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Sample records for vocational psychology theory

  1. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  2. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr., Ed.; Bullock-Yowell, Emily, Ed.; Dozier, V. Casey, Ed.; Osborn, Debra S., Ed.; Lenz, Janet G., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is based on the 2016 Society for Vocational Psychology (SVP) Biennial Conference, that was held at the Florida State University on May 16-17, 2016. The conference theme was "Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology." The conference content and the resulting edited book are based on the…

  3. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  4. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  5. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  6. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  7. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  8. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  9. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  10. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  11. Vocation in Theology and Psychology: Conflicting Approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Recent contributions in the fields of psychology, sociology, and theology reveal opposing attitudes about the subject of calling or vocation with regard to one's work. Whereas psychologists have rediscovered the concept, theologians increasingly show reluctance to accept a vocational view of work. In offering an alternative perspective, this…

  12. Application of Managerial Psychology Theory in Practice of Higher Vocational Students' Education%管理心理学理论在高职学生教育实践中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史少伟

    2012-01-01

    The application of managerial psychology theory is discussed,including need theory,expectancy theory and equity theory in the practice of higher vocational students' education,which has a strong guidance meaning for higher vocational students' education at present.%本文探讨了管理心理学中需要理论、期望理论和公平理论在高职学生教育实践中的运用,对目前高职学生的教育工作具有较强的指导意义。

  13. The Reintegration of Vocational Psychology and Counseling Psychology: Training Issues for a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitschek, Christine; DeBell, Camille

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, there have been numerous calls for a reinvigoration of vocational psychology. Now, as vocational psychology has grown again within counseling psychology, the authors argue that what is needed is not a reinvigoration but rather a new paradigm that reintegrates vocational psychology and the rest of counseling psychology. The…

  14. An Emancipatory Communitarian Approach to Vocational Development Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Perry, Justin C.

    2005-01-01

    Building on recent calls for a more explicit and intentional endorsement of social justice goals within counseling psychology and vocational psychology, this article proposes Prilleltensky's (1997) emancipatory communitarian approach to psychological practice as a useful framework for vocational theory, practice, and research. Such a framework…

  15. 基于积极心理学理论的职业教育课程观%On the Outlook on Curriculum for Vocational Education Based on the Theory of Positive Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓花

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology puts the positive psychological quality as the research object, and pays more attention to the study of individual positive psychology, and has a profound effect to the traditional curriculum theory, and it also provides a new theoretical basis for the modern vocational education curriculum, thus the formation of vocational education curriculum reform should focus on students' psychological characteristics. The au-thor tries to explore the vocational education curriculum from the positive psychology theory.%积极心理学把积极的心理品质作为研究对象,重视对个体积极心理的研究,对于传统的课程理论产生了深刻的影响,为现代职业教育课程观的形成提供了新的理论基础,职业教育课程改革要关注学生的心理特点。笔者力图从积极心理学理论出发,探讨职业教育的课程观。

  16. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  17. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  18. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  19. Predictive Value and Psychological Meaning of Vocational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a one-year interval (N-624). (Author)

  20. Vocation in theology-based nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Mikael

    2007-11-01

    By using the concepts of intrinsicality/extrinsicality as analytic tools, the theology-based nursing theories of Ann Bradshaw and Katie Eriksson are analyzed regarding their explicit and/or implicit understanding of vocation as a motivational factor for nursing. The results show that both theories view intrinsic values as guarantees against reducing nursing practice to mechanistic applications of techniques and as being a way of reinforcing a high ethical standard. The theories explicitly (Bradshaw) or implicitly (Eriksson) advocate a vocational understanding of nursing as being essential for nursing theories. Eriksson's theory has a potential for conceptualizing an understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors for nursing but one weakness in the theory could be the risk of slipping over to moral judgments where intrinsic factors are valued as being superior to extrinsic. Bradshaw's theory is more complex and explicit in understanding the concept of vocation and is theologically more plausible, although also more confessional.

  1. Autoethnography as a Method for Reflexive Research and Practice in Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper overviews the qualitative research method of autoethnography and its relevance to research in vocational psychology and practice in career development. Autoethnography is a reflexive means by which the researcher-practitioner consciously embeds himself or herself in theory and practice, and by way of intimate autobiographic account,…

  2. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  3. Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and Postulated Value Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's postulated personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)

  4. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  5. Integrating Health and Vocational Psychology: HIV and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…

  6. Integrating Health and Vocational Psychology: HIV and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…

  7. New Questions for Vocational Psychology: Premises, Paradigms, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative responses of vocational psychology and career counseling to the important questions raised by people living in information societies will continue the disciplines' tradition of helping individuals link their lives to the economic context. The questions pertaining to perspectives, paradigms, and practices arise mainly from the…

  8. Autoethnography in Vocational Psychology: Wearing Your Class on Your Sleeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter; Beccaria, Gavin; du Preez, Jan; Patton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses reflective practice in research and practice and takes the issue of consciousness of social class in vocational psychology as a working example. It is argued that the discipline's appreciation of social class can be advanced through application of the qualitative research method autoethnography. Excerpts from an…

  9. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  10. Student-Centred and Teacher-Centred Learning Environment in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Psychological Needs, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Karin; de Brabander, Cornelis J.; Martens, Rob L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the perception of psychological needs and motivation in a student-centred and a teacher-centred learning environment are compared, using Self Determination Theory as a framework. The self-report Intrinsic Motivation Inventory was completed by 230 students (mean age 16.1 years) in pre-vocational secondary education. School records on…

  11. Student-Centred and Teacher-Centred Learning Environment in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Psychological Needs, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Karin; de Brabander, Cornelis J.; Martens, Rob L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the perception of psychological needs and motivation in a student-centred and a teacher-centred learning environment are compared, using Self Determination Theory as a framework. The self-report Intrinsic Motivation Inventory was completed by 230 students (mean age 16.1 years) in pre-vocational secondary education. School records on…

  12. The Evolution of Vocational Psychology: Questions for a Postmodern Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieshok, Thomas S.; Motl, Thomas C.; Rutt, Benjamin T.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational psychology has a long history of acting as a lens that focuses research in basic sciences on the particular experience of work in people's lives. This article presents several areas on the ascendancy in the broader scientific literature and ask how vocational psychology might apply them to issues of work in people's lives. The authors'…

  13. Vocational Self-Esteem and Psychological Needs in Turkish Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitci, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, relationships between vocational self-esteem and psychological needs (autonomy, affiliation, achievement, and dominance) in Turkish counseling students were examined. In addition, the moderating effect of gender on the relationships between vocational self-esteem and psychological needs was investigated. The participants consisted…

  14. The Evolution of Vocational Psychology: Questions for a Postmodern Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieshok, Thomas S.; Motl, Thomas C.; Rutt, Benjamin T.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational psychology has a long history of acting as a lens that focuses research in basic sciences on the particular experience of work in people's lives. This article presents several areas on the ascendancy in the broader scientific literature and ask how vocational psychology might apply them to issues of work in people's lives. The authors'…

  15. A Theory Ridden, Computerless, Impersonal Vocational Guidance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1971-01-01

    The Self-Directed Search for educational and Vocational Planning is a self-administered, self-scored, and self-interpreted vocational counseling tool. It is inexpensive, practical, and has a high degree of scientific validity and client effectiveness. The SDS is based on Holland's theory of personality types. (Author)

  16. Interdisciplinarity in Vocational Guidance: An Action Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Ladislav; Young, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In addressing the issue of interdisciplinary research in vocational guidance, twelve propositions important for understanding the vocational guidance process as joint, goal-directed action are presented. They address the encounter between client and counsellor leading to relational ethics, the relevance of everyday action theory and methods for…

  17. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  18. The Implications of Theory Z for Departments of Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Linda S.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Theory Z management approach as postulated by William G. Ouchi and presents steps to be considered by postsecondary departments of vocational education attempting to implement this approach. (NRJ)

  19. Remembering Donald G. Paterson: Before the Separation between Industrial-Organizational and Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdheim, Jesse; Zickar, Michael J.; Yankelevich, Maya

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the disconnect between industrial-organizational (I-O) and vocational psychology in the context of Donald Paterson's career, an applied psychologist who bridged both disciplines. Paterson's interests in "both" vocational guidance and personnel selection suggest that these fields are interwoven, despite the prevailing gap…

  20. Measurement of Vocational Personality Theory in Light of Holland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Tezci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to examine the reliability and validity of a 55-item vocational interests scale prepared in light of Holland’s theory. According to Holland, there are six personality types in the workplace: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. People’s vocational personality is measured by looking at their vocational interests in this theory. 310 pre-service teachers from there departments including chemistry education, computer education/instructional technology and music education participated in the study. Results, in general, supported the premises of Holland’s theory. Although the results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the scale, 8 items possessed poor psychometric properties. As expected, there were significant differences among the pre-service teachers in these departments in terms of their vocational interests. The results of correlation and multi-dimensional scaling analyses produced contradictory results with the Holland’s hexagon. Although the propositions of Holland’s theory is not fully supported in the current study, we believe that our scale can be utilized confidently as an instrument to measure people’s vocational personality and help them to choose a career that fits their personality.

  1. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  2. John Holland's Vocational Typology and Personality Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; Blake, Rex

    1999-01-01

    The literature provides evidence of links between measures of personality and vocational interests as theorized by Holland. Personality and interest assessments offer critical information for predicting career success. Personality assessment reflects the individual viewed by an observer and interest measurement reflects the individual's…

  3. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  4. On Conquering Psychological Obstacles of Oral English Study in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to find better ways to conquer psychological obstacles in oral English learning for vocational college English learners.The approaches are based on the important fact that psychological obstacles have impeded the language learning seriously.This paper describes the status quo of oral English study in vocational colleges,presents the problems existing among college learners,and analyzes them to find subjective and objective reasons.Finally,the analysis of the survey results will help to conquer psychological obstacles of spoken English learning.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL GUIDING OF STUDENTS’ INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL TRAJECTORIES IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evald F. Zeer

    2015-01-01

    , the purpose of tutor guiding is maintenance of personal and professional development of trainees with due consideration of their individual psychological features and socially-professional specificity. Scientific novelty. The authors single out and summarize the methodological background necessity of psychological guiding process of the development and implementation of individually-oriented professional education. The semantic value of such guiding implementation developed by the authors performs structural and substantial model of the process. The requirement for the new methodology of vocational training based on network interaction of members of education is highlighted. The new network is considered as a platform technology of multidimensional professional of a specialist. Practical significance. The authors believe that the research findings will promote the approval of foresight technology through designing of individual educational trajectories; also the research implementations can be helpful for the tutors supervising process of professional development of trainees. 

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL GUIDING OF STUDENTS’ INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL TRAJECTORIES IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evald F. Zeer

    2015-05-01

    , the purpose of tutor guiding is maintenance of personal and professional development of trainees with due consideration of their individual psychological features and socially-professional specificity. Scientific novelty. The authors single out and summarize the methodological background necessity of psychological guiding process of the development and implementation of individually-oriented professional education. The semantic value of such guiding implementation developed by the authors performs structural and substantial model of the process. The requirement for the new methodology of vocational training based on network interaction of members of education is highlighted. The new network is considered as a platform technology of multidimensional professional of a specialist. Practical significance. The authors believe that the research findings will promote the approval of foresight technology through designing of individual educational trajectories; also the research implementations can be helpful for the tutors supervising process of professional development of trainees. 

  7. John L. Holland's Contributions to Vocational Psychology: A Review and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Gary D.

    1999-01-01

    Holland pioneered the theory of vocational personality and work environments, revolutionizing delivery of career assistance. His research has been central to development of knowledge about nonacademic accomplishments. He has influenced both researchers and psychologists. (163 references) (SK)

  8. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  9. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  10. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  11. Psychologic theories in functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, A; Ludwig, L; Welch, K

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter. Our aim is an overview with the emphasis on breadth of coverage rather than depth.

  12. Psychological Separation, Attachment Security, Vocational Self-Concept Crystallization, and Career Indecision: A Structural Equation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, David M.; Withrow, Jason R.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test theoretically based models in which psychological separation and attachment security variables were related to career indecision and those relations were mediated through vocational self-concept crystallization. Results indicated that some components of separation and attachment security did relate to…

  13. Rightsizing the Workforce: Changing Roles of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Rosie Phillips

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly defines rightsizing the workforce and discusses the rightsizing dilemma in relation to the current economic downturn in the United States, its disparate effects on citizens, and implications for potential shifting roles for vocational psychologists. Next, the discussion will highlight disenfranchised or marginalized groups…

  14. Vocationalism in Higher Education: Explanations from Social Theory. ASHE Annual Meeting 1980 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Robert E.

    Three social theories (status-competition theory, functionalism, and legitimation theory) are considered as explanations of a growing vocationalism in higher education. Vocationalism is used to refer to an increasing interest among undergraduate students in pursuing studies that lead directly to occupational competence. Status-competition theory…

  15. Cognitive psychological theories of suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saška Roškar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviour is a consequence of simultaneous influences of many factors. Basically it can be regarded as a consequence of an interplay of two risk factors, namely genetic and environmental, which express themselves in the form of sociological, biological and psychological factors. It is difficult to find a theory of suicidal behaviour which would cover or consider all factors, and although present theories are overlapping, they emphasize different risk factors. More recent studies are focusing on neuropsychological and cognitive functioning of suicidal persons. The most cited psychological theory of suicidal behaviour is the Cry of Pain model which understands the suicidal behaviour as a consequence of a situation signaling defeat, entrapment and no rescue, which subsequently can lead to feelings of hopelessness. The psychobiological theory of two vulnerability components of sucidal behaviour extends existing psychological theories and helps to understand why some persons with depressive disorder engage in suicidal behaviour and the other don't. Both theories imply impaired cognitive abilities in suicidal persons. It is still not entirely understood if these cognitive impairments can be regarded as a state or a trait feature. What happens with cognitive functions after the initial crisis is over, explains the Theory of differential activation. The purpose of the present paper is to introduce and combine these theories and discuss their practical implications.

  16. Cognitive psychological theories of suicidal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Saška Roškar

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a consequence of simultaneous influences of many factors. Basically it can be regarded as a consequence of an interplay of two risk factors, namely genetic and environmental, which express themselves in the form of sociological, biological and psychological factors. It is difficult to find a theory of suicidal behaviour which would cover or consider all factors, and although present theories are overlapping, they emphasize different risk factors. More recent studies are ...

  17. Association of Sexual Intercourse with Psychological Suppression and Copying Modes for Vocational School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Xiao-jin WANG; Xiao-wen TU; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of sex behavior with sexual related psychological suppression and coping modes among students in three vocational schools in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1368 grade one students from three vocational schools in a district of Shanghai,with Computer Assisted Self-Interview(CASI).The field work began in the April,2003 for a baseline survey,and completed in the December,2003.Data on students'sexual intercourse,sexual related psychological suppression and psychological coping modes,and communication with parents were collected and analyzed.Binary logistic regression was used to adjust the potential confounding factors.Results After controlling for demographic factors,adolescents with middle or high scores of active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to have sexual intercourse(ORadj=0.48,95% CI=0.30-0.77 and ORadj=0.49,95%CI=0.30-0.83,respectively),while association between psychological suppression on sex related events and sexual intercourse was not statistically significant(ORadj=0.93,95%CI=0.63-1.37);sexual related psychological suppression and active coping modes were positively associated with adolescents'communicating with parents for 2-7 h/week about school things.but negatively associated with parents'open attitudes towards heterosexual contacts and talking sex related things with others.Conclusion Vocational school students with active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to engage in sexual intercourse,so interventions focus on reducing unprotected sexual behaviors should target on psychological coping modes skills training.

  18. Application of Psychological Health Education of Vocational School Teaching Classroom%心理健康教育在职专课堂教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤金美; 柴真真

    2014-01-01

    中学生处于心理不稳定的青春期,心理健康教育已经成为职专教学的重中之重,本文全方位、深层次地分析了职专学生的心理特点、心理健康教育在职专教学中的重要性及其应对策略。为心理健康教育在职专教学中的广泛应用提供了重要的理论意义及实践意义。%Middle school students are in adolescence mental instability,mental health education has become the priority among priorities of vocational school teaching, this paper all-round, in-depth analysis of the psychological health education, psychological characteristics of vocational school students the importance of vocational school teaching and its countermeasures. Provides important theory meaning and practice meaning to the wide application of psychological health education in the teaching of vocational school.

  19. Incorporating Evolutionary Theory into the Teaching of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a greater and more explicit use of evolutionary theory in psychology courses. Provides examples of ways that this strategy can help students think critically about classic psychological theories, understand the importance of narrower domain-specific theories, and comprehend the rationales behind cross-species comparison in psychology.…

  20. Alternative probability theories for cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narens, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Various proposals for generalizing event spaces for probability functions have been put forth in the mathematical, scientific, and philosophic literatures. In cognitive psychology such generalizations are used for explaining puzzling results in decision theory and for modeling the influence of context effects. This commentary discusses proposals for generalizing probability theory to event spaces that are not necessarily boolean algebras. Two prominent examples are quantum probability theory, which is based on the set of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and topological probability theory, which is based on the set of open sets of a topology. Both have been applied to a variety of cognitive situations. This commentary focuses on how event space properties can influence probability concepts and impact cognitive modeling.

  1. A Theory-Ridden, Computerless, Impersonal Vocational Guidance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    Beginning with a brief summary of the need for practical vocational guidance systems, the author explains his Self Directed Search for Educational and Vocational Planning (SDS), which was developed to provide a cheap, practical, vocational guidance system having a high degree of scientific validty and client effectiveness. The SDS is a…

  2. Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Vocational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H.

    1975-01-01

    Stage resolution attitudes, derived from the first six stage crises outlined by Erikson, were explored as variables influencing problems in vocational choice and vocational maturity. Findings indicated students who made adjusted vocational choices and developed mature career attitudes had also been more successful resolving the first six…

  3. Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Vocational Interest Measurement: An Illustration Using the AIST-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Vocational interest inventories are commonly analyzed using a unidimensional approach, that is, each subscale is analyzed separately. However, the theories on which these inventories are based often postulate specific relationships between the interest traits. This article presents a multidimensional approach to the analysis of vocational interest…

  4. Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Vocational Interest Measurement: An Illustration Using the AIST-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Vocational interest inventories are commonly analyzed using a unidimensional approach, that is, each subscale is analyzed separately. However, the theories on which these inventories are based often postulate specific relationships between the interest traits. This article presents a multidimensional approach to the analysis of vocational interest…

  5. Self-esteem and communication skills as predictors of psychological resilience for Turkish vocational school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem TAGAY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes whether or not communication skills and self-esteem of vocational school students can predict their psychological resilience. The data of the study were collected from a total of 295 vocational school students including 147 female and 148 male in Burdur and Isparta. The study benefited from the Ego Resiliency Scale developed by Block and Kremen (1996 and adapted by Karaırmak (2007, the Communication Skills Evaluation Scale developed by Korkut (1996, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale developed by Morris Rosenberg (1965. The study made use of the standard multiple regression analysis in order to prove the power of the assessment of communication skills and self-esteem to predict psychological levels of resilience of vocational school students. The data were tested on a 0.05 level of significance. This study shows that the assessment of communication skills and self-esteem positively co- relates with the personal strengths of pulling oneself together. The positive self-assessment predicts self- esteem positively and significantly as well. A positive sense of an individual’s about oneself positively co- relates with high self-esteem.

  6. 高职院校学生越轨行为的标签理论分析%Labeling Theory Analysis of Vocational College Students' Misbehavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹梦楚

    2014-01-01

    越轨行为通常指违背社会规范,破坏社会秩序的反社会行为。近些年,随着我国高等职业教育的发展和高职院校的扩招,一部分高职学生的越轨行为已经成为高职院校管理工作中的重中之重。本文结合高职教育和高职学生的特点,从社会标签理论的视角分析部分高职生越轨行为的成因和心理,并提供相应的对策思考。%Deviant behavior usually refers to violate social norms, undermine social order antisocial behavior. In recent years, with enrollment growth and vocational colleges of higher vocational education, vocational students as part of the man-agement of deviant behavior have become a top priority in vocational colleges. In this paper, vocational education and voca-tional characteristics of students, from the perspective of social labeling theory analysis section vocational students and psy-chological causes of deviant behavior, and provide appropriate countermeasures.

  7. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  8. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  9. Explicating students’ personal professional theories in vocational education through multi-method triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Harmen; De Bruijn, Elly; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Baartman, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Schaap, H., De Bruijn, E., Van der Schaaf, M. F., Baartman, L. K. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Explicating students’ personal professional theories in vocational education through multi-method triangulation. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 55, 567-586.

  10. Explicating students’ personal professional theories in vocational education through multi-method triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Harmen; De Bruijn, Elly; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Baartman, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Schaap, H., De Bruijn, E., Van der Schaaf, M. F., Baartman, L. K. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Explicating students’ personal professional theories in vocational education through multi-method triangulation. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 55, 567-586.

