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Sample records for voi counts vary

  1. Optimal target VOI size for accurate 4D coregistration of DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian; Mikheev, Artem; Zaim Wadghiri, Youssef; Bertrand, Anne; Novikov, Dmitry; Chandarana, Hersh; Rusinek, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI has emerged as a reliable and diagnostically useful functional imaging technique. DCE protocol typically lasts 3-15 minutes and results in a time series of N volumes. For automated analysis, it is important that volumes acquired at different times be spatially coregistered. We have recently introduced a novel 4D, or volume time series, coregistration tool based on a user-specified target volume of interest (VOI). However, the relationship between coregistration accuracy and target VOI size has not been investigated. In this study, coregistration accuracy was quantitatively measured using various sized target VOIs. Coregistration of 10 DCE-MRI mouse head image sets were performed with various sized VOIs targeting the mouse brain. Accuracy was quantified by measures based on the union and standard deviation of the coregistered volume time series. Coregistration accuracy was determined to improve rapidly as the size of the VOI increased and approached the approximate volume of the target (mouse brain). Further inflation of the VOI beyond the volume of the target (mouse brain) only marginally improved coregistration accuracy. The CPU time needed to accomplish coregistration is a linear function of N that varied gradually with VOI size. From the results of this study, we recommend the optimal size of the VOI to be slightly overinclusive, approximately by 5 voxels, of the target for computationally efficient and accurate coregistration.

  2. Simplifying volumes-of-interest (VOIs) definition in quantitative SPECT: Beyond manual definition of 3D whole-organ VOIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esther M; Lodge, Martin A; Rowe, Steven P; Wahl, Richard L; Frey, Eric C

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using simpler methods than manual whole-organ volume-of-interest (VOI) definition to estimate the organ activity concentration in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in cases where the activity in the organ can be assumed to be uniformly distributed on the scale of the voxel size. In particular, we investigated an anatomic region-of-interest (ROI) defined in a single transaxial slice, and a single sphere placed inside the organ boundaries. The evaluation was carried out using Monte Carlo simulations based on patient indium (111) In pentetreotide SPECT and computed tomography (CT) images. We modeled constant activity concentrations in each organ, validating this assumption by comparing the distribution of voxel values inside the organ VOIs of the simulated data with the patient data. We simulated projection data corresponding to 100, 50, and 25% of the clinical count level to study the effects of noise level due to shortened acquisition time. Images were reconstructed using a previously validated quantitative SPECT reconstruction method. The evaluation was performed in terms of the accuracy and precision of the activity concentration estimates. The results demonstrated that the non-uniform image intensity observed in the reconstructed images in the organs with normal uptake was consistent with uniform activity concentration in the organs on the scale of the voxel size; observed non-uniformities in image intensity were due to a combination of partial-volume effects at the boundaries of the organ, artifacts in the reconstructed image due to collimator-detector response compensation, and noise. Using an ROI defined in a single transaxial slice produced similar biases compared to the three-dimensional (3D) whole-organ VOIs, provided that the transaxial slice was near the central plane of the organ and that the pixels from the organ boundaries were not included in the ROI. Although this slice method was sensitive to noise

  3. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  4. Correction of dead-time and pile-up in a detector array for constant and rapidly varying counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C. [Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales, Energéticas y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Cano-Ott, D.; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales, Energéticas y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Wright, T. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    The effect of dead-time and pile-up in counting experiments may become a significant source of uncertainty if not properly taken into account. Although analytical solutions to this problem have been proposed for simple set-ups with one or two detectors, these are limited when it comes to arrays where time correlation between the detector modules is used, and also in situations of variable counting rates. In this paper we describe the dead-time and pile-up corrections applied to the n-TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC), a 4π γ-ray detector made of 40 BaF{sub 2} modules operating at the CERN n-TOF facility. Our method is based on the simulation of the complete signal detection and event reconstruction processes and can be applied as well in the case of rapidly varying counting rates. The method is discussed in detail and then we present its successful application to the particular case of the measurement of {sup 238}U(n, γ) reactions with the TAC detector.

  5. Challenges of "VoiP" Communication Systems for Air Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Borković

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's dense air traffic and the worldwide move to FutureAir Navigation System (FANS concepts demand a high levelof modem and reliable Air Traffic Control (ATC equipmentto accommodate customer requirements now and in the future.The work tries to answer the questions that indicate the fact whya new VCS generation (Voice Communication System basedon VoiP (Voice over Internet Protocol has some essentialcomparative advantages related to the conventional VCS. Oneof the key arguments featuring the VoiP technology is its lowprice a~d wide application in modem communications. Becauseof the fact of the PC-based HMI (Human Machine Interfaceapplication, IP-VCS could easily be implemented in thenew A TM data network infrastructure. In the future, the VoiPtechnology development and VoiP VCS will have to prove thatthey are ready to meet the requirements of more flexible, saferand cheaper way of air traffic management.

  6. Requirements for Value of Information (VoI) calculation over mission specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, James R.

    2017-05-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations center on providing relevant situational understanding to military commanders and analysts to facilitate decision-making for execution of mission tasks. However, limitations exist in tactical-edge environments on the ability to disseminate digital materials to analysts and decision makers. This work investigates novel methods to calculate of Value of Information tied to digital materials (termed information objects) for consumer use, based on interpretation of mission specifications. Followed by a short survey of related VoI calculation efforts, discussion is provided on mission-centric VoI calculation for digital materials via adoption of the preexisting Missions and Means Framework model.

  7. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  8. [Neuronal mechanisms of motor signal transmission in thalamic Voi nucleus in spasmodic torticollis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, A S; Raeva, S N; Pavlenko, V B

    2014-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in ventrooral (Voi) nucleus of motor thalamus during the realization-of voluntary and involuntary abnormal (dystonic) movements in patients with spasmodic torticollis were investigated by means of microelectrode technique. The high reactivity of the cellular Voi elements to various functional (mainly motor) tests was proved. Analysis of neuronal activity showed: (1) the difference of neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in the realization of voluntary movement with and without the involvement of the pathological axial neck muscles, as well as passive and abnormal involuntary dystonic movements; (2) significance of sensory component in the mechanisms of sensorimotor interactions during realization of voluntary and involuntary dystonic head and neck movements, causing the activation of the axial neck muscles; (3) important role of the rhythmic and synchronized neuronal activity in motor signal transmission during the realization of active and passive movements. Participation of Voi nucleus in pathological mechanisms of spasmodic torticollis was shown. The data obtained can be used for identificatiori of Voi thalamic nucleus during stereotactic neurosurgical operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis for selection the optimum destruction (stimulation) target and reduction of postoperative effects.

  9. Developing a Value of Information (VoI) Enabled System from Collection to Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Analysis by Mark R Mittrick, John T Richardson, Alex Vertlieb, and Timothy P Hanratty Approved for public release...US Army Research Laboratory Developing a Value of Information (VoI)- Enabled System from Collection to Analysis by Mark R Mittrick, John...Developing a Value of Information (VoI)-Enabled System from Collection to Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. miRNA gene counts in chromosomes vary widely in a species and biogenesis of miRNA largely depends on transcription or posttranscriptional processing of coding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu eGhorai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs target specific mRNA(s to silence its expression and thereby regulate various cellular processes. We have investigated miRNA gene counts in chromosomes for 20 different species and observed wide variation. Certain chromosomes have extremely high number of miRNA gene compared with others in all the species. For example, high number of miRNA gene in X chromosome and the least or absence of miRNA gene in Y chromosome was observed in all species. To search the criteria governing such variation of miRNA gene counts in chromosomes, we have selected three parameters- length, number of non-coding and coding genes in a chromosome. We have calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficient of miRNA gene counts with length, number of non-coding and coding genes in a chromosome for all 20 species. Major number of species showed that number of miRNA gene was not correlated with chromosome length. 85% of species under study showed strong positive correlation coefficient (r≥0.5 between the numbers of miRNA gene vs non-coding gene in chromosomes as expected because miRNA is a sub-set of non-coding genes. 55% species under study showed strong positive correlation coefficient (r≥0.5 between numbers of miRNA gene vs coding gene. We hypothesize biogenesis of miRNA largely depends on coding genes, an evolutionary conserved process. Chromosomes having higher number of miRNA genes will be most likely playing regulatory roles in several cellular processes including different disorders. In humans, cancer and cardiovascular disease associated miRNAs are mostly intergenic and located in Chromosome 19, X, 14 and 1.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  12. A two-compartment phantom for VOI profile measurements in small-bore 31P MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhoff, Babro; Stubgaard, Max; Stensgaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A two-compartment gel phantom for VOI profile measurements in volume-selective 31P spectroscopy in small-bore units is presented. The phantom is cylindrical with two compartments divided by a very thin (30 microm) polyethene film. This thin film permits measurements with a minimum of susceptibility...... from the two compartments was measured for each position and the data were evaluated following differentiation. We have found this phantom suitable for VOI profile measurements of ISIS in small-bore systems. The phantom forms a useful complement to recommended phantoms for small bore-spectroscopy...

  13. Les kystes hydatiques du foie rompus dans les voies biliaires: à propos de 120 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moujahid, Mountassir; Tajdine, Mohamed Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Etude rétrospective rapportant une série de kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires colligés dans le service de chirurgie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne à Marrakech. Entre 1990 à 2008, sur 536 kystes hydatiques du foie opérés dans le service, 120 étaient compliqués de rupture dans les voies biliaires soit 22,38%. Il y avait 82hommes et 38 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 10 à 60 ans. La clinique était dominée par la crise d'angiocholite ou une douleur du flanc droit. L'ictère était isolé dans huit cas. La fistule biliokystique était latente dans plus de 50% des cas. Le traitement a consisté en une résection du dôme saillant dans103cas (85,84%), une périkystectomie chez 11 malades (9,16%) et une lobectomie gauche dans six cas (5%). Le traitement de la fistule bilio kystique a consisté en une suture chez 36malades et un drainage bipolaire dans 25 cas, La déconnexion kysto-biliaire ou cholédocotomie trans hépatico kystique selon Perdomo était pratiquée dans 49cas et une anastomose bilio-digestive cholédoco-duodénale dans 10 cas. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 20jours. Nous déplorons deux décès par choc septique et un troisième par encéphalopathie secondaire à une cirrhose biliaire. La morbidité était représentée par huit abcès sous phrénique, douze fistules biliaires prolongées et deux occlusions intestinales. Les kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires représentent la complication la plus grave de cette pathologie bénigne. Le traitement repose sur des méthodes radicales qui sont d'une efficacité reconnue, mais de réalisation dangereuse et les méthodes conservatrices, en particulier la déconnexion kysto-biliaire qui est une méthode simple et qui donne de bons résultats à court et à long terme. PMID:22384289

  14. Les kystes hydatiques du foie rompus dans les voies biliaires: a propos de 120 cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountassir Moujahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available s et une anastomose bilio digestive choledoco duodenale dans 10 cas. La duree moyenne d�hospitalisation etait de 20jours. Nous deplorons deux deces par choc septique et un troisieme par encephalopathie secondaire a une cirrhose biliaire. La morbidite etait representee par huit abces sous phrenique, douze fistules biliaires prolongees et deux occlusions intestinales. Les kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires representent la complication la plus grave de cette pathologie benigne. Le traitement repose sur des methodes radicales qui sont d�une efficacite reconnue, mais de realisation dangereuse et les methodes conservatrices, en particulier la deconnexion kysto biliaire qui est une methode simple et qui donne de bons resultas a court et a long terme.

  15. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  16. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  17. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  18. The Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) and the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI): a comparison of structure and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Webb, A; Carding, P N; Steen, I N; MacKenzie, K; Deary, I J

    2004-04-01

    Self report measures of voice function are in frequent use, but have had inadequate psychometric evaluation. We aimed to perform a substantial factor analysis of two measures of voice impairment, the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Both the 30-item questionnaires were completed by 319 dysphonic voice clinic attenders (99M, 220F). Principal components analysis confirmed that both instruments reflected general voice abnormality. The VoiSS comprised three factors - impairment (15 items), emotional (8 items) and related physical symptoms (7 items) - each with a good internal consistency. Analysis of the VHI suggested that it contains only two subscales. When a three-factor solution was imposed on the data, analysis failed to support the currently advised three 10-item subscale interpretations. Instead, we found a physical (voice impairment) domain (8 items), a psychosocial domain (14 items) and a factor with 8 items related to difficulty in being heard. The VHI requires further statistical refinement to identify its subscale structure. The VoiSS was developed from 800 subjects and is psychometrically the most robust and extensively validated self report voice measure available.

  19. Gestion des voies aériennes supérieures et cellulite cervico-faciale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechna, Hicham; Nadour, Karim; Ouzzad, Omar; Chkoura, Khalid; Choumi, Faical; Loutid, Jaouad; Moumine, Mohamed; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction La cellulite maxillo faciale est urgence médico chirurgicale. Ces patients sont le plus souvent pris en charge au bloc opératoire d’une part pour la mise à plat et le drainage des collections et d’autres parts pour les prélèvements bactériologiques. L’anesthésie de ce genre de patient expose à des difficultés potentielles de contrôle des voies aériennes supérieures. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une durée de 24 mois dans le pôle d’anesthésie réanimation et urgence de l’hôpital militaire Moulay Ismail de Meknès avec la collaboration des services de stomatologie et d’oto-rhino laryngologie. On été inclus tous les patients admis au bloc pour cure chirurgicale sous anesthésie générale d’une cellulite cervicale et/ou maxillo-faciale. Résultats Nous avons colligé 22 dossiers. Le sexe ratio était à 4,5 en faveur des hommes. L'âge moyen des patients est de 29 ans. Concernant la gestion des voies aériennes ; une intubation standard à l’aide de laryngoscope a été retenue chez la plupart des patients (17 patients). L’intubation vigile sous fibroscopie a été réalisée chez 3 patients, une trachéotomie première a été faite chez une patiente et une intubation rétrograde salvatrice a été retenue chez une autre patiente. Conclusion Deux défis guettent tout anesthésiste prenant en charge des patients présentant une cellulite cervico-faciale, un risque de ventilation difficile et un souci d’intubation laborieuse. Les deux risques sont à envisager de principe, et où une stratégie anticipative devra être élaborée. Introduction Maxillofacial cellulitis is a medical-surgical emergency. These patients are most often treated in the operating room on the one hand for identifying and draining the collections and on the other hand for bacteriological samples. The type of anesthetic technique used exposes to potential difficulties in controlling the upper airways. Methods

  20. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  1. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  2. Measurement of SUVs-Maximum for Normal Region Using VOI in PET/MRI and PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish an overall data set associated with the VOI (Volume of Interest, which is available for simultaneous assessment of PET/MRI and PET/CT regardless of the use of contrast media. The participants as objects of this investigation are 26 healthy examinees in Korea, SUV (standardized-uptake-values-maximum evaluation for whole-body F-18 FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI image using VOI of normal region has exhibited very significant difference to that for whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT image (significant probability value (P0.8. It is shown that one needs to decide SUVs-maximum for PET/MRI with the reduction of 25.0~26.4% from their evaluated value and needs to decide with the reduction of 28.8~29.4% in the same situation but with the use of contrast media. The use of SUVLBM-maximum (SUVLean Body Mass-maximum is very advantageous in reading overall image of PET/CT and PET/MRI to medical doctors and researchers, if we consider its convenience and efficiency. We expect that this research enhances the level of the early stage accurate diagnosis with whole-body images of PET/MRI and PET/CT.

  3. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  4. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  5. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  6. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  7. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  8. Des sources de protéines locales pour l’alimentation des volailles : quelles voies de progrès ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouvarel Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’aviculture européenne est dépendante d’approvisionnements en soja essentiellement en provenance du Brésil. Cette matière première riche en protéines est intéressante d’un point de vue nutritionnel pour l’alimentation des volailles mais pose des problèmes importants notamment en termes de prix et de conséquences environnementales. Les matières premières riches en protéines produites en France (oléo-protéagineux et coproduits de l’amidonnerie et de la distillerie ne remplacent qu’en partie le soja importé du fait d’équilibres nutritionnels moins propices. Les protéagineux sont de plus très peu disponibles sur le marché. L’aviculture européenne, et plus largement l’élevage et l’agriculture, sont ainsi face à des enjeux importants d’ordre économique, social et environnemental. Les contraintes et leviers relatifs à la formulation d’aliments destinés aux volailles sont analysés et différentes voies de progrès sont envisagées à plus ou moins long terme : développer l’alimentation de précision afin d’améliorer l’ajustement des apports aux besoins des animaux en fonction des objectifs fixés, disposer de matières premières adaptées (process, mis en œuvre de filières adaptées, nouvelles matières premières et additifs, sélection variétale mais aussi d’animaux adaptables. Une plus grande coordination entre acteurs, amont et aval, apparaît indispensable pour relever ces défis.

  9. Time varying effects in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2002-01-01

    additive risk model; counting process; proportional hazards model; semi-parametric models; survival data; time-varying effects; nonparametric testing......additive risk model; counting process; proportional hazards model; semi-parametric models; survival data; time-varying effects; nonparametric testing...

  10. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image registration algorithm for VOI and voxel-wise assessment of longitudinal variations in FDG tumor uptake in NSCLC patients. Methods: Evaluation of the elastix toolbox was performed using F-18-FDG PET/CT ...

  11. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal 18F-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Gerald SMA; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel JB; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image registration algorithm for VOI and voxel-wise assessment of longitudinal variations in FDG tumor uptake in NSCLC patients. Methods Evaluation of the elastix toolbox was performed using 18F-FDG PET/CT at ...

  12. Under which conditions, additional monitoring data are worth gathering for improving decision making? Application of the VOI theory in the Bayesian Event Tree eruption forecasting framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Standard and new generation of monitoring observations provide in almost real-time important information about the evolution of the volcanic system. These observations are used to update the model and contribute to a better hazard assessment and to support decision making concerning potential evacuation. The framework BET_EF (based on Bayesian Event Tree) developed by INGV enables dealing with the integration of information from monitoring with the prospect of decision making. Using this framework, the objectives of the present work are i. to propose a method to assess the added value of information (within the Value Of Information (VOI) theory) from monitoring; ii. to perform sensitivity analysis on the different parameters that influence the VOI from monitoring. VOI consists in assessing the possible increase in expected value provided by gathering information, for instance through monitoring. Basically, the VOI is the difference between the value with information and the value without additional information in a Cost-Benefit approach. This theory is well suited to deal with situations that can be represented in the form of a decision tree such as the BET_EF tool. Reference values and ranges of variation (for sensitivity analysis) were defined for input parameters, based on data from the MESIMEX exercise (performed at Vesuvio volcano in 2006). Complementary methods for sensitivity analyses were implemented: local, global using Sobol' indices and regional using Contribution to Sample Mean and Variance plots. The results (specific to the case considered) obtained with the different techniques are in good agreement and enable answering the following questions: i. Which characteristics of monitoring are important for early warning (reliability)? ii. How do experts' opinions influence the hazard assessment and thus the decision? Concerning the characteristics of monitoring, the more influent parameters are the means rather than the variances for the case considered

  13. Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate a correlated spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring unnatural fine-tunings of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP. Recent claims by Bekenstein that fine-structure-constant variability does not imply detectable violations of the equivalence principle are shown to be untenable.

