators such as fence disturbance sensors, MILES cables, and microwave Racons. A speech synthesis board which could be interfaced, by means of a computer, to an alarm logger making verbal acknowledgement of alarms possible was purchased. Different products and different types of voice synthesis were analyzed before a linear predictive code device produced by Telesensory Speech Systems of Palo Alto, California was chosen. This device is called the Speech 1000 Board and has a dedicated 8085 processor. A multiplexer card was designed and the Sp 1000 interfaced through the card into a TMS 990/100M Texas Instrument microcomputer. It was also necessary to design the software with the capability of recognizing and flagging an alarm on any 1 of 32 possible lines. The experimental field system was then packaged with a dc power supply, LED indicators, speakers, and switches, and deployed in the field performing reliably.

  1. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  2. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  3. Perception of a Sung Vowel as a Function of Frequency-Modulation Rate and Excursionin Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels henrik

    2014-01-01

    affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM cues. Method: Vibrato maps were obtained in 14 NH and 12 HI listeners with different degrees of musical experience. The FM rate and FM excursion of a synthesized vowel, to which coherent FM was applied, were adjusted until a singing voice emerged. Results......: In NH listeners, adding FM to the steady vowel components produced perception of a singing voice for FM rates between 4.1 and 7.5 Hz and FM excursions between 17 and 83 cents on average. In contrast, HI listeners showed substantially broader vibrato maps. Individual differences in map boundaries were......, overall, not correlated with audibility or frequency selectivity at the vowel fundamental frequency, with no clear effect of musical experience. Conclusion: Overall, it was shown that hearing loss affects the perception of a sung vowel based on FM-rate and FM-excursion cues, possibly due to deficits in FM...

  4. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko A. Schneider

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD (DMS-5 is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa has been proposed for these individuals as a reversible treatment for postponing the pubertal development and attenuating psychological suffering. Recently, increased interest has been observed on the impact of this treatment on brain maturation, cognition and psychological performance.Objectives: The aim of this clinical report is to review the effects of puberty suppression on the brain white matter (WM during adolescence. WM Fractional anisotropy, voice and cognitive functions were assessed before and during the treatment. MRI scans were acquired before, and after 22 and 28 months of hormonal suppression.Methods: We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog. Three longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were performed for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, regarding Fractional Anisotropy (FA for regions of interest analysis. In parallel, voice samples for acoustic analysis as well as executive functioning with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV were performed.Results: During the follow-up, white matter fractional anisotropy did not increase, compared to normal male puberty effects on the brain. After 22 months of pubertal suppression, operational memory dropped 9 points and remained stable after 28 months of follow-up. The fundamental frequency of voice varied during the first year; however, it remained in the female range.Conclusion: Brain white matter fractional anisotropy

  5. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maiko A; Spritzer, Poli M; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Fontanari, Anna M V; Carneiro, Marina; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Costa, Angelo B; da Silva, Dhiordan C; Schwarz, Karine; Anes, Maurício; Tramontina, Silza; Lobato, Maria I R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) (DMS-5) is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) has been proposed for these individuals as a reversible treatment for postponing the pubertal development and attenuating psychological suffering. Recently, increased interest has been observed on the impact of this treatment on brain maturation, cognition and psychological performance. Objectives: The aim of this clinical report is to review the effects of puberty suppression on the brain white matter (WM) during adolescence. WM Fractional anisotropy, voice and cognitive functions were assessed before and during the treatment. MRI scans were acquired before, and after 22 and 28 months of hormonal suppression. Methods: We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog. Three longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), regarding Fractional Anisotropy (FA) for regions of interest analysis. In parallel, voice samples for acoustic analysis as well as executive functioning with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV) were performed. Results: During the follow-up, white matter fractional anisotropy did not increase, compared to normal male puberty effects on the brain. After 22 months of pubertal suppression, operational memory dropped 9 points and remained stable after 28 months of follow-up. The fundamental frequency of voice varied during the first year; however, it remained in the female range. Conclusion: Brain white matter fractional anisotropy