  11. Theory of secondary vocational English project teaching method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅

    2016-01-01

    Under the impetus of the rapid development of science and technology and economy,Social productivity level and greatly enhance people's quality of life,education level also got further development.Under the influence of the globalization development trend,English gradually become the most widely used foreign language of people daily life. Secondary vocational English is a public basic course of secondary vocational school students, as an important part of secondary vocational students training plan, has received the widespread attention.In this study, secondary vocational English project teaching method is briefly discussed.

  12. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  13. An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)

  14. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  15. Exploration of Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice in Graduate School Enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Thomas T.; Walsh, E. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to refine many of the constructs used in Holland's theory of vocational choice by investigating definitions and relationships that comprise the theory. As well, this study concerned itself with establishing usefulness of applying Holland's theory to students in a graduate school environment. (Author)

  16. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  17. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein), individual psychology (A. Adler), analytical psychology (C.G. Jung), concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm), social-cultural theory (K. Horney), ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters), dispositional direction (G. Allpor...

  18. Application of Scaffolding Theory to Higher Vocational Students Class-room Interaction in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晗

    2013-01-01

      Scaffolding theory is one of the mature teaching methods of constructivism model . The effective interaction between teachers and students is one characteristic of scaffold teaching. This paper aims at combining scaffolding theory with classroom in⁃teraction in teaching higher vocational students English to help students arouse interest and enhance their comprehensive ability in English learning.

  19. 利用心理测验对中职学生进行学习心理辅导%Implementing Learning Psychology Counseling for Secondary Vocational Students by Utilizing Psychological Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张言

    2012-01-01

    文章主要是从现实和理论的角度出发,通过心理测验的方法对于影响学生学习的不同的心理因素作出系统指导和训练,从而提高中职学生的心理调控能力和学习的能力,从而实现学生高效率的学习和自觉学习的能力,以达到提高学生学习成绩的近期的目标。%This paper,starting from the perspective of practice and theory,make systematic supervision and training on students' learning psychologies,so as to improve secondary vocational students' psychological control ability and learning ability,and realize efficient learning and autonomous learning of students.

  20. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  1. Evolutionary Theory's Increasing Role in Personality and Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.

  2. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein, individual psychology (A. Adler, analytical psychology (C.G. Jung, concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm, social-cultural theory (K. Horney, ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters, dispositional direction (G. Allport, R. Cattell, humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, existential psychology (V. Frankl. It is shown that in Russian theories of personality the problem of envy is reflected in the works of A.A. Bodalev, V.N. Myasishchev, V.N. Panferov, A.V. Petrovsky.Purpose.To carry out the analysis of psychological theories of the personality to identify the specific of ideas of psychological essence and envy sources.Methodology.Theoretical analysis and systematization of scientific data.Results.Separation and heterogeneity of scientific ideas of envy is revealed, that, on the one hand, allows looking at it from different points of view, and with another – counteracts the integration of knowledge of envy into uniform theoretical system.Practical implications. Research results can be used in the practice of psychological consultation, the psycho-correction of the envious relation, the outreach activity of psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-68

  3. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  4. Examining the Application of Holland's Theory to Vocational Interests and Choices of Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…

  5. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  6. Examining the Application of Holland's Theory to Vocational Interests and Choices of Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…

  7. Game Theory and Social Psychology: Conformity Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc

    2011-11-01

    Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.

  8. Study on English MOOC in Vocational Colleges from Educational Ecolo-gy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封娇

    2015-01-01

    From the programmed instruction method in the 1960s and 1970s to the emergence of open courses at the beginning of the 21st century and then to the fast growth of massive open online course(MOOC),online education never stops its pace on the road of research and practice with the continuous upgrade of the Internet.As the hot education revolutionary,MOOC has aroused a large number of researchers'attention.So how English MOOC develop in vocational colleges? Is there any education theory contributing to MOOC's development? What's the special MOOC mode for English in vocational colleges? These are the research topics of this thesis.

  9. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory.

  10. Students’ personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Harmen; De Bruijn, Elly; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Schaap, H., De Bruijn, E., Van der Schaaf, M. F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Students' personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61(4), 481-494

  11. Students’ personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Harmen; De Bruijn, Elly; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Schaap, H., De Bruijn, E., Van der Schaaf, M. F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Students' personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education: the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61(4), 481-494

  12. [Pain. Evaluation of the developing pain theories. The psychological factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakos, A; Niamonitos, K; Vrotsos, I A

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we presented the different theories and opinions regarding the development of pain. After a very brief historical review including the ideas of Homer, Hippocrates, Aristoteles, St. Thomas Aquinas, we reviewed the 19th century's theories including Whytt, Brodie, Inman and Austie. From the modern period we emphasized the "gate theory" introduced originally by Melzack and Well. The psychological aspects has been also examined and the patient as "a dental patient" also described.

  13. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Krok

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for...

  14. Examining the Psychology of Working Theory: Decent Work Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Richard P; Velez, Brandon L; Conlin, Sarah E; Duffy, Ryan D; England, Jessica W

    2017-03-23

    Research has found heterosexist discrimination negatively relates to vocational outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, but no known study has examined how heterosexist discrimination relates to the attainment of decent work. Building from the Psychology of Working Theory, which proposes that specific forms of marginalization coupled with economic constraints limit a person's ability to secure decent work, the present study examined theoretically hypothesized pathways to decent work among a sample of employed sexual minority adults. Heterosexist discrimination and social class were examined as direct predictors of decent work, and indirect links were examined via work volition and career adaptability. Among our sample of 218 sexual minority people, structural equation modeling results suggested heterosexist discrimination and social class directly-and indirectly through work volition-predicted decent work. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter

    2009-04-01

    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self.

  16. Contributions of object relations theory and self psychology to relational psychology and group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, V L

    2000-04-01

    Object relations theory and self psychology are psychoanalytic perspectives that are especially concerned with interpersonal relations and their mental representations. Object relations theory began as an intrapsychic "singleton" psychology with the work of Freud and Melanie Klein. It subsequently evolved into a multi-person psychology with the work of Bion on groups, as well as the clinical and theoretical contributions of Winnicott and Fairbairn. Kohutian self psychology, which emerged later, has been interested in the relations between the self and significant others as mirroring and idealizing "self-objects." Stolorow's "inter-subjective perspective" emerged from self psychology as a full-fledged multi-person point of view. This article considers the significance of contemporary object relations theory and self psychology as relational, multi-person perspectives in terms of their application to group psychotherapy, focusing upon the group-as-a-whole, projective identification, transitional space and object, and self/self-object relations as particularly useful constructs. A clinical vignette is provided.

  17. 高职生创业心理品质微探%Exploration into Higher Vocational Students' Pioneering Psychological Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玲; 章莉娟

    2011-01-01

    Starting their business by higher vocational college students plays an important role for the construction of entrepreneurial country, which can not be underestimated. Higher vocational college students cannot realize their value of life in setting up a business without their own comprehensive qualities, hence the entrepreneurial psychological quality have great influence on their ability to initiate business and their career success as one the most key factors.%高职院校学生创业对我国建设创业型国家有着不可低估的重要作用。高职生要在创业过程中实现自己的人生价值,离不开良好的自身综合素质,因此创业的心理品质是影响其创业能力和创业成败最重要的素质之一。

  18. From theory to application and back again: implications of research on medical expertise for psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoffrey

    2005-03-01

    Research directed at an understanding of medical expertise is about 30 years old, and many developments in this literature parallel progress in cognitive psychology. Over the past 15 years or so, this research became much more closely identified with particular psychological theories. Initial forays into medicine were essentially direct applications of methods developed in the psychology lab to the more natural domain of medicine, with varying degrees of success. These attempts were followed by a second wave that took the psychological theories themselves more seriously in a more thoughtful application of psychological methods to the medical domain. I will argue in the present paper that the methods and theories used in the study of medical expertise have advanced to the point that there is some reverse flow and they are providing a unique and valuable perspective on the nature of thinking.

  19. Evolutionary psychology: toward a unifying theory and a hybrid science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporael, L R

    2001-01-01

    Although evolutionary psychology is typically associated with "selfish gene theory," numerous other approaches to the study of mind and behavior provide a wealth of concepts for theorizing about psychology, culture, and development. These include general evolutionary approaches and theories focused on sociality, dual inheritance, multilevel selection, and developmental systems. Most evolutionary accounts use the same methods as Darwin-the "fit among facts"-to use natural selection as an explanation for behavior. Scientific standards for constraining and evaluating such accounts, research into the mutual influence of science and society on the understanding of evolution, and computational technologies for modeling species-typical processes are important considerations. Coevolutionary theories and developmental systems theories may eventually give rise to unification in a broad and general sense. Such a unification would be interdisciplinary and problem centered rather than discipline centered.

  20. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  1. Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

  2. Film Theory and Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film": A Psychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study" is one of the earliest essays in the area of film theory. Unfortunately, it has remained relatively unknown since its publication in 1916. The author discusses two concepts raised by Munsterberg: the contrast between films in the theatrical mode and films in the cinematic mode.…

  3. 浅谈高职学生职业心理素质的培养%Introduction to the cultivation of professional psychological quality higher vocational students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟

    2015-01-01

    Professional psychological quality plays an important role in the occupational activities,it is necessary to strength-en the students'professional psychological quality in higher vocational colleges.This paper mainly discusses the necessity of pro-fessional psychological quality training,the employing units on the vocational college students psychological quality requirements of occupation,and on this basis puts forward the ways to cultivate the professional psychological quality.%职业心理素质在职业活动中具有重要作用,高职院校有必要加强学生的职业心理素质培养。文章从用人单位对员工职业心理素质的要求出发,对职业心理素质培养提出了若干建议。

  4. The Analysis on Emotional Education in Vocational School English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰州职业技术学院 730070

    2015-01-01

    In the time of advancing quality education, emotion education has been paid more and more attention. English teaching is both language teaching progress and emotional communication progress. Therefore, emotional education is extremely important and indispensable in vocational school classroom teaching. However, the current application of vocational school emotional education in English classroom teaching is still relatively weak. Based on the theory of emotional education, this paper attempts to explore the methods and strategies of applying emotional education in vocational school English classroom teaching. It has important theoretical significance on promoting the comprehensive development of the vocational school students, improving English teaching effect, promoting the healthy and sustainable development of the vocational school education, and enriching and developing the emotional teaching psychology and cognitive psychology theory.

  5. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory - Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.

    2007-01-01

    Biosocial theory claims that evolution did not design human psychological sex differences. It argues that these are the result of the allocation of men and women into different sex roles, based on physical differences. This article argues, however, that biosocial theory is not an alternative to evol

  6. Personal construct theory and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, E

    1983-12-01

    The concept of 'psychological well-being' (as opposed to 'psychological disorder') is considered from the standpoint of George Kelly's personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is argued that the origin of psychological disorder lies in a difficulty in 'person construing', with particular reference to 'self-construing'. For some (like schizophrenics) this may be a relatively permanent state of affairs, whereas for others it may reflect a temporary crisis or transition. It seems that the ability to maintain a relatively stable, yet flexible, self-construction may be crucial. Social relationships, however, although potentially validating, also carry the risk of invalidating our self-construction. An individual's particular response to 'invalidation' may be substantially determined by commonality of construing in his particular context, e.g. an adolescent female may turn to slimming whereas a young male may turn to alcohol. Although the theory has proved to be most useful at an explanatory level, it has been applied therapeutically only to a limited extent. It is argued that psychologists may make a greater contribution to the enhancement of psychological well-being by applying constructive alternativism within a learning or educational context rather than the clinical setting.

  7. Social action theory for a public health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, C K

    1991-09-01

    Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level. A social action view emphasizes social interdependence and interaction in personal control of health-endangering behavior and proposes mechanisms by which environmental structures influence cognitive action schemas, self-goals, and problem-solving activities critical to sustained behavioral change. Social action theory clarifies relationships between social and personal empowerment and helps explain stages of self-change.

  8. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Oppong

    2014-01-01

    In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents) or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST). Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interd...

  9. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  10. A Model of Creativity in Organizations: John Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice (1973) at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Rukhsar

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper serves to create a model of creativity and innovation at different organizational levels. It draws on John Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice (1973) as the basis for its structure by incorporating the six different personality types from his theory: conventional, enterprising, realistic, social, investigative, and…

  11. Increase Vocational Students' Psychological Capital to Deal with the Learning Anxiety in the Process of Growing--Cause Analysis and Countermeasures of Rural Vocational Students' Learning Anxiety%提高中职学生心理资本应对成长过程中的学习焦虑--农村中职生学习焦虑的成因分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马香桃

    2014-01-01

    Learning anxiety prevalent in rural secondary vocational school students is an important factor affecting gro-wth of secondary vocational school students ' mental health. Based on factors contributing to formation of vocational school students ' anxiety psychology in conducting investigations and analysis, I found that rural vocational school stu-dents ' learning anxiety caused mainly due to their lack of positive psychological capital for the growth of self. By studying educational psychology theory and according to his teaching practice, put forward by education teaching management in the process of improving the rural secondary vocational students' psychological capital can respond effectively to the gro-wing anxiety in the process.%学习焦虑情绪在农村中职生中普遍存在,是影响中职生心理健康成长的重要因素之一。通过对造成中职生学习焦虑心理形成的因素进行调查和分析,笔者发现造成农村中职生学习焦虑的主要原因是他们严重缺乏自我积极成长的心理资本。通过研究教育心理学理论以及结合自身的教育教学实际,笔者提出通过在教育教学管理过程中提高农村中职生的心理资本,可以有效地应对其成长过程中的学习焦虑。

  12. Futurism in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Vocational education is likely to change dramatically as society as a whole continues to change in the future. Research conducted by vocational education specialists will likely result in a new scope and sequence of vocational instruction. New theories of vocational education will be developed, as will new instructional methods based on these…

  13. The Importance of Workplace Bullying to Vocational Psychology: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Mary E.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Bernfeld, Steve J.; Carter, Laura M.; Kies, Ashley; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a significant problem in many adult work settings. Much of the research has been conducted by organizational psychologists. It is important for vocational scholars and practitioners to be knowledgeable about the phenomena of workplace bullying, as they are in a position to contribute to the literature base and to counsel…

  14. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Study on Status of Psychological Well-being for Vocational Students%高职生心理幸福感现状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳佳; 童秀英; 崔鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Under the situation of higher vocational education's rapid development, vocational college students as an independent group, studying the well-being, it's of great significant to enhance the well-being of vocational college students, and promote the psychological health of vocational college students. This study attempts to know the status of vocational college students' psychological well-being by the survey and analysis of questionnaire.%在高职教育快速发展的形势下,把高职生作为独立群体,研究其幸福感,对提升高职生的幸福感,促进高职生心理健康具有重要的意义。通过问卷调查的形式,了解和分析性别、年级、专业、成绩等因素及是否为独生子女和学生干部对高职生心理幸福感的影响。

  16. Common sense, intuition, and theory in personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical work in personality and social psychology benefits from a well-developed understanding of the prior empirical and theoretical work on a problem and from informed intuitions. Intuitions develop about a subject matter through years of study, investigation, and problem solving, just as chess masters develop a sophisticated set of cognitive structures that change the very appearance of the chess board. In part because the subject matter is so personal, students new to personality and social psychology arrive with many intuitions, prior beliefs, and naive theories about social processes and behavior based on unsystematic experiences and observations. These intuitions can hinder or foster theoretical progress. The role of mentors, critiques, and empirical tests in minimizing the deleterious effects of these entry biases is discussed. Refined scientific intuitions are also subject to error, however, so means of minimizing these errors are also discussed.

  17. Report about Vocational Students' Psychological Comprehensive Evaluation Analysis%高职院校学生心理测评综合分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春鸿

    2011-01-01

    Attaching importance to the psychological state of health of students in higher vocational colleges is the premise of doing well higher vocational students' psychological health education. To know about students' psychological health, we use SCL-90 to conduct random cluster sampling for freshmen, and compare and analyze the 342 valid samples.%关注高职院校大学生的心理健康状况,是做好高职学生心理健康教育的前提.为了解我校区三年制高职学生的心理健康状况,我们运用SCL-90对大一学生进行随机整群抽样,并对342个有效样本进行了比较分析.

  18. Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.

  19. Piaget's Structural Developmental Psychology. v. Ideology-Critique and the Possibility of a Critical Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, John M.

    1981-01-01

    This final essay in a five-part series examining Piaget's structural developmental psychology suggests that a psychological theory which integrates aspects of developmental structuralism within a critical social framework can be developed. (Author/RH)

  20. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.

  1. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  2. Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1 general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology; (2 explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations of the world. Explicit processing allows humans to regulate modular mechanisms in accordance with culturally constructed norms and culturally constructed cost/benefit payoff schedules. It also enables active attempts to construct culture in accordance with explicit perceptions of possible costs and benefits. Because people have different construals of the costs and benefits of particular forms of culture, there is conflict over the construction of culture. Social controls and ideologies are introduced as general cultural categories that are enabled by explicit processing and which are able to regulate and motivate behavior within particular historical contexts, at times in ways that conflict with evolved predispositions. Ideologies are often intimately intertwined with various social controls but are logically and psychologically independent from social controls. Ideologies typically rationalize extant social controls but they also benefit from the power of social controls to enforce ideological conformity in schools or in religious institutions. Because of the control of explicit processing over behavior, this theory predicts that conflicts over culture will often be intense. Discussion deals with the implications of this model for group selection, cultural transmission, gene-culture co-evolution, and the various types of conflicts of interest apparent in conflicts over the construction of culture.

  3. Entrepreneurship as a Competitive Development of Vocational Education: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Mokronosov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the complex of economic processes in the sphere of the higher vocational education. The research is aimed at investigating, clarifying and systemizing the theoretical concepts of entrepreneur- ship in the context of the knowledge economy and rising competitiveness in the market of scientific and educational services. The research methodology basis involves the works of domestic and foreign scholars in the fields of competitive development, entrepreneurship, quasi-markets theories and self- developing organizations. The paper presents the author’s interpretation of the university entrepreneurship as the integrated and systematic process generated by the dramatic changes of socio-economic development, increasing global trends of economy intellectualization, significant proportion of scientific and educational services, and increasing role of modernization in sustaining the state welfare and stability. The university entrepreneurship is regarded as a synthesis of creative, innovative, commercial and managerial activities in the market of scientific and educational services, labor market, industrial and financial markets. The interrelation of economic and social aspects of university business is revealed including the links between the government, universities, scientific educational institutions, business community, households and other subjects of educational service market. The application of the main theoretical principles of the research concerning the higher school business vector is demonstrated by the practical activity of the Russian Vocational Pedagogical University. 

  4. [Dream interpretation: theory of the "psychological apparatus" as initial consciousness theory in Freud's metapsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H

    1983-01-01

    In the "Interpretation of Dreams" (1900 a) Freud presents for the first time a purely psychologically founded theory of psychic functioning, in the centre of which stands the model of the "psychic apparatus". In the detailed reconstruction of the statements of the "Interpretation" the present study tries to elaborate the meaning of "consciousness" within a psychology of the unconscious, in order to transfer--with reference to the early writings of J.-P. Sartre--the critique of Freudian unconscious to the level of the underlying conception of consciousness.

  5. 试论积极心理学视域下的高职院校心理健康教育%On psychological health education in higher vocational colleges from the perspective of positive psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔岩

    2013-01-01

    At present, the influence of psychological health education in higher vocational colleges has been affected by the negative psychology, psychological problems, prevention and correction of students, ignoring the development of students' potential. As an important branch of psychology, positive psychology focuses on the positive social environment, positive emotions, positive personality traits, aims to explore people's happiness, pleasure, satisfaction. In order to further improve the work of mental health education in higher vocational colleges, the positive psychology in mental health education, to cultivate students' positive psychological quality in health education in higher vocational colleges, psychological distress in pointed out a correct road.%目前,高职院校的心理健康教育一直受消极心理学的影响,主要预防和矫正学生的心理问题,忽略了学生潜能的开发。作为心理学一个重要的分支,积极心理学重点研究积极社会环境、积极情绪体验、积极人格特质等,旨在发掘人们的快乐、愉悦、满意感。为了进一步做好高职院校的心理健康教育工作,将积极心理学运用在心理健康教育中,能够培养高职院校学生积极的心理品质,为处在困境中的高职院校心理健康教育指出一条正确的道路。

  6. Congruence of Holland's theory of vocational and work environments with GPA of college students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khatib, Saleh A

    2007-06-01

    Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environment, extended to educational environments, was used as a theoretical framework for the study of the relation of congruence and sex on self-reported GPA. 617 students at Ajman University of Science and Technology responded to the Vocational Preference Inventory. Analysis of variance indicated that students' congruence and sex were significant predictors of GPA and the interaction of GPA and sex. Associations of sex with congruence and with Academic Environment were significant, represented by choice of major. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  7. Problems and Countermeasures of Colloquial English Large Size Class Teach-ing of Higher Vocational Public English under the Constructivism Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ping

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of constructivism, this article analyzes the open problems colloquial English large size class teach-ing of higher vocational public English and points out the countermeasures of colloquial English large-scale class teaching of high-er vocational public English.