  14. VOI4N02

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY JULY. 2003 ... A survey of the aetiological agents of diarrhoea in children under S years of age was carried out in. Osogbo, Osun State. .... Case control study of endemic diarrheal disease in Thai children. J. Infect. Dis. 1989 ; ... acute diarrhea in New.

  15. To Explore the Application of 3D VOI Technology in SPECT Three Phase Bone Imaging for the Early Diagnosis of the Femoral Head Osteonecrosis%3D VOI 技术在SPECT三时相骨显像对股骨头坏死早期诊断的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 席继梅; 庞华

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用三维感兴趣区容积(3D VOI)技术与SPECT三时相骨显像技术相结合,对其在股骨头坏死的早期诊断中的临床价值进行研究,以期为临床提供一种更早期、更准确的诊断股骨头坏死的检测手段。方法对59例受检患者进行SPECT三时骨显像,在图像后处理后进行三维重建,并分别用二维感兴趣区容积(2D VOI)技术及三维感兴趣容积(3D VOI)技术进行分析;同时收集行MRI检查的结果进行对比。结果在52例受检者中,其中早期股骨头坏死共计58髋。二维感兴趣区容积(2D VOI)阳性43髋,3D VOI阳性48髋,二者皆阳性40髋。2D ROI检出率为74.1%,3D VOI检出率为82.3%。其中38人行MRI检查,共计坏死股骨头40个。其中MRI阳性29髋,2D VOI阳性31髋,3D VOI阳性33髋。MRI检出率为72.5%,2D ROI检出率为77.5%,3D VOI检出率为82.5%。结论3D VOI对早期股骨头坏死具有较高的检出率。%Objective By the technology of three-dimensional volume of interest combined with three-phase bone scan,we wanted to study its clinical value of early diagnosis of femoral head osteonecrosis,aiming to provide an earlier and more accurate measurement of femoral head osteonecrosis diagnosing.Methods 59 cases of patients received three-phase bone scan. After the three-dimensional reconstruction,we analyzed the results of the two-dimensional volume of interest (2D VOI)technology and three-dimensional volume of interest(3D VOI)respectively. In the meanwhile,we compared them with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination results.Results Among the 52 cases,there were 58 hips of early femoral head osteonecrosis,43 hips positive in 2D VOI while 48 hips positive in 3D VOI and 40 hips positive in both. The detection rate of 2D ROI and 3D ROI were 74.1% and 82.3%,respectively. MRI examination was performed on 38 patients. And there were 40 hips of femoral head osteonecrosis,29 hips positive in MRI,31

  16. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  17. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image

  18. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image regis

  19. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  20. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  1. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  2. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  3. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  4. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  5. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  6. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  7. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  8. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  9. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  10. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  11. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  12. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  13. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  14. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  15. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  16. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  17. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  18. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  19. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  20. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  1. Apports des systèmes d'information à l'exploitation des réseaux de voies rapides. Le cas du réseau d'Ile-de-France

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming-Yu

    1995-01-01

    La présente recherche pluridisciplinaire a pour objectif principal d'analyser et d'évaluer de nouvelles potentialités de l'amélioration du fonctionnement des réseaux de voies rapides (RVR) avec leur maillage progressif et en particulier avec le développement des systèmes d'information des usagers. Cette recherche s'appuie principalement sur le cas concret du RVR d'Ile-de-France, représentatif par sa complexité structurelle et par les problèmes rencontrés lors de son exploitation et notamment ...

  2. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  3. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  4. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  5. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  6. Design considerations for examining trends in avian abundance using point counts: examples from oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Sylvia R. Mori; Mary K. Chase

    2005-01-01

    We used data from two oak-woodland sites in California to develop guidelines for the design of bird monitoring programs using point counts. We used power analysis to determine sample size adequacy when varying the number of visits, count stations, and years for examining trends in abundance. We assumed an overdispersed Poisson distribution for count data, with...

  7. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  8. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  9. IntroductionLa parole des rois à la fin du Moyen Âge : les voies d’une enquête

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane PÉQUIGNOT

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sugiere algunas propuestas para una investigación general sobre el hablar de los reyes a finales de la Edad Media. Basándose en un estado de la cuestión para el caso de la Corona de Aragón, se indaga la inscripción del hablar de los reyes en distintas temporalidades imbricadas entre sí. La transcripción de las palabras resulta de un proceso complejo, la « fábrica de la palabra », cuyos mecanismos y huellas son objeto de estudio. Por otra parte, las representaciones del hablar de los reyes hacen a menudo referencia a unos modelos traídos del pasado, a veces se dirigen a un público futuro, mientras testimonian también su necesaria adaptación a las circunstancias de cada momento. Estos « actas reales de palabra », así como los « estilos expresivos » que contribuyen a forjar, se examinan en la secunda parte del artículo. Finalmente, el tiempo dedicado o dejado a las palabras reales participa de las evoluciones a largo plazo de las relaciones a lo escrito, de los regímenes políticos y de su forma de legitimación ; constituye un modo de comunicación político importante, un recurso y, también, una toma de riesgo para el poder y la autoridad monarquica.L’article invite à une enquête générale sur la parole des rois à la fin du Moyen Âge et en esquisse plusieurs voies possibles. À l’aide d’un état de la question sur la couronne d’Aragon, c’est l’inscription de la parole des rois dans différentes temporalités imbriquées qui est visée. Sa transcription même résulte d’un processus complexe, la « fabrique de la parole », dont mécanismes et traces sont examinés. D’autre part, les représentations de la parole des rois renvoient souvent à des modèles du passé, visent parfois un public futur tout en témoignant aussi d’une nécessaire adaptation aux circonstances présentes. Ces « actes royaux de parole » et les « styles expressifs » qu’ils contribuent à consolider

  10. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  11. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  12. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  13. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  14. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  15. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  16. VARIABILITY OF LEUKOCYTE COUNT AS AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AMONG HYPERTENSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension, a globally prevailing non communicable disease has been linked to various pathophysiological mechanisms. The new spotlight is on the inflammatory mechanism, which has been embarked on this study by utilising the White blood cell counts as the predominant marker. The pathogenesis behind this concept is the endothelial alteration which occurs in hypertension, causing increased oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators and further causing damage to the vascular walls and may result in sustained hypertension. OBJECTIVE To substantiate the difference in leukocyte count among the hypertensives and normotensives, to assess the variation in the leukocyte count among varied grades of hypertension. METHODS 80 subjects and 40 controls of both sex and age between 20-60 years were taken. Subjects with other chronic medical disorders, pregnancy, menstruation phase, history of infections in past 3 months, obesity, smokers and regular alcoholics were excluded. Three recordings of blood pressure were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The differential leukocyte count was estimated with an automated counter. RESULTS Statistical analysis was done using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Total Leukocyte count (Mean = 8397.50 ± 1666.57 was raised significantly among the hypertensives, with P value <0.001. Comparison was done on the total count with the varied hypertensive years, which was suggestive of increase in total count among the pre hypertensives (systolic pressure and there was linear increase in total count with diastolic pressure though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The elevation of white blood cell count is suggestive of underlying inflammatory mechanism among the hypertensives. The onset of inflammation could be at the onset of hypertension, as there is rise in total leukocyte count among the pre hypertensives which could also lead to sustained hypertension.

  17. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  18. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  19. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  20. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  1. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  2. Time Varying Feature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  3. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  5. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  6. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  7. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  8. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  9. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  10. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  11. PLATELET COUNT, ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN BURN INJURY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    of platelet count can be used as prognostic indicator in burn patients for early detection of septicemia. It helps in early institution of treatment against septicemia resulting in favorable outcome of the patient. [2] Other labora tory parameters such as TLC, Neutrophil count and serum Creatinine does not vary significantly with appearances and progression of septicemia, so its use as prognostic indicators of septicemia is of less significance.

  12. Mixture Models for the Analysis of Repeated Count Data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, M.A.J.; Böckenholt, U

    1995-01-01

    Repeated count data showing overdispersion are commonly analysed by using a Poisson model with varying intensity parameter. resulting in a mixed model. A mixed model with a gamma distribution for the Poisson parameter does not adequately fit a data set on 721 children's spelling errors. An

  13. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal (18)F-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Gerald Sma; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel Jb; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry Jm

    2015-01-01

    Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image registration algorithm for VOI and voxel-wise assessment of longitudinal variations in FDG tumor uptake in NSCLC patients. Evaluation of the elastix toolbox was performed using (18)F-FDG PET/CT at baseline and after 2 cycles of therapy (follow-up) data in advanced NSCLC patients. The elastix toolbox, an integrated part of the IMALYTICS workstation, was used to apply a CT-based non-linear image registration of follow-up PET/CT data using the baseline PET/CT data as reference. Lesion statistics were compared to assess the impact on therapy response assessment. Next, CT-based deformable image registration was performed anew on the deformed follow-up PET/CT data using the original follow-up PET/CT data as reference, yielding a realigned follow-up PET dataset. Performance was evaluated by determining the correlation coefficient between original and realigned follow-up PET datasets. The intra- and extra-thoracic tumors were automatically delineated on the original PET using a 41% of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) adaptive threshold. Equivalence between reference and realigned images was tested (determining 95% range of the difference) and estimating the percentage of voxel values that fell within that range. Thirty-nine patients with 191 tumor lesions were included. In 37/39 and 12/39 patients, respectively, thoracic and non-thoracic lesions were evaluable for response assessment. Using the EORTC/SUVmax-based criteria, 5/37 patients had a discordant response of thoracic, and 2/12 a discordant response of non-thoracic lesions between the reference and the realigned image. FDG uptake values of corresponding tumor voxels in the original and realigned reference PET correlated well (R

  15. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  16. Effects of image noise, respiratory motion, and motion compensation on 3D activity quantification in count-limited PET images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, W.; Mawlawi, O. R.; Mikell, J. K.; Mourtada, F.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of noise, motion blur, and motion compensation using quiescent-period gating (QPG) on the activity concentration (AC) distribution—quantified using the cumulative AC volume histogram (ACVH)—in count-limited studies such as 90Y-PET/CT. An International Electrotechnical Commission phantom filled with low 18F activity was used to simulate clinical 90Y-PET images. PET data were acquired using a GE-D690 when the phantom was static and subject to 1-4 cm periodic 1D motion. The static data were down-sampled into shorter durations to determine the effect of noise on ACVH. Motion-degraded PET data were sorted into multiple gates to assess the effect of motion and QPG on ACVH. Errors in ACVH at AC90 (minimum AC that covers 90% of the volume of interest (VOI)), AC80, and ACmean (average AC in the VOI) were characterized as a function of noise and amplitude before and after QPG. Scan-time reduction increased the apparent non-uniformity of sphere doses and the dispersion of ACVH. These effects were more pronounced in smaller spheres. Noise-related errors in ACVH at AC20 to AC70 were smaller (15%). The accuracy of ACmean was largely independent of the total count. Motion decreased the observed AC and skewed the ACVH toward lower values; the severity of this effect depended on motion amplitude and tumor diameter. The errors in AC20 to AC80 for the 17 mm sphere were  -25% and  -55% for motion amplitudes of 2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. With QPG, the errors in AC20 to AC80 of the 17 mm sphere were reduced to  -15% for motion amplitudes  0.5, QPG was effective at reducing errors in ACVH despite increases in image non-uniformity due to increased noise. ACVH is believed to be more relevant than mean or maximum AC to calculate tumor control and normal tissue complication probability. However, caution needs to be exercised when using ACVH in post-therapy 90Y imaging because of its susceptibility to image

  17. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  18. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  19. Pairing words with syntactic frames: syntax, semantics, and count-mass usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, William D; Healy, Alice F; McDonnel, Samantha J

    2011-12-01

    Two experiments examined English speakers' choices of count or mass compatible frames for nouns varying in imageability (concrete, abstract) and noun class (count, mass). Pairing preferences with equative (much/many) and non-equative (less/fewer) constructions were compared for groups of teenagers, young adults, and older adults. Deviations from normative usage were, for all ages, larger for count than for mass nouns, for the non-equative than for the equative construction, and for abstract count than for concrete count nouns. These results indicate that mass syntax is not a developmental default, support proposals that mass syntax is more flexible than count syntax, verify the non-prescriptive use of less with count nouns, and extend the interaction of syntax and semantics in noun classification to older ages, with older adults showing a reduced reliance on semantics. Knowledge of frame compatibility and knowledge of noun class are also shown to be largely independent.

  20. The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  1. Pairing Words with Syntactic Frames: Syntax, Semantics, and Count-Mass Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, William D.; Healy, Alice F.; McDonnel, Samantha J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined English speakers' choices of count or mass compatible frames for nouns varying in imageability (concrete, abstract) and noun class (count, mass). Pairing preferences with equative ("much/many") and non-equative ("less/fewer") constructions were compared for groups of teenagers, young adults, and older adults. Deviations…

  2. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  3. Instanton Counting Through Non-abelian Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Martens, J

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the problem of calculating equivariant volumes of moduli-spaces of framed instantons. The motivation for this is given by instanton counting, a recent development in theoretical physics that gives a direct approach to the non-perturbative study of certain super-symmetric quantum field theories. We develop a strategy for calculating the integrals using a combination of several techniques in symplectic geometry and equivariant cohomology. Most importantly we use an equivariant version of non-abelian localization, applied to the ADHM-construction of the moduli-spaces. Furthermore, we reduce the problem to a compact setting by means of varying compactifications using symplectic cuts, recovering the original integral over a non-compact space as the limit of integrals over compact spaces. In contrast with previous applications, in our case the contribution at infinity introduced by these compactifications turns out to be of primordial importance. We illustrate this method by explicitly...

  4. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  5. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  6. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  7. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  8. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  9. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  10. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  11. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  12. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  13. Characterization of the count rate performance of modern gamma cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silosky, M.; Johnson, V.; Beasley, C.; Cheenu Kappadath, S.

    2013-01-01

    between the estimates of τ using the decay or dual source methods under identical experimental conditions (p = 0.13). Estimates of τ increased as a power-law function with decreasing ratio of counts in the photopeak to the total counts. Also, estimates of τ increased linearly as spectral effective energy decreased. No significant difference was observed between the dependences of τ on energy window definition or incident spectrum between the decay and dual source methods. Estimates of τ using the dual source method varied as a quadratic on the ratio of the single source to combined source activities and linearly with total activity. Conclusions: The CRP curves for three modern gamma camera models have been characterized, demonstrating unexpected behavior that necessitates the determination of both τ and maximum count rate to fully characterize the CRP curve. τ was estimated under a variety of experimental conditions, based on which guidelines for the performance of CRP testing in a clinical setting have been proposed. PMID:23464339

  14. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Chanier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

  15. Bouncing universes with varying constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, John D [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Kimberly, Dagny [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Magueijo, Joao [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-21

    We investigate the behaviour of exact closed bouncing Friedmann universes in theories with varying constants. We show that the simplest BSBM varying alpha theory leads to a bouncing universe. The value of alpha increases monotonically, remaining approximately constant during most of each cycle, but increasing significantly around each bounce. When dissipation is introduced we show that in each new cycle the universe expands for longer and to a larger size. We find a similar effect for closed bouncing universes in Brans-Dicke theory, where G also varies monotonically in time from cycle to cycle. Similar behaviour occurs also in varying speed of light theories.

  16. Bouncing Universes with Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Magueijo, J; Barrow, John D.; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of exact closed bouncing Friedmann universes in theories with varying constants. We show that the simplest BSBM varying-alpha theory leads to a bouncing universe. The value of alpha increases monotonically, remaining approximately constant during most of each cycle, but increasing significantly around each bounce. When dissipation is introduced we show that in each new cycle the universe expands for longer and to a larger size. We find a similar effect for closed bouncing universes in Brans-Dicke theory, where $G$ also varies monotonically in time from cycle to cycle. Similar behaviour occurs also in varying speed of light theories.

  17. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  18. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  19. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Erdős

    Full Text Available In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007, for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011 and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013. Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes, and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS for counting of all realizations.

  20. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  1. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  2. Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dennis; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international field campaign encouraging participants to go outside, look skyward after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe citizen science event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in astronomy. Star Count benefits from the current excitement in citizen science. The 2007 pilot effort included 15 nights for observations in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people from all countries. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the data from the of the 2007 campaign. We will discuss how the Star Count team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices based on this inaugural campaign, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  3. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  5. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. Varying c and Particle Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, L P; Pavón, D; Chimento, Luis P; Jakubi, Alejandro S; Pavon, Diego

    2001-01-01

    We explore what restrictions may impose the second law of thermodynamics on varying speed of light theories. We find that the attractor scenario solving the flatness problem is consistent with the generalized second law at late time.

  8. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-07

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  9. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  11. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  12. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  13. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  14. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: identifying extreme counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accelerometers are designed to measure plausible human activity, however extremely high count values (EHCV have been recorded in large-scale studies. Using population data, we develop methodological principles for establishing an EHCV threshold, propose a threshold to define EHCV in the ActiGraph GT1M, determine occurrences of EHCV in a large-scale study, identify device-specific error values, and investigate the influence of varying EHCV thresholds on daily vigorous PA (VPA. METHODS: We estimated quantiles to analyse the distribution of all accelerometer positive count values obtained from 9005 seven-year old children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. A threshold to identify EHCV was derived by differentiating the quantile function. Data were screened for device-specific error count values and EHCV, and a sensitivity analysis conducted to compare daily VPA estimates using three approaches to accounting for EHCV. RESULTS: Using our proposed threshold of ≥ 11,715 counts/minute to identify EHCV, we found that only 0.7% of all non-zero counts measured in MCS children were EHCV; in 99.7% of these children, EHCV comprised < 1% of total non-zero counts. Only 11 MCS children (0.12% of sample returned accelerometers that contained negative counts; out of 237 such values, 211 counts were equal to -32,768 in one child. The medians of daily minutes spent in VPA obtained without excluding EHCV, and when using a higher threshold (≥19,442 counts/minute were, respectively, 6.2% and 4.6% higher than when using our threshold (6.5 minutes; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Quality control processes should be undertaken during accelerometer fieldwork and prior to analysing data to identify monitors recording error values and EHCV. The proposed threshold will improve the validity of VPA estimates in children's studies using the ActiGraph GT1M by ensuring only plausible data are analysed. These methods can be applied to define appropriate EHCV

  15. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC.

  16. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting.

  17. The circulating platelet count is not dictated by the liver, but may be determined in part by the bone marrow : analyses from human liver and stem cell transplantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, T.; Pittau, G.; Leite, F. J. T.; De Boer, M. T.; Meijer, K.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Huls, G.; Te Boome, L. C. J.; Kuball, J.; Nowak, G.; Fan, S. T.; Azoulay, D.; Porte, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    . Background: The platelet count varies considerably between individuals, but within an individual the platelet count is remarkably stable over time. Mechanisms controlling the platelet count are not yet established. Objective: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the liver is importa

  18. The circulating platelet count is not dictated by the liver, but may be determined in part by the bone marrow: analyses from human liver and stem cell transplantations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, T.; Pittau, G.; Leite, F.J.; Boer, M.T. De; Meijer, K.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Huls, G.A.; Boome, L.C. te; Kuball, J.; Nowak, G.; Fan, S.T.; Azoulay, D.; Porte, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The platelet count varies considerably between individuals, but within an individual the platelet count is remarkably stable over time. Mechanisms controlling the platelet count are not yet established. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the liver is important

  19. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  20. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  1. Generalized Entropy Concentration for Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, Kostas N

    2016-01-01

    We consider the phenomenon of entropy concentration under linear constraints in a discrete setting, using the "balls and bins" paradigm, but without the assumption that the number of balls allocated to the bins is known. Therefore instead of \\ frequency vectors and ordinary entropy, we have count vectors with unknown sum, and a certain generalized entropy. We show that if the constraints bound the allowable sums, this suffices for concentration to occur even in this setting. The concentration can be either in terms of deviation from the maximum generalized entropy value, or in terms of the norm of the difference from the maximum generalized entropy vector. Without any asymptotic considerations, we quantify the concentration in terms of various parameters, notably a tolerance on the constraints which ensures that they are always satisfied by an integral vector. Generalized entropy maximization is not only compatible with ordinary MaxEnt, but can also be considered an extension of it, as it allows us to address...