  6. An Exploration of the Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Version of the 'Voice and You' (VAY): A Scale for Measuring the Relationship with Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona-Garcelán, S; Úbeda-Gómez, J; León-Palacios, M G; Barros-Albarrán, M D; Escudero-Pérez, S; López-Jiménez, A M; Vallina-Fernández, O; Jiménez-García-Bóveda, R; Diez-Alegría, C; Rodríguez-Testal, J F; Ruiz-Veguilla, M; García-Montes, J M; Pérez-Álvarez, M; Hayward, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the 'Voice and You' Scale (VAY) (Hayward, Denney, Vaughan, & Fowler, 2008) to Spanish and explore its psychometric properties for measuring the perceived relationship with voices. A sample of 50 psychiatric patients with verbal auditory hallucinations (48 had a psychotic disorder and two a borderline personality disorder) was used. Its reliability was calculated using the Cronbach's α and test-retest, and concurrent validity by the Pearson correlation coefficient of the VAY with the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales. The results showed that internal consistency of the Spanish version of the VAY ranged from 0.74 to 0.84 on the various subscales, and test-retest reliability varied from 0.74 to 0.83 on three subscales (voice 'dominance', 'intrusiveness' and hearer 'dependence'), and was lower (0.68) on the hearer 'distance' subscale. Concurrent validity was acceptable as significant associations were found with the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales subscales. It is concluded that the Spanish version of the VAY is a reliable and valid instrument that can assist the exploration of voices within relational frameworks across research and clinical domains. The Spanish version of the VAY is a reliable, valid instrument for evaluating the perception a person can have about his or her relationship with the voices and how the person relates to them. Voices that are perceived as relating dominantly and intrusively, and from whom distance is sought, seem to be distressing and cause disturbance. Voices that are related to dependently are perceived as having benevolent intent and are engaged with. Benevolent or neutral voices may be considered as intrusive because of the intensity and frequency with which they are experienced. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sound spectral analysis of voice-transmitted sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, R P; Loudon, R G

    1986-07-01

    There is a change in voice-generated sound heard over an area of pulmonary consolidation described as the "e" to "a" change. The lung may act as a low pass filter with properties that are changed by consolidation. We studied 5 patients with pneumonia. Using an electronic stethoscope, we recorded the voice-generated sounds "e" and "9-9-9." Sound spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transformation technique was used to characterize the frequency spectrum of the recorded sound. This technique allowed us to evaluate the filter properties of the normal and consolidated lung. We found that the normal lung allowed transmission of sound as high as 250 Hz with a gradual cutoff by 400 Hz. The consolidated lung allowed transmission of sound of a higher frequency; however, there was no significant transmission of sound with a frequency higher than 1,000 Hz.

  8. Taking Care of Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCD-funded researchers showed that, in an animal model of the aging voice, vocal training exercises helped the muscles of the larynx stay strong. Because teachers have a high incidence of vocal disorders, the ...

  9. The Christian voice in philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  10. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  11. Voice and choice by delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness.

  12. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes accompanied by hallucinations or delusions (a fixed, false, and often bizarre belief). Hearing voices or seeing ... of his life such as at school, with friends, in the neighborhood, and with family. Any child ...

  13. Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population: Effects on Work Performance, Attendance, and Future Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the frequency and adverse effects of voice disorders on job performance and attendance in teachers and the general population, 2,401 participants from Iowa and Utah ([n.sub.1] = 1,243 teachers and [n.sub.2] = 1,279 nonteachers) were randomly selected and were interviewed by telephone using a voice disorder questionnaire. Teachers were…

  14. [Surgical voice rehabilitation following laryngectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, K

    1982-06-03

    A survey is given concerning different techniques for the restoration of voice after total laryngectomy. Our experiences with tracheo-esophageal shunts without or with valve prostheses are compared and the advantages of specific surgical methods are reported. The threedimensional postoperative voice recording (fast Fourier-transformation) is demonstrated. Special attention is directed to case selection. For most of our patients (80%) who are receiving postoperative radiation therapy we recommend a two stage procedure.

  15. Voice Collection under Different Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Min Li; Yu-duo Wang

    2013-01-01

    According to the short-time Fourier transform theory and principle of digital filtering, this paper established a mathematical model called collection of voice signal collection at different spectrum. The voice signal was a non-stationary process, while the standard Fourier transform only applied to the periodic signal, transient signals or stationary random signal. Therefore, the standard Fourier transform could not be directly used for the speech signal. By controlling the input different t...

  16. effects of flexural rigidity of reinforcement bars on the fundamental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    2009-09-02

    Sep 2, 2009 ... numerical method, and the results show that the flexural rigidity of the bars has significant effect on the fundamental natural frequency of heavily reinforced concrete sections. KEYWORDS: Fundamental Natural Frequency, Reinforced Concrete Slab, Flexural Rigidity,. Reinforcement Bars. INTRODUCTION.