  8. An integrative mechanistic account of psychological distress, therapeutic change and recovery: the Perceptual Control Theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Sally; Mansell, Warren; Wood, Alex M

    2011-03-01

    The exact nature and mechanisms of psychological change within psychological disorders remain unknown. This review aims to use a psychological framework known as Perceptual Control Theory (Powers, 1973, 2005; Powers, Clark, & McFarland, 1960) to integrate the diverse literature within psychotherapy research. The core principles of Perceptual Control Theory are explained, and key domains of psychotherapy are considered to explore how well they converge with these principles. The quantitative and qualitative empirical literature on the process of psychological change is reviewed to examine how it fits with predictions based on Perceptual Control Theory. Furthermore, the prerequisites for psychological change; client qualities, therapist qualities, the therapeutic alliance and the shifting of awareness, are also considered to examine their consistency within a Perceptual Control Theory account. Finally the strengths and limitations of a Perceptual Control Theory account in explaining the mechanism of psychological change are considered.

  9. An Exploration about Some Psychological Status of Female Vocational Students%高职女生若干心理状况的探究与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅遐龄

    2012-01-01

    Because of immature psychological development and lack of experience, the vocational female students suffer from psychological troubles and puzzlement. This study analysis the psychological health level, psychological adjustment ability, emotional stability and self-cogni tion of vocational female students through 672 questionnaires. This article proposes some measures on psychological health education, disorder treatment and quality optimization, which is meaningful to cultivate vocational female students' good psychological quality and mental status, and help them to be high qualified and skilled personnel in the intensive society competition.%高职院校女生由于心理发展尚未完全成熟、阅历单一等原因,容易引发心理烦恼和困惑。本研究通过对672名高职女生的问卷调查,对高职女生心理健康程度、心理适应能力、情绪稳定、自我认识等方面进行了分析评价,提出加强心理健康教育、心理障碍疏解、心理素质优化的措施。对培养高职女生良好心理素质和精神状态,在竞争激烈的社会中成为高素质技能型人才有着重要意义。

  10. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Theory-Driven Evaluation in School Psychology Intervention Research: 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Idler, Alyssa M.; Bartfai, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which school psychology intervention research is guided by theory and addresses theoretical implications of findings. Intervention studies published during 2007-2012 in four journals, "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology…

  12. Wade's and Gelso's Contribution to the New Psychology of Men: Male Reference Group Dependence Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Relates Wade's and Gelso's Male Reference Group Dependence Theory to past and present literature in the new psychology of men. Points out the strengths of the ideas and data; reflects on where the theory needs more clarification and extension. (MKA)

  13. The Psychological and Vocational Interest Patterns of Donald Super and John Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1996-01-01

    Super and Holland are the two most prominent theorists in the field of career development. This article offers a glimpse into the psychological make up of these theorists; it presents comparative data about the theorists' interests, values, and personalities based on the results of four psychometric instruments. (LSR)

  14. The Influence of Vocational Interest Inventories: Some Implications for Psychological Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    The impact of psychological testing on the public is explored. Topics discussed include a review of the controversy over interest inventories, what has been learned from the research and from the political activity that was enacted relative to employment/admission testing, and some ideas for increasing the ability to cope more readily with current…

  15. Assessing Coverage of Maslow's Theory in Educational Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.

    2010-01-01

    Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…

  16. Psychological Stress of the Freshmen in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职新生心理应激特征的调查研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗阳; 李韬

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查高职新生心理应激特征,为开展大学生心理干预提供理论帮助。方法:采用中国大学生心理应激量表(CCSPSS)对1800名高职新生的心理应激特征进行调查。结果:①高职新生心理应激量普遍高于全国常模大学生;②男生在量表各维度上的得分均显著高于女生;③独生子女在量表各维度上的心得分有高于非独生子女的倾向;④农村生源在发展分量表上的得分显著低于其他生源地学生的得分;⑤高职新生心理应激量在民族和专业上差异不显著。结论:高职新生心理应激受性别、生源地、独生子女与否等因素影响。%The objective of this research is to investigate the characteristics of the Higher Vocational fresh-men's psychological stress and provide theoretical help for carrying out psychological intervention.Using China College Student Psychological Stress Scale (CCSPSS)questionnaire,a survey was conducted among 1800 freshmen in Higher Vocational Colleges.The results are as follows:First,The Higher Vocational Colleges freshmen's psychological stress is generally higher than the National Norm College students.Second,on the score of the scale,the boys are significantly higher than the girls.Third,only children are prone to higher than children with siblings.Fourth,in the development of subscales,the score of the rural students are signif-icantly lower than other students.Fifth,the national differences and the disciplinary differences on psychologi-cal stress do not exist.Our conclusion is that the Higher Vocational freshmen's psychological stress is affected by factors such as gender,region,and whether they are only children or not.

  17. Nurture becomes nature: the evolving place of psychology in the theory of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    TARDITI SPAGNOLI,

    2014-01-01

    The thesis here presented establishes a triple parallelism between biology and psychology. First, through Haeckel's recapitulation theory as the source of freudian and jungian psychology. Second, from the reductionist view of science to the new phenomenology of evolutionary developmental biology. Third, by overcoming the reductionist paradigm in biology through the Extended Synthesis and in psychology though the revisited archetype theory. By establishing these parallelisms, the thesis faces ...

  18. Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: a longitudinal test of two theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time.

  19. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  20. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  1. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  2. A pragmatic basis for judging models and theories in health psychology: the axiomatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, G

    2000-03-01

    Psychology and its subfield of health psychology suffer from a lack of standardized terminology and a unified theoretical framework for the prediction and explanation of health behaviour. Hence, it is difficult to establish whether a given theory is logically consistent and to compare different theories. Science involves both empirical and conceptual issues. It is asserted that psychology has overemphasized the former and underemphasized the latter. Empirical psychology needs an explicit, shared conceptual system in order to develop its theories. An example of an axiomatic method (Psycho-Logic; see e.g. J. Smedslund.Psychological Inquiry 1991a; 2: 325-338) is applied to show how the Health Belief Model,the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory all conform to the a priori conditions of acting. One implication is that studies of the predictive power of theories stated as definitional truths only assess auxiliary hypotheses, i.e. the extent to which the measuring instruments are reliable and valid. On the other hand, the introduction of logic into health psychology can facilitate genuine empirical studies by helping to avoid so-called 'pseudoempirical' work (Smedslund, J. In Smith, Harré & Van Langenhove (Eds.) Rethinking psychology, 1995). Systems such as Psycho-Logic can also enhance conceptual integration by using logic to explicate and demonstrate intuitive relations. Implications for practitioners are discussed briefly.

  3. Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph E.

    This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…

  4. Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph E.

    This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…

  5. 中专生同性恋现象与心理健康教育%On Secondary Vocational Students' Homosexuality Phenomenon and Their Psychological Health Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽

    2012-01-01

    中专学生正处于同性恋形成的活跃时期,同性恋现象客观存在。相比成年同性恋者,中专同性恋学生更容易陷入焦虑、抑郁、痛苦和无助中,爆发心理危机。学校应努力营造宽容、和谐的校园环境,提供专业、有效的心理援助,构建心理危机干预机制等,促进同性恋学生的自我和谐和心理健康。%Secondary vocational students are in the active time when the homosexuality forms,and the homosexuality phenomenon objectively exists.Comparing with the grown-up homo-sexual,homosexual secondary vocational students are easier to fall into anxiety,and erupt psychological crisis.The school should build tolerant and harmonious campus environment diligently,provide specialized and effective psychological aid,construct psychology crisis intervention mechanism and so on,so as to promote homosexual student's self-harmony and psychological health.

  6. Thinking about Strengthening the Effectiveness of Students' Psychological Health Education in Higher Vocational College%加强高职院校学生心理健康教育实效性的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾业伟

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, higher vocational college students" psychological abnormal phenomenon has increased and seriously hamper the students" healthy growth. By analyzing students" psychological problems and causes, this article explores effective ways to strengthen vocational college students" psychological health education, in order to enhance the effect of psychological health education in higher vocational colleges.%近年来.高职大学生心理异常现象不断增多,严重妨碍了学生的健康成长。文章通过分析高职生心理问题表现和成因,探索加强高职学生心理健康教育实效性的机制与措施,增强高职院校心理健康教育效果。

  7. A Preliminary Discussion on the Development of Higher Vocational Students’ Psychological Capital%浅谈高职生心理资本的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽

    2015-01-01

    文章从积极心理学的角度探讨高职生的心理健康问题,心理健康教育不再只针对“问题人群”,更要面向全体。倡导开发学生的心理资本,用积极的心理因素来预防和抵御心理疾病,并提出了相应的心理资本的开发策略。%The paper discusses the psychological health of higher vocational students from the per‐spective of positive psychology .Education of psychological health not only mainly for the“problem peo‐ple” ,but also for the whole .To advocate development of students’ psychological capital ,use positive psychological elements to prevent and defend psychological diseases and bring up the strategies for devel‐opment of students’ psychological capital .

  8. Measuring Memory Reactivation With Functional MRI: Implications for Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin J; Wagner, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues often remind us of earlier experiences by triggering the reactivation of memories of events past. Recent evidence suggests that memory reactivation can be observed using functional MRI and that distributed pattern analyses can even provide evidence of reactivation on individual trials. The ability to measure memory reactivation offers unique and powerful leverage on theoretical issues of long-standing interest in cognitive psychology, providing a means to address questions that have proven difficult to answer with behavioral data alone. In this article, we consider three instances. First, reactivation measures can indicate whether memory-based inferences (i.e., generalization) arise through the encoding of integrated cross-event representations or through the flexible expression of separable event memories. Second, online measures of memory reactivation may inform theories of forgetting by providing information about when competing memories are reactivated during competitive retrieval situations. Finally, neural reactivation may provide a window onto the role of replay in memory consolidation. The ability to track memory reactivation, including at the individual trial level, provides unique leverage that is not afforded by behavioral measures and thus promises to shed light on such varied topics as generalization, integration, forgetting, and consolidation.

  9. The transcultural aspect of vocational maturity in Donald Super Theory / A noção transcultural de maturidade vocacional na Teoria de Donald Super

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alencar Abaide Balbinotti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald Super conceptualized a general theory of developmental vocational and career choice based on four models: 1 the traditional, 2 the developmental, 3 the economic, social and environmental, and 4 the phenomenological. Considering that vocational maturity can be revealed by the constant process of interaction between individuals and their environment, this present work aims to explore the concept of vocational maturity within the transcultural field (the third model. Data were collected through several maturity inventories and results show that Super's theoretical model of vocational maturity can be generalized to several cultures, in particular to the ones that can be comparable to the American society, although some careful data examination is always needed. Finally, we suggest the need of new studies aiming to improve the psychometric properties of vocational measures in some countries, trying to pinpoint cultural and social differences when they appear.

  10. Survey on Psychological Adaptation of Higher Vocational New Students%高职新生心理健康影响因素的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙克波

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate psychological adaptation situation of higher vocational new students and the influential factors, and to provide suitable psychological adjustment to the freshmen, 617 higher vocational freshmen of Anhui Vocational Institute of Industry and Economy were surveyed by using the questionnaire designed the researcher and Symptom check list-90 (SCL-90). The result showed that the factor scores of SCL-90 obtained by the higher vocational freshmen were higher than those of domestic ordinary people. There was a significant difference between them. Moreover, there were also significant differences in terms of the factor score by gender, major, one child, class leaders, poverty, and left-behind children.%为了解高职新生心理健康状况及其影响因素,更好地对新生的入学适应心理进行护理,采用自行设计的一般资料调查表和心理健康自评量表(SCL-90)对安徽工业经济职业技术学院 617 例新生进行调查,研究其心理健康水平及影响因素.结果显示:高职新生 SCL-90因子得分均高于国内正常人的水平,并且均具有显著性差异,在性别、专业、是否独生子女、是否班干部、是否贫困、是否有留守经历等方面差异显著.

  11. The Meaning and Measurement of Environments in Holland's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.; Richards, James M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Holland's theory provides a means of describing both people and environments. He has developed techniques for assessing and classifying different vocational instruments. His newest measure, the Position Classification Inventory, should stimulate new research in vocational psychology. (49 references) (Author/SK)

  12. The Meaning and Measurement of Environments in Holland's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.; Richards, James M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Holland's theory provides a means of describing both people and environments. He has developed techniques for assessing and classifying different vocational instruments. His newest measure, the Position Classification Inventory, should stimulate new research in vocational psychology. (49 references) (Author/SK)

  13. METHODOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE (theoretical and methodological foundations of vocational teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Dorozhkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating a justification of the new approach to the problem of vocational education development through the prism of interdependence research methodology and practice. This conceptual setup allows determining the main directions for teacher training modernization of vocational schools. The authors note that the current socio-economic situation in our country has actualized the problem of personnel training. Politicians, economists and scientists’ speeches are all about the shortage of skilled personnel. They see the main reason of this catastrophic situation in the present system of primary and secondary vocational education. At least they concern over the current practice of pedagogical personnel training of vocational education who are to restore the system of vocational education. Our country, Russia has a great positive experience in solving this problem. Scientific-methodological centre for vocational teacher education is the Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University under the scientific direction of Academician of the Russian Academy of Education, G. M. Romantsev. The reflection of scientifictheoretical bases of this education led the authors to the analysis and designing (formation of existent and new professional and pedagogical methodology. Methods. The fundamental position of A. M. Novikov on the generality of the research (scientific and practical activity methodology has become the theoretical platform of the present study. Conceptual field, conceptual statements and professional model are presented as the whole system (or integrating factor. The theoretical framework has determined the logic of the study and its results. Scientific and educational methodology differentiation in terms of the subject of cognitive activity has allowed identifying the main scientific and practical disciplines of vocational teacher education. The creative concept as the subject ground is instrumental analysis of

  14. Psychological Theory and Pedagogical Effectiveness: The Learning Promotion Potential Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…

  15. Cold and hot cognition: quantum probability theory and realistic psychological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Typically, human decision making is emotionally "hot" and does not conform to "cold" classical probability (CP) theory. As quantum probability (QP) theory emphasises order, context, superimposition states, and nonlinear dynamic effects, one of its major strengths may be its power to unify formal modeling and realistic psychological theory (e.g., information uncertainty, anxiety, and indecision, as seen in the Prisoner's Dilemma).

  16. 学习动机理论对高职生英语学习及就业的实践指导%On Significance of Learning Motivation Theory Used in English Learning and Employment of Higher Vocational Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2013-01-01

    本文旨在从心理学角度探讨学习动机理论,并以高职学生为研究对象浅析学习动机理论对高职学生英语学习及就业的实践意义。本文从学习动机的基本概念入手,着重阐述学习动机理论。以学习动机理论为指导,以高职生为研究对象,重点探讨学习动机理论对高职学生英语学习及就业的实践意义。%The purpose of this paper is to explore ,from the psychological perspective ,learn-ing motivation theory ,and analyze the practical significance of learning motivation theory used in English learning and employment of higher vocational students .The article starts with learning motivation to elaborate learning motivation theory and mainly discusses the practical significance of learning motivation theory used in English learning and employment of higher vocational students .

  17. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  18. Learning to Teach Reading: A Theory-Practice Approach to Psychology Teaching in University Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Breunig, Katharina; Thurn, Daniela; Basten, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The report portrays a theory-practice psychology course on reading education in a German teacher education programme. Having completed a theoretical course phase that is largely based on knowledge from cognitive and educational psychology, pre-service student-teachers applied their acquired knowledge by working with a fifth-grader in five…

  19. Learning to Teach Reading: A Theory-Practice Approach to Psychology Teaching in University Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Breunig, Katharina; Thurn, Daniela; Basten, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The report portrays a theory-practice psychology course on reading education in a German teacher education programme. Having completed a theoretical course phase that is largely based on knowledge from cognitive and educational psychology, pre-service student-teachers applied their acquired knowledge by working with a fifth-grader in five…

  20. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  1. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  2. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  3. Towards a Comprehensive Socio-Psychological Perspective: A Critique of Social Dominance Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Tunçgenç

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology aims to understand human cognition and behavior, which necessitates making use of sociological-political theories. Social Dominance Theory (SDT is one of the psychological theories that try to explain the individual-society relationship from a broad perspective. Yet, this theory has its shortcomings too. In an attempt to contribute to a well-grounded theory for psychological research, the paper at hand will discuss the shortcomings of SDT. The main discussion concerns following appropriate logic while making assumptions, and proper interpretation of historical and evolutionary data: it is suggested that no single theory, including SDT, is capable of embracing such a wide subject and SDT can be utilized only in some aspects of this subject.

  4. 浅谈几个管理学理论在高职院校辅导员工作中的应用%Application of Several Management Theory in the Work of Counselors in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 邹鲤岭

    2011-01-01

    The majority of higher vocational college students are "the generation after 90s". They are often difficult to get rid of the family dependent and rebellious, their pushfulness is more than tenacity, so they are easy to appPar self-esteem, depression, anxiety and other negative psychology. The counselors in higher vocational college should use different management methods to manage, encourage and support students, so that make them have a correct understanding of their own, and get success. This paper specifically describes the application of several basic management theory in the work of counselors in higher vocational colleges.%目前的高职院校学生大部分都是"90后",他们往往难以摆脱家庭依赖、叛逆,冲劲有余而韧劲不足,更容易产生自卑、沮丧、焦虑等负面心理.高职院校的辅导员,应采用不同的管理方法对学生不断管理、鼓励与支持,使他们对自己有正确的认识,取得成功.本文具体介绍了几个基本的管理学理论在高职院校辅导员工作中的应用.

  5. 图式理论在高职预科应用文写作教学中的运用%Application of Schema Theory in Vocational College Preparatory Practical Writing Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧

    2014-01-01

    Writing is a form of mental representation will be internal speech further processing and finishing, thus forming process of verbal expression outside now. At present, many vocational schools offer practical writing courses, aiming at voca-tional matriculation students' cognitive characteristics, the use of cognitive psychology in the schema theory to explain how the vocational preparatory instruction to help students build practical writing pattern, thereby enhancing the matriculation stu-dents writing efficiency.%写作是将以心理表征形式存在的内部言语进一步加工整理,从而形成外现的言语表达的过程。目前很多高职院校开设应用文写作课程,本文针对高职预科学生认知特点,运用认知心理学中的图式理论,阐述高职预科应用文写作教学如何帮助学生构建图式,从而提高预科学生写作效率。

  6. Gibson’s ecological approach – a model for the benefits of a theory driven psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Golonka; Wilson, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most other sciences, psychology has no true core theory to guide a coherent research programme. It does have James J Gibson’s ecological approach to visual perception, however, which we suggest should serve as an example of the benefits a good theory brings to psychological research. Here we focus on an example of how the ecological approach has served as a guide to discovery, shaping and constraining a recent hypothesis about how humans perform coordinated rhythmic movements (Bingham ...

  7. Sport Psychology. Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This congress proceedings volume includes all abstracts submitted to the 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology of the European Federation of Sport Psychology FEPSAC that have been accepted by the scientific evaluation committee. Content: six keynote lectures, Panteleimon ("Paddy") Ekkekakis: Escape from Cognitivism: Exercise as Hedonic Experience; Sergio Lara-Bercial and Cliff Mallett: Serial Winning Coaches – Vision, People and Environment; Kari Fasting: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in S...

  8. A Sample Vocational Group Guidance Study Based on Ginzberg ve His Associates' Developmental Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ayas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 12 (6 male 6 female 8th grade students of a primary school in Ankara. The age of the students varied between 14 and 16. Students participated in the study valuntarily after the school counsellor had informed them about it. Sessions were completed in six weeks. Vocational maturity inventory which was developed by Kuzgun and Bacanlı (2005 was administered to group member before and after the program in order to assess the effectiveness of the program. It was found that 6 of the group members did not reach due level of vocational maturity in the pretest, in other words their vocational maturity was low (below 143 points. Three (those between 143-155 points reached the expected vocational maturity level, yet they needed to increase it in order to make a more appropriate vocational decision. The other three  group members (those above 155 points were the ones who had reached the expected vocational maturity.Posttest results showed that two of the group members had not reached the targeted vocational maturity.  One of these students stated that since he would work at the building sector in which his father was working the sessions had not picked up much of his interest and it was observed that he had not attended to two of the group activies. This may be considered as the reason why he did not benefitted from group works.Lack of improvement in other group member's maturity level may be the result of the fact that he will not continue his education after primary school and his reluctance to attend to activities in group sessions. After the implementation of the program, a significant difference was observed between pretest and posttest scores. Mean vocational maturity inventory scores before the program was 145.83 while it increased to 153.25. This finding shows that the study had an important influence on the improvement of vocational maturity by raising group members' vocational maturity inventory scores.