  2. Les voix/voies de la carte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bénat-Tachot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La confection du padrón real par les experts de la Casa de la Contratación de Séville dans la première moitié du XVIe siècle, a été un enjeu majeur non seulement pour établir la nouvelle configuration globale du monde mais aussi pour légitimer les entreprises d’expansion des nations ibériques en affirmant la maîtrise de la navigation. Dans quelle mesure la rédaction des premières chroniques des Indes est-elle liée à cette activité cartographique d’état qui lui est contemporaine ? Les liens épistémologiques, rhétoriques et politiques qui lient ces deux productions seront étudiés à partir de la carte universelle de Diego de Ribeiro et de deux chroniques : celle de Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo et celle de Francisco López de Gómara.La confección del padrón real por los expertos de la Casa de la Contratación de Sevilla durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI, fue de mayor trascendencia no sólo por cartografiar la nueva configuración del mundo sino también porque legitimaba la empresa de expansión de las naciones ibéricas así como para afirmaba su dominio de la navegación. ¿ En qué medida se vincula la redacción de las primeras crónicas de Indias con esta actividad de estado cartográfica contemporánea ? Los vínculos epistemológicos, retóricos y políticos que unen estas dos producciones serán analizados a partir de la carta universal de Diego de Ribeiro y de las dos crónicas primitivas de Indias : la de Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y la de Francisco López de Gómara.

  3. Kuinka voi näytelmä?

    OpenAIRE

    Hannula, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on reflektoiva raportti keväällä 2013 Turun Kaupunginteatterissa alkaneesta prosessista. Tilataan näytelmä -niminen projekti piti sisällään keskustelutyöpajoja, joissa kartoitettiin näytelmäkirjallisuuden olemusta ja asemaa suomalaisessa kirjallisuudessa ja teatterissa sekä seurattiin kolmen Teatterikorkeakoulun dramaturgiopiskelijan kirjoitusprosessia. Työryhmän ydinkysymys oli: miten puhua (keskeneräisestä) näytelmästä? Projektin vetäjänä toim...

  4. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  5. Mass Varying Neutrinos in Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi-Torres, F; de Holanda, P C; Peres, O L G

    2010-01-01

    We study limits for the mass varying neutrino model, using constrains from supernova neutrinos placed by the r-process condition, $Y_e<0.5$. Also, we use this model in a supernova environment to study the regions of survival probability in the oscillation space parameter ($\\tan^2\\theta$ and $\\Delta m^2_0$), considering the channel $\

  6. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...... on return variance once we include market illiquidity as an economic variable in the model....

  7. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  8. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  9. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  10. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  11. Synchronization of networks with time-varying couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wen-lian; CHEN Tian-ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of our recent works on complete synchro-nization analyses of networks of the coupled dynamical systems with time-varying cou-plings. The main approach is composed of algebraic graph theory and dynamic system method. More precisely, the Hajnal diameter of matrix sequence plays a key role in in-vestigating synchronization dynamics and the joint graph across time periods possessing spanning tree is a doorsill for time-varying topologies to reach synchronization. These techniques with proper modification count for diverse models of networks of the cou-pled systems, including discrete-time and continuous-time models, linear and nonlinear models, deterministic and stochastic time-variations. Alternatively, transverse stability analysis of general time-varying dynamic systems can be employed for synchronization study as a special case and proved to be equivalent to Hajnal diameter.

  12. Nano-optomechanical measurement in the photon counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    de Lépinay, Laure Mercier; Rohr, Sven; Gloppe, Arnaud; Kuhn, Aurélien; Verlot, Pierre; Dupont-Ferrier, Eva; Besga, Benjamin; Arcizet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Optically measuring in the photon counting regime is a recurrent challenge in modern physics and a guarantee to develop weakly invasive probes. Here we investigate this idea on a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanowire hybridized to a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect. The vibrations of the nanoresonator grant a spatial degree of freedom to the quantum emitter and the photon emission event can now vary in space and time. We investigate how the nanomotion is encoded on the detected photon statistics and explore their spatio-temporal correlation properties. This allows a quantitative measurement of the vibrations of the nanomechanical oscillator at unprecedentedly low light intensities in the photon counting regime when less than one photon is detected per oscillation period, where standard detectors are dark-noise-limited. These results have implications for probing weakly interacting nanoresonators, for low temperature experiments and for investigating single moving markers.

  13. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  14. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  15. Improvement of Delayed Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>A new delayed neutron counting system, which is good at qualitative and quantitative analysis of fissionable nuclide mixture, will be established at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). We use 3 He proportional counters to count the delayed neutrons after the samples irradiated by reactor neutrons, including U3O8-stantard, uranium ore and enriched uranium. Then, the counting efficiency and limit of this system were calculated.

  16. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  17. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  18. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  19. Linearized Bekenstein Varying Alpha Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Oliveira, J C

    2004-01-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying $\\alpha$ models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and in particular clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that ``the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo''.

  20. Linearized Bekenstein varying α models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2004-10-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying α models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and, in particular, clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that “the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo.”

  1. Time-varying cosmological term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ϕ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(ϕ). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  2. Counting losses due to saturation effects of scintillation counters at high count rates

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K

    1999-01-01

    The counting statistics of a scintillation counter, with a preamplifier saturated by an overloading input, are investigated. First, the formulae for the variance and the mean number of counts, accumulated within a given gating time, are derived by considering counting-loss effects originating from the saturation and a finite resolving time of the electronic circuit. Numerical examples based on the formulae indicate that the saturation makes a positive contribution to the variance-to-mean ratio and that the contribution increases with count rate. Next the ratios are measured under high count rates when the preamplifier saturation can be observed. By fitting the present formula to the measured data, the counting-loss parameters can be evaluated. Corrections based on the parameters are made for various count rates measured in a nuclear reactor. As a result of the corrections, the linearity between count rate and reactor power can be restored.

  3. Genetic Regulatory Networks that count to 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Sneppen, K.

    2013-01-01

    that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found...

  4. Correcting Finger Counting to Snellen Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, Rustum; Hwang, Tiffany Jean; Chen, Alexander Francis; Pouw, Andrew; Tian, Jack J; Chu, Edward R; Wang, Michelle Y; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an online tool with which to convert and thus quantify count finger measurements of visual acuity into Snellen equivalents. It is hoped that this tool allows for the re-interpretation of retrospectively collected data that provide visual acuity in terms of qualitative count finger measurements.

  5. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  6. It Is Time to Count Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henscheid, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    As the modern learning community movement turns 30, it is time to determine just how many, and what type, of these programs exist at America's colleges and universities. This article first offers a rationale for counting learning communities followed by a description of how disparate counts and unclear definitions hamper efforts to embed these…

  7. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  8. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  11. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  12. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  13. Varying constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. It is thus of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We thus detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, Solar system observations, meteorites dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describ...

  14. Exploration of Periodically Varying Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Flocchini, Paola; Santoro, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    We study the computability and complexity of the exploration problem in a class of highly dynamic graphs: periodically varying (PV) graphs, where the edges exist only at some (unknown) times defined by the periodic movements of carriers. These graphs naturally model highly dynamic infrastructure-less networks such as public transports with fixed timetables, low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite systems, security guards' tours, etc. We establish necessary conditions for the problem to be solved. We also derive lower bounds on the amount of time required in general, as well as for the PV graphs defined by restricted classes of carriers movements: simple routes, and circular routes. We then prove that the limitations on computability and complexity we have established are indeed tight. In fact we prove that all necessary conditions are also sufficient and all lower bounds on costs are tight. We do so constructively presenting two worst case optimal solution algorithms, one for anonymous systems, and one for those w...

  15. Time-Varying Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith

    2003-04-01

    Recent data from quasar absorption systems can be interpreted as arising from a time variation in the fine-structure constant. However, there are numerous cosmological, astro-physical, and terrestrial bounds on any such variation. These includes bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (from the ^4He abundance), the Oklo reactor (from the resonant neutron capture cross-section of Sm), and from meteoretic lifetimes of heavy radioactive isotopes. The bounds on the variation of the fine-structure constant are significantly strengthened in models where all gauge and Yukawa couplings vary in a dependent manner, as would be expected in unified theories. Models which are consistent with all data are severly challenged when Equivalence Principle constraints are imposed.

  16. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  17. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language. Keywords: English Language, Nouns, Count, Non-count, Syntactic Differences, Proper Nouns

  18. Count response model for the CMB spots

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The statistics of the curvature quanta generated during a stage of inflationary expansion is used to derive a count response model for the large-scale phonons determining, in the concordance lore, the warmer and the cooler spots of the large-scale temperature inhomogeneities. The multiplicity distributions for the counting statistics are shown to be generically overdispersed in comparison with conventional Poissonian regressions. The generalized count response model deduced hereunder accommodates an excess of correlations in the regime of high multiplicities and prompts dedicated analyses with forthcoming data collected by instruments of high angular resolution and high sensitivity to temperature variations per pixel.

  19. The theory and practice of scintillation counting

    CERN Document Server

    Birks, John Bettely

    1964-01-01

    The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting is a comprehensive account of the theory and practice of scintillation counting. This text covers the study of the scintillation process, which is concerned with the interactions of radiation and matter; the design of the scintillation counter; and the wide range of applications of scintillation counters in pure and applied science. The book is easy to read despite the complex nature of the subject it attempts to discuss. It is organized such that the first five chapters illustrate the fundamental concepts of scintillation counting. Chapters 6

  20. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  1. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  2. Mourning Dove Call-count Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...

  3. Furbearer track count index testing and development

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Indices of abundance can be useful in monitoring furbearer populations where actual counts of individual animals are difficult. I sampled marten and snowshoe hare...

  4. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like other ...

  5. VSRR Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...

  6. Uranium Determination by Delayed Neutron Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Uranium is a very important resource in nuclear industry, especially in the exploiture of nuclear energy. Determination of uranium using delayed neutron counting (DNC) is simple, non-destructive, and

  7. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  8. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  9. 2012 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  10. 2013 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2013 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  11. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  12. The efficiency variation method for 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting by ink-jet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Yamada, T; Hata, T; Moriyama, K; Yunoki, A; Hino, Y

    2008-01-01

    In order to vary the counting efficiencies in the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence extrapolation technique, a radioactive source was coated directly with varying amounts of an electrical conducting pigment using an ink-jet printer. This method can be used to efficiently prepare the multiple sources needed to generate efficiency extrapolation curves, and was successfully applied to the standardization of a (54)Mn source.

  13. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  14. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  15. Correlations among somatic cell count, hygienic safety and quality of milk of primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamov Nikola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined a total of 518 milk samples on the following parameters: somatic cell count (SCC, total bacteria count (CFU and IBC, fat, protein, lactose and dry matter non fat (DMNF contents, which were obtained from primiparous cows divided in three groups depending on the stage of lactation: the first group included the primiparous cows that were 10-100 days in lactation, the second group 101-200 days in lactation and the third group 201 and more days in lactation. The somatic cell count and the total bacterial count had highest values for the first group, intermediate for the third group, and lowest for the second group with these differences being statistically significant. Milk component contents varied among groups differently from previous two parameters but their differences were not significant in neither case. The somatic cell count of all three groups was positively and significantly correlated to the bacterial counts while these two parameters were generally in negative correlation with the milk component contents. No matter if the parameters that define the milk hygienic safety were positively or negatively correlated with the milk component contents, the correlation coefficients were not significant in neither case, which implies that significant reduction of milk components can be expected at somatic cell counts higher than the maximal obtained in this research of 236.000 SCC/ml.

  16. The Complexity of Approximately Counting Stable Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Chebolu, Prasad; Martin, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the complexity of approximately counting stable matchings in the $k$-attribute model, where the preference lists are determined by dot products of "preference vectors" with "attribute vectors", or by Euclidean distances between "preference points" and "attribute points". Irving and Leather proved that counting the number of stable matchings in the general case is $#P$-complete. Counting the number of stable matchings is reducible to counting the number of downsets in a (related) partial order and is interreducible, in an approximation-preserving sense, to a class of problems that includes counting the number of independent sets in a bipartite graph ($#BIS$). It is conjectured that no FPRAS exists for this class of problems. We show this approximation-preserving interreducibilty remains even in the restricted $k$-attribute setting when $k \\geq 3$ (dot products) or $k \\geq 2$ (Euclidean distances). Finally, we show it is easy to count the number of stable matchings in the 1-attribute dot-product ...

  17. Summative Self-Assessment in Higher Education: Implications of Its Counting towards the Final Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeiro, Ricardo A.; Gomez-Vallecillo, Jorge L.; Romero, Antonio F.; Pelegrina, Manuel; Wallace, Agustin; Emberley, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Our study aims at assessing the validity of summative criteria-referenced self-assessment in higher education, and in particular, if that validity varies when the professor counts self-assessment toward the final mark. Method: One hundred and twenty-two first year students from two groups in Teacher Education at the Universidad de…

  18. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  19. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor (r2 values ranged from ATP method was not sufficiently sensitive to measure counts below approximately 10(4) CFU/mL.

  20. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    1967-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson - Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat covers the significant contributions of Count Rumford in the fields of physics. Count Rumford was born with the name Benjamin Thompson on March 23, 1753, in Woburn, Massachusetts. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 11 chapters, and begins with a presentation of Benjamin Thompson's biography and his interest in physics, particularly as an advocate of an """"anti-caloric"""" theory of heat. The subsequent chapters are devoted to his many discoveries that profoundly affected the physical thought

  1. Recommendations for monitoring avian populations with point counts: a case study in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the northern hemisphere, bird counts have been fundamental in gathering data to understand population trends. Due to the seasonality of the northern hemisphere, counts take place during two clearly defined moments in time: the breeding season (resident birds and winter (after migration. Depending on location, Neotropical birds may breed at any time of year, may or may not migrate, and those patterns are not necessarily synchronous among species. Also in contrast to the northern hemisphere, population trends and the impact of rapid urbanization and deforestation are unknown and unmonitored. Throughout one year, we used point counts to better understand temporal patterns of bird species richness and relative abundance in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, to examine how to implement similar bird counts in tropical America. We counted birds twice each day on 10 point transects (20 points day‑1, separated by 200 m, with a 100 m limited detection radius in a semideciduous tropical forest. Both species richness and bird abundance were greater in the morning, but accumulation curves suggest that longer-duration afternoon counts would reach the same total species as in morning counts. Species richness and bird abundance did not vary seasonally and unique species were counted every month; relatively few species (20% were present in all months. Most (84% known forest species in the area were encountered. We suggest that point counts can work here as they do in the northern hemisphere. We recommend that transects include at least 20 points and that the simplest timing of bird counts would also be seasonal, using timing of migration of austral migrants (and six months later to coordinate counts. We propose that bird counts in Brazil, and elsewhere in Latin America, would provide data to help understand population trends, but would require greater effort than in temperate latitudes due to greater species richness and different dynamics of

  2. The Acquisition of Counting Skill in Preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Çakır

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The aim of this study was to find out more information on the acquisition of counting skill in preschool children. For this purpose, children’s judgment of acceptability of a counting activity was used to investigate whether children’s counting skills are governed by their implicit knowledge of a number of counting principles. Data showed that children easily recognized the violation of one or more counting principles in a one’s application of counting principles in sequences of English and Turkish count words, implying that children have the understanding of counting principles. The sessions on counting in Turkish make it very likely that the children were responding to violations of rules rather than merely violation of well-learning of count words. These results give additional support to the assumption that there are innate counting principles that rule young children’s counting. Keywords: counting principles, error-detection task, mathematical development. Özet- Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Sayma İlkeleri. Bu çalışmada çocukların bir sayma etkinliğinin geçerli olup olmadığı hakkındaki yargıları kullanılarak, sayma becerisinin doğuştan sahip olunan bir dizi örtük ilkeler tarafından yönlendirilip yönlendirilmediği incelenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, bir grup okul öncesi çocuklardan videodan izledikleri bir aktör çocuğun hem anadilinde (İngilizce hem de bilmedikleri bir yabancı dilde (Türkçe yaptığı farklı hatalar içeren sayma serilerinin doğru veya yanlış olup olmadığı belirtmesi istenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar çocukların sayma etkinliklerine rehberlik eden doğuştan getirdikleri örtük “sayma ilkelerine” sahip olduklarına ilişkin görüşleri destekler yönündedir. Örneğin, gerek İngilizce gerekse Türkçe sayma serilerinde, “standart (doğru sayma” serisi diğer tüm serilere göre anlamlı ölçüde “doğru” bir sayma olarak değerlendirilirken, T

  3. It counts who counts: an experimental evaluation of the importance of observer effects on spotlight count estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Jessen, Lonnie

    2013-01-01

    Spotlight surveys conducted by volunteers is a promising method to assess the abundance of nocturnally active mammals, but estimates are subject to bias if different observer groups differ in their ability to detect animals in the dark. We quantified the variation amongst volunteer spotlight...... with non-hunters and decreased as function of age but were independent of sex or educational background. If observer-specific detection probabilities were applied to real counting routes, point count estimates from inexperienced observers without a hunting background would only be 43 % (95 % CI, 39...

  4. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  5. CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Nygård, E

    2008-01-01

    This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e−, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

  6. Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolny, E; Swift, S; Vanholsbeeck, F

    2013-07-21

    Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations.

  7. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  8. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  9. Counting dyons in N = 4 string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1997-02-01

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N = 4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type 11 five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states.

  10. Counting dyons in N=4 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N=4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type II five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states.

  11. Deep Source-Counting at 3 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Scott, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    We describe an analysis of 3-GHz confusion-limited data from the Karl J. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We show that with minimal model assumptions, P(D), Bayesian and Markov-Chain Mone-Carlo (MCMC) methods can define the source count to levels some 10 times fainter than the conventional confusion limit. Our verification process includes a full realistic simulation that considers known information on source angular extent and clustering. It appears that careful analysis of the statistical properties of an image is more effective than counting individual objects.

  12. The Borda count and agenda manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dummett

    1998-01-01

    A standard objection to the Borda count, as an actual voting procedure, is that it is subject to agenda manipulation. The classical example is the introduction, in order to favour a candidate or option y, of a new option z ranked on every voter's preference scale immediately below y; y may as a result obtain the highest Borda count, although, if z had not been introduced, a different option would have done so. Strategic use of this device is not greatly to be feared, but it does point to a de...