  17. Experiencing malevolent voices is associated with attentional dysfunction in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kråkvik, Bodil; Stiles, Tore; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    Inattention in people with schizophrenia is common. However, there has been little research on the association between inattention and auditory hallucinations. The aim of the study was to investigate how inattention is affected by beliefs about voices as benevolent and malevolent and perceived control of voices. A total of 31 patients who experienced auditory hallucinations and who met the criteria for schizophrenia or other psychosis completed the attention subscale of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Connors' Continuous Performance Test II (CCPT-II). The revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R) was used to assess malevolent and benevolent beliefs about voices, and severity of auditory hallucinations (the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales; PSYRATS) was used to assess perceived control of voices and frequency of voices. Levels of depression (the Beck Depression Inventory; BDI), anxiety (the Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), severity of overall psychiatric symptoms (the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; BPRS), and severity of negative symptoms (SANS) were assessed to control for their potential confounding effects. The relations between the variables were explored with correlations and multiple hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that more malevolent, but not more benevolent, beliefs about voices predicted lower levels of attention, independently of general psychiatric symptoms and various other psychotic symptoms such as frequency of and perceived control of voices. These findings suggest an important relationship between malevolent beliefs about voices and levels of inattention. The possible impact of changing beliefs about voices to improve attentional functioning is discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Voice Transmission Over JP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Voice transmission over JP networks (Voice over InternetProtocol represents one of the ways in which voice and datanetworks are integrated. The future development is based onthe explosion of the Internet as the means of communication,with the openness of standards and the readiness of the equipmentmanufacturers to accept such standard and to unify it.The service providers find interest in introducing new servicesthat are not based only on voice transmission, but voice becomesonly one of the applications that are realised over the JPnetworks. Voice transmission over the JP technology is at themoment not at the level of the existing quality of services, butthe coming solutions in the near future will enable Vo!P as thestandard operative solution. The advantages are reflected in theincrease of income keeping the current users and attracting newones, investments into infrastructure will maximize the opportunitiesfor packet service development, strengthen customers'loyalty and reduce operative expenditures, the services will bewidespread - long-distance international services or nationalservices of calling cards can be located at almost any European,African, or Central-Eastern count1y and directed to almost100 percent of the population. With the advantages of lowinitial costs of the new POPs (Points of Presence, the serviceproviders can suddenly expand their presence to many countriesor destinations.

  19. Role of the Internal Superior Laryngeal Nerve in the Motor Responses of Vocal Cords and the Related Voice Acoustic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Seifpanahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repeated efforts by researchers to impose voice changes by laryngeal surface electrical stimulation (SES have come to no avail. This present pre-experimental study employed a novel method for SES application so as to evoke the motor potential of the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN and create voice changes. Methods: Thirty-two normal individuals (22 females and 10 males participated in this study. The subjects were selected from the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Two monopolar active electrodes were placed on the thyrohyoid space at the location of the ISLN entrance to the larynx and 1 dispersive electrode was positioned on the back of the neck. A current with special programmed parameters was applied to stimulate the ISLN via the active electrodes and simultaneously the resultant acoustic changes were evaluated. All the means of the acoustic parameters during SES and rest periods were compared using the paired t-test. Results: The findings indicated significant changes (P=0.00 in most of the acoustic parameters during SES presentation compared to them at rest. The mean of fundamental frequency standard deviation (SD F0 at rest was 1.54 (SD=0.55 versus 4.15 (SD=3.00 for the SES period. The other investigated parameters comprised fundamental frequency (F0, minimum F0, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR, mean intensity, and minimum intensity. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated significant changes in most of the important acoustic features, suggesting that the stimulation of the ISLN via SES could induce motor changes in the vocal folds. The clinical applicability of the method utilized in the current study in patients with vocal fold paralysis requires further research.

  20. Verifikasi Suara menggunakan Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan dan Ekstraksi Ciri Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Kurniawan

    2017-01-01

    Voice recording is an important part of the evidence for the suspect, so it is necessary to verify the voice suspects to prove the allegations of the suspect. The research aims to develop a voice verification system using artificial neural networks and extraction characteristics mel frequency cepstral coefficient. As the input data analyzed is the data of the unrecognized voice recorder of the owner and the recorded data of the sound that the owner has known as the comparison data. Data input...

  1. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  2. Linear Frequency Estimation Technique for Reducing Frequency Based Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Bui, Alex; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a linear frequency estimation (LFE) technique for data reduction of frequency-based signals. LFE converts a signal to the frequency domain by utilizing the Fourier transform and estimates both the real and imaginary parts with a series of vectors much smaller than the original signal size. The estimation is accomplished by selecting optimal points from the frequency domain and interpolating data between these points with a first order approximation. The difficulty of such a problem lies in determining which points are most significant. LFE is unique in the fact that it is generic to a wide variety of frequency-based signals such as electromyography (EMG), voice, and electrocardiography (ECG). The only requirement is that spectral coefficients are spatially correlated. This paper presents the algorithm and results from both EMG and voice data. We complete the paper with a description of how this method can be applied to pattern types of recognition, signal indexing, and compression.

  3. Perceptual voice characteristics in chronic cough and paradoxical vocal fold movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigan, Anne E; Theodoros, Deborah G; Winkworth, Alison L; Gibson, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Voice problems have been reported in chronic cough (CC) and paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM), however, there is a lack of a systematic description of voice characteristics in these conditions. This study examined the perceptual voice characteristics of 56 individuals with CC, 8 with PVFM and 55 with both CC and PVFM, compared to 25 people with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) and 27 healthy controls. There was a high prevalence of abnormal voice quality in the CC and PVFM groups compared with healthy controls. More than one third of participants with CC and PVFM demonstrated strained, rough and/or breathy voices to a moderate or severe degree. The perceptual features in CC and PVFM were similar to those in MTD with greater severity evident in MTD. Possible mechanisms for abnormalities in voice quality include the presence of muscle tension and the frequency of coughing. These results have implications for the identification and management of voice disorders in CC and PVFM and suggest that clinicians should be alert to the incidence of voice abnormalities in these populations. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-11-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  5. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  6. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  7. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Magnetism is a truly unique reference text, that explores the study of magnetism and magnetic behavior with a depth that no other book can provide. It covers the most detailed descriptions of the fundamentals of magnetism providing an emphasis on statistical mechanics which is absolutely critical for understanding magnetic behavior. The books covers the classical areas of basic magnetism, including Landau Theory and magnetic interactions, but features a more concise and easy-to-read style. Perfect for upper-level graduate students and industry researchers, The Fu