  9. A sample vocational group guidance study based on Ginzberg and his associates' developmental theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ayas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 12 (6 male 6 female 8th grade students of a primary school in Ankara. The age of the students varied between 14 and 16. Students participated in the study valuntarily after the school counsellor had informed them about it. Sessions were completed in six weeks. Vocational maturity inventory which was developed by Kuzgun and Bacanlı (2005 was administered to group member before and after the program in order to assess the effectiveness of the program. It was found that 6 of the group members did not reach due level of vocational maturity in the pretest, in other words their vocational maturity was low (below 143 points. Three (those between 143-155 points reached the expected vocational maturity level, yet they needed to increase it in order to make a more appropriate vocational decision. The other three groups members (those above 155 points were the ones who had reached the expected vocational maturity.Posttest results showed that two of the group members had not reached the targeted vocational maturity. One of these students stated that since he would work at the building sector in which his father was working the sessions had not picked up much of his interest and it was observed that he had not attended to two of the group activities. This may be considered as the reason why he did not benefitted from group works.Lack of improvement in other group member's maturity level may be the result of the fact that he will not continue his education after primary school and his reluctance to attend to activities in group sessions. After the implementation of the program, a significant difference was observed between pretest and posttest scores. Mean vocational maturity inventory scores before the program was 145.83 while it increased to 153.25. This finding shows that the study had an important influence on the improvement of vocational maturity by raising group members' vocational maturity inventory scores.

  10. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. 影响高职高专学生英语学习的心理因素%The Psychological Factors to Influence Vocational Students' English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳萍

    2012-01-01

    Vocational students arc different from the general undergraduate students in English learning, the most important reason is the psychological factor. As a psychological driving force, the learning Motivation impact directly on learners. Ne- edless to say, a strong intrinsic motivation to learn a foreign language is the key of success.%高职高专学生在英语学习方面与一般大学本科生不同,原因除了学习环境、师资等外部因素之外,最主要的还是心理因素。而作为一种心理驱动力,学习动机直接影响着学习者的英语学习。

  12. The Research of Psychological Counseling in Class Management in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校班级管理的心理辅导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶瑞莲; 郭亚林

    2012-01-01

    针对高职院校学生的心理问题日益突出,探讨了班主任在班级管理过程中,如何通过增加心理辅导元素,作为班级管理的创新,有助于班级管理的开展和同学的心理健康。%This paper,dealing with increasing psychological problems among vocational students,discusses the ways of introducing psychological counseling,as class management innovation,into class management,which contributes to the development of the class management and students' mental health.

  13. Construction of Vocational College Students' Psychological Crisis Warning Mechanism%高职大学生心理危机预警机制建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自璋

    2014-01-01

    Research and construction psychological crisis early warning mechanism for crisis prevention and intervention psychological vocational college events with positive and practical significance. Its early warning mechanisms including or-ganizational mechanisms, management mechanisms, monitoring mechanisms, support mechanisms, and so on.%高职大学生心理危机预警机制的研究和建设,对于预防和干预高职院校心理危机事件具有积极的现实意义。其预警机制主要包括组织机制、管理机制、监控机制、支持机制等等。

  14. Intersecting race and gender in feminist theories of women's psychological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D

    1997-01-01

    Although self-in-relation theory is the predominant feminist position on women's psychological development in the nursing literature, other voices and views, particularly from feminists of color, have challenged the thinking about the psychology of women. This article explores the intersectionality of race and gender in feminist theories of women's psychological development and mental health. It begins with a brief review of psychoanalytic feminism, focusing primarily on the work of Chodorow and what is labeled "self-in-relation" theory as it has been applied in (primarily mental health) nursing. This is followed by a discussion of the perspectives of several feminists of color concerning women's psychological development, perspectives that both challenge and concur with the views of psychoanalytic feminists. The final section presents the implications of these various feminist perspectives (and their challenges to each other) for feminist work in mental health nursing.

  15. Quantum theory as a tool for the description of simple psychological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2011-01-01

    We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these stimuli corresponding operators and after that to write down the equation for evolution of density matrix of the relevant open system which allows one to find probabilities of all possible behavior alternatives. Using the method proposed we consider in detail simple model describing such interesting psychological phenomena as cognitive dissonance and the impact of competition among group members on its unity.

  16. Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieghard Beller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating. The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement.

  17. Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named) theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement. PMID:28642728

  18. 基于激励理论的高职院校班级管理的探析%The Analysis of Classroom Management in Higher Voca-tional Colleges Based on Stimulation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳燕; 汪纯峰

    2013-01-01

    As the psychological feature of higher vocational col-lege students is different from the common university students, there are many problems existing in the classroom management. This thesis from the aspect of management psychology, based on the Stimulation Theory, analyzes the role of stimulation in class-room management in higher vocational colleges and the problems in classroom management, and puts forward several effective classroom management strategies.%由于高职院校的学生有着与普通本科院校学生不同的心理特征,管理者对其班级管理存在着许多问题。本文从管理心理学角度出发,基于激励理论,分析了激励对高职院校班级管理的作用以及当前高职院校班级管理存在的问题,并提出了几种有效的班级管理策略。

  19. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  20. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  1. Some Experiences of Implementing Psychological Health Education in Secondary Vocational Schools%中职学校开展心理健康教育的几点体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕芳

    2014-01-01

    心理健康教育是指以现代心理科学理论为指导,依据学生的心理活动规律进行的教育、教学和辅导。心理健康教育是对学生心理健康的维护、心理素质的培养以及生活质量的提高。我国近年来把青少年的心理健康教育也提到了一个新的高度。《中共中央关于进一步加强和改进学校德育工作的若干意见》中明确指出,要“通过多种方式对不同年龄层次的学生进行心理健康教育和指导,帮助学生提高其心理素质,健全人格,增强承受挫折、适应环境的能力”。但是,由于我国心理健康教育工作起步较晚,各地、各校对其重视程度还不够,在心理健康教育工作方面还处于起步和探索阶段,尤其对中职学生这一特殊群体,如何更好地开展好心理健康教育就需要付出更大的努力。本文就我校多年开展心理健康教育方面谈谈自己的几点体会。%Psychological health education refers to the education, teaching and counseling guided by modern psychological science theories in accordance with the law of students' psychological ac-tivities. Psychological health education is the maintenance of stu-dents' psychological health, the cultivation of their psychological quality and the improvement of their life quality, so in recent years, the psychological health education of adolescents has been raised to a new level. It is clearly pointed out in"Opinions of the CPC Central Committee on Further Strengthening and Improving Moral Education in Schools" that various methods should be adopted to carry out psychological health education and counsel-ing for students of different ages so as to improve their psycholog-ical quality, perfect their personality, and enhance their ability of frustration tolerance and environmental adaptability. However, due to the relatively late start of China's psychological health ed-ucation work, regions and schools' attention on it

  2. Design of Digital Learning Material on Social-Psychological Theories for Nutrition Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busstra, Maria C.; De Graaf, Cees; Hartog, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component of the design challenge is to implement three…

  3. On the Construction of Developmental Psychological Health Education System in Art Higher Vocational Col-leges%艺术类高职院校发展性心理健康教育体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丛丽

    2016-01-01

    艺术类高职大学生心理发展具有自己的独特性.文章通过分析艺术类大学生心理发展特点,在发展性心理健康教育视角下,从教学、活动、咨询、危机干预四个方面探讨了艺术类高职心理健康教育体系的构建.%Art higher vocational colleges' psychological health has its own particularities. Through analyzing the characteristics of art college students' psychological development, from the perspective of developmental psychological health education, this paper ex-plores the construction of art higher vocational psychological health education system from teaching, activity, counseling and crisis intervention.

  4. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Maessen, M.; Bruijn, R. de; Smets, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural contr

  5. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Maessen, Mia; de Bruijn, Renske; Smets, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural

  6. Preferential treatment of women and psychological reactance theory: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vrugt

    1992-01-01

    187 male academic staff members read a low- or high-threat (freedom restricting) description of measures for the preferential treatment of women in job selection for academic staff functions. The high-threat condition evoked more psychological reactance than the low-threat condition. Ss with high se

  7. When theory trumps ideology: Lessons from evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists are personally liberal, just as social psychologists are. Yet their research has rarely been perceived as liberally biased--if anything, it has been erroneously perceived as motivated by conservative political agendas. Taking a closer look at evolutionary psychologists might offer the broader social psychology community guidance in neutralizing some of the biases Duarte et al. discuss.

  8. A Brief Discussion on the Cultivation of Higher Vocational College Students' Psychological Quality of Entrepreneur-ship%浅谈高职院校大学生创业心理素质培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯军英

    2013-01-01

    Higher vocational college students' entrepreneurship has become a hot topic. Based on summarizing the current situa-tion of contemporary college students' psychological quality of entrepreneurship, this paper focuses on the training contents of college students' psychological quality of entrepreneurship, and proposes its cultivation from the strengthening of higher vocation-al college students' self-confidence in entrepreneurship, etc.%高职院校大学生创业已成为热点话题。本文在总结现代大学生所具备的创业心理品质现状基础上,着重讨论大学生创业心理素质培养的内容,提出从提升高职院校大学生创业自信心等方面进行创业心理素质的培养与塑造。

  9. Research on Students’ Psychological Health Status in Vocational Colleges%高职院校大学生心理健康状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红燕; 陈蕾; 杜媛

    2012-01-01

    以兰州石化职业技术学院508名大学生为研究对象,以大学生人格问卷(UPI)为研究工具,调查研究大学生心理健康状况,为高职院校心理健康教育工作提供理论依据。结果表明:第一类有明显心理问题的学生占1.2%左右,第二类有一般心理问题的学生占4.33%,第三类无显著心理问题的学生占94.47%;女生的严重程度明显的高于男生,男生的人数多于女生;大学生心理问题主要表现为人际关系不良、情绪和意志问题、自信心缺乏、性生理心理问题,而不幸的家庭和过去、失眠和对事情的兴趣程度也是大学生心理问题的衡量指标。%To understand the mental health status of College Students,provide a theoretical basis for the mental health education in Higher Vocational Colleges。Method: In this study,508 students from Lanzhou Petrochemical College of Vocational Technology were chosen as the subject,Boy student 296 people,girl student 212 people.Results and Conclusion: The first class with obvious mental problems accounted for about 1.2% of the students,the second types of common psychological problems of the students accounted for 4.33%,,the third class is not psychological problems of students accounted for 94.47%.Girl student psychological problem severity was higher than that of male students,but the number of boys more than girls。College Students’psychological problems are bad interpersonal relationship,emotions and will,lack of confidence,physiological and psychological problems,and unhappy family and past,insomnia and about the level of interest is the measure index.of psychological problems of students.

  10. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  11. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  12. Students' personal professional theories in vocational education : developing a knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Senior secondary vocational education needs to deliver reflective practitioners who possess an adequate knowledge base, who are able to solve complex problems and who have the ability to acquire and develop new knowledge during their further professional career. It is assumed that all types of knowl

  13. Students' personal professional theories in vocational education : developing a knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Senior secondary vocational education needs to deliver reflective practitioners who possess an adequate knowledge base, who are able to solve complex problems and who have the ability to acquire and develop new knowledge during their further professional career. It is assumed that all types of knowl

  14. A Study of Vocational College English Teaching Based on Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈映丹; 江晶鑫

    2015-01-01

    Piaget has taught us that we learn a great deal about how students think by listening carefully during the class,by paying attention to their own ways of solving problems.If English teachers understand the Vocational College students’ thinking,they will be better able to match teaching methods to students’ abilities.

  15. A Study of Vocational College English Teaching Based on Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈映丹; 江晶鑫

    2015-01-01

    Piaget has taught us that we learn a great deal about how students think by listening carefully during the class,by paying attention to their own ways of solving problems. If English teachers understand the Vocational College students' thinking,they will be better able to match teaching methods to students' abilities.

  16. Friends and Foes of Theory Construction in Psychological Science: Vague Dichotomies, Unified Theories of Cognition, and the New Experimentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Ferreira, Mário B

    2011-03-01

    Newell (1973) criticized the use of vague theoretical dichotomies to account for narrowly defined empirical phenomena. Many of the problems raised by Newell persist today. We argue that these problems derive not from any peculiarity of psychological science but from the hindrances inherent to empirical theory testing. To show the contemporary relevance of these problems, we present two modern illustrations of the encumbrances faced by dichotomy-based research, we review some attempts to rely on nonempirical criteria to overcome the empirical impediments in theory testing, and we bring the question of theoretical mimicry to bear on these problems. Next, we discuss an alternative to theoretical dichotomies: the Unified Theories of Cognition (Newell, 1990). Finally, we introduce the "new experimentalism" approach in philosophy of science (Mayo, 1996), which provides a new perspective on theory construction in psychological science. We conclude with suggestions on how this new perspective can be implemented.

  17. Identity theory, functionalism and intentionality: three modes of psychological explanation used in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warme, G E

    1985-12-01

    It is argued that there are three modes of psychological explanation that are available and in wide use, but that the three are often unwittingly confounded. These are, identity theory, functionalism and intentionality. Identity theory explains by viewing psychological events as direct products of design, that is, manifestations of brain events. The stance of functionalism is to study psychological events and those past and current stimuli that evoke them. In other words, functionalism studies the way in which psychological events are programmed. Intentionality approaches psychic events as a product of both conscious and unconscious purposes, beliefs, wishes, reasons and meanings, and concludes that it is of considerable worth to treat persons as intentional systems. It is claimed that the demarcation between these explanatory modes is crucial in psychiatric, and especially psychotherapeutic practice and research.

  18. Theory and Measures of Self-energy Development of Vocational Students%高职学生自能发展的理论与措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先法

    2011-01-01

    目前,高职教育十分重视教育的基本功能,注重专业技能的提高,但缺乏对高职学生的整体关心和终身关怀,学生的发展受到很大的制约.要使高职学生从根本上提高,必须提高高职学生的自能发展能力.笔者就高职学生的知识结构、心理缺陷、发展后劲等问题,提出自能发展的概念、自能发展的培养措施等.%At present the vocational education attaches great importance to the basic functions of education. pays attention to improvement of professional skills, but it is lack of overall concem and lifelong care for vocational students, so the development of students has been greatly restricted. To radically improve the development of vocational students, we need to improve the self-energy development of vocational students. Based on the issues in the knawledge structure, psychological defects development potential of vocational students. the writer proposed the concept and measures of self-energy development.

  19. Theory-Driven Science and Naive Empiricism in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that counseling psychologists' aversion to theory-driven science and their enthusiasm for naive empiricism impede scientific progress. Identifies "received view" of science as theory-driven science, points out symptoms and consequences of the failure to apply this view, and argues that greater scientific progress will result from moving…

  20. The development of cognitive abilities following the new outcomes of psychological theories

    OpenAIRE

    Blumen, Sheyla

    1997-01-01

    The most representative models of cognitive development following the new outcomes of psychological theories are presented. Then a brief analysis of the models in terms of six factors related to different areas in psychology and social sciences (importance of each stage, processes, knowledge, individual differences, context and limits in the cognitive development) is developed. Finally, an integration of the model developed by Sincoff and Sternberg (1989) is presented. Se presentan los mod...

  1. 高职院校学生积极心理状态的培养与形成的研究%Study on the Cultivation and Formation of Vocational College Students’Positive Psychological State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊红; 王军利

    2015-01-01

    Students’positive psychology of vocational schools help to enhance their awareness of humane care and student mental toughness, prevent mental diseases, and promote the harmonious development of physical and mental health. With the positive psychological factors of students in vocational colleges as a breakthrough point, through analyses to the positive learning psychology, the subjective well-being of students and the impact of a positive emotional experience for the formation of students positive psychology, the related factors to enhance students’positive psychology are explored;combined with vocational colleges student's own psychological and physiological characteristics, and on this basis a comprehensive innovation is proposed and the proposals and suggestions of the cultivation and formation of vocational college students’ positive psychology are put forward.%高职院校学生积极心理的培养有助于增强学生的人文关怀意识和学生的心理韧性,预防心理疾病,促进身心健康和谐发展。以高职院校学生积极心理形成因素为切入点,通过分析学生积极学习心理、主观幸福感、积极情绪体验对学生积极心理形成的影响,探究增强学生积极心理的相关因子,结合高职院校学生自身的心理和生理特点,并在此基础上进行综合创新,提出高职院校学生积极心理培养与形成的方案和建议。

  2. Forensic Psychology in Disability Adjudication: A Decade of Experience. Vocational Experts in the Bureau of Hearings and Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannings, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    The monograph has been arranged to offer the reader maximum insight into not only the role of the Vocational Expert, but his role when viewed as one factor interdependent with several others in the total context of the adjudicative process of the Social Security disability program. Emphasis is given to its genesis and evaluation, emphasizing the…

  3. Complex Psychological Trauma and Self-Dysregulation: A Theory Synthesis for Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R

    2016-01-01

    Complex psychological trauma is a phenomenon resulting from severe interpersonal trauma that can negatively affect how individuals experience health care. However, few theories conceptualizing complex trauma exist, and it has received only limited attention in the nursing literature. The purpose of this theory synthesis was to organize two theories of (a) self-regulation and (b) self-dysregulation following complex psychological trauma into a single conceptual framework for use in nursing practice. This article used the theory synthesis approach described by Walker and Avant. The theory has potential to advance nursing science by helping nurses and other health professionals understand how trauma can alter self-regulatory processes and result in unique challenges in care delivery. It also has potential to prevent retraumatization of trauma survivors at the hands of health care providers.

  4. Professional Development of Vocational Teachers in Theory and Practice%职教教师专业发展:理论与实务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艺泉

    2015-01-01

    The supporting theory of vocational edu cation teachers' professional development consists of three kinds of learning theories:adult learning theory, lifelong learning theory and experiential learning theo-ry. The professional development of vocational education teachers is the practical requirements of the knowl-edge economy society and current situation of teaching staff. Its implementation is composed of eight kinds of professional abilities.%职教教师专业发展的支撑理论由三种学习理论构成,即成人学习理论、终身学习理论和体验学习理论.职教教师专业发展是知识经济社会和职业教育师资队伍现状对职教教师提出的现实要求,其实现由八个方面的专业能力构成.

  5. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change

    OpenAIRE

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that ...

  6. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach.

  7. The Psychological Problems and Counseling Strategies of Vocational College Students’ Internship%顶岗实习中高职生的心理问题及其辅导方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹艳荣

    2015-01-01

    Internship is an essential part of the vocational college students’ learning career, as well as a transition from school to work. In their internship, vocational college students have some psychological problems such as role ambiguity, ideal and reality gap, and interpersonal confusions. The current psychological counseling strategies in the internship cannot completely solve these problems, and it is needed to introduce psychological counseling teachers directly into different stages of internship. Psychological counseling teachers should develop different psychological counseling programs according to students’ grades, majors and their internship stages. In this way, the teachers can help students carry out specific psychological counseling, solve their psychological problems and improve their psychological bearing capacity.%顶岗实习是高职学生学习生涯中必不可少的一部分,也是其由学校走向工作岗位的过渡期,这一时期是否顺利渡过直接影响毕业后的工作质量。高职学生在顶岗实习期间遇到的一些心理问题,但当前高职院校顶岗实习的心理辅导方法存在不足,应该实施将心理辅导教师引入顶岗实习中的心理辅导策略。

  8. Study on Students' Psychological Health Education at Higher Vocational Colleges%高职高专学生心理健康教育工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨功楠

    2016-01-01

    近年来,高学历人才与日俱增,给高职高专院校学生带来了巨大的竞争压力,致使高职高专院校学生心理问题不断凸显。以昆明冶金高等专科学校为例,从学生心理健康状况及教育现状入手,分析心理健康状况和教育现状形成的原因,并提出改进高职高专院校学生心理健康教育工作的建议和措施。%In recent years,the increasing personnel with high academic degrees places great competitive pressure on vocational college students,bringing about their psychological problems constantly.Taking Kunming Metallurgy College as an example,this paper starts from students' psychological health status and education status,analyzes the causes and puts forward suggestions and measures to improve students'psychological health education.