  13. Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard Theodore

    In this thesis, ways to improve the power conversion of rotating generators at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications were investigated. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high effective pole count is a hybrid "stepper" machine. However, the large self inductance of these machines decreases their power factor and hence the maximum power that can be delivered to a load. This effect can be cancelled by the addition of capacitors in series with the stepper windings. A circuit was designed and implemented to automatically vary the series capacitance over the entire speed range investigated. The addition of the series capacitors improved the power output of the stepper machine by up to 700%. At low rotor speeds, with the addition of series capacitance, the power output of the hybrid "stepper" was more than 200% that of a similarly sized PMDC brushed motor. Finally, in this thesis a hybrid lumped parameter / finite element model was used to investigate the impact of number, shape and size of the rotor and stator teeth on machine performance. A typical off-the-shelf hybrid stepper machine has significant cogging torque by design. This cogging torque is a major problem in most small energy harvesting applications. In this thesis it was shown that the cogging and ripple torque can be dramatically reduced. These findings confirm that high-pole-count topologies, and specifically the hybrid stepper configuration, are an attractive choice for energy harvesting applications.

  14. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Gary; Monis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow incorporation into standards. We compared the performance of digital counting technology (ProtoCOL3) against manual counting using criteria defined in internationally recognized standard methods. Digital colony counting provided a robust, standardized system suitable for adoption in a commercial testing environment. The digital technology has several advantages:•Improved measurement of uncertainty by using a standard and consistent counting methodology with less operator error.•Efficiency for labour and time (reduced cost).•Elimination of manual entry of data onto LIMS.•Faster result reporting to customers.

  15. Tailoring point counts for inference about avian density: dealing with nondetection and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Castellón, Traci D.; Martin, Julien; Garcia, Jay O.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Point counts are commonly used for bird surveys, but interpretation is ambiguous unless there is an accounting for the imperfect detection of individuals. We show how repeated point counts, supplemented by observation distances, can account for two aspects of the counting process: (1) detection of birds conditional on being available for observation and (2) the availability of birds for detection given presence. We propose a hierarchical model that permits the radius in which birds are available for detection to vary with forest stand age (or other relevant habitat features), so that the number of birds available at each location is described by a Poisson-gamma mixture. Conditional on availability, the number of birds detected at each location is modeled by a beta-binomial distribution. We fit this model to repeated point count data of Florida scrub-jays and found evidence that the area in which birds were available for detection decreased with increasing stand age. Estimated density was 0.083 (95%CI: 0.060–0.113) scrub-jays/ha. Point counts of birds have a number of appealing features. Based on our findings, however, an accounting for both components of the counting process may be necessary to ensure that abundance estimates are comparable across time and space. Our approach could easily be adapted to other species and habitats.

  16. Development of liquid scintillation based 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system and demonstration of its performance by standardization of ⁶⁰Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Tomar, B S

    2013-02-01

    A single-vial, single-PMT 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system has been developed at the Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC. It has advantages of simple sample preparation, higher counting efficiency and the absence of self absorption over the conventional proportional counter based 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by standardizing a (60)Co solution using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and CIEMAT/NIST method and comparing the results obtained by each method. The detection efficiency of liquid scintillation counter of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system was varied by color quenching, by chemical quenching and by varying the bias voltage applied to the LSC PMT. For the proportional counter based 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system the detection efficiency was varied by source self absorption. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and the CIEMAT/NIST method are comparable within the uncertainty limits.

  17. Submucosa 1.0 x 0.1 mm in size is sufficient to count inflammatory cell numbers in human airway biopsy specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hacken, NHT; Aleva, RM; Oosterhoff, Y; Smith, M; Kraan, J; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    1998-01-01

    Counting of inflammatory cells in human airway biopsy specimens is difficult because immunopositive cells are present in varying density in lung tissue. The goal of our study was to assess the minimal amount of tissue that is necessary for the counting of constant cell numbers. In bronchial biopsy s

  18. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2017-06-01

    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  19. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Frees, E.W.; Valdez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  20. Asynchronous ASCII Event Count Status Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    IRIG STANDARD 215-12 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP ASYNCHRONOUS ASCII EVENT COUNT STATUS CODES...Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)-formatted EC status transfer which can be...circuits and Ethernet networks. Provides systems engineers and equipment vendors with an Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American

  1. Approximately Counting Embeddings into Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Furer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Let H be a graph, and let C(H,G) be the number of (subgraph isomorphic) copies of H contained in a graph G. We investigate the fundamental problem of estimating C(H,G). Previous results cover only a few specific instances of this general problem, for example, the case when H has degree at most one (monomer-dimer problem). In this paper, we present the first general subcase of the subgraph isomorphism counting problem which is almost always efficiently approximable. The results rely on a new graph decomposition technique. Informally, the decomposition is a labeling of the vertices generating a sequence of bipartite graphs. The decomposition permits us to break the problem of counting embeddings of large subgraphs into that of counting embeddings of small subgraphs. Using this method, we present a simple randomized algorithm for the counting problem. For all decomposable graphs H and all graphs G, the algorithm is an unbiased estimator. Furthermore, for all graphs H having a decomposition where each of the bipa...

  2. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  3. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Frees, E.W.; Valdez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  4. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  5. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  6. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  7. Renormalization of singular potentials and power counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, B.; van Koick, U.; van Kolck, U.

    2008-01-01

    We use a toy model to illustrate how to build effective theories for singular potentials. We consider a central attractive 1/r(2) potential perturbed by a 1/r(4) correction. The power-counting rule, an important ingredient of effective theory, is established by seeking the minimum set of short-range

  8. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  9. Single Entity Electrochemistry Progresses to Cell Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J Justin

    2016-10-10

    Red blood cells have been counted in an electrochemical collision experiment recently described by Compton and co-workers. As a cell collides with the electrode it lyses and a current is observed from the reduction of oxygen from within the cell.

  10. Stalking the count. Dracula, Fandom and Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLarge numbers of tourists travel to Transylvania every year, looking for traces of Count Dracula. This article investigates why people feel the need to connect fictional stories, such as Dracula, with identifiable physical locations, and why they subsequently want to visit these

  11. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  12. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...

  13. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  14. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  15. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...

  16. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  17. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2010-01-01

    counting rule to perform the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-n and n-out-of-n) and the optimum counting rule, under different correlation conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the data fusion schemes, based on counting...

  18. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  19. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  20. To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

    2013-04-01

    When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes.

  1. Evaluation of serum ferritin levels and blood counts in apparently normal individuals in Nnewi, South-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okocha, Chide Emmanuel; Aneke, Chinawaeze John; Ibeh, Nancy; Onah, Christian Ejike; Okafor, Ndidiamaka

    2015-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels as well as blood counts are variously affected in diverse disease conditions, particularly those characterized by inflammation. To evaluate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and blood counts in apparently healthy Nigerian subjects. Five (5ml) of venous blood was collected for full blood count, malaria parasite, serum ferritin and C- reactive protein (CRP) estimation from 88 apparently healthy subjects. Those positive for malaria parasite (on blood film examination) or had elevated serum CRP were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16; (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL). Associations were tested between parameters using Pearson's correlation, set at a coefficient of p serum ferritin level were 0.37L/L, 7.10 x 10(9)/L, 246.39 x 10(9)/L and 18.35 ng/ml, respectively. Age of subjects varied significantly with serum ferritin, platelet count and TWBC (p > 0.05). The PCV, platelet count and TWBC varied significantly across the different age groups of the study population (p Serum ferritin level in our apparently healthy subjects is lower than previously reported but did not vary significantly with blood counts.

  2. A study of cellular counting to determine minimum thresholds for adequacy for liquid-based cervical cytology using a survey and counting protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Henry C; Gittins, Matthew; Desai, Mina; Smith, John H F; Cook, Gary; Roberts, Chris; Turnbull, Lesley

    2015-03-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical screening would benefit from laboratory practice guidelines that define specimen adequacy for reporting of slides. The evidence base required to define cell adequacy should incorporate both ThinPrep™ (TP; Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) and SurePath™ (SP; BD Diagnostics, Burlington, NC, USA), the two LBC systems used in the UK cervical screening programmes. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) current practice for reporting LBC in England, Wales and Scotland, (2) a reproducible method for cell counting, (3) the cellularity of slides classified as inadequate, negative or abnormal and (4) the impact of varying cellularity on the likelihood of detecting cytological abnormalities. The study involved four separate arms to pursue each of the four objectives. (1) A questionnaire survey of laboratories was conducted. (2) A standard counting protocol was developed and used by three experienced cytopathologists to determine a reliable and reproducible cell counting method. (3) Slide sets which included a range of cytological abnormalities were each sent to three laboratories for cell counting to study the correlation between cell counts and reported cytological outcomes. (4) Dilution of LBC samples by fluid only (unmixed) or by dilution with a sample containing normal cells (mixed) was performed to study the impact on reporting of reducing either the total cell count or the relative proportion of abnormal to normal cells. The study was conducted within the cervical screening programmes in England, Wales and Scotland, using routinely obtained cervical screening samples, and in 56 participating NHS cervical cytology laboratories. The study involved only routinely obtained cervical screening samples. There was no clinical intervention. The main outcome measures were (1) reliability of counting method, (2) correlation of reported cytology grades with cellularity and (3) levels of detection of abnormal cells in

  3. SELECTION : Les variétés hybrides sont-elles justifiées ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallais André

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Berlan, en 1999, a critiqué le choix de la voie hybride chez le maïs [1]. Cependant, il ne dit pas ce qu’il aurait fallu faire comme type de variétés pour avoir le même progrès économique dans la culture du maïs. Chez cette espèce, le clonage étant exclu, si ce n’est pas la voie lignée, c’est la voie population. Nous allons donc comparer ces deux voies à la voie hybride. Pour cela, nous allons d’abord nous placer dans le cas où les effets des gènes sont tels qu’ils permettent, en théorie, d’obtenir des lignées aussi bonnes que les hybrides, c’est-à-dire qu’il n’y a pas d’avantage de l’état hétérozygote à un locus (encadré 1. Il est en effet évident que s’il y a des mécanismes génétiques qui font que l’état hétérozygote à un locus est meilleur que l’état homozygote (on dit qu’il y a superdominance, alors il faudra développer des hybrides. Nous montrerons que, même en dehors de cette situation, la voie hybride est la seule qui puisse apporter le maximum de rendement et de marge brute à l’hectare, et cela pendant un temps assez long (plus d’un siècle. Nous considérerons le cas de superdominance, ou de situations apparentées, dans une seconde étape.

  4. Do Mendeley reader counts reflect the scholarly impact of conference papers? An investigation of Computer Science and Engineering fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aduku, K.J.; Thelwall, M.; Kousha, K.

    2016-07-01

    Counts of Mendeley readers may give useful evidence about the impact of research. Although several studies have indicated that there are significant positive correlations between counts of Mendeley readers and citation counts for journal articles, it is not known how the pattern of association may vary between journal articles and conference papers. To fill this gap, Mendeley readership data and Scopus citation counts were extracted for both journal articles and conference papers published in 2011 in four fields for which conferences are important; Computer Science Applications, Computer Software, Building & Construction Engineering and Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering. Mendeley readership counts were found to correlate moderately with citation counts for both journal articles and conference papers in Computer Science Applications and Computer Software. Nevertheless, the correlations were much lower between Mendeley readers and citation counts for conference papers than for journal articles in Building & Construction Engineering and Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering. Hence, there seems to be disciplinary differences in the usefulness of Mendeley readership counts as impact indicators for conference papers, even between fields for which conferences are important. (Author)

  5. The use of the point count method for bird survey in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele H. Volpato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The point count method has been widely used in tropical forest for sampling bird communities. In the present study, we investigated if data on richness and abundance acquired using the point count method are different comparing spring/summer (breeding season and fall/winter (non-breeding season in three types of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve sites were sampled seasonally during one year. In general we recorded more species and individuals during the breeding seasons. However, bird communities vary seasonally among the forest types and functional groups. We demonstrate that the use of point counts in tropical forest should be adjusted considering the differences in forest types and feeding guilds.

  6. GPU Generation of Large Varied Animated Crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Rudomin; Benjamín Hernández; Oriam de Gyves; Leonel Toledo; Ivan Rivalcoba; Sergio Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    ..We discuss several steps in the process of simulating and visualizing large and varied crowds in real time for consumer-level computers and graphic cards (GPUs). Animating varied crowds using a diversity of models and animations (assets) is complex and costly. One has to use models that are expensive if bought, take a long time to model, and consume too much memory and computing resources. We discuss methods for simulating, generating, animating and rendering crowds of varied aspect and a d...

  7. A new varied-time photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Ma, Ji; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin; Yuan, Hong-chun; Li, Heng-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional varied-time photonic crystals, i.e., the refractive indices of media $A$ and $B$ are the time functions. We consider the varied-time photonic crystals of refractive indices period variation and calculate the transmissivity and electronic field distribution with and without defect layer, which are different from the conventional photonic crystals, which transmissivity and electronic field distribution are static, but the varied-time...

  8. Inflationary Phase with Time Varying Fundamental Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2002-01-01

    Following Barrow, and Barrow and collaborators, we find a cosmological JBD model, with varying speed of light and varying fine structure constant, where the deceleration parameter is -1,causing acceleration of the Universe.Indeed, we have an exponential inflationary phase. Plancks time, energy, length,etc.,might have had different numerical values in the past, than those available in the litterature, due to the varying values for speed of light, and gravitational constant.

  9. A new varied-time photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional varied-time photonic crystals, i.e., the refractive indices of media $A$ and $B$ are the time functions. We consider the varied-time photonic crystals of refractive indices period variation and calculate the transmissivity and electronic field distribution with and without defect layer, which are different from the conventional photonic crystals, which transmissivity and electronic field distribution are static, but the varied-time...

  10. Counting dyons in N=4 string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    1997-01-27

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N=4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type II five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states. (orig.).

  11. Efficient Prime Counting and the Chebyshev Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function where is the logarithm integral and the number of primes up to is well known to be positive up to the (very large Skewes' number. Likewise, according to Robin's work, the functions and , where and are Chebyshev summatory functions, are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH holds. One introduces the jump function at primes and one investigates , , and . In particular, , and for . Besides, for any odd , an infinite set of the so-called Chebyshev primes. In the context of RH, we introduce the so-called Riemann primes as champions of the function (or of the function . Finally, we find a good prime counting function , that is found to be much better than the standard Riemann prime counting function.

  12. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Suzuki, R; Tokoku, C; Uchimoto, Y K; Yoshikawa, T; Akiyama, M; Ichikawa, T; Ouchi, M; Omata, K; Tanaka, I; Nishimura, T; Yamada, T; Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-01-01

    We use very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We have observed a 4x7 arcmin^2 field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), and our data reach J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5sigma, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J-K>2.3 is 2.35+-0.31 arcmin^-2 at K22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 222 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of low-mass galaxies are blue while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  13. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  14. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Brigham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA in every discipline or for every student. With funding from several U.S. philanthropic organizations, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL is launching Learning Counts, a national online service that will offer students a range of opportunities to have their learning evaluated for college credit. This online service will expand the capacity of institutions offering PLA to students and provide an efficient and scalable delivery mechanism for the awarding of credit through PLA.

  15. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  16. Counting and Enumeration Problems with Bounded Treewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Reinhard; Rümmele, Stefan; Woltran, Stefan

    By Courcelle's Theorem we know that any property of finite structures definable in monadic second-order logic (MSO) becomes tractable over structures with bounded treewidth. This result was extended to counting problems by Arnborg et al. and to enumeration problems by Flum et al. Despite the undisputed importance of these results for proving fixed-parameter tractability, they do not directly yield implementable algorithms. Recently, Gottlob et al. presented a new approach using monadic datalog to close the gap between theoretical tractability and practical computability for MSO-definable decision problems. In the current work we show how counting and enumeration problems can be tackled by an appropriate extension of the datalog approach.

  17. Pharmacy Automation-Pill Counting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations

  18. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  19. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  20. Refined curve counting on complex surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Göttsche, Lothar; Shende, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We define refined invariants which "count" nodal curves in sufficiently ample linear systems on surfaces, conjecture that their generating function is multiplicative, and conjecture explicit formulas in the case of K3 and abelian surfaces. We also give a refinement of the Caporaso-Harris recursion, and conjecture that it produces the same invariants in the sufficiently ample setting. The refined recursion specializes at y = -1 to the Itenberg-Kharlamov-Shustin recursion for Welschinger invari...

  1. Positive motivic measures are counting measures

    CERN Document Server

    Ellenberg, Jordan S

    2009-01-01

    Let K be a field. A positive motivic measure on the Grothendieck ring K_0(Var_K) is a homomorphism from K_0(Var_K) to the real numbers assigning a nonnegative value to every variety. In this note we show that the only positive motivic measures are the counting measures: measures on K_0(Var_{F_q}) which send a variety to its number of rational points over some fixed finite extension of F_q.

  2. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Brigham; Rebecca Klein-Collins

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA) in every discipline or for every student...

  3. Modeling Systematic Change in Stopover Duration Does Not Improve Bias in Trends Estimated from Migration Counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L Crewe

    Full Text Available The use of counts of unmarked migrating animals to monitor long term population trends assumes independence of daily counts and a constant rate of detection. However, migratory stopovers often last days or weeks, violating the assumption of count independence. Further, a systematic change in stopover duration will result in a change in the probability of detecting individuals once, but also in the probability of detecting individuals on more than one sampling occasion. We tested how variation in stopover duration influenced accuracy and precision of population trends by simulating migration count data with known constant rate of population change and by allowing daily probability of survival (an index of stopover duration to remain constant, or to vary randomly, cyclically, or increase linearly over time by various levels. Using simulated datasets with a systematic increase in stopover duration, we also tested whether any resulting bias in population trend could be reduced by modeling the underlying source of variation in detection, or by subsampling data to every three or five days to reduce the incidence of recounting. Mean bias in population trend did not differ significantly from zero when stopover duration remained constant or varied randomly over time, but bias and the detection of false trends increased significantly with a systematic increase in stopover duration. Importantly, an increase in stopover duration over time resulted in a compounding effect on counts due to the increased probability of detection and of recounting on subsequent sampling occasions. Under this scenario, bias in population trend could not be modeled using a covariate for stopover duration alone. Rather, to improve inference drawn about long term population change using counts of unmarked migrants, analyses must include a covariate for stopover duration, as well as incorporate sampling modifications (e.g., subsampling to reduce the probability that individuals will

  4. Decreasing annual nest counts in a globally important loggerhead sea turtle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherington, Blair; Kubilis, Paul; Brost, Beth; Meylan, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests on sand beaches, has both oceanic and neritic life stages, and migrates internationally. We analyzed an 18-year time series of Index Nesting Beach Survey (Index) nest-count data to describe spatial and temporal trends in loggerhead nesting on Florida (USA) beaches. The Index data were highly resolved: 368 fixed zones (mean length 0.88 km) were surveyed daily during annual 109-day survey seasons. Spatial and seasonal coverage averaged 69% of estimated total nesting by loggerheads in the state. We carried out trend analyses on both annual survey-region nest-count totals (N = 18) and annual zone-level nest densities (N = 18 x 368 = 6624). In both analyses, negative binomial regression models were used to fit restricted cubic spline curves to aggregated nest counts. Between 1989 and 2006, loggerhead nest counts on Florida Index beaches increased and then declined, with a net decrease over the 18-year period. This pattern was evident in both a trend model of annual survey-region nest-count totals and a mixed-effect, "single-region" trend model of annual zone-level nest densities that took into account both spatial and temporal correlation between counts. We also saw this pattern in a zone-level model that allowed trend line shapes to vary between six coastal subregions. Annual mean zone-level nest density declined significantly (-28%; 95% CI: -34% to -21%) between 1989 and 2006 and declined steeply (-43%; 95% CI: -48% to -39%) during 1998-2006. Rates of change in annual mean nest density varied more between coastal subregions during the "mostly increasing" period prior to 1998 than during the "steeply declining" period after 1998. The excellent fits (observed vs. expected count R2 > 0.91) of the mixed-effect zone-level models confirmed the presence of strong, positive, within-zone autocorrelation (R > 0.93) between annual counts, indicating a remarkable year-to-year consistency in the longshore spatial distribution of

  5. Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

  6. Passive hand movements disrupt adults’ counting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eImbo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we experimentally tested the role of hand motor circuits in simple-arithmetic strategies. Educated adults solved simple additions (e.g., 8+3 or simple subtractions (e.g., 11–3 while they were required to retrieve the answer from long-term memory (e.g., knowing that 8+3 = 11, to transform the problem by making an intermediate step (e.g., 8+3 = 8+2+1 = 10+1 = 11 or to count one-by-one (e.g., 8+3 = 8…9…10…11. During the process of solving the arithmetic problems, the experimenter did or did not move the participants’ hand on a 4-point matrix. The results show that passive hand movements disrupted the counting strategy while leaving the other strategies unaffected. This pattern of results is in agreement with a procedural account, showing that the involvement of hand motor circuits in adults’ mathematical abilities is reminiscent of finger counting during childhood.