  8. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  9. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  10. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  11. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  12. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides......To shed light on the relation between fundamentals and adopted institutions we examine institutional choice across the ``Big Four'' US sports leagues. Despite having very similar business models and facing the same economic and legal environment, these leagues exhibit large differences in their use...... a cautionary tail against trying to transplant succesful institutions across different economic settings....

  13. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KUNZMAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.

  14. Fundamentals of DSL technology

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, Philip; Jacobsen, Krista S

    2005-01-01

    Overview of the POTS Environment-Signals and CircuitsPhilip Golden and John CookThe Copper Channel-Loop Characteristics and Models Hervé DedieuNoise and Noise Modelling on the Twisted Pair ChannelRob H. KirkbyThe Twisted Pair Channel-Models and Channel Capacity Ragnar Hlynur JonssonIntroduction to DSL Edward JonesFundamentals of Single-Carrier Modulation Vladimir OksmanFundamentals of Multi-Carrier Modulation Krista S. JacobsenTrellis-Coded Modulation in DSL Systems Gottfried UngerboeckError Control Coding in DSL SystemsCory S. ModlinAdvanced Coding Techniques for Digital Subscriber Lines Evan

  15. Measures of distance between speech signals in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseta, D.

    1984-02-01

    The energy density spectra and the time behavior of the autoregressive model of voice signals are studied. The first is a complete representation of the voice signal in the frequency domain, derived from the application of the Fourier transform to the sampled signal. The second is based on a voice signal generation model in which the channel is represented by poles only (resonances). A symmetrical version of the Itakura distance is the best compromise between conflicting requirements.

  16. Optical voice encryption based on digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Sudheesh K; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-11-15

    We propose an optical voice encryption scheme based on digital holography (DH). An off-axis DH is employed to acquire voice information by obtaining phase retardation occurring in the object wave due to sound wave propagation. The acquired hologram, including voice information, is encrypted using optical image encryption. The DH reconstruction and decryption with all the correct parameters can retrieve an original voice. The scheme has the capability to record the human voice in holograms and encrypt it directly. These aspects make the scheme suitable for other security applications and help to use the voice as a potential security tool. We present experimental and some part of simulation results.

  17. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  18. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  19. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  20. Fundamental research data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A fundamental research data base containing ground truth, image, and Badhwar profile feature data for 17 North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota agricultural sites is described. Image data was provided for a minimum of four acquisition dates for each site and all four images were registered to one another.

  1. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatt, J

    2012-01-01

    ... or in human volunteers. Thus, an experimental pharmacology using animal models continues to be the starting point for a new drug research. The book Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology by Dr. M. N. Ghosh has really been a cornerstone for postgraduate students and researchers engaged in animal experimentation. It has always been useful for pos...

  2. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  3. Fundamentals of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  4. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from ...

  5. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are

  6. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  7. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  8. Effect of performance time of the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in the voice of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fabíola Santos; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2017-02-16

    To analyze the results of the runtimes of one, three, five, and seven minutes of the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in women without voice complaints and with dysphonia and vocal nodules. This is an experimental study with a consecutive and convenience sample of 60 women divided into two groups: 30 participants with dysphonia caused by vocal fold nodules (study group - SG) and 30 participants without vocal complaints (control group - CG). All participants performed the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise for one, three, five, and seven minutes. Sustained vowels /a/ and counting from one to ten were recorded before and after each exercise runtime. The recordings were randomized and evaluated by comparison task by four speech-language pathologists using the parameters grade of vocal deviation, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain and instability (GRBASI). The acoustic parameters analyzed were fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, period perturbation quotient, amplitude perturbation quotient, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. After each vocal exercise runtime, the participants responded whether they had felt vocal discomfort using a visual analogue scale. Auditory-perceptual analysis in the SG showed improved overall severity of dysphonia and breathiness after three minutes and worsening of these acoustic parameters after seven minutes of exercise performance. Participants in the SG reported self-perception of vocal discomfort after seven minutes of exercise performance. The ideal prescription time for the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in dysphonic women is three minutes; worsening of voice quality and perception of vocal discomfort occurs after seven minutes.

  9. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Thomas, G; Huinck, W; Donders, R; Graamans, K; Schutte, H K

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints and absenteeism. Different factors play a role in the development and consolidation of voice problems. Physical and psycho-emotional factors appear to be the most important risk factors. Remarkably, voice load and environment seem to be less important as risk factors in the development and consolidation of voice complaints. Teachers who experienced voice problems during their training reported more voice problems during their career. The results of this study stress the importance of a multifactorial approach in the diagnosis and treatment of voice problems, whereby physical and psycho-emotional aspects should be considered as sensitive to the risk of developing voice problems. Moreover, this study shows the crucial importance of adequate voice training during the teacher training programme.