  9. Interpersonal-Psychological Theory, Alexithymia, and Personality Predict Suicide Ideation among Maladjusted Soldiers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2016-11-24

    This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events. Our study demonstrates the interaction of the interpersonal-psychological theory and other suicide risk factors in Taiwanese soldiers. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Vocational Guidance for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes some of the current problems of vocational guidance, summarizes relevant knowledge and theory in the field, and offers some practical plans for a coordinated, theoretically compatible group of vocational programs, services, and experiences for a high school. (Author/JM)

  11. Vocational Counseling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charles R.

    1976-01-01

    The author stresses the importance for counselors to articulate a viable and comprehensive approach to vocational counseling to both clients and the larger society. A re-thinking and re-stating of career education concepts can be a first step in applying vocational theory more constructively. (EA)

  12. Fairness:Psychological Appeal of Journal Editors of Higher Vocational Colleges%公平:高职学报编辑的心理诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗香

    2012-01-01

    公平感是编辑工作投入的心理基础,是编辑工作绩效的有效保障,是编辑人才去留的影响因素。受主客观因素影响,高职学报编辑在地位、待遇等方面都受到与教学科研人员不同等的对待,致使编辑工作的积极性和热情不高,质量和效率无法保证。应通过提高自身的认知水平和领导的重视程度、建立和完善有效的规章制度等方式来提高编辑的公平感,满足他们的心理诉求,促进高职学报的健康发展。%Sense of fairness is the psychological basis of editors' job engagement,which is the effective guarantee of job performance and the factor of determining the talent flow of journal staff.At present,the edits' work enthusiasm and passion is not high,influencing the work quality and efficiency,because the editors of higher vocational college journals are treated differently from teaching and scientific research staff in the status and salary.To improve the editors' sense of fairness,meet their psychological demands,and promote the healthy development of higher vocational colleges journals,some effective measures should be taken to improve edits' cognitive level,attention from leadership should be placed,and effective rules and regulations established and perfected.

  13. Screening wish theories: dream psychologies and early cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Lydia

    2006-03-01

    The analogy between dream and film represents a central thread in the psychoanalytic discussion of cinema. Using examples taken from films created between 1900 and 1906, this paper develops a typology of dream scenes in early film. The basis for the proposed typology is provided by the dream knowledge in circulation toward the end of the nineteenth century. This knowledge was fed by a great variety of sources, some of them in the proximity of scientific research and some of them far from it, including wish-fulfilling prognostic models and those based on the reservoir of memory or on bodily stimuli. By setting cinema in a context of contemporary dream psychologies, it is possible to trace the specific conditions under which the analogy between dream and cinema could become effective.

  14. 高职生沉迷网络游戏的调查研究及心理因素探析%An Investigation and Analysis of Psychological Factors on Internet Game Addiction of Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玲; 邵国超

    2015-01-01

    Along with the network technology and the Internet game industry prosperous development, Internet game addiction is increas⁃ingly significant. Presently, college students’especially higher vocational college students’Internet game addiction is behaved so that high⁃light particularly. In the study, we investigate the present status of Internet game addiction, totally 400 higher vocational college students were measured with the scale, and analysis the data. Then, we interviewed the students of Internet game addiction, and try to analysis the psychological factors of Internet game addiction.

  15. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Li, Wang On

    2014-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.

  16. Social psychological theories of disordered eating in college women: review and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2011-11-01

    Because peer interaction, weight/shape, and self-concept formation are particularly salient to college women, the implications of social psychological theories may be especially far-reaching during the college years. College women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of social comparison, objectification, and uses and gratifications theories, which describe social-cognitive mechanisms that provide an individual with information regarding her own view of her body and how she perceives that others perceive her body. The current paper will review and integrate findings related to these three theories of disordered eating in college women in an effort to present a more comprehensive understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that play a role in the development and maintenance of such pathology for this group of young women. Limitations of and future directions for research on these theories will be discussed, as will their potential integration with other factors that contribute to disordered eating and implications for treatment and prevention.

  17. Roles for software technologies in advancing research and theory in educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Allyson F; Winne, Philip H; Nesbit, John C

    2005-03-01

    While reviews abound on theoretical topics in educational psychology, it is rare that we examine our field's instrumentation development, and what effects this has on educational psychology's evolution. To repair this gap, this paper investigates and reveals the implications of software technologies for researching and theorizing about core issues in educational psychology. From a set of approximately 1,500 articles published between 1999 and 2004, we sampled illustrative studies and organized them into four broad themes: (a) innovative ways to operationalize variables, (b) the changing nature of instructional interventions, (c) new fields of research in educational psychology, and (d) new constructs to be examined. In each area, we identify novel uses of these technologies and suggest how they may advance, and, in some instances, reshape theory and methodology. Overall, we demonstrate that software technologies hold significant potential to elaborate research in the field.

  18. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsi Jonna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  19. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-03-03

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  20. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  1. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  2. Pragmatic nihilism: how a Theory of Nothing can help health psychology progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Crutzen, Rik

    2017-06-01

    Health psychology developed a plethora of theories to explain and change a wide variety of behaviours. Several attempts have been undertaken to build integrative theories, some even striving for a Theory of Everything. We argue against these efforts, arguing that instead a 'pragmatic nihilism' perspective may be more fruitful to understand and change health behaviours. The first tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that psychological variables are usefully considered as metaphors rather than referring to entities that exist in the mind. As a consequence, the second tenet emphasizes theories' definitions and guidelines for the operationalisation of those variables. The third tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that each operationalisation represents an intersection of a variety of dimensions, such as behavioural specificity and duration, and most importantly, psychological aggregation level. Any operationalisation thus represents a number of choices regarding these dimensions. Pragmatic nihilism has two implications. First, it provides a foundation that enables integrating theories in a more flexible and accurate manner than made possible by integrative theories. Second, it emphasizes the importance of operationalisations, underlining the importance of investing in the careful development of measurement instruments, thorough reporting of measurement instruments' specifics and performance, and full disclosure of the instruments themselves.

  3. Models and theories of brain function in cognition within a framework of behavioral cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sirel; Başar, Erol

    2006-05-01

    The present article presents a nonexhaustive collection of contemporary models and theories on brain function and discusses these models and theories within a framework of explanatory formulations in behavioral cognitive psychology. Such a mission was accomplished by evaluating the cognitive implications in the explanatory formulations with respect to established laws/principles and models/theories of behavioral cognitive psychology. The article also points to problem areas of behavioral cognitive psychology for which the explanatory formulations have solutions to offer. The article shows that the cinematographic hypothesis, the new visual model, the synergetic model, and the theory of whole-brain-work emphasize various aspects of perception. The formulations on P300 theory emphasize attention and also working memory. The theory on cognits is a comprehensive account of memory. Characteristic to all of these explanatory formulations and also to that on the complexity and its evolution and that on neurocognitive networks is the emphasis on selective distribution, integration to the point of supersynergy, and dynamicity. Such a viewpoint was not only applied to the operations of the brain but also of cognition. With such a conceptualization, the explanatory formulations could account for cognitive processes other than the ones emphasized. A common aspect in a majority of the formulations is the utilization of the oscillatory activity as the valid activity of the brain. The article points out that a frontier in cognitive psychophysiology would be the study of the genetics of brain oscillations.

  4. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.

  5. Comparison on Temperament Theory between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Le

    2002-01-01

    This study has explained and compared temperament theory between traditional Chinese medicine and modernrn psychology on five aspects of concept, characteristics, classification, influential factors and practical significance. And we thought that this study had guiding effect on clinical practice under the new medicine model.

  6. Psychological Analysis of "Humboldt's Gift" from the Perspective of Lacan's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Two protagonists Humboldt and Citrine in "Humboldt's gift" are characterized as restless even lunatic, for they are constantly or madly seeking something such as honor, power or intimate relationship something or other. This thesis intends to analyze Humboldt and Citrine's psychological troubles from the perspective of Lacan's theory and…

  7. The Concept of Energy in Psychological Theory. Cognitive Science Program, Technical Report No. 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

    This paper describes a basic framework for integration of computational and energetic concepts in psychological theory. The framework is adapted from a general effort to understand the neural systems underlying cognition. The element of the cognitive system that provides the best basis for attempting to relate energetic and computational ideas is…

  8. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  9. Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sigmund

    2010-01-01

    This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…

  10. Toward a Large-scale Formal Theory of Commonsense Psychology for Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    1 illustrates these 30 representational areas by clustering them around the central areas of Knowledge, Envisionment , Goals, Planning, and... Envisionment , Goals, Figure 1. The Thirty Representational Areas of Commonsense Psychology Goal Themes, Plans, Plan Elements, Scheduling, and...Concepts are in one or the other. In our theories of other areas, such as Envisionment , certain actions on concepts require the concepts to be

  11. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by…

  12. esearch on the Development of Employment and Entrepreneurship Psychological Quality of Vocational College Students%高职院校学生就业创业心理素质养成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建奎; 王美婷

    2012-01-01

    高职院校毕业生的就业创业心理健康与否,会影响其对行业和岗位的选择,影响其对就业竞争的适应性和克服就业困难的承受能力,也会影响其对就业创业的信心等。本文从实际调查出发,研究了高职院校学生的心理素质现状,就业创业对学生心理素质的要求,在此基础上提出了高职院校对学生就业创业良好心理素质养成的策略。%Psychological health of vocational college graduates will influence the selection of industries and jobs, their employment adaptability to competition and capacity to overcome employment difficulties as well as their confidence in the employment. The article from actual survey, researches on the present situation of student's psychological quality in vocational colleges and business requirements for students' psychological quality of employment. On the basis mentioned, this paper proposes strategies to develop vocational college students' good employment psychological quality.

  13. The Relationship between Childhood Psychological Abuse and Neglect and Self Injurious Behavior of Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代辰旭; 张野; 张珊珊; 李紫糸

    2016-01-01

    为了研究童年心理虐待与忽视和高职生自伤行为的关系,采用儿童心理虐待与忽视量表和青少年自我伤害问卷对辽宁省某职业技术学校的730名高职生进行调查,结果表明:大部分高职生存在心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为,性别、生源地、独生子女均存在显著性差异;二者呈正相关,且自伤行为可以解释童年心理虐待与忽视。文章对心理虐待与忽视和自伤行为的原因进行分析,并从不同角度提出对策。%In order to study the relationship between childhood psychological abuse and neglect and the self injurious behavior of students in higher vocational colleges, the child psychological abuse and neglect scale and adolescent self harm questionnaire on a vocational technical school in Liaoning Province 730 vocational college students were investigated. The results showed that most of the students in higher vocational colleges had psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and there were significant differences in gender, origin and only child. They were positively correlated, and self injurious behavior can explain childhood psychological abuse and neglect. This article carries on the analysis on the causes of psychological abuse and neglect and self injurious behavior, and puts forward the countermeasures from different angles.

  14. 高职院校学生心理健康教育误区及改善对策%The Misunderstanding and Countermeasure in Psychological Education of Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云萍; 游春丽

    2012-01-01

    高职院校学生的心理具有一定的特殊性,承受着特定的环境压力,表现出自卑、焦虑、孤独、困惑和抑郁等问题。高等职业院校学生心理健康教育相对落后,且存在一定误区。本文通过运用卡特尔16PF随机抽查贵州5所职业院校各年级的540名学生,对卡特尔16PF的24个维度进行统计和方差分析,归纳总结了当前高职学生心理健康教育的问题,反思心理教育的误区,提出了对策。%There are specific psychological characteristics of vocational college students.Because of relevant circumstance pressure,they suffer symptoms of inferiority,anxiety,solitude and depression.The psychology health education in vocational college is underdeveloped.There is some misunderstanding for the psychology education.This research applied the method of Cattell's 16 Personality Factor,made random sampling of 540 students in five vocational colleges in Guizhou,analyzed the twenty-four dimension of Cattell's 16 Personality Factor,summarized the problems in vocational college students' psychological education,reflected the misunderstanding of psychological education,and proposed countermeasure.

  15. On Psychological Education into PE Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges%浅谈心理教育在高职体育教学中渗透

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘厂有

    2015-01-01

    The development of vocational education in our country,students psychological problems have become a major fac-tors hindering the professional training of skilled personnel.Ignoring the psychological quality of education of students and training of qualified personnel expertise can only be empty talk.Physical health and mental health in a very close relationship, both can influence each other and promote each other.So penetration mental health and physical activity in physical education teaching in education is very important.%在我国的高职教育发展中,学生心理问题已经成为阻碍专业技能型人才培养的主要因素。忽略了学生心理素质的教育,培养高素质专业技能型人才只能是空话。生理健康与心理健康的关系十分密切,两者可以互相影响,互相促进。所以在体育课教学及体育活动中渗透心理健康的教育是非常重要的。

  16. Psychological motives and online games addiction: a test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-06-01

    Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.

  17. Learning disabilities theory and Soviet psychology: a comparison of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G S

    1982-09-01

    Critics both within and outside the Learning Disabilities (LD) field have pointed to the weaknesses of LD theory. Beginning with the premise that a significant problem of LD theory has been its failure to explore fully its fundamental assumptions, this paper examines a number of these assumptions about individual and social development, cognition, and learning. These assumptions are compared with a contrasting body of premises found in Soviet psychology, particularly in the works of Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria. An examination of the basic assumptions of LD theory and Soviet psychology shows that a major difference lies in their respective nondialectical and dialectical interpretation of the relationship of social factors and cognition, learning, and neurological development.

  18. ANTI-PSYCHOLOGISM IN WITTGENSTEIN’S PHILOSOPHY IN REFERENCE TO THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wendland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the validity of criticism of what is known as psychologist-transmission communication  theory. It is accepted that theories which support the idea that communication is a process of conveying  (transmitting psychological content of the mental states between participants (e.g. theories of Jakobson, Hovland, Newcomb et al. are examples of the approach. There are doubts about such views, which arise from the assumptions of anti-psychologism and anti-mentalism (such as Frege, Husserl, as well as the rejection of traditional notions of subjectivity in philosophy after the linguistic turn. In order to justify the criticism the position of the “late” Wittgenstein is invoked, according to which communication activities (as well as thinking, understanding etc. need not be considered as correlated to mental acts.

  19. The Practice of Positive Psychology in English Language Teaching in Secondary Vocational School%积极心理学在中等职业学校英语教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓天清

    2012-01-01

    积极心理学是近十几年来出现的心理学研究新方向。本文阐述了积极心理学的应用体会。介绍了积极心理学的主张、内容及作用,分析中等职业学校学生的心理特征及积极特质,并用积极心理学的理论指导中职英语教学工作,以提高学生学习英语的积极性和学业成绩。%Positive psychology is the psychological research appeared in the last decade a new direction. This paper des- cribes the experience of positive psychology, positive psychology advocates, contents and function, analysis of the psy-chological characteristics and positive qualities of the students of secondary vocational schools, and vocational English instruction in the theoretical guidance of positive psychology in order to improve student learning English enthusiasm and academic achievement.

  20. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  1. Vocational Colleges Class Management Based on Psychological Perspective%基于心理学视角的高职院校班级管理工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦卫红

    2012-01-01

    高职生是一个特殊的群体,他们既有失落感、自卑感,又具有极强的自尊心。在高职生的班级管理中,要根据高职生的心理特征及班级管理中存在的问题,有针对性地运用心理学的一些原理进行思想工作,道德教育与情感教育相结合,构建和谐班级,引导学生对立合理的期望值,进行职业生涯规划,以达到高职教育的目标。%Vocational college students is a special group, their sense of loss, inferiority complex, but also has a strong self- esteem. Vocational students in class management, according to the existing problems in the psychological characteristics of vocational students and class management, targeted use of psychological principles to carry out ideological work, the com- bination of moral education and emotional education, building a harmonious classes guide the reasonable expectations of stu- dent opposition, career planning, in order to achieve the goals of vocational education.

  2. Domestic and Foreign Research on Vocational Interest Theory%国内外职业兴趣理论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景毅

    2016-01-01

    Vocational interest is an important branch of interest researches, based on all kinds of interest theory, different vocational interest theories will be produced. In this paper, from the meaning of vocational interest, the research significance, history of the development of the questionnaire, influencing factors and training strategy, two professional interest measurement tools in seven aspects of study on vocational interest were reviewed, and the author puts forward views and suggestions for the further research.%职业兴趣是兴趣研究的重要分支,基于各种兴趣理论的研究产生出不同的职业兴趣理论。文章从职业兴趣的含义、研究意义、测量问卷的发展历史、影响因素、培养策略、工具等六个方面对职业兴趣研究进行了综述,并对进一步的研究提出了建议。

  3. 团体心理辅导在高职教育中的作用和意义%The role and the significance of group psychological guidance in higher vocational education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡宁

    2014-01-01

    Group psychological guidance is derived from the method of psychological counseling, mental health education in higher vocational plays an important role and significance, is an indispensable part of in the mental health education, should cause the whole society, especially the attention of the college of higher vocational education teaching workers.%团体心理辅导是源自美国的心理辅导方法,在高职心理健康教育中有着重要的作用和意义,是心理健康教育中不可缺少的一部分,应引起全社会,尤其是高职学院教育教学工作者的重视。

  4. A computer-supported method to reveal and assess Personal Professional Theories in vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, Antoine C.M.; Bilderbeek, Richardus; Schaap, Harmen; Hummel, Hans G.K.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a dedicated, computer-supported method to construct and formatively assess open, annotated concept maps of Personal Professional Theories (PPTs). These theories are internalised, personal bodies of formal and practical knowledge, values, norms and convictions that professiona

  5. Achievement Motivation and the Vocational Development of Adolescent Women: A Review and Application of Achievement Motivation Research to Vocational Development Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celkis, Ruta

    Achievement motivation research provides a basis for understanding the processes by which socialization into stereotypical feminine roles shapes the educational and vocational aspirations of adolescent women. Young women are socialized to be interested in pleasing others, motivated to achieve in traditionally feminine areas, and fearful of success…

  6. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  7. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  8. Vocational College Students’Unhealthy Psychology in Job Interview and Sports Adjustment%高职生职业应聘不良心理表现及运动调节方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩

    2015-01-01

    高职生进行应聘时会因为各种压力出现一些不良的心理,通过一些运动调节方法可以有效改善这些不良心理表现。%Vocational college students will suffer unhealthy psychology in job interview because of stress.They can overcome the situation by sports adjustment.

  9. Exploring Students'Sports Psychological Obstacles and Countermeasures in Higher Vocational College%探索高职院校学生体育心理障碍和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王访清

    2015-01-01

    〔Abstract〕 The teaching purpose is to promote the students'physical and mental development, to cultivate the students' comprehensive quality. Physical education has an important significance on the cultivation of stu-dents'psychological and physical quality. Higher vocational colleges carrying out the PE teaching is based on these considerations. But it has to notice that there are some psychological barriers of the students in PE teach-ing in higher vocational colleges. These psychological barriers seriously hindered the sports course teaching of higher vocational education. In this article, the current higher vocational college students'sports psychological barriers are analyzed and summarized, and the corresponding countermeasures are put forward as well.%教学的目的是促进学生的身体与心理的共同发展,培养学生的综合素质。体育对于学生的心理与身体素质的培养有着重要的意义。高职院校开展体育教学也正是基于这方面的考虑,但是也要看到高职院校学生体育教学中,学生还存在着一些心理障碍,这些心理障碍严重阻碍了高职院校所开展的体育课程教学。本文就目前高职院校学生体育心理障碍进行了分析、总结,并就相应的对策提出了自已的见解。

  10. 基于多元智能理论的高等职业教育创新%Higher Vocational Education Innovation Based on Multiple Intelligence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏叶兰; 秦欣梅; 詹莎

    2009-01-01

    The theory of multiple intelligences is an advanced education idea in the world.It shows that higher vocational education needs some requirements to the nature,cultivating objectives,fairness and orerall developmert of students.Nowadays,Vocational education in our country has entered the developing period of quantity expansion to quality rise,and has achived successes,but still exits shortcomings.Higher vocational education should be adapt to the rapid development of the economic society.Modern vocational education must have a wide range of characteristics.Multiple Intelligences has brought new insight to higher vocational education.Higher vocational education must innovate on the notion of education,talents cultivation model,optimization of the teaching staff,moral education,and systems of educational assessment.%多元智能理论是国际先进的教育理论,它体现了高职教育在本质、培养目标、公平性和学生全面发展等方面的要求.目前,我国高等职业教育进入了量的扩张向质的提升的发展阶段,既取得了成就,也存在一些不足.与经济社会高速发展相适应,现代高职教育必须具备多方面的特征.运用多元智能理论,高职教育必须在观念、人才培养模式、教师队伍、德育、评价体系等方面予以创新.

  11. 高职院校学生心理危机干预体制的建立探微%The students' psychological crisis intervention system of higher vocational colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2016-01-01

    目前,高职院校学生的心理健康问题成了社会广泛关注的对象,因为各种原因,高职院校学生是心理危机发生频率最高的人群,学生的心理危机对和谐校园、平安校园构成不稳定因素。为了让心理危机学生的情况有所好转,乃至完全康复,学校应建立相关的心理危机干预机制,重视心理危机学生的发展。下面就关于高职院校学生的心理危机干预体制的建立做以简单分析。%At present, vocational college students’ mental health problems into the object of widespread concern in the community, because of various reasons, vocational college students are psychological crisis frequency highest crowd, students psychological crisis form unstable factors of harmonious campus, campus safety. In order to improve the situation of psychological crisis students, and even full recovery, the school should establish the relevant psychological crisis intervention mechanism, pay attention to the development of the psychological crisis of students. The following is about the establishment of the psychological crisis intervention system of higher vocational college students.