  7. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  8. FIRBACK Source Counts and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Dole, H; Lagache, G; Puget, J L; Aussel, H; Bouchet, F R; Ciliegi, P; Clements, D L; Césarsky, C J; Désert, F X; Elbaz, D; Franceschini, A; Guiderdoni, B; Harwit, M; Laureijs, R J; Lemke, D; McMahon, R; Moorwood, A F M; Oliver, S; Reach, W T; Rowan-Robinson, M; Stickel, M; Dole, Herve; Gispert, Richard; Lagache, Guilaine; Puget, Jean-Loup

    2000-01-01

    FIRBACK is a one of the deepest surveys performed at 170 microns with ISOPHOTonboard ISO, and is aimed at the study of cosmic far infrared backgroundsources. About 300 galaxies are detected in an area of four square degrees, andsource counts present a strong slope of 2.2 on an integral "logN-logS" plot,which cannot be due to cosmological evolution if no K-correction is present.The resolved sources account for less than 100f the Cosmic InfraredBackground at 170 microns. In order to understand the nature of the sourcescontributing to the CIB, and to explain deep source counts at otherwavelengths, we have developed a phenomenological model, which constrains in asimple way the luminosity function evolution with redshift, and fits all theexisting deep source counts from the mid-infrared to the submillimetre range.Images, materials and papers available on the FIRBACK web:http://wwwfirback.ias.u-psud.fr wwwfirback.ias.u-psud.fr

  9. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  10. Statistical analysis of dark count rate in Geiger-mode APD FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Krishnamachari, Uppili; Chau, Quan; Jiang, Xudong; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna

    2014-10-01

    We present a temporal statistical analysis of the array-level dark count behavior of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) focal plane arrays that distinguishes between Poissonian intrinsic dark count rate and non-Poissonian crosstalk counts by considering "inter-arrival" times between successive counts from the entire array. For 32 x 32 format sensors with 100 μm pixel pitch, we show the reduction of crosstalk for smaller active area sizes within the pixel. We also compare the inter-arrival time behavior for arrays with narrow band (900 - 1100 nm) and broad band (900 - 1600 nm) spectral response. We then consider a similar analysis of larger format 128 x 32 arrays. As a complement to the temporal analysis, we describe the results of a spatial analysis of crosstalk events. Finally, we propose a simple model for the impact of crosstalk events on the Poissonian statistics of intrinsic dark counts that provides a qualitative explanation for the results of the inter-arrival time analysis for arrays with varying degrees of crosstalk.

  11. Flexible models for spike count data with both over- and under- dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ian H

    2016-08-01

    A key observation in systems neuroscience is that neural responses vary, even in controlled settings where stimuli are held constant. Many statistical models assume that trial-to-trial spike count variability is Poisson, but there is considerable evidence that neurons can be substantially more or less variable than Poisson depending on the stimuli, attentional state, and brain area. Here we examine a set of spike count models based on the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (COM-Poisson) distribution that can flexibly account for both over- and under-dispersion in spike count data. We illustrate applications of this noise model for Bayesian estimation of tuning curves and peri-stimulus time histograms. We find that COM-Poisson models with group/observation-level dispersion, where spike count variability is a function of time or stimulus, produce more accurate descriptions of spike counts compared to Poisson models as well as negative-binomial models often used as alternatives. Since dispersion is one determinant of parameter standard errors, COM-Poisson models are also likely to yield more accurate model comparison. More generally, these methods provide a useful, model-based framework for inferring both the mean and variability of neural responses.

  12. Counting, Measuring And The Semantics Of Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rothstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two central claims. The first is that there is an intimate and non-trivial relation between the mass/count distinction on the one hand and the measure/individuation distinction on the other: a (if not the defining property of mass nouns is that they denote sets of entities which can be measured, while count nouns denote sets of entities which can be counted. Crucially, this is a difference in grammatical perspective and not in ontological status. The second claim is that the mass/count distinction between two types of nominals has its direct correlate at the level of classifier phrases: classifier phrases like two bottles of wine are ambiguous between a counting, or individuating, reading and a measure reading. On the counting reading, this phrase has count semantics, on the measure reading it has mass semantics.ReferencesBorer, H. 1999. ‘Deconstructing the construct’. In K. Johnson & I. Roberts (eds. ‘Beyond Principles and Parameters’, 43–89. Dordrecht: Kluwer publications.Borer, H. 2008. ‘Compounds: the view from Hebrew’. In R. Lieber & P. Stekauer (eds. ‘The Oxford Handbook of Compounds’, 491–511. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Carlson, G. 1977b. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Carlson, G. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden.Carslon, G. 1977a. ‘Amount relatives’. Language 53: 520–542.Chierchia, G. 2008. ‘Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of ‘semantic parameter”. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 53–103. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Danon, G. 2008. ‘Definiteness spreading in the Hebrew construct state’. Lingua 118: 872–906.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.012Gillon, B. 1992. ‘Toward a common semantics for English count and mass nouns’. Linguistics and Philosophy 15: 597–640.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628112Grosu, A. & Landman, F. 1998. ‘Strange relatives of the third kind

  13. geoCount: An R Package for the Analysis of Geostatistical Count Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R package geoCount for the analysis of geostatistical count data. The package performs Bayesian analysis for the Poisson-lognormal and binomial-logitnormal spatial models, which are subclasses of the class of generalized linear spatial models proposed by Diggle, Tawn, and Moyeed (1998. The package implements the computational intensive tasks in C++ using an R/C++ interface, and has parallel computation capabilities to speed up the computations. geoCount also implements group updating, Langevin- Hastings algorithms and a data-based parameterization, algorithmic approaches proposed by Christensen, Roberts, and Sko ?ld (2006 to improve the efficiency of the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In addition, the package includes functions for simulation and visualization, as well as three geostatistical count datasets taken from the literature. One of those is used to illustrate the package capabilities. Finally, we provide a side-by-side comparison between geoCount and the R packages geoRglm and INLA.

  14. Bibliometric Approach to Research Assessment: Publication Count, Citation Count, & Author Rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, Kiduk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how bibliometric indicators such as publication count and citation count affect the assessment of research performance by computing various bibliometric scores of the works of Korean LIS faculty members and comparing the rankings by those scores. For the study data, we used the publication and citation data of 159 tenure-track faculty members of Library and Information Science departments in 34 Korean universities. The study results showed correlation between publication count and citation count for authors with many publications but the opposite evidence for authors with few publications. The study results suggest that as authors publish more and more work, citations to their work tend to increase along with publication count. However, for junior faculty members who have not yet accumulated enough publications, citations to their work are of great importance in assessing their research performance. The study data also showed that there are marked differences in the magnitude of citations between papers published in Korean journals and papers published in international journals.

  15. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  16. Varying Alpha and the Electroweak Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kimberly, D; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recent claims for a varying fine structure constant, alpha, we investigate the effect of ``promoting coupling constants to variables'' upon various parameters of the standard model. We first consider a toy model: Proca's theory of the massive photon. We then explore the electroweak theory with one and two dilaton fields. We find that a varying alpha unavoidably implies varying W and Z masses. This follows from gauge invariance, and is to be contrasted with Proca' theory. For the two dilaton theory the Weinberg angle is also variable, but Fermi's constant and the tree level fermion masses remain constant unless the Higgs' potential becomes dynamical. We outline some cosmological implications.

  17. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CD to CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names NB to OL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  7. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell counts can be a serious complication during cancer treatment. Know why your doctor closely tracks your blood ... monitor your blood cell counts carefully during your cancer treatment. There's a good reason you're having your ...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. 91st Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1990 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,469 individual birds were counted.

  11. 92nd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1991 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 25 species and 2,655 individual birds were counted.

  12. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air during different times of ...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. Counting Trees in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cordova, Clay

    2015-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric ground states of the Kronecker model of quiver quantum mechanics. This is the simplest quiver with two gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, and appears universally in four-dimensional N=2 systems. The ground state degeneracy may be written as a multi-dimensional contour integral, and the enumeration of poles can be simply phrased as counting bipartite trees. We solve this combinatorics problem, thereby obtaining exact formulas for the degeneracies of an infinite class of models. We also develop an algorithm to compute the angular momentum of the ground states, and present explicit expressions for the refined indices of theories where one rank is small.

  12. A new sieve for distinct coordinate counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present a new sieve for the distinct coordinate counting problem.This significantly improves the classical inclusion-exclusion sieve for this problem,in the sense that the number of terms is reduced from 2(k 2) to k!,and reduced further to p(k) in the symmetric case,where p(k) denotes the number of partitions of k.As an illustration of applications,we give an in-depth study of a basic example arising from coding theory and graph theory.

  13. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0...

  14. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-01-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  15. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  16. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Janos [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra, VA (Italy); Dufour, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Holzleitner, Ludwig [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Huszti, Joseph [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Looman, Marc [Consulenze Tecniche-Cocquio Trevisago (Italy); Marin Ferrer, Montserrat [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Lambert, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.it; Rackham, Jamie [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom); Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve [N-1, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, LANL-Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Wilson, Mark [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-11

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will

  17. Counting Processes for Retail Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Nicholas Maximilian; Larson, C. Erik

    in a discrete state space. In a simple case, the states could be default/non-default; in other models relevant for credit modeling the states could be credit scores or payment status (30 dpd, 60 dpd, etc.). Here we focus on the use of stochastic counting processes for mortgage default modeling, using data...... on high LTV mortgages. Borrowers seeking to finance more than 80% of a house's value with a mortgage usually either purchase mortgage insurance, allowing a first mortgage greater than 80% from many lenders, or use second mortgages. Are there differences in performance between loans financed...

  18. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  19. Applied categorical and count data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode

  20. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João

    2010-03-01

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  1. Expected Number Counts of Radio Galaxy Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies may contain radio sources if they still experience successive mergers at present. This has been confirmed by radio observations that about 30% of nearby clusters possess radio halos. We present a theoretical prediction of radio cluster counts using a semi-analytic approach which incorporates the empirical correlation between radio power and dynamical mass of clusters, and the cluster mass function described by the Press-Schechter formalism. The total population of radio clusters over the whole sky and their redshift distribution are given.

  2. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  3. A study on evaluation of the dependences of the function and the shape in a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan on the difference in acquisition count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Shim, Dong-Oh; Kim, Ho-Sung; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In a nuclear medicine examination, methods to acquire a static image include the preset count method and the preset time method. The preset count method is used mainly in a static renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA (dimoercaptosuccinic acid) whereas the preset time method is used occasionally. When the preset count method is used, the same number of acquisition counts is acquired for each time, but the scan time varies. When the preset time method is used, the scan time is constant, but the number of counts acquired is not the same. Therefore, this study examined the dependence of the difference in information on the function and the shape of both sides of the kidneys on the counts acquired during a renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA. The study involved patients who had 40-60% relative function of one kidney among patients who underwent a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan in the Nuclear Medicine Department during the period from January 11 to March 31, 2012. A gamma camera was used to obtain the acquisition count continuously using 100,000 counts and 300,000 counts, and an acquisition time of 7 minutes (exceeding 300,000 counts). The function and the shape of the kidney were evaluated by measuring the relative function of both sides of the kidneys, the geometric mean, and the size of kidney before comparative analysis. According to the study results, neither the relative function nor the geometric mean of both sides of the kidneys varied significantly with the acquisition count. On the other hand, the size of the kidney tended to be larger with increasing acquisition count.

  4. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  5. Inhomogeneous Universe Models with Varying Cosmological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, L P; Chimento, Luis P.; Pavon, Diego

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of a class of inhomogeneous spherically symmetric universe models possessing a varying cosmological term and a material fluid, with an adiabatic index either constant or not, is studied.

  6. An exact exponential time algorithm for counting bipartite cliques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutzkov, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques.......We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques....

  7. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  8. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  9. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  11. Automated vehicle counting using image processing and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany, Sean; Eskew, Edward; Martinez-Castro, Rosana; Jang, Shinae

    2017-04-01

    Vehicle counting is used by the government to improve roadways and the flow of traffic, and by private businesses for purposes such as determining the value of locating a new store in an area. A vehicle count can be performed manually or automatically. Manual counting requires an individual to be on-site and tally the traffic electronically or by hand. However, this can lead to miscounts due to factors such as human error A common form of automatic counting involves pneumatic tubes, but pneumatic tubes disrupt traffic during installation and removal, and can be damaged by passing vehicles. Vehicle counting can also be performed via the use of a camera at the count site recording video of the traffic, with counting being performed manually post-recording or using automatic algorithms. This paper presents a low-cost procedure to perform automatic vehicle counting using remote video cameras with an automatic counting algorithm. The procedure would utilize a Raspberry Pi micro-computer to detect when a car is in a lane, and generate an accurate count of vehicle movements. The method utilized in this paper would use background subtraction to process the images and a machine learning algorithm to provide the count. This method avoids fatigue issues that are encountered in manual video counting and prevents the disruption of roadways that occurs when installing pneumatic tubes

  12. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  13. Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting

    CERN Document Server

    Gillam, W D

    2011-01-01

    Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.

  14. Regression Models for Count Data in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kleiber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical Poisson, geometric and negative binomial regression models for count data belong to the family of generalized linear models and are available at the core of the statistics toolbox in the R system for statistical computing. After reviewing the conceptual and computational features of these methods, a new implementation of hurdle and zero-inflated regression models in the functions hurdle( and zeroinfl( from the package pscl is introduced. It re-uses design and functionality of the basic R functions just as the underlying conceptual tools extend the classical models. Both hurdle and zero-inflated model, are able to incorporate over-dispersion and excess zeros-two problems that typically occur in count data sets in economics and the social sciences—better than their classical counterparts. Using cross-section data on the demand for medical care, it is illustrated how the classical as well as the zero-augmented models can be fitted, inspected and tested in practice.

  15. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  16. Signatures of synchrony in pairwise count correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Tchumatchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerted neural activity can reflect specific features of sensory stimuli or behavioral tasks. Correlation coefficients and count correlations are frequently used to measure correlations between neurons, design synthetic spike trains and build population models. But are correlation coefficients always a reliable measure of input correlations? Here, we consider a stochastic model for the generation of correlated spike sequences which replicate neuronal pairwise correlations in many important aspects. We investigate under which conditions the correlation coefficients reflect the degree of input synchrony and when they can be used to build population models. We find that correlation coefficients can be a poor indicator of input synchrony for some cases of input correlations. In particular, count correlations computed for large time bins can vanish despite the presence of input correlations. These findings suggest that network models or potential coding schemes of neural population activity need to incorporate temporal properties of correlated inputs and take into consideration the regimes of firing rates and correlation strengths to ensure that their building blocks are an unambiguous measures of synchrony.

  17. Language and counting: Some recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Garry

    1990-02-01

    It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.

  18. Characterization of APDs for single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglak, Wladimir; Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Surholt, Martin; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For the SPECTRAP experiment at GSI, Germany, a detector system with single-photon counting capability operating in the wavelength region from 300 nm up to 1100 nm has been developed at the University of Muenster. The detector system utilises a silicon avalanche photo diode (APD) cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures and operated near the breakdown voltage to obtain high gain values. While the current setup uses a 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} APD (type RMD S0223), it would be advantageous to have a larger active area for easier adjustment of the experiment optics. On the other hand a larger active area is accompanied by increased thermal noise which might harm the photon counting performance of the device. The characterization of a 8 x 8 mm{sup 2} APD (RMD S0814) is the subject of this poster. Furthermore a signal analysis software was developed to supress noise signals, e.g. caused by microphonic effects. The software processes signal waveforms recorded by a Flash ADC and should allow for a lower trigger threshold and thus higher detection efficiency.

  19. Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Ogunjimi

    Full Text Available Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins and proximal (antecubital veins sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes.

  20. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  1. B Decay Charm Counting Via Topological Vertexing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Aaron Sze Ting

    2002-01-01

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z0 decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97–98 run. The analysis takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BRB→0D X=3.7±1.1 stat±2.1 syst% BRB→2D X=17.9±1.4 stat±3.3 syst% where B, and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, Nc = 1.188 ± 0.010 ± 0.040 ± 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  2. B Decay Charm Counting via Topological Vertexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Aaron S

    2001-10-15

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97-98 run. The method takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BR(B {yields} (0D)X) = (3.7{+-}1.1(stat) {+-} 2.1(syst))%; and BR(B {yields} (2D)X) = (17.9{+-}1.4(stat) {+-} 3.3(syst))% where B and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, N{sub c} = 1.188 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  3. Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .

  4. Testing Gravity with Gravitational Wave Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as $R^{-1}$, thus we expect the source counts to follow $dN/dS \\propto S^{-4}$. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or can propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the signal-to-noise falls as $R^{-\\gamma}$, where $\\gamma=1$ recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled universe. We forecast the sensitivity of future observations in constraining gravitational wave physics using this method by simulating sources distributed over a finite range of signal-to-noise. We first consider the case of few objects, 7 sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on $\\gamma$, findi...

  5. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  6. Variation in number of trunk vertebrae and in count of costal grooves in salamanders of the family Hynobiidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvinchuk, S.N.; Borkin, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten species from five genera of the family Hynobiidae were studied. The number of trunk vertebrae varied between 14 and 21, and the count of costal grooves ranged from 10 to 15. Both the within-species variation and the within-population variation were recorded in some species. In both kinds the val

  7. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  8. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  9. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  10. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  11. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America (Supplement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W.

    1985-10-01

    A survey was conducted on whole body counting at nuclear facilities. The survey was a supplement to an initial study done by the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1980. Data obtained from this study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. The current status of this method of personnel monitoring is described, including a description of whole body counting systems in use, spectral analysis software, quality assurance programs, protocol for performing whole body counts, and the technical bases for whole body counting programs. 1 ref., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Improving EWMA Plans for Detecting Unusual Increases in Poisson Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sparks

    2009-01-01

    adaptive exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA plan is developed for signalling unusually high incidence when monitoring a time series of nonhomogeneous daily disease counts. A Poisson transitional regression model is used to fit background/expected trend in counts and provides “one-day-ahead” forecasts of the next day's count. Departures of counts from their forecasts are monitored. The paper outlines an approach for improving early outbreak data signals by dynamically adjusting the exponential weights to be efficient at signalling local persistent high side changes. We emphasise outbreak signals in steady-state situations; that is, changes that occur after the EWMA statistic had run through several in-control counts.