  10. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  11. Voice complaints, risk factors for voice problems and history of voice problems in relation to puberty in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, G.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate voice complaints, risk factors for voice complaints and history of voice problems in student teachers before they embarked on their professional teaching career. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among female student teachers. The response rate

  12. Normative voice range profiles in vocally trained and untrained children aged between 7 and 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Zumtobel, Michaela; Prettenhofer, Walter; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Only limited data on normal vocal constitution and vocal capabilities in school-aged children are available. To take better care of children's voices, it might be helpful to know voice ranges and limits of not only vocally trained but also vocally untrained children. Goal of this study was the evaluation of singing voice capabilities of vocally healthy children with different social and vocal/musical backgrounds using voice range profile measurements (VRP). VRP percentiles that reflect constitutional aspects were suggested. In this cross-sectional study, 186 children (aged between seven and 10 years), attending five schools, were included. VRP measurements were performed under field conditions. Interviews and questionnaires regarding vocal strain and vocal training were applied; the answers were used for classification of singing activity and vocal training (KLASAK). All children reached a mean singing voice range of at least two octaves. By using the answers of interviews and questionnaires, the children could be classified according to vocal strain and vocal training. The groups showed no significant differences regarding VRP measurements. In the following step, percentiles were calculated. Twenty-five percent of all children (P25) reached a minimum voice range of almost two octaves, namely, 22 semitones (ST) from 220 to 784 Hz with soft and loud singing. Half of the children (P50) had a voice range of 24 ST (2 octaves), while soft singing and a larger voice range of 26 ST while loud singing. The measurements of third quartile (P75) revealed that 25% of children have even a larger voice range than 29 dB (from 196 Hz/g to 1047 Hz/c3) and can sing at most frequencies louder than 90 dB. P90 demonstrated that 10% of the children can sing even lower or higher than the frequency range between 196 Hz/g and 1319 Hz/e3 analyzed. The voice range seems not to be constrained by social but by voice/musical background: children of vocally/musically encouraged schools had wider

  13. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  14. Frontiers of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 14th annual international symposium “Frontiers of Fundamental Physics” (FFP14) was organized by the OCEVU Labex. It was held in Marseille, on the Saint-Charles Campus of Aix Marseille University (AMU) and had over 280 participants coming from all over the world. FFP Symposium began in India in 1997 and it became itinerant in 2004, through Europe, Canada and Australia. It covers topics in fundamental physics with the objective to enable scholars working in related areas to meet on a single platform and exchange ideas. In addition to highlighting the progress in these areas, the symposium invites the top researchers to reflect on the educational aspects of our discipline. Moreover, the scientific concepts are also discussed through philosophical and epistemological viewpoints. Several eminent scientists, such as the laureates of prestigious awards (Nobel Prize, Fields Medal,…), have already participated in these meetings. The FFP14 Symposium developed around seven main themes, namely: Astroparticle Ph...

  15. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the condensate. In our template, a mass term for the fermions in the fundamental theory acts as a stabilizer of the Higgs potential, without the need for partners of the top quark. We constrain the available parameter......Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...

  16. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  17. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  18. Introduction: Textual and contextual voices of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...

  19. Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) and amplitude variation parameters in euphonic adult subjects. Normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, M; Chiarella, G; Gallo, L V; Catalano, M; Cassandro, E

    2004-12-01

    The introduction, in the late 70s, of the first digital spectrograph (DSP Sonograph) by Kay Elemetrics has improved the possibilities of spectroacoustic voice analysis in the clinical field. Thanks to the marketing, in 1993, of the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) advanced system, it is now possible to analyse 33 quantitative voice parameters which, in turn, allow evaluation of fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectral energy balance and the presence of any sonority gap and diplophony. Despite its potentials, the above-mentioned system is not widely used yet, partly on account of the lack of a standard procedure. Indeed, there are still only a few case reports in the literature taking into consideration prescriptive aspects related both to procedure and analysis. This study aims to provide the results of amplitude perturbation parameter analysis in euphonic adult patients. In our opinion, these are the most significant parameters in determining the severity of a phonation disorder. The study has been carried out on 35 patients (24 female, 11 male, mean age 31.6 years, range 19-59). The voice signal has been recorded using a 4300 B Kay Computer Speech Lab (CSL) supported by a personal computer including a SM48 Shure-Prolog microphone located at a distance of 15 cm and angled at 45 degrees. Input microphone saturation has been adjusted to 6/9 of the CH1 channel. The voice sample consisted in a held /a/ and the analysis has been carried out on the central 3 seconds of the recording. The analysis has been carried out using a 5105 MDVP software version 2.3 and the signal digitalised at a 50 kHz sample rate. In order for the sample to be as free from intensity or frequency changes as possible, each patient underwent a training session (including at least 3 phonation tests) before the recording. The study included only emissions between 55 and 65 dB and with spectrum stability. Environmental noise has constantly been monitored and maintained below 30 dB. Data