  12. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  13. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  14. 高职校园文化对心理危机预防体系构建的作用%On the Role of Campus Culture on Psychological Crisis Prevention System Construction in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀珊

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the present situation of the psychological crisis intervention and campus culture construction in higher vocational colleges, in order to explore the important role of construction of campus culture on psychological crisis intervention and pre- vention system. It also explores how to construct a characteristic campus culture of higher vocational college with function of psychologi- cal crisis intervention, providing a spiritual atmosphere of harmony and stability for students and fully performing the mechanism of psy- chological crisis intervention and early prevention, to achieve a healthy, comprehensive and harmonious development for students in higher vocational colleges.%分析了高职院校心理危机干预和校园文化建设的现状,探索校园文化建设对心理危机干预预防体系的重要作用。从而探索在高职院校的校园文化建设中如何建构有心理危机干预作用的特色文化,为学生提供和谐稳定的精神氛围,充分发挥心理危机干预早期预防的长效机制,实现高职院校学生健康、全面、和谐的发展。

  15. 略议高职院校学前教育专业《学前心理学》学科实训%A discussion on practical training of Preschool Psychology in preschool education major of higher vocational college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐灵芝

    2013-01-01

      实训是指按照人才培养规律与目标,对学生进行职业技能、应用能力训练的教学过程。加强《学前心理学》实训是由高等职业教育的属性要求、学前教育专业的人才培养目标,以及《学前心理学》的学科性质决定的。高职院校《学前心理学》学科教学应该更新教育理念,体现高职教育的职业性;整合教学内容,突出学科的应用性;加强职业技能能力培养、强化教学的实践性等,将实训贯穿于整个教学过程中,融“教、学、做”为一体,实现学校学习与职业要求的一致性,培养符合社会需要的高素质幼儿教育人才。%The practical training is an education process to train the students with vocational skills and application abilities according to the laws and targets of talents cultivation. Enhancing the practical training of Preschool Psychology is the critical demand of higher vocational education and the talent cultivation target of preschool education major. It is also determined by the subject nature of Preschool Psychology. We should renew the ideas of Preschool Psychology education and highlight the vocational characteristics of Higher Vocational Education; integrate the teaching contents and underline the application of the subjects; strengthen the training of vocational skills and increase the practicalness of vocational education. By combining the teaching, learning and practicing, we should make the practical training run though the whole education process to realize the consistency of school learning and vocational demand, cultivate high-quality preschool-teaching talents to meet the social demands.

  16. GENDER RELATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CRITICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dadico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some recent discussions raised by the feminist critical theory, which contribute to put in question the scientific objectivity of Psychology. It is alleged, first, a false neutrality of genre, built on the idea of a generic human being. This discussion leads to a necessary revision of supposedly universal concepts. One of these concepts is that of justice that pervades studies on moral in Psychology of Development. At the same time, it discusses the prevalence of a certain gender in universities, by establishing and legitimizing specific experiences in the construction of knowledge in the area. It explores works of feminist authors identified with the Critical Theory, focusing on the question of identity, as well as the political implications of language concepts involved in their positions. Finally, dialoguing with authors of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is proposed to consider the dialectic between concept and experience for building new knowledge and strategies for gender equality. It is expected to show that the feminist critique reached important pillars of psychology, which, like science, cannot remain inert in front of the new challenges. The various fields of psychology need to mobilize for construction of emancipatory strategies in order to ensure the very validity of the knowledge produced in the area.

  17. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  18. On the Current Situation of Studies on Students' Group Psychological Counseling in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校大学生团体心理辅导的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯娟

    2016-01-01

    文章对团体心理辅导对大学生进行心理健康教育的积极作用的进行阐述,并对高职院校施行团体心理辅导的可行性和优势进行分析,最后提出开展团体心理辅导的途径和方法。%This paper elaborates the positive role of group psy-chological counseling for college students' psychological health education, analyzes the feasibility and advantages of implement-ing group psychological counseling in higher vocational colleges, and finally proposes the ways to implement group psychological counseling.

  19. The pivotal role of psychology in a comprehensive theory of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte N Markey; August, Kristin J; Lindzee C Bailey; Markey, Patrick M.; Nave, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    The target article offers a comprehensive approach to conceptualizing psychological factors contributing to obesity. Strengths of Marks’ theory include giving body image a central focus, discussing the importance of emotional states on food reliance, and conveying avenues for interventions and treatment. Marks’ approach carefully delineates the interpersonal nature of obesity, although our work suggests that romantic partners are an especially important and understudied factor relevant to eat...

  20. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  1. Using a Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments to Explore Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Gottfredson, Gary; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have positive views of their general happiness or subjective well-being (SWB). Furthermore, SWB tends to be stable and rebound to prior levels following events or circumstances that might be expected to change its level. The authors speculate about ways a theory of person-environment transactions--Holland's theory of vocational…

  2. Using a Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments to Explore Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Gottfredson, Gary; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have positive views of their general happiness or subjective well-being (SWB). Furthermore, SWB tends to be stable and rebound to prior levels following events or circumstances that might be expected to change its level. The authors speculate about ways a theory of person-environment transactions--Holland's theory of vocational…

  3. Psychological behavior and economics: the need for new theories and redefinition of basic concepts in Islamic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Agil, Syed Omar

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to posit the nexus between psychology and economics. However it is not the purpose of the paper to focus on all aspects of psychology and its various theories. It is also not the purpose of this paper to trace the historical development of economics, its various schools and the economic ideas that emerged. It discusses only those areas that are relevant to the development of economic thought particularly with regard to motivation and psychological behaviour. It traces the ...

  4. 职业院校教师心理资本与职业倦怠的关系研究%Relationship Between Psychological Capital and Job Burnout of Vocational Education Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑; 李同归

    2014-01-01

    Based on 186 vocational education teachers and Native Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Oldenburg Burnout Inven -tory.The result shows that:(1)vocational education teachers have high levels of psychological capital , and they have higher levels of interpersonal psychological capital than transactional psychological capital ; (2) job burnout is a widespread problem among vocation education teachers, but burnout levels are relatively low;(3)psychological capital levels have a significant , negatively correlation with job burnout levels .Regression analysis indicates that both enterprising spirit and confidence can predict disengagement level negatively and that exhaustion level can be negatively predicted by optimism and enterprising spirit .%以186名职业院校教师为被试,采用本土心理资本量表和倦怠问卷对其心理资本与职业倦怠的关系进行研究。结果发现:(1)职业院校教师的心理资本水平比较高,人际型心理资本高于事务型心理资本;(2)职业倦怠现象在职业院校教师群体中普遍存在,但倦怠程度并不严重,其中耗竭维度高于解离维度;(3)职业院校教师的心理资本与职业倦怠呈显著负相关,奋发进取及自信勇敢对解离有负向预测作用,乐观希望及奋发进取对耗竭有负向预测作用。

  5. 职业生涯理论视野下的高职学生社会实践探析%Analysis of Students' Social Practice in Higher Vocational Schools from the Perspective of Vocational Career Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敬洁

    2015-01-01

    目前,大学生社会实践存在诸多问题,如执行力不强、短期化等。究其原因,是缺乏系统理论支撑。本文从职业生涯理论出发,将社会实践与大学生职业教育相结合,提出社会实践阶段论、环境模式论、动态适应论,并提出职业化、阶段化、匹配化、体系化“四化”改进大学生社会实践活动的措施。%Many problems exist in college students' social practice, such as poor executive power, short-term, etc., the reason of which is the shortage of systematic and theoretical support. With vocational career as a starting point, by combining the social practice and vocational education of college students, the stage theory, environment model theory, dynamic adaptation theory are proposed in this paper and some measures as the improvement of students' social practice occupation, stage, matching, system of four modernizations are also put forward, in order to promote the healthy development of students' social practice.

  6. The dominance of the individual in intergroup relations research: understanding social change requires psychological theories of collective and structural phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2012-12-01

    Dixon et al. suggest that the psychological literature on intergroup relations should shift from theorizing "prejudice reduction" to "social change." A focus on social change exposes the importance of psychological theories involving collective phenomena like social norms and institutions. Individuals' attitudes and emotions may follow, rather than cause, changes in social norms and institutional arrangements.

  7. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  8. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. Social-cognitive predictors of vocational outcomes in transition youth with epilepsy: Application of social cognitive career theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Connor, Annemarie

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the utility of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) as a framework to investigate career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, and contextual supports and barriers as predictors of choice actions among transition-age individuals with epilepsy. Moreover, these SCCT constructs are offered as an operational definition of work participation in this population. Using a quantitative descriptive research design and hierarchical regression analysis (HRA), 90 transition-age individuals with epilepsy, age 18-25, were recruited from affiliates of the Epilepsy Foundation and invited to complete an online survey comprised of a series of self-report social-cognitive measures. The HRA findings indicated that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and environmental supports were significant predictors of work participation in youth and young adults with epilepsy. The final model accounted for 58% of the variance in work participation, which is considered a large effect size. The research findings provide support for the use of the SCCT framework to identify predictors of work participation and to provide guidance for designing customized vocational rehabilitation services and career development interventions for individuals with epilepsy in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.

  11. Humour Theories and the Archetype of the Trickster in Folklore: An Analytical Psychology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stefanova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humour theories describe different parts of humour as a phenomenon, obtained on the personal and community level, so difficult to be explained. The analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung may help in the explanation of why the search for the “Holy Grail of Humour” is as if trying to catch a shadow. The archetype of the trickster in folklore may help us describe some common and different parts of the universal phenomenon of humour and the specific ethno-psychological traits.The paper presents an overview of basic humour theories, supported by analytical psychology comments, the archetype of the trickster in Bulgarian and Russian folklore, in the folklore of Native American tribes, Kalevala and Edda (Snorri Sturluson with an attempt to explain how the traits of this “hero” provide a list of the components making something humorous for different people and what are the common traits that can be described as universal.This overview could help trace the humour phenomenon from the universal, through the community, to the individual level trying to find how important this is in searching for its characteristics.

  12. Contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov to the methodology, theory and experimental practice of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaeva, Yuliya D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov (1933-2001, his disciples and representatives of Tikhomirov’s school in psychology of thinking is analyzed. Tikhomirov was the initiator of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking, one of the leading schools of cognitive studies in Russia. Tikhomirov is known outside Russia as well: more than once, he presented his work at international congresses and conferences; his writings have been translated into several European languages. The paper includes brief biographical information about Tikhomirov. The main components of the Personal Meanings Theory are presented, such as the regulative function of (intellectual emotions during problem solving, the actual genesis of goal-setting, the formation of personal meanings during the processes involved in thinking, and the personality-related determinants of decision making. Tikhomirov’s pioneering ideas in the studies of creativity, including jointparticipation in creative activities, are discussed in the paper. In the last section of the paper, Tikhomirov’s studies of the impact of information and communication technology on the psychological transformations undergone by adepts of high technologies and technology’s effect on their intellectual and communicative activities are discussed; these studies accelerated a new field of research in Russia, namely cyberpsychology or Internet psychology.

  13. Gibson’s ecological approach – a model for the benefits of a theory driven psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Golonka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most other sciences, psychology has no true core theory to guide a coherent research programme. It does have James J Gibson’s ecological approach to visual perception, however, which we suggest should serve as an example of the benefits a good theory brings to psychological research. Here we focus on an example of how the ecological approach has served as a guide to discovery, shaping and constraining a recent hypothesis about how humans perform coordinated rhythmic movements (Bingham 2004a, b. Early experiments on this task were framed in a dynamic pattern approach. This phenomenological, behavioural framework (e.g. Jeka & Kelso 1989 classifies the behaviour of complex action systems in terms of the key order parameters, and describes the dynamical stability of the system as it responds to perturbations. Dynamical systems, however, while a valuable toolkit, is not a theory of behaviour, and this style of research is unable to successfully predict data it is not explicitly designed to fit. More recent work by Bingham & colleagues has used dynamical systems to formalise hypotheses derived from Gibson’s ecological approach to perception and action, with a particular emphasis on perceptual information. The resulting model (Bingham 2001, 2004a, b; Snapp-Childs et al. 2011 has had great success with both the phenomena it was designed to explain as well as a wide range of empirical results from a version of the task it is not specifically designed to explain (specifically, learning a novel coordination. This model and the research programme that produced it stand as an example of the value of theory driven research, and we use it to illustrate the contemporary importance the ecological approach has for psychology.

  14. 高职院校学生人际交往中的心理问题策略研究%Research on the strategies of psychological problems in interpersonal communication in higher vocational colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向静芳

    2013-01-01

    当前高职院校的学生在人际交往方面存在着一定的障碍和心理困扰,影响了日常生活及其心理健康。本文就高职院校学生人际交往方面存在的问题、原因进行了分析,并提出了一系列相应的对策,希望能够为高职院校学生克服人际交往方面的心理困扰提供指导。%The current vocational college students have some obstacles and psychological distress in terms of interpersonal communication, affect the daily life and mental health. This paper analyzes in view of the problems, reasons in interpersonal aspects of students in higher vocational colleges, and put forward a series of countermeasures, hoping to provide guidance for vocational college students to overcome the psychological distress of interpersonal aspects.

  15. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  16. Brief Study on Mental Health of Vocational College Students Based on Posi tive Psychology Concepts%高职生积极心理学健康教育初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仕超; 高秀玲

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology ,a kind of new psychological concept ,advocates achieving the effect of psychological education through one’ s positive psychological qualities .Based on positive psychology concepts ,the mental health education model plays active role on the development of vocational college students’ mental health .Inspired and guided by positive psychology ,the students can establish a posi‐tive life values and avoid the occurrence of psychological damage so as to radically reduce the risk of psy‐chological hazard to them .%积极心理学是一种新型的心理学理念,主张通过人自身已有的优良品质来达到心理教育的作用。积极心理学理念下的高职生心理健康教育更是一种全新的、对高职生的发展更具积极作用的心理教育模式,通过激发和引导高职生的正面心理,预防心理创伤的出现,从而从根本上降低高职生的心理危害风险,以建立积极的人生价值取向。

  17. 中职消费心理学教学改革思考与探索%Reflection and Exploration on the Teaching Reform of Consumer Psychology in Secondary Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怡文

    2012-01-01

    Consumer psychology is a component of consumer economics.To study on consumer psychology is of great significance.In order to ensure the quality of secondary vocational graduates, secondary vocational schools should make efforts to improve teaching quality. Based on the writer's own teaching practice, this paper proposes several opinions on improving the efficiency of consumer psychology teaching in secondary vocational education, hoping to help the teaching reform of consumer psychology.%消费心理学是消费经济学的组成部分。消费者研究消费心理,可提高消费效益;经营者研究消费心理,可提高经营效益;研究消费心理能正确引导个人消费,减少因消费决策失误而后悔,避免因追求时髦而失控,克制因收入增加而挥霍无度。可见,研究消费心理学意义深远。为保证培养合格的中职毕业生,中职学校必须针对生源素质,采取有力措施,与时俱进、勇于创新,全面提高教学质量,保证培养目标的实现。文章结合个人教学实践,针对提高中职消费心理学教学的实效性谈几点粗浅看法,以期能为今后中职消费心理学教学改革提供借鉴。

  18. Theory and practice for a critical community psychology in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hal Burton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years we have developed an approach to "Critical Community Psychology", that aims to be locally focussed but globally aware. Characteristics that distinguish it from other approaches in community and critical psychology include 1 the concept of prefigurative action, which relates work with local projects and initiatives to a wider project of principled social change, 2 an understanding of community that reflects its contested nature and lived diversity, 3 a priority for working with those most oppressed or excluded by dominant power systems, 4 ecological and systems thinking which includes our own distinctive use of boundary, edge and the ethic of stewardship, 5 use of a wide repertoire of methods and theories adequate to the variety of problem contexts community psychologists can encounter. We also offer critical reflections on our approach.

  19. Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Soyon; Uleman, James S; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-09-01

    Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others' behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral information about actors. In two experiments, participants learned about people who were perceived as being distant or proximal to the self, and STI formation was subsequently assessed. We found that perceivers were more likely to form STIs about distant vs. near actors from the same behavioral information. These findings generalized across two distance dimensions: space and time. In addition, we found that priming individuals to adopt a high-level (vs. low-level) construal mindset also resulted in increased STI (Experiment 3). In sum, psychological distance facilitates STI formation, and this occurs via high-level construal of actors and their behaviors.

  20. Strategies Developed by Children to Cope with Punishment: a Dialogue Between Psychology and Social Networks Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Palacios-Espinosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this exploratory descriptive research was to identifythe strategies developed by children between 7 and 12 years old fromsouthwest Bogotá to cope with punishment and to adapt themselves to theirsociocultural and home environments. Anthropological methods have beenused in this research because even though Psychology allows for a generalconceptualization of this issue, Anthropology provides different tools forthe understanding of the cultural and social elements in which the childlives. This research is composed by two different parts, in the first one childrenstrategies to cope punishment are identified through semi-structuredinterviews. In the second part, through life histories, the social and culturalsystem of four children is described. Thus, results and discussion are separatedaccording to this two moments, in order to try to present a dialoguebetween psychology and socials networks theory.

  1. A Preliminary Exploration on the Teaching Reform of Psychological Health Education Course for Vocational School Students:A Cases Study on the "Psychological Growth Experience Week" of Changzhou Higher Voca-tional School of Construction%职校生心理健康教育课程教学改革初探--以常州建设高等职业技术学校“心理成长体验周”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽琼

    2015-01-01

    In the implementation of psychological health educa-tion work for vocational school students, we must adhere to the e-ducation-oriented idea and apply psychological health education in accordance with the physical and psychological characteristics of vocational school students and the particularity of their devel-opment. We should also adhere to guidance-centered education and students' subjective role, and follow the physical and psy-chological development rules of students, so as to ensure the per-tinence and effectiveness of education.%开展职业学校学生心理健康教育工作,必须坚持以育人为本,根据职业学校学生生理、心理特点和发展的特殊性;运用心理健康教育知识,立足教育重在指导;以学生为主体,遵循学生身心发展规律,保证教育的针对性和实效性。

  2. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  3. Higher vocational peer psychological counselors group counseling skills training strategy research%高职朋辈心理辅导员团体心理咨询技能培养的策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆春; 李东

    2012-01-01

    the peer counseling in higher vocational colleges has become the psychological health education process indispensable important form. Strengthen the peer psychological counselor training and guidance, and explore, effective ways, improve its operation skills, exert the function of group psychological counseling, and has important significance.%朋辈心理辅导已成为高职院校心理健康教育过程中不可或缺的重要形式。加强朋辈心理辅导员的培训与指导,探索有效途径,提高其操作技能。发挥团体心理咨询的功能,具有重要意义。

  4. On the Expression of Secondary Vocational Students' Psychological Characteristics in Moral Emotion%中职生的心理特点在道德情感上的表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彩霞

    2012-01-01

    Through a survey on the psychological characteristics of secondary vocational students,this paper finds that the requirement of contemporary secondary vocational students for moral emotion shows diversification trend,namely,the paradox in moral emotion experience and the feature of low-level moral emotion orientation.%本文通过调查研究中职生的心理特点,发现当代中职生在道德情感需求上表现出多元化趋势,在道德情感体验上呈现出矛盾性、在道德情感取向上表现出浅层化的特点。

  5. 高职学生职业心理素质教育的对策探讨%The countermeasures for the higher vocational students' professional psychological quality education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅龙华; 张桂叶

    2014-01-01

    In today's workplace, work fast, high risk, and of the characteristics of big pressure on college students' heart to bear ability demand is higher and higher. Higher vocational colleges as a training for production, construction, management and service of frontline workers education institutions, it is particularly important to improve the students' professional psychological quality, but in reality a lot of higher vocational students' professional psychological quality does not meet the requirements for the workplace. Therefore, higher vocational colleges must change this situation, Actively ex-plore ways and means to improve students' mental quality education, in order to achieve the training objectives of higher vocational graduates direct docking social actual need.%当今职场,工作节奏快、风险高和压力大的特点,对大学生的心里承受能力要求越来越高。高职院校作为培养面向生产、建设、管理和服务一线劳动者的教育机构,提升学生的职业心理素质显得尤为重要,但现实中很多高职学生的职业心理素质并不能适应职场要求。因此,高职院校必须改变这种现状,积极探索提升学生心理素质的教育方法和手段,以实现高职毕业生直接对接社会实际需要的培养目标。

  6. Psychologische Operaties: de theorie van Gedragsbeinvloeding (Psychological Operations: The Theory of Behavioral Influence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    inhoudelijke interventies zijn andere theoriedn beschikbaar, zoals de theorie van gepland gedrag (TPB) en de meer recentelijk tot stand gekomen integrale ...informatie-bron op overtuiging]. (TNO Rep. No. TM 2000 A 025). Griffioen, H. J. & Langeveld, J. J. (2000). How to compose a PSYOPS message, Part II [Hoe stel... Part III. The effects of medium and emotionality on persuasion [Hoe stel je een PSYOPS boodschap samen: De effecten van medium en emotionaliteit op

  7. The Vocational Development of Non-College-Bound Youth: Counseling Psychology and the School-to-Work Transition Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Juntunen, Cindy L.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to involve counseling psychologists in the school-to-work movement by exploring theory building, research, training, and practice. Focuses on youth labor market issues in school-to-work transitions; legislation influencing such transitions; the strengths, limitations, and risks of the school-to-work transition movement; and diversity…

  8. Use of Theory-Driven Research in Counseling: Investigating Three Counseling Psychology Journals from 1990 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Carolyn A.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    Three major journals in counseling psychology were sampled from 1990 to 1999 to assess the percentage of quantitative, empirical articles that were theory driven. Only 43% of the studies utilized a theory or model, and 57% predicted the relation between the variables, with few studies specifying the strength of the relation. Studies sampled in the…

  9. Some Practical Remedies for Providing Vocational Guidance for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    After describing some current problems in vocational guidance and summarizing relevant knowledge and theory in the field, this paper presents some practical plans, materials, and ideas for providing more useful vocational assistance to people of all ages. The paper reviews such prominent vocational guidance approaches as vocational information and…

  10. Understanding suicide among older adults: a review of psychological and sociological theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Older adults die by suicide at a higher rate than any other age group in nearly every country globally. Suicide among older adults has been an intractable clinical and epidemiological problem for decades, due in part to an incomplete understanding of the causes of suicide, as well as imprecision in the prediction and prevention of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in later life. Theory-driven investigations hold promise in addressing these gaps by systematically identifying testable, and thus falsifiable, mechanisms that may better explain this phenomenon and also point to specific interventions. In this article, we comprehensively review key extant psychological and sociological theories of suicide and discuss each theory's applicability to the understanding and prevention of suicide among older adults. Despite a modest number of theories of suicide, few have undergone extensive empirical investigation and scrutiny, and even fewer have been applied specifically to older adults. To advance the science and contribute findings with a measurable clinical and public health impact, future research in this area, from conceptual to applied, must draw from and integrate theory.