  13. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu; Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 10{sup 4} simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 µm, while >10{sup 3} simultaneous events can be detected with <10 µm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×10{sup 8} particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10–20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  14. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, B P; Molloi, S

    2014-12-07

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for x-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm(2) in detection area. The angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded x-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of x-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic x-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the x-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory.

  15. Method for effective dead time measurement in counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2001-04-21

    The counting losses introduced by the dead time of a counting system are a limiting factor in counting measurements. The purpose of this work is to report an efficient method for the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system and to characterize its dead time behavior, providing a way to investigate each experimental situation. The method, which we designate as Delayed and Mixed Pulses method, is based on the artificial piling-up of detector pulses with electronic pulses delayed by a specific time interval. It is applicable to the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system, including both pile-up effects and the dead time characteristics of the elements of the counting chain. With counting systems relying on gaseous radiation detectors, we achieved a standard uncertainty of about 5-10% in the dead times measured.

  16. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  17. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  18. Varying alpha and the electroweak model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao

    2004-03-25

    Inspired by recent claims for a varying fine structure constant, alpha, we investigate the effect of 'promoting coupling constants to variables' upon various parameters of the standard model. We first consider a toy model: Proca theory of the massive photon. We then explore the electroweak theory with one and two dilaton fields. We find that a varying alpha unavoidably implies varying W and Z masses. This follows from gauge invariance, and is to be contrasted with Proca theory. For the two dilaton theory the Weinberg angle is also variable, but Fermi's constant and the tree level fermion masses remain constant unless the Higgs potential becomes dynamical. We outline some cosmological implications.

  19. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  20. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  1. Point counts of landbirds in bottomland hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: How long and how many?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.P.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Hanel, P.B.; Twedt, D.J.; Ford, R.P.; Cooper, R.J.; Smith, Winston Paul

    1993-01-01

    between habitat and region was significant. For = 0.05 and L3 = 0.10, minimum sample size estimates (per factor level) varied by orders of magnitude depending upon the observed or specified range of desired detectable difference. For observed regional variation, 20 and 40 point counts were required to accommodate variability in total birds (MSE = 9.28) and species (MSE = 3.79), respectively; 25 percent of the mean could be achieved with 5 counts per factor level. Corresponding sample sizes required to detect differences of rarer species (e.g., Wood Thrush) were 500; for common species (e.g., Northern Cardinal) this same level of precision could be achieved with 100 counts.

  2. 13/2 ways to count curves

    CERN Document Server

    Pandharipande, R

    2011-01-01

    In the past 20 years, compactifications of the families of curves in algebraic varieties X have been studied via stable maps, Hilbert schemes, stable pairs, unramified maps, and stable quotients. Each path leads to a different enumeration of curves. A common thread is the use of a 2-term deformation/obstruction theory to define a virtual fundamental class. The richest geometry occurs when X is a nonsingular projective variety of dimension 3. We survey here the 13/2 principal ways to count curves with special attention to the 3-fold case. The different theories are linked by a web of conjectural relationships which we highlight. Our goal is to provide a guide for graduate students looking for an elementary route into the subject.

  3. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  4. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...... of cobalt ions in particular on T-cells with 2-year whole-blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of -0.10 (95% CI: -0.16 to -0.04) × 10(9) cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of -0.06 (-0.09 to -0.03) × 10(9) cells/ppb, and for CD3(+)CD8(+) of -0.02 (-0.03 to -0.00) × 10(9) cells/ppb...

  5. Number Counts and Non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Shandera, Sarah; Scott, Pat; Galarza, Jhon Yana

    2013-01-01

    We describe a general procedure for using number counts of any object to constrain the probability distribution of the primordial fluctuations, allowing for generic weak non-Gaussianity. We apply this procedure to use limits on the abundance of primordial black holes and dark matter ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) to characterize the allowed statistics of primordial fluctuations on very small scales. We present constraints on the power spectrum and the amplitude of the skewness for two different families of non-Gaussian distributions, distinguished by the relative importance of higher moments. Although primordial black holes probe the smallest scales, ultracompact minihalos provide significantly stronger constraints on the power spectrum and so are more likely to eventually provide small-scale constraints on non-Gaussianity.

  6. Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, H; Deschamps, P; Dion, B; Macgregor, A D; Macsween, D; McIntyre, R J; Trottier, C; Webb, P P

    1993-07-20

    The properties of avalanche photodiodes and associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger and the sub-Geiger modes are reviewed. When the Geiger mode is used, there are significant improvements reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 70% at 633 nm), and a timing jitter (under 200 ps) is achieved with passive quenching at high overvoltages (20-30 V). The results obtained by using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching overvoltages as high as 15 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range) with a dead time of less than 50 ns are reported. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm in diameter) that are usable in the Geiger mode and that have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500-800-nm range are also reported.

  7. Optimal Planar Orthogonal Skyline Counting Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    The skyline of a set of points in the plane is the subset of maximal points, where a point (x,y) is maximal if no other point (x',y') satisfies x'≥ x and y'≥ x. We consider the problem of preprocessing a set P of n points into a space efficient static data structure supporting orthogonal skyline...... counting queries, i.e. given a query rectangle R to report the size of the skyline of P\\cap R. We present a data structure for storing n points with integer coordinates having query time O(lg n/lglg n) and space usage O(n). The model of computation is a unit cost RAM with logarithmic word size. We prove...

  8. Counting surfaces CRM Aisenstadt chair lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    The problem of enumerating maps (a map is a set of polygonal "countries" on a world of a certain topology, not necessarily the plane or the sphere) is an important problem in mathematics and physics, and it has many applications ranging from statistical physics, geometry, particle physics, telecommunications, biology, ... etc. This problem has been studied by many communities of researchers, mostly combinatorists, probabilists, and physicists. Since 1978, physicists have invented a method called "matrix models" to address that problem, and many results have been obtained. Besides, another important problem in mathematics and physics (in particular string theory), is to count Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces of a given topology are parametrized by a finite number of real parameters (called moduli), and the moduli space is a finite dimensional compact manifold or orbifold of complicated topology. The number of Riemann surfaces is the volume of that moduli space. More generally, an important problem in algeb...

  9. Counting Closed String States in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1997-01-01

    The computation of the microcanonical density of states for a string gas in a finite volume needs a one by one count because of the discrete nature of the spectrum. We present a way to do it using geometrical arguments in phase space. We take advantage of this result in order to obtain the thermodynamical magnitudes of the system. We show that the results for an open universe exactly coincide with the infinite volume limit of the expression obtained for the gas in a box. For any finite volume the Hagedorn temperature is a maximum one, and the specific heat is always positive. We also present a definition of pressure compatible with R-duality seen as an exact symmetry, which allows us to make a study on the physical phase space of the system. Besides a maximum temperature the gas presents an asymptotic pressure.

  10. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  11. Calibrating photon counts from a single image

    CERN Document Server

    Heintzmann, Rainer; Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P J; Lidke, Keith A; Rieger, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Most image capturing devices do not directly report the number of detected photons, but a value proportional to the photoelectron charge produced in a photomultiplier tube or collected in a camera pixel. In order to establish the photon count, the gain of the device must be measured, typically by recording tens of calibration images and exploiting the linear relationship between mean intensity and its variance [vanVliet1998]. Here we propose and evaluate a method that obtains the gain from a single acquired image by quantifying out-of-band information. As noise is not limited to the cut-off frequency of the optical transfer function (OTF), estimation of the out-of-band energy relative to the total energy enables computation of the gain. We show on simulation and experimental data that this much simpler procedure, which can be retroactively applied to any image, is comparable in precision to traditional gain calibration procedures.

  12. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, V; Huber, Patrick; Marfatia, Danny

    2005-11-18

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines (from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.

  13. Neutron triples counting data for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen, E-mail: crofts@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); LaFleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos , NM 87545 (United States); McElroy, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos , NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Correlated neutron counting using multiplicity shift register logic extracts the first three factorial moments from the detected neutron pulse train. The descriptive properties of the measurement item (mass, the ratio of (α,n) to spontaneous fission neutron production, and leakage self-multiplication) are related to the observed singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (T) rates, and this is the basis of the widely used multiplicity counting assay method. The factorial moments required to interpret and invert the measurement data in the framework of the point kinetics model may be calculated from the spontaneous fission prompt neutron multiplicity distribution P(ν). In the case of {sup 238}U very few measurements of P(ν) are available and the derived values, especially for the higher factorial moments, are not known with high accuracy. In this work, we report the measurement of the triples rate per gram of {sup 238}U based on the analysis of a set of measurements in which a collection of 10 cylinders of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, each containing about 230 g of compound, were measured individually and in groups. Special care was taken to understand and compensate the recorded multiplicity histograms for the effect of random cosmic-ray induced background neutrons, which, because they also come in bursts and mimic fissions but with a different and harder multiplicity distribution. We compare our fully corrected (deadtime, background, efficiency, multiplication) experimental results with first principles expectations based on evaluated nuclear data. Based on our results we suspect that the current evaluated nuclear data is biased, which points to a need to undertake new basic measurements of the {sup 238}U prompt neutron multiplicity distribution.

  14. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  15. Parallel Implementation of the Box Counting Algorithm in Opencl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Ramakrishnan

    2015-06-01

    The box counting algorithm is a well-known method for the computation of the fractal dimension of an image. It is often implemented using a recursive subdivision of the image into a set of regular tiles or boxes. Parallel implementations often try to map the boxes to different compute units, and combine the results to get the total number of boxes intersecting a shape. This paper presents a novel and highly efficient method using Open Computing Language (OpenCL) kernels to perform the computation on a per-pixel basis. The mapping and reduction stages are performed in a single pass, and therefore require the enqueuing of only a single kernel. Each instance of the kernel updates the information pertaining to all the boxes containing the pixel, and simultaneously increments the box counters at multiple levels, thereby eliminating the need for another pass to perform the summation. The complete implementation and coding details of the proposed method are outlined. The performance of the method on different processors are analyzed with respect to varying image sizes.

  16. New synthesis ways of supported metallic catalysts and structure-reactivity relations in catalysis by metals; Nouvelles voies de syntheses de catalyseurs metalliques supportes et relations structure-reactivite en catalyse par les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzio, D.

    2006-01-15

    This work deals with some research studies in the field of supported metallic catalysts. In all these works have been studied the characteristics bound to the active sites and the relations between these characteristics and the catalytic performances. The genesis of colloidal suspensions of transition metallic oxide has been used for the preparation of selective hydrogenation catalysts. At first studied in the case of palladium, this new synthesis way has been used for other metals such as Pt, Ni or Co. These studies have then been developed for preparing bimetallic catalysts (PdSn) with as supplementary aim the control of the homogeneity of the bimetallic character at the scale of nano-metric particles. These works have particularly allowed to specify the chemistry of the solutions of some metallic complexes and to rationalize the chemical processes carried out in the usual fabrication processes. Studies on size effects and the study of the reactivity of the nano and sub nano-metric particle have then been developed. Indeed, the clusters containing some atoms can see their intrinsic properties varied very strongly under the influence of several parameters as the number of atoms, the nature of the support, the reactional atmosphere. Using the knowledge acquired during the preceding works (chemistry of palladium aqueous solutions), the study of new methods of preparation of particles containing very few atoms has brought new data on the properties of hyper dispersed particles as well as on the principle of sensitivity to structure. The contribution of the support to the catalytic process for the hydrogenation of different substrates has been studied too. (O.M.)

  17. Correlation functions quantify super-resolution images and estimate apparent clustering due to over-counting

    CERN Document Server

    Veatch, Sarah; Shelby, Sarah; Chiang, Ethan; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytical method to quantify clustering in super-resolution localization images of static surfaces in two dimensions. The method also describes how over-counting of labeled molecules contributes to apparent self-clustering and how the effective lateral resolution of an image can be determined. This treatment applies to clustering of proteins and lipids in membranes, where there is significant interest in using super-resolution localization techniques to probe membrane heterogeneity. When images are quantified using pair correlation functions, the magnitude of apparent clustering due to over-counting will vary inversely with the surface density of labeled molecules and does not depend on the number of times an average molecule is counted. Over-counting does not yield apparent co-clustering in double label experiments when pair cross-correlation functions are measured. We apply our analytical method to quantify the distribution of the IgE receptor (Fc{\\epsilon}RI) on the plasma membranes of chemi...

  18. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation.

  19. A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current. To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV. The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient.

  20. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  1. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Cosmo MSW effect for mass varying neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, P Q; Hung, Pham Quang; P\\"as, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    We consider neutrinos with varying masses which arise in scenarios relating neutrino masses to the dark energy density in the universe. We point out that the neutrino mass variation can lead to level crossing and thus a cosmo MSW effect, having dramatic consequences for the flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos and the composition of the relic neutrino background.

  3. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  4. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  5. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar s

  6. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  7. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  8. The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokarami F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CD4 T-Lymphocyte counts have proven to be a standard laboratory marker of disease progression and severity of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV is used to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, its application may not be feasible for its expensive equipments and reagent in resource-limited setting. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource-demanding. In April 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended that, when CD4 cell count is not available, a TLC of 1200cell/mm3 or less in individuals with stage 2 or 3 of the disease may be used as an indication to initiate ART."n"nMethods: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected adults. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subject characteristics were patients who had positive serologic HIV test results, confirmed via western blot. Analysis unit was the results of CBC and CD4 measurements on the same blood sample each time. Data of 100 patients were collected. In this study, TLC accounts for the main predictor of CD4 count. The amounts of TLC which can predict CD4 less than 200cell/mm3 were

  9. The lost castle of Count Rodrigo Gonzalez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that a castle called Toron built in 1137 by Count Rodrigo of Lara, and granted to the Templar Order was in Summil, where remains of a Crusader castles are still visible (ca. 25 km from Ascalon, in south west Israel. This opinion opposes a consensual view that the castle built by Count Rodrigo was in Latrun, midway between Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem. This identifi cation is based on names’ similarity and on the universal opinion that Latrun was a Templar castle. In this article it is demonstrated that the geographic setting of Summil fi ts the Count’s castle, whereas Latrun does not; that Toron was a common name in the Crusader Kingdom; and, moreover, it is not certain that Latrun was a Templar castle. The article also suggest that there was a village near the castle, called Casale Sancti Salvatoris, and also discusses Frankish fortifi cation and settlement policy during the twelfth century.Este artículo sugiere que un castillo llamado Toron, construido el año 1137 por el conde Rodrigo González de Lara, y que fue luego otorgado a la orden del Temple, estaba en Summil, donde todavía permanecen las ruinas de un castillo de los cruzados (a unos 25 km de Ascalon, en el sudoeste de Israel. Esta opinión se contrapone a la tesis general que sostiene que el castillo construido por el conde estuvo situado en Latrun, a medio camino entre Tel-Aviv y Jerusalén. Una identificación basada en la similitud de nombres y en la común opinión que Latrun era un castillo templario. En este estudio se demuestra que la ubicación geográfica de Summil encaja con la del castillo del conde, mientras que Latrun no lo hace; que Toron fue un nombre habitual en el reino cruzado y que, por otra parte, no es cierto que Latrun fuera un castillo templario. Se sugiere también que cerca del castillo de Summil existía un pueblo llamado casale Sancti Salvatoris, analizándose asimismo la política de fortificación y colonización llevada a cabo por

  10. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E. [Philips Healthcare, Solna 171 41 (Sweden); Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  11. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinase, S

    2003-01-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...

  12. Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, Belen; Merlo, Luca [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States); CERN TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in d dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χPT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to d dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to ℎ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χPT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT. (orig.)

  13. Varying-coefficient functional linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yichao; Müller, Hans-Georg; 10.3150/09-BEJ231

    2011-01-01

    Functional linear regression analysis aims to model regression relations which include a functional predictor. The analog of the regression parameter vector or matrix in conventional multivariate or multiple-response linear regression models is a regression parameter function in one or two arguments. If, in addition, one has scalar predictors, as is often the case in applications to longitudinal studies, the question arises how to incorporate these into a functional regression model. We study a varying-coefficient approach where the scalar covariates are modeled as additional arguments of the regression parameter function. This extension of the functional linear regression model is analogous to the extension of conventional linear regression models to varying-coefficient models and shares its advantages, such as increased flexibility; however, the details of this extension are more challenging in the functional case. Our methodology combines smoothing methods with regularization by truncation at a finite numb...

  14. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  15. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  16. On a time varying fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    By employing Dirac LNH, and a further generalization by Berman (GLNH), we estimate how should vary the total number of nucleons, the energy density, Newton Gravitational constant, the cosmological constant, the magnetic permeability and electric permitivity, of the Universe,in order to account for the experimentally observed time variation of the fine structure constant. As a bonus,we find an acceptable value for the deceleration parameter of the present Universe, compatible with the Supernovae observations.

  17. Stabilization of Slowly Varying Switched Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bing; LIANG Tong

    2012-01-01

    The stabilization problem of systems that switch among a finite set of slowly varying linear systems with arbitrary switching frequency is discussed.It is shown that if the entries of the pointwise stabilizing feedback gain matrix are continuously differentiable functions of the entries of the system coefficient matrices,then the closed-loop system is uniformly asymptotically stable if the rate of time variation of the system coefficient matrices is sufficiently small.

  18. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  19. Planck 2015 results. XXIV. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Weller, J; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present cluster counts and corresponding cosmological constraints from the Planck full mission data set. Our catalogue consists of 439 clusters detected via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal down to a signal-to-noise of six, and is more than a factor of two larger than the 2013 Planck cluster cosmology sample. The counts are consistent with those from 2013 and yield compatible constraints under the same modelling assumptions. Taking advantage of the larger catalogue, we extend our analysis to the two-dimensional distribution in redshift and signal-to-noise. We use mass estimates from two recent studies of gravitational lensing of background galaxies by Planck clusters to provide priors on the hydrostatic bias parameter, $1-b$. In addition, we use lensing of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations by Planck clusters as a third independent constraint on this parameter. These various calibrations imply constraints on the present-day amplitude of matter fluctuations in varying degrees of t...

  20. Counting colorings of a regular graph

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, David

    2012-01-01

    At most how many (proper) q-colorings does a regular graph admit? Galvin and Tetali conjectured that among all n-vertex, d-regular graphs with 2d|n, none admits more q-colorings than the disjoint union of n/2d copies of the complete bipartite graph K_{d,d}. In this note we give asymptotic evidence for this conjecture, giving an upper bound on the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph of the form a^n b^{n(1+o(1))/d} (where a and b depend on q and where o(1) goes to 0 as d goes to infinity) that agrees up to the o(1) term with the count of q-colorings of n/2d copies of K_{d,d}. An auxiliary result is an upper bound on the number of colorings of a regular graph in terms of its independence number. For example, we show that for all even q and fixed \\epsilon > 0 there is \\delta=\\delta(\\epsilon,q) such that the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph with no independent set of size n(1-\\epsilon)/2 is at most (a-\\delta)^n.