  20. Análise acústica da voz captada na faringe próximo à fonte glótica através de microfone acoplado ao fibrolaringoscópio Acoustic analysis of voice captured in the pharynx above the glottic source through a microphone on a laryngo-fiberscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Fukuyama

    2001-01-01

    Kay Elemetrics’ Computerized Speech Lab 4300B Model. Samples of the sustained vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ were picked up in three distinct ways. Firstly, by a common external microphone placed at 15 cm from the mouth. Secondly, a special microphone was placed on the pharynx 1.5 cm above the vocal folds. Lastly, the same special microphone was placed externally at 2 cm from the mouth. Twelve acoustic parameters regarding fundamental frequency, amplitude and noise of each and every vowel were compared statistically as to the way the voice was picked up. Results: Results show statistically significant differences between the voice picked up by the common external microphone and by the special one as regards to the fundamental frequency, frequency and amplitude variability and noise. Conclusion: The difference between the sound coming from the glottic source and the sound from the external voice shows alterations experienced by the voice during its passage through the vocal tract.

  1. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  2. Fundamentals of Physical Acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Leclaire, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Book review: Fundamentals of Physical Acoustics D.T. Blackstock; Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York, 2000, 541 pages, ISBN 0-471-3197; This book is an excellent piece of work. The text is extremely clear and goes a long way towards meeting the declared pedagogical target. The author has written a comprehensive text. The proportions of equations and explanations/interpretations are particularly well balanced. Throughout the book, the context and the validity domain for any equation derived are clearly...

  3. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  4. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  5. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are treated in a uniform and consistent way. The text is intended for senior undergraduate or graduate engineering students, and is based on course notes that have been used in various versions since 1976 ...

  6. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  7. Fundamentals of neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Hall, D

    2011-01-01

    Session 1 of the 2010 STP/IFSTP Joint Symposium on Toxicologic Neuropathology, titled "Fundamentals of Neurobiology," was organized to provide a foundation for subsequent sessions by presenting essential elements of neuroanatomy and nervous system function. A brief introduction to the session titled "Introduction to Correlative Neurobiology" was provided by Dr. Greg Hall (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN). Correlative neurobiology refers to considerations of the relationships between the highly organized and compartmentalized structure of nervous tissues and the functioning within this system.

  8. Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver C

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to understanding queueing and graphical networks In today's era of interdisciplinary studies and research activities, network models are becoming increasingly important in various areas where they have not regularly been used. Combining techniques from stochastic processes and graph theory to analyze the behavior of networks, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks provides an interdisciplinary approach by including practical applications of these stochastic networks in various fields of study, from engineering and operations management to communications and the physi

  9. Voice Self-assessment Protocols: Different Trends Among Organic and Behavioral Dysphonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Oliveira, Gisele; de Barros Couto, Euro

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to correlate the results of five self-assessment instruments for patients with behavioral or organic dysphonia (OD), and to analyze their relationship with listeners' judgments of degree of voice severity and predominant type of voice deviation. This is a cross-sectional prospective study. A total of 103 patients (77 with behavioral dysphonia, 26 with OD) completed the Brazilian validated versions of five instruments: Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Voice-Related Quality of Life, Vocal Performance Questionnaire, Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS), and Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale. Voice samples were collected for auditory-perceptual analysis. Correlations were made among protocols, and between these instruments and the perceptual analysis. None of the instruments correctly identified 100% of the dysphonic individuals. The VoiSS identified 100 of the 103 subjects. Numerous correlations were found with variable strength. The strongest correlation was between frequency and severity scales of the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (r = 0.946) and the total score of the VHI and VoiSS (r = 0.917). Correlations between the instruments and the perceptual analysis achieved only moderate strength; the VHI, the Voice-Related Quality of Life, and the VoiSS showed the highest correlations with counting numbers task, particularly for OD. The predominant type of voice deviation did not influence the score of the protocols. None of the self-assessment instruments is capable of identifying all cases of dysphonia. However, they are important in assessing the impact of voice problem on quality of life. Patient self-assessment and clinician perceptual evaluation share only moderate correlations, with higher strength for counting numbers task in comparison with sustained vowel. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  11. Neutrons and Fundamental Symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, Bradley [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-11

    The research supported by this project addressed fundamental open physics questions via experiments with subatomic particles. In particular, neutrons constitute an especially ideal “laboratory” for fundamental physics tests, as their sensitivities to the four known forces of nature permit a broad range of tests of the so-called “Standard Model”, our current best physics model for the interactions of subatomic particles. Although the Standard Model has been a triumphant success for physics, it does not provide satisfactory answers to some of the most fundamental open questions in physics, such as: are there additional forces of nature beyond the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces?, or why does our universe consist of more matter than anti-matter? This project also contributed significantly to the training of the next generation of scientists, of considerable value to the public. Young scientists, ranging from undergraduate students to graduate students to post-doctoral researchers, made significant contributions to the work carried out under this project.