  11. Research on Characteristic Features of Female Students'Psychological Crisis of Higher Vocational Colleges and Relief Strategies%高职院校女大学生心理危机特征及扶助策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2015-01-01

    开展女大学生心理危机扶助策略研究,培养女大学生良好的心理素质、预防心理危机发生、减少突发事件造成的危害和损失,是当前高职院校心理健康教育工作的一项重要任务。本文对女大学生心理危机及其表现特征进行了分析,阐述了女大学生心理危机扶助意义,并在此基础上提出了女大学生心理危机扶助策略。%At present, it is an important task of mental health education of higher vocational schools to carry out the research of relief strategies of female students'psychological crisis, help them develop a good psychological quality and prevent psychological crisis, and reduce the damage and loss caused by emergencies.This thesis analy-zes the female students'psychological crisis and its performance characteristics, expounds the significance of female students'psychological crisis relief, and on this basis proposes the relief strategies of female students'psychological crisis.

  12. Research on Humanistic Care of Psychological Health Education in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校心理健康教育的人文关怀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天云

    2012-01-01

    At present,psychological health education in higher vocational colleges have the tendency of the technology principle,utilitarianism and the formalism,so we must pour into the element of "humanistic care" and give the students more humanistic care.In order to achieve the goal of the ultimate humanistic care fostering of psychological quality and comprehensive development,psychological health education in higher vocational colleges should focus on "life education","happy education" and "profession education".%目前高职院校心理健康教育存在技术主义、功利主义和形式主义的倾向,亟须注入"人文关怀"的时代元素,给予学生更多的人文关怀式的"底色"。为实现学生心理品质的养成和自由全面的发展这一终极人文关怀,高职院校的心理健康教育应着眼于"生命教育""幸福教育"和"职业生涯教育"的探讨。

  13. Thought and exploration on the teaching reform of Higher Vocational Consumer Psychology%高职《消费心理学》教学改革思考与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵根良

    2012-01-01

    Consumer psychology is an important compulsory course and basic professional course of the higher vocational chain management.In view of characteristics and teaching problems on consumer psychology course,higher vocational consumer psychology needs teaching reform..These teaching reform measures include constructing professional teaching faculty,scientifically selecting and developing applied teaching material,rationally selecting and designing teaching content,reforming the traditional single teaching method,and innovating teaching evaluation method.%《消费心理学》是高职连锁经营管理专业的一门重要的必修课程和专业基础课程。鉴于《消费心理学》课程特点和教学过程中存在的问题,课程需要进行教学改革,提出了建设专业的教学师资队伍、科学选用和开发适用教材、合理选择和设计的教学内容、改革传统单一的教学方法、改革与创新教学考核方式的教学改革措施。

  14. Psychological Barriers and Controlling Measures of Dis-ability in Secondary Vocational Students%残疾中职生的心理障碍及调控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文以中职残疾生为研究对象,残疾学生是中职学校中一个特殊的弱势群体,文章分析了残疾中职生产生心理障碍的原因、心理情感特点并提出了具体的调控对策。对残疾中职生消除孤独、自卑、焦虑苦闷等心理障碍,帮助残疾中职生掌握专业技能,顺利就业起到积极的作用。%In this paper, students with disabilities are the research object, students with disabilities is a special vulnerable groups in secondary vocational schools, the writer analyzes the reasons of psychological barriers, psychological and emotional features of the students with disabilities, and propose specific regulation of countermeasures. We hope to offer some guidance to effectively help the disabled vocational students eliminate their loneliness, low self-esteem, anxiety and depression and other psychological disorders, help them master the professional skills, and get suc-cessful employment, as well.

  15. 高职院校发展路径选择探究%On Developing Paths of Higher Vocational Colleges ~,Based on Marketing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺瀛

    2011-01-01

    随着高等教育市场化进程的不断推进,市场竞争机制引入教育产业内部,高职院校的发展也应该遵循市场规律,积极推行市场营销战略。本文拟运用市场营销理论分析新时期高职院校发展的路径选择问题,通过对当前宏微观营销环境的分析.适当适时引入营销策略,从而促进高职院校的特色化健康发展。%With the marketization of higher education and market competition mechanism being introduced into education industry, higher vocational colleges should follow market law and implement marketing strategy. This paper, by using marketing theory, aims to analyze the developing paths of higher vocational colleges, pointing out that marketing strategy should be introduced to promote the healthy development of higher vocational colleges.

  16. The teaching reform of higher vocational marketing professional "consumer psychology"%高职市场营销专业《消费心理学》教学改革的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宇栋

    2013-01-01

    "Consumer psychology" is a core course for students of marketing major in higher vocational colleges. Grasp the consumer psychology and behavior in the consumption activities, is one of the most important learning tasks of students of marketing major in higher vocational colleges must complete, is the essential core professional quality after graduation engaged in marketing. But the teaching material and teaching method in higher vocational colleges at the present stage in the "consumer psychology professor" time, there are many problems, can not meet the needs of training applied talents, it is necessary to improve.%  《消费心理学》是高职市场营销专业学生的核心课程。掌握消费者在消费活动中的心理特征和行为规律,是高职院校市场营销专业学生必须完成的最重要的学习任务之一,也是毕业后从事市场营销工作必不可少的核心专业素质。但现阶段各高职院校在教授《消费心理学》时所采用的教材和教学方法上,都存在诸多方面的问题,不能适应培养应用型高级人才的需要,很有改进的必要。

  17. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  18. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  19. The compliance management of psychological education in higher vocational college students%依从心理在高职院校学生教育管理中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁艳清; 孙开进

    2014-01-01

    通过对基于依从心理的沟通技巧运用,介绍了低球手法、承诺、互惠、引起注意、以退为进、提供归因等沟通原则在高职学生教育管理中的应用。%Use compliance psychology of communication skills, this paper introduces the low ball technique, commitment, and reciprocity, attention, and slide backwards, provide attribution principle of communication in the application of the students in higher vocational education management.

  20. How to Improve the Sense of Learning Efficiency for Secondary Vocational Students from the Perspective of Positive Psychology%积极心理学视野下中职学生学习效能感的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文代君

    2013-01-01

    文章从积极心理学的视角出发,提出在教学过程中践行希望、快乐、幸福的教育理念,以期提高中职学生的学习效能感。%This article ties to carry out the educational concept of hope , joy and happiness in the practice of teaching from the perspective of positive psychology so as to improve the sense of learning efficiency in second -ary vocational students .

  1. Positive Psychology Group Counseling for New Students of Higher Vocational Schools%积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红萍; 陆伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生主观幸福感的影响。方法:将50位高职新生随机分组,实验组接受为期10周、每周一次的积极心理学团体辅导,将其余学生列入等候名单,设为对照组,比较两组团体辅导前后主观幸福感有无差异,分析团体辅导中的疗效因素。结果:1)经过10周的积极心理学团体辅导后,实验组的主观幸福感各项指标均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。2)高职新生积极心理学团体辅导中,重要的疗效因子依次为:存在意识因子、团体凝聚力、情绪宣泄。结论:积极心理学团体辅导能有效提高高职学生的主观幸福感,存在意识、团体凝聚力和情感宣泄是积极心理学团体辅导发挥积极影响的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the effectiveness of positive psychology group counseling on the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Methods:50 new students of vocational institute were randomized to Positive Psychology Group Counseling as experiment group or waiting list as control group for an 10-week observation.Index of well-being were administered to compare independently both at baseline and at the end of 10th week.The important therapeutic factor was also suryeyed.Result:1)Compared to control group,after 10-week positive psychology group counseling,index of well-being of the experiment group is significantly higher.2)The important therapeutic factors in positive psychology group counseling were existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis.Conclu sion:Positive psychology group counseling can heighten the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis play significant role in positive psychology group counseling.

  2. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  3. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  4. A Study on the Learning Psychology of Vocational College Students and the Optimization of the Educational Pattern%浅议高职学生学习心理及教育模式的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志戎

    2015-01-01

    Taking Zhengzhou Railway Vocational&.Technical College for example,based on the analyses of relevant questionnaires and interviews,this article reveals the psychological problems of vocational college students,analyzes related causes,and puts forward suggestions on the optimization of the educational pattern like enhancing students’ degree of recognition of higher vocational education,increasing the proportion of practical teaching,changing the educational pattern,arousing their desire of learning,raising their creativity and emphasizing the education of humanistic education.%以铁路职业技术学院为对象,通过分析调查问卷和访谈的结果,揭示高职学生存在的心理问题,并分析其心理问题产生的原因,提出优化教育模式的建议,包括提高学生对高职教育的认可度、提高实践能力教学所占的比例、转变教育模式、激发学习欲望、提升学生创造力、注重人文素质教育等。

  5. Applying a Typology to Vocational Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; Gottfredson, Gary D.

    The psychological meaning and predictive value of a person's vocational aspirations were examined by applying Holland's typology to the vocational aspirations of high school juniors (N=1,005), college juniors (N=692), employed adults (N=140), and a second sample of college students studied over a 1 year interval (N=624). The aspirational data were…

  6. Giving up on convergence and autonomy: Why the theories of psychology and neuroscience are codependent as well as irreconcilable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Eric

    2016-04-01

    There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological states). In this paper, I argue that progress in psychology and neuroscience is contingent on the fact that both of these positions are false. Contra the convergence position, I argue that the theories of psychology and the theories of neuroscience are scientifically valuable as representational tools precisely because they cannot be integrated into a single account. However, contra the autonomy position, I propose that the theories of psychology and neuroscience are deeply dependent on one another for further refinement and improvement. In this respect, there is an irreconcilable codependence between psychology and neuroscience that is necessary for both domains to improve and progress. The two domains are forever linked while simultaneously being unable to integrate.

  7. The Abnormal Psychological Prevention and Correction System of Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校大学生心理异常预防及矫治体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊

    2014-01-01

    This paper tries to draw lessons from and absorbing predecessors of the existing research results about college students'mental a-nomaly correction on the basis of prominent characteristics in higher vocational colleges to build college students'psychological abnormal preven-tion and correction system ,in which the college students can be out of psychological confusion and psychological barriers ,as well as overcome the psychological disease prompting abnormal psychology students to a positive direction .%在借鉴、吸收前人已有的关于大学生心理异常矫治研究成果的基础上,突出高职院校特点,构建高职院校大学生心理异常的预防与矫治体系,以期能够更好地帮助高职院校大学生排除心理困惑和心理障碍,战胜心理疾病,促使心理异常的学生能够朝着积极健康向上的心理方向转化。

  8. 案例报告:高职女生人际关系引起的一般心理问题%A Case Report:Common Psychological Problems Caused by a Higher Vocational Female Student's Interpersonal Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真

    2016-01-01

    人际关系问题是现代大学生常见的心理问题,本案例记述了一位高职女生人际交往不良的问题,记述了咨询师从建立关系、检查诊断、明确目标、选定方案、到追踪反馈、巩固咨询成效,所经历的心理咨询的全过程。%Interpersonal problems are common psychological problems of contemporary college students. This case is about a higher vocational female student's abnormal interpersonal rela-tionship, recording the entire process of the psychological coun-seling including relation establishment, examination and diagno-sis, clarification of the objective, selection of the scheme, feed-back and consolidation of the counseling result.

  9. On the construction of psychological crisis intervention system in higher vocational colleges%高职院校心理危机干预体系构建探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓莹

    2012-01-01

      危机干预工作是高校心理健康的重要内容,本研究旨在探讨高职院校大学生心理危机的特点,建立科学有效的危机干预体系,为高职院校学生工作的顺利开展奠定基础。%  Crisis intervention is the important content of college psychological health of vocational college students, because of the particularity of the students, present study is to investigate the characteristics of college students' psychological crisis, establish a scientific and effective crisis intervention system for college students, to lay a foundation for the smooth development of the work.

  10. Reflections on the Psychological Quality Education of Vocational College Students%关于高职院校学生心理素质教育的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志戎

    2015-01-01

    In the modern society of large pressure,the life pressure of higher vocational students is more and more serious after graduation,,students is full of confusion and depression for their future.Therefore,it's imminent to carry out students'psycho-logical quality education in high schools.Students are in the transitional period before entering into the society in psychology or in life.Facing the pressure of life and employment,their psychological quality are not very ideal.In recent years of the psycho-logical quality survey of higher college students has showed that the depression is very serious and various phenomena indicate that there is no delay in strengthening the students'psychological quality education in higher vocational colleges.This paper makes analysis on how to strengthen the psychological education of students in higher vocational colleges.%在压力过大的现代社会中,高职学生毕业后的生活压力越来越大,在校学生对自己的未来充满迷茫,逐渐抑郁,因此在高中院校中展开学生心理素质教育迫在眉睫。在校学生无论在心理还是在生活上都处在步入社会前的转变期,面对就业和生活的压力他们的心理素质都不是很理想。在最近几年高职院校学生心理素质调查显示中,校园抑郁症十分严重,各种现象表明加强高职院校学生心理素质教育刻不容缓。本文对如何加强高职院校学生的心理教育展开思考。

  11. A noção transcultural de maturidade vocacional na Teoria de Donald Super The transcultural aspect of vocational maturity in Donald Super Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alencar Abaide Balbinotti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald Super engajou-se a sistematizar uma teoria geral da escolha e do desenvolvimento vocacional estruturada no modelo tradicional, no de fatores sócioeconômicos e ambientais, no de abordagens desenvolvimentistas, e no fenomenológico. O presente trabalho objetiva apresentar o conceito de maturidade vocacional e sua generalização no plano transcultural. Com este propósito, explorou-se, mais especificamente, o terceiro modelo teórico, aquele do cumprimento, por parte do indivíduo, de etapas ordenadas e previsíveis durante toda sua vida, visto que a noção de maturidade vocacional se revela através da passagem de um processo de desenvolvimento. Através de dados colhidos por diversos inventários de maturidade, apresentou-se os dados relativos a sua generalização. Concluiu-se que o modelo teórico explicativo da maturidade vocacional parece ser aplicável a diversas populações que possuem elementos culturais comparáveis aos americanos. Algumas exceções ou cuidados na interpretação de dados se aplicam. Novos estudos devem ser realizados a fim de melhorar as qualidades psicométricas das medidas de maturidade vocacional em alguns outros países e, também, as adaptações de tais instrumentos levando-se em conta a diferenças sócio-econômicas e culturais.Donald Super conceptualized a general theory of developmental vocational and career choice based on four models: 1 the traditional, 2 the developmental, 3 the economic, social and environmental, and 4 the phenomenological. Considering that vocational maturity can be revealed by the constant process of interaction between individuals and their environment, this present work aims to explore the concept of vocational maturity within the transcultural field (the third model. Data were collected through several maturity inventories and results show that Super's theoretical model of vocational maturity can be generalized to several cultures, in particular to the ones that can be

  12. 高职院校贫困生心理资本与就业能力的相关性研究%Research on the Correlation of Psychological Capital and Employability of the Impoverished Students of Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟

    2015-01-01

    高职院校贫困生的心理资本显著低于非贫困生,在专业、年级、是否担任过学生干部等变量上存在显著差异。同时其就业能力在年级和是否担任过学生干部这两个变量上也在显著差异。通过对高职院校贫困生心理资本和就业能力进行相关分析和回归分析发现,贫困生的心理资本与其就业能力存在显著相关,且心理资本的自我效能感、乐观、希望和坚韧性4个维度均对其就业能力具有预测作用,有利于指导我们有针对性的开展教育活动来提升贫困生的就业能力。%The psychological capital of impoverished students in higher vocational colleges is significantly lower than that of non-impoverished students, and there is significant difference in major, grade and whether they have served as student leaders. Their employability has significant difference in grade and whether they have served as student leaders. Correlation analysis and regression analysis of the psychological capital and employability of the impoverished students in higher vocational colleges finds that the psychological capital of the impoverished students is significantly correlated to the employability, and the four dimensionalities of psychological capital (self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience) have predictive effect for their employability, which can guide the education activity to improve the employability of the impoverished students.

  13. Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, David M

    2014-12-01

    Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother.

  14. Congruence, Locus of Control, and Readings of English College Students--An Application of John Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Kevin

    One hundred and five English undergraduate college students at two colleges in England completed the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), the Barron Ego Strength Scale, the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale, and the Occupational Values Q Sort. Congruent students were identified by matching their reading (major)…

  15. Professional Competence and Basic Ability-Oriented Game Theory Analysis of China's Higher Vocational College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen the professional competence and basic ability is the objective requirements of the Chinese higher vocational college English teaching, while the positioning of the teaching objectives is partial to a "prisoner's dilemma" in game situations that any party will result in. To get rid of the "dilemma", we have to…

  16. Students' Personal Professional Theories in Competence-Based Vocational Education: The Construction of Personal Knowledge through Internalisation and Socialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.; Van der Schaaf, M. F.; Kirschner, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Competence-based vocational education is based on a constructivist learning paradigm, where the development of students' personal professional knowledge is emphasised. However, there is a lack of insight into how students construct their own professional knowledge and what the content and nature of personal professional knowledge is. This article…

  17. Practical Study of Promoting Higher Vocational Students' Employment Ability by Teamwork Psychological Training%团体心理训练提升高职学生就业能力实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李侠

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote higher vocational students' employment ability,the teamwork psychological training of 33 higher vocational second-year students whose families are poor is made.It shows that teamwork psychological training plays a certain role in incre%以提升高职学生就业能力为目的,通过对33名高职二年级家庭困难学生的团体心理训练研究,得出了团体心理训练在提高学生的心理健康水平从而提升高职学生就业能力具有一定的作用。主要表现在:情绪管理能力的提升完善了学生就业压力应对及问题处理能力;自我认识与接纳水平的提升保障了学生就业自信心及合理定位能力;人际交往与信任合作水平的提升促进了学生的职业发展能力;价值观的澄清与创造力的提升挖掘了学生职业的反思和创新能力。

  18. 浅谈当前高职院校学生英语学习之心理问题%On Psychological Problems of Current Higher Vocational College Students' English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2012-01-01

      With the constant progress of the society and the trend of internationalization, for college students, the importance of English is self-evident, the reality puts forward higher requirements of students, the vocational school student quality is not good, the basis of poor English is an unavoidable fact. How can that just a few years to help them improve their English level? Therefore, through relevant documents, and combine with the own city and the surrounding city vocational college, this article gives practical analysis, found the problem, finally proposes the corresponding English learning psychological problems and teaching strategies, and provides certain references for positive psychology about learning English .%  本文通过查阅相关文献资料,并结合浙江台州及周边城市高职院校的实际进行分析,从中发现问题,纠其原因,最后提出相应的解决英语学习心理问题的教学策略,为提升高职院校学生学习英语的积极心理提供一定的参考及借鉴。

  19. Concerning and Guidance on Employment Psychology of Higher Vocational and Technical College Graduate Students%论高职毕业生的就业心态及其正确引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓霞

    2011-01-01

    高职毕业生要在激烈的就业竞争中胜出是很困难的,因而他们的就业心态种种:自暴自弃型;自强不息型;怀才不遇型;投机取巧型.本文主要通过对高职毕业生就业心态的探索,进而提出四个引导措施:在对比中给自己合理定位;端正心态,面向基层;做好就业指导和咨询工作;积极创业.%Higher vocational graduates win in the fierce employment competition is very difficult.Their employment psychologies are various:abandon themselves, self-renewal, talent type, and speculative type.This paper explored employment psychologies of vocational students, and then put forward four guide measures: to give yourself a reasonable positioning in contrast, correct attitude and turn to grass-roots, effective employment guidance and consulting work, positive business.