  1. Status Report on the Instanton Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Shadchin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-perturbative behavior of the N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories is both highly non-trivial and tractable. In the last three years the valuable progress was achieved in the instanton counting, the direct evaluation of the low-energy effective Wilsonian action of the theory. The localization technique together with the Lorentz deformation of the action provides an elegant way to reduce functional integrals, representing the effective action, to some finite dimensional contour integrals. These integrals, in their turn, can be converted into some difference equations which define the Seiberg-Witten curves, the main ingredient of another approach to the non-perturbative computations in the N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories. Almost all models with classical gauge groups, allowed by the asymptotic freedom condition can be treated in such a way. In my talk I explain the localization approach to the problem, its relation to the Seiberg-Witten approach and finally I give a review of some interesting results.

  2. Photon counting arrays for AO wavefront sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; McPhate, J; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Future wavefront sensors for AO on large telescopes will require a large number of pixels and must operate at high frame rates. Unfortunately for CCDs, there is a readout noise penalty for operating faster, and this noise can add up rather quickly when considering the number of pixels required for the extended shape of a sodium laser guide star observed with a large telescope. Imaging photon counting detectors have zero readout noise and many pixels, but have suffered in the past with low QE at the longer wavelengths (>500 nm). Recent developments in GaAs photocathode technology, CMOS ASIC readouts and FPGA processing electronics have resulted in noiseless WFS detector designs that are competitive with silicon array detectors, though at ~40% the QE of CCDs. We review noiseless array detectors and compare their centroiding performance with CCDs using the best available characteristics of each. We show that for sub-aperture binning of 6x6 and greater that noiseless detectors have a smaller centroid error at flu...

  3. Nuclear chemistry counting facilities: requirements definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, D.W.; Baker, J.

    1979-04-05

    In an effort to upgrade outdated instrumentation and to take advantage of current and imminent technologies the Nuclear Chemistry Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is about to undertake a major upgrade of their low level radiation counting and analysis facilities. It is expected that such a project will make a more coordinated data acquisition and data processing system, reduce manual data handling operations and speed up data processing throughput. Before taking on a systems design it is appropriate to establish a definition of the requirements of the facilities. This report examines why such a project is necessary in the context of the current and projected operations, needs, problems, risks and costs. The authors also address a functional specification as a prelude to a system design and the design constraints implicit in the systems implementation. Technical, operational and economic assessments establish necessary boundary conditions for this discussion. This report also establishes the environment in which the requirements definition may be considered valid. The validity of these analyses is contingent on known and projected technical, scientific and political conditions.

  4. Ether, Luminosity and Galactic Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    An interpretation of the cosmological redshift in terms of a cosmic ether is given. We study a Robertson-Walker cosmology in which the ether is phenomenologically defined by a homogeneous and isotropic permeability tensor. The speed of light becomes so a function of cosmic time like in a dielectric medium. However, the cosmic ether is dispersion free, it does not lead to a broadening of spectral lines. Locally, in Euclidean frames, the scale factors of the permeability tensor get absorbed in the fundamental constants. Mass and charge scale with cosmic time, and so do atomic energy levels. This substantially changes the interpretation of the cosmological redshift as a Doppler shift. Photon frequencies are independent of the expansion factor; their time scaling is determined by the permeability tensor. The impact of the ether on the luminosity-distance, on the distance-redshift relation, and on galactic number counts is discussed. The Hubble constant is related to the scale factors of the metric and the permeab...

  5. Counting Coloured Planar Maps: Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Olivier; Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille

    2017-08-01

    We address the enumeration of q-coloured planar maps counted by the number of edges and the number of monochromatic edges. We prove that the associated generating function is differentially algebraic, that is, satisfies a non-trivial polynomial differential equation with respect to the edge variable. We give explicitly a differential system that characterizes this series. We then prove a similar result for planar triangulations, thus generalizing a result of Tutte dealing with their proper q-colourings. In statistical physics terms, we solve the q-state Potts model on random planar lattices. This work follows a first paper by the same authors, where the generating function was proved to be algebraic for certain values of q, including {q=1, 2} and 3. It is known to be transcendental in general. In contrast, our differential system holds for an indeterminate q. For certain special cases of combinatorial interest (four colours; proper q-colourings; maps equipped with a spanning forest), we derive from this system, in the case of triangulations, an explicit differential equation of order 2 defining the generating function. For general planar maps, we also obtain a differential equation of order 3 for the four-colour case and for the self-dual Potts model.

  6. New varying speed of light theories

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    2003-01-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying $c$, dispelling the myth that the constancy of $c$ is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a color dependent speed of light; varying $c$ induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how ``doubly special'' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space...

  7. Relationship between leukocyte count and angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhi JIA; Zhi-jian YANG; Biao YUAN; Xiao-ling ZANG; Rong-hu WANG; Tie-bing ZHU; Lian-sheng WANG; Bo CHEN; Wen-zhu MA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore the relationship between differential leucocyte count and coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: The study population consisted of 507 consecutive patients (376 male and 131 female) who underwent coronary angiography for suspected or known coronary atherosclerosis. The patients' smoking and drinking habits were investigated, and anthropometric measurements, serum measurements, and hematological measurements were conducted for every patient.The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was defined by using Gensini' s score system. One-way ANOVA, Spearman's correlation analysis, and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis were employed to explore the relationship between differential leucocyte count and coronary atherosclerosis. Results: Oneway ANOVA indicated that the diastolic blood pressure, glucose, urea, creatinine,leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, hemoglobin, and platelet count differed among the groups according to Gensini's score, the tertile values of which were used as cutoff points. Spearman's correlation analysis suggested that Gensini's score was significantly correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure,glucose, urea, creatinine, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count,hemoglobin, and erythrocyte count, respectively. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis show that neutrophil count (β=0.247, P=0.000), age (β=0.141,P=0.001), glucose (β=0.173, P=0.000), creatinine (β=0.088, P=0.063), hemoglobin (β=-0.168, P=0.013) and sex (men were coded as 1 and women were coded as 2;β=-0.121, P=0.012) were significantly independently associated with the Gensini's score. Conclusion: The independent association of neutrophil count with the angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis, as estimated by Gensini's score, strongly suggests that granulocytosis may play a role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

  8. Counting Statistics and Ion Interval Density in AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Palmblad, M; Reimer, P

    2004-08-03

    Confidence in the precisions of AMS and decay measurements must be comparable for the application of the {sup 14}C calibration to age determinations using both technologies. We confirmed the random nature of the temporal distribution of {sup 14}C ions in an AMS spectrometer for a number of sample counting rates and properties of the sputtering process. The temporal distribution of ion counts was also measured to confirm the applicability of traditional counting statistics.

  9. Generalized quantum counting algorithm for non-uniform amplitude distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianing; Ruan, Yue; Li, Xi; Chen, Hanwu

    2017-03-01

    We give generalized quantum counting algorithm to increase universality of quantum counting algorithm. Non-uniform initial amplitude distribution is possible due to the diversity of situations on counting problems or external noise in the amplitude initialization procedure. We give the reason why quantum counting algorithm is invalid on this situation. By modeling in three-dimensional space spanned by unmarked state, marked state and free state to the entire Hilbert space of n qubits, we find Grover iteration can be regarded as improper rotation in the space. This allows us to give formula to solve counting problem. Furthermore, we express initial amplitude distribution in the eigenvector basis of improper rotation matrix. This is necessary to obtain mathematical analysis of counting problem on various situations. Finally, we design four simulation experiments, the results of which show that compared with original quantum counting algorithm, generalized quantum counting algorithm wins great satisfaction from three aspects: (1) Whether initial amplitude distribution is uniform; (2) the diversity of situations on counting problems; and (3) whether phase estimation technique can get phase exactly.

  10. Absolute regularity and ergodicity of Poisson count processes

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of observation-driven Poisson count processes where the current value of the accompanying intensity process depends on previous values of both processes. We show under a contractive condition that the bivariate process has a unique stationary distribution and that a stationary version of the count process is absolutely regular. Moreover, since the intensities can be written as measurable functionals of the count variables, we conclude that the bivariate process is ergodic. As an important application of these results, we show how a test method previously used in the case of independent Poisson data can be used in the case of Poisson count processes.

  11. Particle number counting statistics in ideal Bose gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoph Weiss; Martin Wilkens

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the exact particle number counting statistics of degenerate ideal Bose gases in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensemble, respectively, for various trapping potentials...

  12. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  13. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the Cognitive Radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. Spectrum sensing detection performance can be greatly improved, through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, which implements an adaptive...... counting rule to perform the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-n and n-out-of-n) and the optimum counting rule, under different correlation conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the data fusion schemes, based on counting...

  14. Men of physics Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson—Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat presents the life and works of Count Rumford, an American-born British physicist and inventor. This book is divided in two parts. The first part gives a biographical sketch of Count Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, who was born on March 23, 1753 and died in 1814. This part also discusses the contemporary caloric theory and the reason why Rumford disbelieved the theory. The second part presents his technical works, discoveries, and contributions in the field of physics. Some of which are his demonstration of the e

  15. Temporal patterns in count-to-ten fetal movement charts and their associations with pregnancy characteristics: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winje Brita Askeland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal movement counting has long been suggested as a screening tool to identify impaired placental function. However, quantitative limits for decreased fetal movement perform poorly for screening purposes, indicating the need for methodological refinement. We aimed to identify the main individual temporal patterns in fetal movement counting charts, and explore their associations with pregnancy characteristics. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort in Norway, 2009–2011, women with singleton pregnancies counted fetal movements daily from pregnancy week 24 until delivery using a modified "count-to-ten” procedure. To account for intra-woman correlation of observations, we used functional data analysis and corresponding functional principal component analysis to identify the main individual temporal patterns in fetal movement count data. The temporal patterns are described by continuous functional principal component (FPC curves, with an individual score on each FPC for each woman. These scores were later used as outcome variables in multivariable linear regression analyses, with pregnancy characteristics as explanatory variables. Results Fetal movement charts from 1086 pregnancies were included. Three FPC curves explained almost 99% of the variation in the temporal data, with the first FPC, representing the individual overall counting time, accounting for 91% alone. There were several statistically significant associations between the FPCs and various pregnancy characteristics. However, the effects were small and of limited clinical value. Conclusions This statistical approach for analyzing fetal movement counting data successfully captured clinically meaningful individual temporal patterns and how these patterns vary between women. Maternal body mass index, gestational age and placental site explained little of the variation in the temporal fetal movement counting patterns. Thus, a perceived decrease in fetal

  16. Prospects of photon counting lidar for savanna ecosystem structural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, D.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    points were compared to DRL derived canopy and mean ground elevations. The correlation between MABEL and DRL derived metrics ranged from R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 7.9 m to R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 2.9 m. Overall, the results were better when analysis was done at smaller block sizes, mainly due to the large variability of terrain relief associated with increased block size. However, the increase in accuracy was more dramatic when block size was reduced from 50 m to 25 m than it was from 25 m to 10 m. Our work has demonstrated the capability of photon counting lidar to estimate canopy height in savannas at MABEL's signal and noise levels. However, analysis of the Advanced Topography Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) sensor on ICESat-2 indicate that signal photons will be substantially lower than those of MABEL while sensor noise will vary as a function of solar illumination, altitude and declination, as well as the topographic and reflectance properties of surfaces. Therefore, there are reasons to believe that the actual data from ICESat-2 will give poorer results due to a lower sampling rate and use of only the green wavelength. Further analysis using simulated ATLAS data are required before more definitive results are possible, and these analyses are ongoing.

  17. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  18. The Quanta Image Sensor: Every Photon Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Fossum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quanta Image Sensor (QIS was conceived when contemplating shrinking pixel sizes and storage capacities, and the steady increase in digital processing power. In the single-bit QIS, the output of each field is a binary bit plane, where each bit represents the presence or absence of at least one photoelectron in a photodetector. A series of bit planes is generated through high-speed readout, and a kernel or “cubicle” of bits (x, y, t is used to create a single output image pixel. The size of the cubicle can be adjusted post-acquisition to optimize image quality. The specialized sub-diffraction-limit photodetectors in the QIS are referred to as “jots” and a QIS may have a gigajot or more, read out at 1000 fps, for a data rate exceeding 1 Tb/s. Basically, we are trying to count photons as they arrive at the sensor. This paper reviews the QIS concept and its imaging characteristics. Recent progress towards realizing the QIS for commercial and scientific purposes is discussed. This includes implementation of a pump-gate jot device in a 65 nm CIS BSI process yielding read noise as low as 0.22 e− r.m.s. and conversion gain as high as 420 µV/e−, power efficient readout electronics, currently as low as 0.4 pJ/b in the same process, creating high dynamic range images from jot data, and understanding the imaging characteristics of single-bit and multi-bit QIS devices. The QIS represents a possible major paradigm shift in image capture.

  19. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  20. New varying speed of light theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magueijo, Joao [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim-redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication.

  1. New varying speed of light theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2003-11-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim—redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication.

  2. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.;

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method......, but otherwise unknown, functions of a low-dimensional input process. These coefficient functions are estimated adaptively and recursively without specifying a global parametric, form, i.e. the method allows for online tracking of the coefficient functions. Essentially, in its most simple form, the method...

  3. Tracking Time-Varying Coefficient-Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.;

    1999-01-01

    of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. However, it is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal shich is argument of the coeffieient-functions.The properties of the modified method are sutdied......A conditional parametric ARX-model is an ARX-model in which the parameters re replaced by smooth functions of an, possibly multivariate, externalinput signal. These functions are called coefficient functions is suggested. Essentially, in its most simple form, this method is a combination...

  4. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  5. Image Based Rendering under Varying Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengfeng (王城峰); Hu Zhanyi

    2003-01-01

    A new approach for photorealistic rendering of a class of objects at arbitrary illumination is presented. The approach of the authors relies entirely on image based rendering techniques. A scheme is utilized for re-illumination of objects based on linear combination of low dimensional image representations. The minimum rendering condition of technique of the authors is three sample images under varying illumination of a reference object and a single input image of an interested object. Important properties of this approach are its simplicity, robustness and speediness. Experimental results validate the proposed rendering approach.

  6. Correlation functions quantify super-resolution images and estimate apparent clustering due to over-counting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Veatch

    Full Text Available We present an analytical method using correlation functions to quantify clustering in super-resolution fluorescence localization images and electron microscopy images of static surfaces in two dimensions. We use this method to quantify how over-counting of labeled molecules contributes to apparent self-clustering and to calculate the effective lateral resolution of an image. This treatment applies to distributions of proteins and lipids in cell membranes, where there is significant interest in using electron microscopy and super-resolution fluorescence localization techniques to probe membrane heterogeneity. When images are quantified using pair auto-correlation functions, the magnitude of apparent clustering arising from over-counting varies inversely with the surface density of labeled molecules and does not depend on the number of times an average molecule is counted. In contrast, we demonstrate that over-counting does not give rise to apparent co-clustering in double label experiments when pair cross-correlation functions are measured. We apply our analytical method to quantify the distribution of the IgE receptor (FcεRI on the plasma membranes of chemically fixed RBL-2H3 mast cells from images acquired using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM/dSTORM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We find that apparent clustering of FcεRI-bound IgE is dominated by over-counting labels on individual complexes when IgE is directly conjugated to organic fluorophores. We verify this observation by measuring pair cross-correlation functions between two distinguishably labeled pools of IgE-FcεRI on the cell surface using both imaging methods. After correcting for over-counting, we observe weak but significant self-clustering of IgE-FcεRI in fluorescence localization measurements, and no residual self-clustering as detected with SEM. We also apply this method to quantify IgE-FcεRI redistribution after deliberate clustering by

  7. Bayesian dynamic modeling of time series of dengue disease case counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adyro Martínez-Bello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to model the association between weekly time series of dengue case counts and meteorological variables, in a high-incidence city of Colombia, applying Bayesian hierarchical dynamic generalized linear models over the period January 2008 to August 2015. Additionally, we evaluate the model's short-term performance for predicting dengue cases. The methodology shows dynamic Poisson log link models including constant or time-varying coefficients for the meteorological variables. Calendar effects were modeled using constant or first- or second-order random walk time-varying coefficients. The meteorological variables were modeled using constant coefficients and first-order random walk time-varying coefficients. We applied Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, and deviance information criterion statistic (DIC for model selection. We assessed the short-term predictive performance of the selected final model, at several time points within the study period using the mean absolute percentage error. The results showed the best model including first-order random walk time-varying coefficients for calendar trend and first-order random walk time-varying coefficients for the meteorological variables. Besides the computational challenges, interpreting the results implies a complete analysis of the time series of dengue with respect to the parameter estimates of the meteorological effects. We found small values of the mean absolute percentage errors at one or two weeks out-of-sample predictions for most prediction points, associated with low volatility periods in the dengue counts. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the dynamic Poisson models for studying the association between time series of dengue disease and meteorological variables. The key conclusion of the study is that dynamic Poisson models account for the dynamic nature of the variables involved in the modeling of time series of dengue disease

  8. MULTIVARIATE VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Runze; Kong, Linglong

    2012-10-01

    Motivated by recent work studying massive imaging data in the neuroimaging literature, we propose multivariate varying coefficient models (MVCM) for modeling the relation between multiple functional responses and a set of covariates. We develop several statistical inference procedures for MVCM and systematically study their theoretical properties. We first establish the weak convergence of the local linear estimate of coefficient functions, as well as its asymptotic bias and variance, and then we derive asymptotic bias and mean integrated squared error of smoothed individual functions and their uniform convergence rate. We establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated covariance function of the individual functions and its associated eigenvalue and eigenfunctions. We propose a global test for linear hypotheses of varying coefficient functions, and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. We also propose a simultaneous confidence band for each individual effect curve. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to examine the finite-sample performance of the proposed procedures. We apply MVCM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the genu tract of the corpus callosum in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  9. Local Rank Inference for Varying Coefficient Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Kai, Bo; Li, Runze

    2009-12-01

    By allowing the regression coefficients to change with certain covariates, the class of varying coefficient models offers a flexible approach to modeling nonlinearity and interactions between covariates. This paper proposes a novel estimation procedure for the varying coefficient models based on local ranks. The new procedure provides a highly efficient and robust alternative to the local linear least squares method, and can be conveniently implemented using existing R software package. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both reveal that the gain of the local rank estimator over the local linear least squares estimator, measured by the asymptotic mean squared error or the asymptotic mean integrated squared error, can be substantial. In the normal error case, the asymptotic relative efficiency for estimating both the coefficient functions and the derivative of the coefficient functions is above 96%; even in the worst case scenarios, the asymptotic relative efficiency has a lower bound 88.96% for estimating the coefficient functions, and a lower bound 89.91% for estimating their derivatives. The new estimator may achieve the nonparametric convergence rate even when the local linear least squares method fails due to infinite random error variance. We establish the large sample theory of the proposed procedure by utilizing results from generalized U-statistics, whose kernel function may depend on the sample size. We also extend a resampling approach, which perturbs the objective function repeatedly, to the generalized U-statistics setting; and demonstrate that it can accurately estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix.