  12. Effects of vocal training on singing and speaking voice characteristics in vocally healthy adults and children based on choral and nonchoral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Lycke, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study examines the effects of voice training on vocal capabilities in vocally healthy age and gender differentiated groups measured by voice range profile (VRP) and speech range profile (SRP). Frequency and intensity measurements of the VRP and SRP using standard singing and speaking voice protocols were derived from 161 trained choir singers (21 males, 59 females, and 81 prepubescent children) and from 188 nonsingers (38 males, 89 females, and 61 children). When compared with nonsingers, both genders of trained adult and child singers exhibited increased mean pitch range, highest frequency, and VRP area in high frequencies (PVRP area. The logistic regression analysis showed that VRP pitch range, highest frequency, maximum voice intensity, and maximum-minimum intensity range, and SRP slope of speaking curve were the key predictors of voice training. Age, gender, and voice training differentiated norms of VRP and SRP parameters are presented. Significant positive effect of voice training on vocal capabilities, mostly singing voice, was confirmed. The presented norms for trained singers, with key parameters differentiated by gender and age, are suggested for clinical practice of otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconciling Voices in Writing an Autoethnographic Thesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn Johnston MSc; Tom Strong PhD

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider writing and supervising an autoethnographic thesis as a process of reconciling voices while finding one's own academic and personal voice. They draw from notions of polyphony to speak about how we negotiated with different voices (the voices of experts, research participants, personal affiliations, those used in our supervisory discussions) our way forward in the supervisory relationship, as well as in the thesis itself. They invite readers to draw their own meanings from...

  14. Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

    2012-01-01

    Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide ra...

  15. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields at the fundamental frequency and their possible effects on the human health; Exposicion a campos electricos y magneticos de frecuencia industrial y sus posibles efectos en la salud humana, reglamentaciones de valores limites de exposicion: seguimiento y actualizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieri, Julieta; Arnera, Patricia [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Inst. de Investigaciones Tecnologicas para Redes y Equipos Electricos (IITREE-LAT)]. E-mail: jvernier@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar; Massei, Cristina [Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad (ENRE), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    While the effects of short term in the human health due to exposure to electric and magnetic fields at the fundamental frequency are well-known, discussions with respect to the existence of effects of long term, specially cancer, persists at world-wide level. In order to evaluate the associated risks, interdisciplinary programs analyze the results of epidemic researches and also laboratory researches. In the present document, some of the last reviews have been showed, as well as it also is summarized the regulations for the limit values of expositure. It also makes reference to the special case of an italian standard as well.

  16. Voice Technology Using Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    34; options "lo"l; -. run "r"l; save "Is" escape "’lesc’"l; K /* The root sentence definition follows * Root (enter menu voice _console cmdl cmd2 cmd3...Icll options ’oll; run "r save ls"l; escape "’lesc’" /* The root sentence definition follows * Root (enter menu voice console cmdl cmd2 crnd3 cmd4...COMMANDS = cmdl , cmd2, cmd3, cmd4, cmd5, cmd6, cmd7, cmd8, cmd9, cmdlO; . cmdl ; ! cmd2; ! cmd3; ! cmd4; ! cmd5; ! cmd6; ! cmd7; ! cmd8; ! cmd9

  17. The Voice of the Customer

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Abbie; Hauser, John R

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, many U.S. and Japanese firms have adopted Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD is a total-quality-management process in which the “voice of the customer” is deployed throughout the R&D, engineering, and manufacturing stages of product development. For example, in the first “house” of QFD, customer needs are linked to design attributes thus encouraging the joint consideration of marketing issues and engineering issues. This paper focuses on the “Voice-of-the-Customer” compon...

  18. Local Voices in Creative Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Setiajid, Harris Hermansyah

    2014-01-01

    Creative writing is now on the centre stage in the world literary discourse. Beside other numerous advantages, the creative writing is also used to put forward the unheard voices hidden in the mainstream literary works. In the recent development, creative writing is also a means to unearth the local voices in order to be put in a world stage, introduced to a larger audience to achieve a better understanding between cultures.Since creative writing is no longer locked in the three literary genr...

  19. Investigation of a glottal related harmonics-to-noise ratio and spectral tilt as indicators of glottal noise in synthesized and human voice signals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    The harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) of the voiced speech signal has implicitly been used to infer information regarding the turbulent noise level at the glottis. However, two problems exist for inferring glottal noise attributes from the HNR of the speech wave form: (i) the measure is fundamental frequency (f0) dependent for equal levels of glottal noise, and (ii) any deviation from signal periodicity affects the ratio, not just turbulent noise. An alternative harmonics-to-noise ratio formulation [glottal related HNR (GHNR\\')] is proposed to overcome the former problem. In GHNR\\' a mean over the spectral range of interest of the HNRs at specific harmonic\\/between-harmonic frequencies (expressed in linear scale) is calculated. For the latter issue [(ii)] two spectral tilt measures are shown, using synthesis data, to be sensitive to glottal noise while at the same time being comparatively insensitive to other glottal aperiodicities. The theoretical development predicts that the spectral tilt measures reduce as noise levels increase. A conventional HNR estimator, GHNR\\' and two spectral tilt measures are applied to a data set of 13 pathological and 12 normal voice samples. One of the tilt measures and GHNR\\' are shown to provide statistically significant differentiating power over a conventional HNR estimator.