  10. Seasonally Varying Reference Atmospheres for East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vertical profiles of seasonally varying pressure, temperature, water vapor, and trace gases (O3, N2O, CO,CH4), representing atmospheric conditions up to a height of 100 km over the East Asia region (30°-50°N,110°-150°E) were constructed by using various observation data, model outputs of atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, and gaseous concentrations. Optical characteristics of the obtained East Asia reference atmospheres were compared with those from typical midlatitude summer and winter atmospheres. It was noted that, in the water vapor field, there are major differences between the two model atmospheres during the summer. The resultant impact during the summer of water vapor difference on incoming solar fluxes at the surface and emitted terrestrial fluxes at the top of the atmosphere are 14.3 W m-2 and 6.5 W m-2,respectively. On the other hand, the winter difference between East Asian and midlatitude atmospheres appears to be insignificant. Reference atmospheres for the spring and fall are also available. Utilizing the constructed atmospheric profiles as inputs to the radiative transfer model, it is expected that the constructed seasonally varying reference atmospheres can facilitate better descriptions of optical properties in East Asia.

  11. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  12. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  13. New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…

  14. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  15. Mass divergence power counting for QCD in the Feynman gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, R.

    1986-03-01

    We present a mass divergence power counting technique for QCD in the Feyman gauge. For the process ..gamma..sup(*)->qanti q, we find the leading regions of integration and show that single diagrams are at worst logarithmically divergent. Using the Weyl representation facilitates the ..gamma.. matrix manipulations necessary for power counting and adds much physical insight. (orig.).

  16. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1 of...

  17. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting...

  18. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  19. Phonics: A Large Phoneme-Grapheme Frequency Count Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study is a summary and simplification of a very large phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. T(1966). Although the results and data from the original study have implications for teaching phonics and spelling, they were presented in a complicated and unwieldy manner.…

  20. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  1. Magnitude Representations and Counting Skills in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Sophie; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    When children learn to count, they map newly acquired symbolic representations of number onto preexisting nonsymbolic representations. The nature and timing of this mapping is currently unclear. Some researchers have suggested this mapping process helps children understand the cardinal principle of counting, while other evidence suggests that this…

  2. Galaxy Counts at 24 Microns in the SWIRE Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, David L; Lonsdale, Carol J; Masci, Frank; Evans, Tracey; Fang, Fan; Oliver, Sebastian; Vaccari, Mattia; Rodighiero, Giulia; Padgett, Deborah; Surace, Jason A; Xu, C Kevin; Berta, Stefano; Pozzi, Francesca; Franceschini, Alberto; Babbedge, Thomas; Gonzales-Solares, Eduardo; Siana, Brian D; Farrah, Duncan; Frayer, David T; Smith, H E; Polletta, Maria; Owen, Frazer; Perez-Fournon, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents galaxy source counts at 24 microns in the six Spitzer Wide-field InfraRed Extragalactic (SWIRE) fields. The source counts are compared to counts in other fields, and to model predictions that have been updated since the launch of Spitzer. This analysis confirms a very steep rise in the Euclidean-normalized differential number counts between 2 mJy and 0.3 mJy. Variations in the counts between fields show the effects of sample variance in the flux range 0.5-10 mJy, up to 100% larger than Poisson errors. Nonetheless, a "shoulder" in the normalized counts persists at around 3 mJy. The peak of the normalized counts at 0.3 mJy is higher and narrower than most models predict. In the ELAIS N1 field, the 24 micron data are combined with Spitzer-IRAC data and five-band optical imaging, and these bandmerged data are fit with photometric redshift templates. Above 1 mJy the counts are dominated by galaxies at z less than 0.3. By 300 microJy, about 25% are between z ~ 0.3-0.8, and a significant fraction...

  3. Examining secular trend  and seasonality in count data using dynamic generalized linear modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Dethlefsen, Claus; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders;

    series regression model for Poisson counts. It differs in allowing the regression coefficients to vary gradually over time in a random fashion. Data  In the period January 1980 to 1999, 17,989 incidents of acute myocardial infarction were recorded in the county of Northern Jutland, Denmark. Records were...... updated daily. Results  The model with a seasonal pattern and an approximately linear trend was fitted to the data, and diagnostic plots indicate a good model fit. The analysis with the dynamic model revealed peaks coinciding with influenza epidemics. On average the peak-to-trough ratio is estimated...

  4. Measurement of accidental coincidences in beta-gamma coincidence counting using non-equal dead times

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, H Y; Cho, Y H; Byun, J I; Kim, T S; Park, T S; Lee, J M

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) method is particularly suitable for the direct measurement of accidental coincidences even if the dead times of the two counting channels are of different length. We prepared five samples, with activities from 900 to 2100 s sup - sup 1. The dead time of the gamma channel was 12 mu s for all measurements, but for the beta channel it varied from 12 to 20 mu s. The true coincidence rates determined by the MCTS method are compared with those obtained by using conventional technique.

  5. Counting statistics for genetic switches based on effective interaction approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Applicability of counting statistics for a system with an infinite number of states is investigated. The counting statistics has been studied a lot for a system with a finite number of states. While it is possible to use the scheme in order to count specific transitions in a system with an infinite number of states in principle, we have non-closed equations in general. A simple genetic switch can be described by a master equation with an infinite number of states, and we use the counting statistics in order to count the number of transitions from inactive to active states in the gene. To avoid having the non-closed equations, an effective interaction approximation is employed. As a result, it is shown that the switching problem can be treated as a simple two-state model approximately, which immediately indicates that the switching obeys non-Poisson statistics.

  6. Estimating the Count Error in the Australian Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipperfield James

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, counts of people are a key factor in the allocation of government resources. However, it is well known that errors arise in Census counting of people (e.g., undercoverage due to missing people. Therefore, it is common for national statistical agencies to conduct one or more “audit” surveys that are designed to estimate and remove systematic errors in Census counting. For example, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS conducts a single audit sample, called the Post Enumeration Survey (PES, shortly after each Australian Population Census. This article describes the estimator used by the ABS to estimate the count of people in Australia. Key features of this estimator are that it is unbiased when there is systematic measurement error in Census counting and when nonresponse to the PES is nonignorable.

  7. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-30

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

  8. Counting statistics for genetic switches based on effective interaction approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Applicability of counting statistics for a system with an infinite number of states is investigated. The counting statistics has been studied a lot for a system with a finite number of states. While it is possible to use the scheme in order to count specific transitions in a system with an infinite number of states in principle, we have non-closed equations in general. A simple genetic switch can be described by a master equation with an infinite number of states, and we use the counting statistics in order to count the number of transitions from inactive to active states in the gene. To avoid to have the non-closed equations, an effective interaction approximation is employed. As a result, it is shown that the switching problem can be treated as a simple two-state model approximately, which immediately indicates that the switching obeys non-Poisson statistics.

  9. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  10. Preoperative elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis in gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menczer, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Platelets have multiple functions and they also play an important role in malignancies. Elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis at the time of diagnosis in patients with many solid tumors correlates with prognosis and is associated with poor survival. The aim of the following report is to review the literature concerning elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis in gynecologic malignancies. A PubMed search of all English literature peer-reviewed publications was performed containing the terms elevated platelet count or thrombocytosis and vulvar cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. All studies published until December 31, 2015, were included in the following review. A pretreatment elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis have been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in many studies of gynecologic malignancies with the exception of vulvar carcinoma. Since elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis may be prevented by blocking thrombopoietic cytokines, their assessment may, in the future, be of therapeutic significance.

  11. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R. [Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  13. Inventory Replenishment Policy with Time-Varying Demand and Shortages Considering Time-Varying Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized EOQ model is developed with time-varying demand and shortages considering time-varying costs. The solution procedure is shown for determining the op timal replenishment policy over a finite time horizon during which the replenishment periods are assumed to be constant. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal replenishment policy are pre sented. The procedure is illustrated with two special cases of linear and non-linear demands and costs. Two numerical examples are also given.

  14. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D. F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (less than 1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10(exp 5) counts/mm(sup 2). A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (greater than 10(exp 10) Omega(cm) materials. In practice RPC's are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm(sup 2), leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  15. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 μm × 15 μm measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results.

  16. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  17. Simulating the Counting Mechanism of PILATUS2 and PILATUS3 Detectors for Improved Count Rate Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueb, P.; Sobott, B. A.; Schnyder, R.; Loeliger, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Kobas, M.; Rassool, R. P.; Peake, D. J.; Broennimann, C.

    2013-03-01

    PILATUS systems are well established as X-ray detectors at most synchrotrons. Their single photon counting capability ensures precise measurements, but introduces a short dead time after each hit, which becomes significant for photon rates above a million per second and pixel. The resulting loss in the number of counted photons can be corrected for by applying corresponding rate correction factors. This article presents a Monte-Carlo simulation, which computes the correction factors taking into account the detector settings as well as the time structure of the X-ray beam at the synchrotron. For the PILATUS2 detector series the simulation shows good agreement with experimentally determined correction factors for various detector settings at different synchrotrons. The application of more accurate rate correction factors will improve the X-ray data quality at high photon fluxes. Furthermore we report on the simulation of the rate correction factors for the new PILATUS3 systems. The successor of the PILATUS2 detector avoids the paralysation of the counter, and allows for measurements up to a rate of ten million photons per second and pixel. For fast detector settings the simulation is capable of reproducing the data within one to two percent at an incoming photon rate of one million per second and pixel.

  18. EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.K,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due to the stimulation of bone marrow more number of white blood cells (WBC produced from marginal pool and released into circulation. Materials & Methods: Thirty subjects both male and female were randomly selected as control and study groups. Control group sample was collected after taking rest for 1 hour and study group sample was collected immediately after grade III exercise. Conclusion: After exercise total leukocyte count (TLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.0001 and differential leukocyte count(DLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.01.

  19. An ETAS model with varying productivity rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    We present an epidemic type aftershock sequenc (ETAS) model where the offspring rates vary both spatially and temporally. This is achieved by distinguishing between those space-time volumes where the interpoint space and time distances are small, and those where they are considerably larger. We also question the nature of the background component in the ETAS model. Is it simply a temporal boundary correction (t = 0) or does it represent an additional tectonic process not described by the aftershock component? The form of these stochastic models should not be considered to be fixed. As we accumulate larger and better earthquake catalogues, GPS data, strain rates, etc., we have the ability to ask more complex questions about the nature of the process. By fitting modified models consistent with such questions, we should gain a better insight into the earthquake process. Hence, we consider a sequence of incrementally modified ETAS type models rather than `the' ETAS model.

  20. Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, F.

    2017-03-01

    Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  1. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  2. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  3. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination.

  4. Photon propagation in slowly varying electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We study the effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counter-propagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. As we treat the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  5. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault

    In string theory the coupling `constants' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently `observed' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

  6. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2002-01-01

    In string theory the coupling ``constants'' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universa...

  7. Decaying Lambda cosmology, varying G and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, S

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a class of uniform and isotropic, spatially flat, decaying Lambda cosmologies, in the realm of a model where the gravitation constant G is a function of the cosmological time. Besides the usual de Sitter solution, the models at late times are characterized by a constant ratio between the matter and total energy densities. One of them presents a coasting expansion where the matter density parameter is equal to 1/3, and the age of the universe satisfies Ht = 1. From considerations in line with the holographic conjecture, it is argued that, among the non-decelerating solutions, the coasting expansion is the only acceptable from a thermodynamic viewpoint, and that the time varying cosmological term must be proportional to the square of the Hubble parameter, a result earlier obtained using different arguments.

  8. Time-Varying Graphs and Dynamic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Casteigts, Arnaud; Quattrociocchi, Walter; Santoro, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    The past few years have seen intensive research efforts carried out in some apparently unrelated areas of dynamic systems -- delay-tolerant networks, opportunistic-mobility networks, social networks -- obtaining closely related insights. Indeed, the concepts discovered in these investigations can be viewed as parts of the same conceptual universe; and the formal models proposed so far to express some specific concepts can be viewed as fragments of a larger formal description of this universe. The main contribution of this paper is to integrate the existing partial models proposed in the literature into a unified framework, which we call TVG (for time-varying graphs). Using this framework, it is possible to express directly in the same formalism not only the concepts common to all those different areas, but also those specific to each. As part of the framework definition, we identify a hierarchy of classes of TVGs, defined with respects to basic properties to which correspond necessary conditions and impossibi...

  9. Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2012-10-01

    A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.

  10. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (PHIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  11. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  12. Finance d'entreprise:voix nouvelles et nouvelles voies

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Rainelli-Le Montagner

    2008-01-01

    (VF)Cet article examine les implications sur les recherches en finance d’entreprise du renouvellement récent des conceptions théoriques sur le fonctionnement des marchés financiers. En distinguant les approches issues de la finance comportementale de celles portées par les conventionnalistes ou par les tenants de l’utilisation des études sociales de la finance ou de la sociologie économique, le travail présenté ici permet d’identifier un certain nombre de perspectives pour les recherches futu...

  13. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  14. Precision of helicopter-based total-area counts of large ungulates in bushveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Reilly

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision in helicopter total-area counts in bushveld for a range of common species are evaluated. Counts were conducted on properties ranging in size from 250 ha to 10 000 ha as part of experiments on precision and power. Counts were conducted in three vegetation types: mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld and arid bushveld. Scant regard is given to precision as a factor in large herbivore monitoring, with more effort often devoted to accuracy. Coefficients of variation varied from 3.2 % to 70.9 %. Median values are generally acceptable for the establishment of trends for long-term monitoring, but might be inadequate for annual population size monitoring and evaluation. A regression of all species and vegetation types by the standard error showed a significant correlation. Similar regressions were also developed for impala, kudu, warthog, and zebra. Regressions by vegetation type for mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld, and northwest arid bushveld were also significant. However, the high correlation for some vegetation types might be an artifact of the small sample sizes.

  15. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-07-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information.

  16. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  17. Effect of timing of count events on estimates of sea lice abundance and interpretation of effectiveness following bath treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Vanderstichel, R; Boerlage, A S; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2017-03-01

    Effectiveness of sea lice bath treatment is often assessed by comparing pre- and post-treatment counts. However, in practice, the post-treatment counting window varies from the day of treatment to several days after treatment. In this study, we assess the effect of post-treatment lag time on sea lice abundance estimates after chemical bath treatment using data from the sea lice data management program (Fish-iTrends) between 2010 and 2014. Data on two life stages, (i) adult female (AF) and (ii) pre-adult and adult male (PAAM), were aggregated at the cage level and log-transformed. Average sea lice counts by post-treatment lag time were computed for AF and PAAM and compared relative to treatment day, using linear mixed models. There were 720 observations (treatment events) that uniquely matched pre- and post-treatment counts from 53 farms. Lag time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was influenced by season and pre-treatment sea lice levels. During summer, sea lice were at a minimum when counted 1 day post-treatment irrespective of pre-treatment sea lice levels, whereas in the spring and autumn, low levels were observed for PAAM over a longer interval of time, provided the pre-treatment sea lice levels were >5-10.

  18. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  19. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  20. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for

  1. Preset time count rate meter using adaptive digital signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two presented methods were developed to improve classical preset time count rate meters by using adapt able signal processing tools. An optimized detection algorithm that senses the change of mean count rate was implemented in both methods. Three low-pass filters of various structures with adaptable parameters to implement the control of the mean count rate error by suppressing the fluctuations in a controllable way, were considered and one of them implemented in both methods. An adaptation algorithm for preset time interval calculation executed after the low-pass filter was devised and implemented in the first method. This adaptation algorithm makes it possible to obtain shorter preset time intervals for higher stationary mean count rate. The adaptation algorithm for preset time interval calculation executed before the low-pass filter was devised and implemented in the second method. That adaptation algorithm enables sensing of a rapid change of the mean count rate before fluctuations suppression is carried out. Some parameters were fixed to their optimum values after appropriate optimization procedure. Low-pass filters have variable number of stationary coefficients depending on the specified error and the mean count rate. They implement control of the mean count rate error by suppressing fluctuations in a controllable way. The simulated and realized methods, using the developed algorithms, guarantee that the response time shall not exceed 2 s for the mean count rate higher than 2 s-1 and that controllable mean count rate error shall be within the range of ±4% to ±10%.

  2. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  3. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  4. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    at the location. We elaborate on a link between state space models and Markov random fields. The observations are modelled as independent Poisson counts conditional on a Gaussian Markov random field. We employ the fact that the model may be written as a state space model which may be analysed by combining......We consider spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed present...

  5. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    present at the location. We elaborate on a link between state space models and Markov random fields. The oberservations are modelled as independent Poisson counts conditional on a Gaussian Markov random field. We employ the fact that the model may be written as a state space model which may be analysed......This paper considers spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed...

  6. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm...... for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows...

  7. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.;

    2012-01-01

    detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously......, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core...

  8. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.;

    2012-01-01

    detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously......, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to an ice core...

  9. Exponential Martingales and Changes of Measure for Counting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2015-01-01

    We give sufficient criteria for the Doléans-Dade exponential of a stochastic integral with respect to a counting process local martingale to be a true martingale. The criteria are adapted particularly to the case of counting processes and are sufficiently weak to be useful and verifiable, as we i...... illustrate by several examples. In particular, the criteria allow for the construction of for example nonexplosive Hawkes processes, counting processes with stochastic intensities depending on diffusion processes as well as inhomogeneous finite-state Markov processes....

  10. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  11. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  12. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  13. Adaptive Counting Rule for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Under Correlated Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the cognitive radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. It has been shown in the literature that spectrum sensing performance can be greatly improved through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a data fusion based cooperative spectrum...... sensing scheme based on data fusion, where an adaptive counting rule is used to implement the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-c and c-out-of-c) found in the literature and the optimum counting rule, while under different correlation...

  14. Terrain dependant hop count selection for transparent relay transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibile K. Kanjirathumkal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this Letter, the selection of the best hop count for a particular topography, in the context of enhanced connectivity using multi-hop transparent relay communication is addressed. Based on the coefficient of variation and the terrain specific fading severity factor of the distribution, it is possible to estimate the optimal hop count that can provide the required performance at detector. Two distribution models, which can adequately characterise the terrain fading effects on empirical data are considered for performance comparison. The results are useful in selecting branches, with low variability and optimal hop count for connectivity, in multi-stream switched diversity combining systems.

  15. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  16. Photon counts modulation in optical time domain reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Bo; Wang Jing-Jing; Zhang Guo-Feng; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    The quantum fluctuation of photon counting limits the field application of optical time domain reflection. A method of photon counts modulation optics time domain reflection with single photon detection at 1.55 un is presented. The influence of quantum fluctuation can be effectively controlled by demodulation technology since quantum fluctuation shows a uniform distribution in the frequency domain. Combined with the changing of the integration time of the lock-in amplifier, the signal to noise ratio is significantly enhanced. Accordingly the signal to noise improvement ratio reaches 31.7 dB compared with the direct photon counting measurement.

  17. Time-varying modeling of cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Shin, Dae C; Orme, Melissa; Rong Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 vasomotor reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e., changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine, and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from ten healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields "time-averaged models" of physiological and clinical utility.

  18. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia

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    Prerana Nampalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2, (G+4, (G+6 storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cases are selected i.e. frames with prismatic members and frames with non-prismatic members. The structural response of various members when geometry changes physically, as in case of linear and parabolic haunches provided beyond the face of columns at beam column joints or step variations as in case of stepped haunches was also studied. Frames have been analyzed statically as well as dynamically using ETABS-9.7.4 software referring IS: 456-2000, IS: 1893 (Part-12002 and the results so obtained are grouped into various categories

  20. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...