  20. Verifikasi Suara menggunakan Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan dan Ekstraksi Ciri Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Kurniawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Voice recording is an important part of the evidence for the suspect, so it is necessary to verify the voice suspects to prove the allegations of the suspect. The research aims to develop a voice verification system using artificial neural networks and extraction characteristics mel frequency cepstral coefficient. As the input data analyzed is the data of the unrecognized voice recorder of the owner and the recorded data of the sound that the owner has known as the comparison data. Data input is processed by feature extraction consisting of framing, windowing, fast Fourier transform, mel frequency wrapping, discrete cosine transform resulting in mel-frequency wrapping coefficient. The mel frequency wrapping coefficient of each frame in each input voice, is used as input on pattern recognition using artificial neural networks. The results of artificial neural networks are analyzed using decision logic to get a decision whether these two voices are the same or not. The output of the system is a decision that the tested sound is the same as or not with a voice comparison. Based on the level of compatibility of the test data produces a voice verification system with mel-frequency wrapping and artificial neural networks have a rate of 96% accuracy. The accuracy of the voice verification system can be an option to help resolve the issues in verification of voice recordings.

  1. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool for non...... for nonverbal orientation and information both to our selves and others. Focus on training on the voice instrument, the effect and impact of the human voice, and listening perspectives...

  2. Voice-Specialized Speech-Language Pathologist's Criteria for Discharge from Voice Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda I; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2017-08-07

    No standard protocol exists to determine when a patient is ready and able to be discharged from voice therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine what factors speech-language pathologists (SLPs) deem most important when discharging a patient from voice therapy. A second aim was to determine if responses differed based on years of voice experience. Step 1: Seven voice-specialized SLPs generated a list of items thought to be relevant to voice therapy discharge. Step 2: Fifty voice-specialized SLPs rated each item on the list in terms of importance in determining discharge from voice therapy. Step 1: Four themes emerged-outcome measures, laryngeal appearance, SLP perceptions, and patient factors-as important items when determining discharge from voice therapy. Step 2: The top five most important criteria for discharge readiness were that the patient had to be able to (1) independently use a better voice (transfer), (2) function with his or her new voice production in activities of daily living (transfer), (3) differentiate between good and bad voice, (4) take responsibility for voice, and (5) sound better from baseline. Novice and experienced clinicians agreed between 94% and 97% concerning what was deemed "very important." SLPs agree that a patient's ability to use voice techniques in conversation and real-life situations outside of the therapy room are the most important determinants for voice therapy discharge. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  4. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  5. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  6. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  7. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  8. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  9. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  10. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  11. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  12. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  13. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  14. Fundamentals of Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincent L.

    2005-06-01

    Fundamentals of Space Systems was developed to satisfy two objectives: the first is to provide a text suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in both space systems engineering and space system design. The second is to be a primer and reference book for space professionals wishing to broaden their capabilities to develop, manage the development, or operate space systems. The authors of the individual chapters are practicing engineers that have had extensive experience in developing sophisticated experimental and operational spacecraft systems in addition to having experience teaching the subject material. The text presents the fundamentals of all the subsystems of a spacecraft missions and includes illustrative examples drawn from actual experience to enhance the learning experience. It included a chapter on each of the relevant major disciplines and subsystems including space systems engineering, space environment, astrodynamics, propulsion and flight mechanics, attitude determination and control, power systems, thermal control, configuration management and structures, communications, command and telemetry, data processing, embedded flight software, survuvability and reliability, integration and test, mission operations, and the initial conceptual design of a typical small spacecraft mission.

  15. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  16. Voice and choice by delegation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.; Vollaard, H.; Trappenburg, M.; Grit, K

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify

  17. The Inner Voice in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, N. Ann; Hayes, John R.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the connection between writing and working memory, specifically the role of the subvocal articulatory rehearsal process (or inner voice). The authors asked the 18 participants to type sentences describing 24 multipanel cartoons. In some conditions, the participants were required to repeat a syllable continuously while writing.…

  18. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  19. Voices from Around the Globe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the. International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS), and particularly with the guest editors ... relation to changing local realities. By foregrounding Botswana, China, South Africa and the USA, a comparative discourse is set up ...

  20. The Performing Voice of Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna

    The ongoing international development of opening media archives for researchers as well as for broader audiences calls for a closer discussion of the mediated voice and how to analyse it. Which parameters can be analysed and which parameters are not covered by the analysis? Furthermore, how do we...