  20. 积极心理治疗范式与职校生心理健康教育策略%Positive Psychotherapie and Psychological Health Education Strategy for Vocational School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琛

    2013-01-01

      Problems remain exists in psychological health education for vocational school students such as negative evaluation, therapeutic objective,bailout-style strategy, dehumanized attitude, and simplified methods. With many professional advantages in it, including positive perspective, developmental aims, self-directed therapy, humanism principle, and open attitude, positive psychotherapie can specifically solve the problems in the psychological health education for vocational school students .%  当前,职校生心理健康教育存在消极化评价、治疗性目标、救助式策略、非人性化态度、单一式方法等问题。积极心理治疗所具有的积极化视角、发展性目标、自助式疗法、人本主义理念、开放式态度等专业优势,能够有针对性地解决职校生心理健康教育工作中存在的问题。

  1. Higher vocational students' employment psychology and control method under the background of new employment pressure%新就业压力背景下高职生就业心理及调控方法刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘振华

    2015-01-01

    At present, higher vocational colege students at a disadvantage on education, employment pressure and bad psychological situation need to be addressed. Therefore, to explore the causes of these problems, corresponding solutions are put forward based on the specific problems, adjustment means, help higher vocational graduates career planning, to do self assessment, improve the psychological quality is the key of the employment guidance.%当前,高职院校学生在学历上处于劣势,各种就业压力和不良心理情况问题较多,亟待解决.为此,探究造成这些问题的原因,并针对这些具体问题提出针对性的解决办法、调整手段,帮助高职毕业生做好职业规划,做好自我评价、提升心理素质是就业指导的重中之重.

  2. 浅论高职学生思想及心理教育导师--辅导员%Introduction to higher vocational college students' ideological and psychological education teachers---counselor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华

    2014-01-01

    The counselor is the ideological education and psychological health education of higher vocational student,And Is the leader in the higher vocational students of the whole university career,They are the backbone of the education and the main force.So want to be a counselor will have to be to fully understand students' ideologicaland psychological dynamics,And effective short hand with the correct education way to guide students.%辅导员是高职学生思想教育及心理健康教育的导师,是高职学生整个大学生涯中的引路人,是教育的中坚分子和主力军。因此要做好一名辅导员就必须要充分了解学生思想和心理动态,用有效的手段和正确的教育方式来引导学生。

  3. 医学类高职高专学生心理危机的调查分析%Investigation and analysis of students' psychological crisis of higher medical vocational colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康荔; 周曦

    2015-01-01

    本文运用UPI调查问卷,5年来对连续五届医学类高职高专大一学生进行了调查, 发现其心理危机的主要事件排序为:学业(专业)问题、人际(含恋爱)问题、适应问题、身心疾患、经济压力. 因此,医学类高职高专院校应该将主动筛查预防心理危机事件与开展公共必选课《大学生心理健康课》结合,同时配齐心理健康领导小组以及建立完善的危机处理机制.%In this paper,using the UPI questionnaire conducted the survey five years for five consecutive medical vocational freshman,found that the main event of psychological crisis are: Study(professional),interpersonal(include love relation),adaptation,physical and mental illness,economic pressure,therefore,in medical vocational colleges should be active screening for the prevention of psychological crisis and the conduct of public elective course of College Students'mental Health,and complete with mental health leading group and crisis management mechanism.

  4. Applications of Holland's Theory in Industrial and Organizational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchinsky, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Contributions of Holland's theory to industrial/organizational psychology include the following: (1) person-environment congruence, a major influence in organizational behavior; (2) the notion that individuals should be self-directed participants in career exploration and the use of occupational information; and (3) use of vocational interest…

  5. Applications of Holland's Theory in Industrial and Organizational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchinsky, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Contributions of Holland's theory to industrial/organizational psychology include the following: (1) person-environment congruence, a major influence in organizational behavior; (2) the notion that individuals should be self-directed participants in career exploration and the use of occupational information; and (3) use of vocational interest…

  6. Social Psychology And Marketing: The Consumption Game. Understanding Marketing And Consumer Behavior Through Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina BUTNARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and developed over the years, during the post-industrial era, can be commodified and sold to a specific market. Commodification and increased consumption are crossing the line between values and needs, production and creation, identity and capital accumulation, thus making people constantly expecting a payoff while engaging in social, cultural and economic transactions. In this article we argue that we can use the models of game theory to understand socio-economic phenomena such as consumption, B2C marketing and market dynamics.

  7. The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895): a Freudian anticipation of LTP-memory connection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2004-11-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is considered a reliable cellular model of several forms of learning and memory. Described for the first time in 1973, this synaptic phenomenon consists in the enduring facilitation of the communication between two neurons in response to the sustained activation of the synapses by which they are interconnected. In a book of 1895 entitled Project for a Scientific Psychology, Sigmund Freud theorized about the possibility of representing memory at the synaptic level as "a permanent alteration following an event", and anticipated several crucial physiological properties of LTP. In the present article we aim at presenting Freudian theory on the functional organization of the nervous system developed in the Project, with particular respect to his ideas of the cellular bases of memory.

  8. Health psychology and discourse: personal accounts as social texts in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, K C; Hewison, J

    1998-07-01

    Traditional social psychology has largely located the origins of the social in the mental and emotional processes of individuals. Interview and questionnaire approaches have focused on the personal account as a route to cognitive processes and personality structures. In contrast, qualitative approaches like grounded theory have highlighted the importance of discourse in the constitution of the social world, and the function of talk and text in the construction of meaning. It is argued here that the use of such approaches, informed by insights from discourse analysis and current thinking on textuality, can enable analysts to read the personal account as a socially constructed, and constructing, text. This article uses examples from psychosocial oncology and from original research on the treatment experiences of a group of cancer patients to discuss new ways of reading personal accounts as social texts.

  9. The Relationship between McGregor's X-Y Theory Management Style and Fulfillment of Psychological Contract: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor’s X-Y theory and its relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract. This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. McGregor’s X-Y theory is a natural rule for managing people. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X management style generally get poor results compare with managers use theory Y, which produces better ...

  10. Thoughts on Theory Development of TCM Psychology%中医心理学发展的理论思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪卫东

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of TCM psychology, elaborated its history significance and limitations and came up with some thoughts for future theory development of TCM Psychology which brought the prospective of future work of TCM psychology. The theory development of TCM psychology would place important significance on the development of TCM theories, clinical psychology in China and the whole world.%回顾了中医心理学的发展,阐述了中医心理学产生的历史意义和局限性,对未来中医心理学理论发展提出了几种思路,是对中医心理学未来工作内容的展望.中医心理学的理论发展对中医学理论和中国临床心理学乃至世界临床心理学都具有重要意义.

  11. Effects of Theodore Millon's Teaching, Mentorship, Theory, and Scientific Contributions on Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the impact of Theodore Millon's work on the disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine over the past 5 decades spanning from the late 1960s to present. The article is written from my perspectives as a graduate student mentored by Millon on through my faculty career as a collaborator in test construction and empirical validation research. Several of the most recent entries in this summary reflect projects that were ongoing at the time of his passing, revealing the innovation and visionary spirit that he demonstrated up until the end of his life. Considering that this summary is restricted to Millon's contributions to the disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine, this work comprises only a small portion of his larger contribution to the field of psychology and the areas of personality theory and psychological assessment more broadly.

  12. Bringing culture to basic psychological theory--beyond individualism and collectivism: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeir (2002) offered a comprehensive literature review on individualism and collectivism that forwards valuable suggestions for ways to enhance future research conducted within this framework. The author argues that although their criticisms of much contemporary social psychological research on individualism and collectivism are valid, even more fundamental problems need to be recognized as characterizing work within this tradition, such as the insufficiently subtle nature of the views held of culture, the limited attention given to meanings, and the downplaying of contextual variation. The author suggests adopting more nuanced and process-oriented conceptions of culture and more contextually grounded views of its impact on psychological functioning as a way of realizing the promise of cultural psychology to broaden and provide insight into basic psychological theory.

  13. 高职学生心理素质与学习能力现状及对策分析%Present Situation and Countermeasure Analysis on Higher Vocational Students' Psychological Quality and Learning Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹华; 杨晓燕; 肖安

    2016-01-01

    高职院校学生与本科相比,在心理素质和学习能力方面明显处于劣势。据调查数据显示,每年超过17.48%的学生存在明显心理问题。因此要加强心理健康教育,提升学生心理素质和品质;建设“双师型”师资队伍,引导学生自主学习;加强教育教学改革,激发学生学习兴趣,营造良好校风学风环境,逐步提升学生心理和学习能力。%Compared with the undergraduate students, the students in higher vocational colleges are at a disadvantage in the psychological quality and learning ability. According to the survey data, more than 17. 48% students have obvious psychological problems. So we should strengthen the mental health education, and enhance the students' psychological quality and trait;construct teachers team, guide students' autonomous learning;strengthen the reform of education and teaching, stimulate students' interest in learning;create a good study environment, gradually improve the students' psychological and learning ability.

  14. Analysis on Psychological Crisis and its Interference Measures for Higher Vocational College Students during Substituted Post Exercitation%高职学生顶岗实习期心理危机与干预措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖

    2016-01-01

    as one of the hot spots for psychological health education in colleges ,the students’ psy‐chological crisis means the serious imbalance of students psychologically .During the substituted post ex‐ercitation ,many students have psychological crisis of different extents ,which is not beneficial for the students’ practical effect and employment attitude .This paper researches the higher vocational college students’ psychological crisis during substituted post exercitation and its interference measures for refer‐ence .%作为高校心理健康教育的热点之一,学生心理危机是学生心理上所产生的严重失衡。顶岗实习期间,不少学生存在不同程度的心理危机,不利于学生的实习效果、就业态度。文本重点就高职学生顶岗实习期的心理危机及其干预措施进行了研究,以供参考。

  15. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Zagenczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  16. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J.; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L.; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation. PMID:28713315

  17. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  18. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  19. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  20. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  1. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Basis for Augmenting AP Exams in Psychology and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence was used to create augmented exams in Advanced Placement Psychology and Statistics. Participants included 1895 high school students from 19 states and 56 schools throughout the U.S. The psychometric results support the validity of creating examinations that assess memory, analytical, creative, and…

  2. Interpersonal-psychological theory and parental bonding predict suicidal ideation among soldiers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is an important issue among military personnel, who have higher suicide rates compared with the general population. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) might provide an empirical explanation of this phenomenon, and parental bonding influences social adjustment and suicide. To investigate the relevance of IPTS and parental bonding for suicide among Taiwanese soldiers, a case-control study was conducted. Using a suicide-reporting system in a teaching general hospital in Southern Taiwan, 226 at-risk maladjusted soldiers and 229 well-adjusted controls were enrolled. We collected basic information, and participants answered four IPTS-based questions. Suicide risk was assessed using the Brief Symptom Rating Scale item 6. A four-factor model of the Parental Bonding Instrument assessed parental bonding. All participants were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for primary screening and to recheck the accuracy of the Brief Symptom Rating Scale item 6 score. A parsimonious model obtained by regression analysis of risk factors indicated that poor academic performance, conduct-related issues in childhood, and exposure to life-threatening situations are risk factors for suicide intention. Maladjusted suicidal soldiers showed a sense of thwarted belongingness (β = 0.145; P theory of suicide, accompanied by an assessment of parental bonding, could be used for assessing suicide risk and preventing suicide attempts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Parenting behavior and the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide: a mediated moderation analysis with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K

    2013-09-25

    Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, pparental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SE(boot)=.021, pparenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vocational Education and Vocational Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    Abstract: This paper and presentation is based on case studies in China, Mexico and Denmark. The paper identifies challenges posed to production companies by a lack of vocational skills and vocational education. The study is focusing on different types of production systems i.e. on manual, complex......, a framework of skills related to process tasks is developed. The paper and the presentation conclude that much more focus is needed on the development of vocational education and vocational skills in Denmark, the U.K, and in the U.S. and in China for employees to be able to handle future automated...

  5. The Approaches to Implementing Music Intervention on College Students' Psychological Crisis in Vocational Colleges%高职院校音乐干预大学生心理危机的途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永胜

    2012-01-01

    目前,传统的心理咨询已经难以满足高职大学生的心理危机干预的需要,利用音乐对高职大学生心理危机进行干预可以很好的弥补其他方式的不足,其主要途径有:开设音乐课程提高学生理解音乐的能力,创建音乐心理减压室对学生进行专业的心理疏导,让学生在主动参与音乐活动中对其进行心理危机干预,开展音乐心理干预讲座,引导学生主动接受音乐对其心理危机的干预。%As social competition becomes increasingly fiercer, traditional and common psychological advice or suggestions can't meet the needs. And music can make up the deficiency and defect and to better address the growing number of vocational college students' psychological crisis. The main approaches include setting up the music courses to enhance the students' abilities of understanding the music, creating the music mental decompression chamber to offer the students the professional psychological guidances, engaging the students actively in the music activities on the psychological crisis intervention, developing the music psychological intervention lecture on guiding the students to accept its psychological crisis intervention.

  6. "三位一体"心理健康文化建设与学生综合心理素质提升研究——以青岛港湾职业技术学院为例%Study on the Trinitarian Psychological Health Culture Construction and the Promotion of Students'Comprehensive Psychological Quality——Taking Qingdao Harbour Vocational and Technical College as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桂兰

    2015-01-01

    To improve students'comprehensive psychological quality, this article studies the connotation of higher vocational students'comprehensive psychological quality, and the influence of psychological health culture. Summarize the ways of psychological health culture construction in colleges. Survey the promotion situation of comprehensive psychological quality of some classes under psychological health culture.%为提高学生的综合心理素质,文章探讨了高职学生综合心理素质的内涵、心理健康文化的影响问题,总结了校园心理健康文化建设的途径.调查了部分班级在心理健康文化熏陶下综合心理素质的提升状况.

  7. Psychological Problems Study on Higer-vocational College Students in Single-parent Family%高职院校单亲家庭大学生心理问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁胜; 黄曼

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着离婚率上升出现了越来越多的单亲家庭,单亲家庭大学生的心理教育问题已被社会各界所关注。高职院校要十分关心单亲家庭学生的学习和生活,多与家长联系,争取配合,了解他们的家庭情况,提供心理咨询,健全他们的人格。本文针对高职院校单亲家庭大学生的心理问题现状,从社会、家庭、个人以及学校等方面分析成因,提出相应的对策,旨在促进单亲家庭大学生的心理健康发展。%In recent years, with the increase of divorce rate,more and more single-parent families have appeared. The psychological education problem of college students in single-parent family has been the concern of the society. Higher vocational colleges should be greatly concerned about the study and life of college students in single-parent families, connect with their parents to get their cooperation, know their family situation, and provide psychological consultation for them in order to improve their personality. Based on the status of psychological problems of college students in single-parent families in higher vocational colleges, this paper analyzes reasons and proposes countermeasures from aspects of society, families, individuals and schools, aiming at promoting the development of mental health of college students in single-parent family.

  8. Institutional theory and the policy problem of vocational education and training and its development: the Egyptian case

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis extends analysis of the policy problem of Egyptian Vocational Education and Training (VET) beyond the current supply/demand mismatch perspective and into a broader institutional analytic framework. It critically deploys concepts from Whitley‘s institutional framework (1999) and Wood and Frynas‘ (2006) Segmented Business Systems (SBS) archetype to the problem, complementing them with historical and political dimensions. These illustrate the continuities and discontinuities in key i...

  9. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research.

  10. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 21: Basic Transistor Theory; Module 21T: Multi-Element Vacuum Tubes. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This set of individualized learning modules on transistor theory is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two modules are included in…

  11. Research quality and psychological theory in publications on school shooters with multiple victims - A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Grøndahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.

  12. Feedback revisited : Adding perspectives based on positive psychology implications for theory and classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Lia; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Simons, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Teacher feedback has mainly been described from the point of view of cognitive psychology. We aim to add to the body of knowledge on teacher feedback by considering the perspective of positive psychology. We describe possible consequences of two concerns of positive psychology: (1) the importance of

  13. Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

  14. Feedback revisited : Adding perspectives based on positive psychology implications for theory and classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Lia; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Simons, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Teacher feedback has mainly been described from the point of view of cognitive psychology. We aim to add to the body of knowledge on teacher feedback by considering the perspective of positive psychology. We describe possible consequences of two concerns of positive psychology: (1) the importance of

  15. Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: an exploratory investigation using psychological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluations of interventions to improve implementation of guidelines have failed to produce a clear pattern of results favouring a particular method. While implementation depends on clinicians and managers changing a variety of behaviours, psychological theories of behaviour and behaviour change are seldom used to try to understand difficulties in implementation or to develop interventions to overcome them. Objectives This study applied psychological theory to examine explanations for difficulties in implementation. It used a theoretical framework derived from an interdisciplinary consensus exercise to code interviews across 11 theoretical domains. The focus of the study was a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's Schizophrenia guideline recommendation that family intervention should be offered to the families of people with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were recruited from community mental health teams from three United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS Trusts; 20 members (social workers, nurses, team managers, psychologists, and psychiatrists participated. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Interview questions were based on the theoretical domains and addressed respondents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions regarding the guideline. Two researchers independently coded the transcript segments from each interview that were related to each theoretical domain. A score of 1 indicated that the transcript segments relating to the domain did not appear to contain description of difficulties in implementation of the family therapy guidelines; similarly a score of 0.5 indicated possible difficulties and a score of 0 indicated definite difficulties. Results Coding respondents' answers to questions related to the three domains 'beliefs about consequences,' 'social/professional role and identity,' and 'motivation' produced the three highest total scores indicating that factors relating

  16. 基于利益关系者理论的高职院校关系营销策略探析%Analysis on Relationship Marketing Strategy of Vocational Colleges Based on the Stakeholder Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭东

    2015-01-01

    IThis paper uses the stakeholder theory to expand the connotation of relationship marketing and analyzes the main stakeholders in vocational colleges.It develops the relationship marketing strategies in vocational colleges, in accordance with the characteristics of the non -profit organization marketing.%应用利益关系者理论拓展了关系营销的内涵,分析了高职院校的主要利益关系者,结合非盈利性组织营销的特点,制定了高职院校关系营销策略。

  17. Vocational Education and Vocational Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    Abstract: This paper and presentation is based on case studies in China, Mexico and Denmark. The paper identifies challenges posed to production companies by a lack of vocational skills and vocational education. The study is focusing on different types of production systems i.e. on manual, complex...... and automated production. The paper highlights how both China and Denmark have focused on theoretical rather than vocational education for more than a decade. Based on a combination of a literature review and field studies of cases, including studies of mass production and unmanned and automated production......, a framework of skills related to process tasks is developed. The paper and the presentation conclude that much more focus is needed on the development of vocational education and vocational skills in Denmark, the U.K, and in the U.S. and in China for employees to be able to handle future automated...

  18. Study on the Situation and Therapy of Psychological Resilience on Vocational College Students%高职生心理复原力现状及干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵蕾蕾; 林海春; 张页; 王慧芳

    2014-01-01

    本研究调查了高职生心理复原力现状并运用团体辅导方式对部分学生进行心理干预。结果表明:(1)高职生心理复原力总体良好。(2)高职生复原力强型占13.6%,复原力中间型I类占72.7%,复原力中间型II类占12.9%,复原力弱型占0.8%。(3)团体辅导对提高高职生的心理复原力具有可行性。(4)本研究的团体辅导方案有可操作性,可以作为提高高职生心理复原力的方案。%This study analyzes the present situation of the vocational college students' psychological resilience and applicates group counseling to intervene on the part of the students .The results show that:(1) The resilience level of normal students is good in general. (2) The strength type of students resilience in this study takes over 13.6%, the middle type I takes over 72.7%, the middle type II takes over 12.9%, and the weak type takes over 0.8%. (3) It is feasible of group counseling to improve the resilience of voca-tional college students. (4) In this study, the group counseling programs with the operability can be carried out to improve the resil-ience of vocational college students.

  19. The Psychological Problems and Countermeasures on Employment of Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校学生就业心理问题与对策思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽娟; 费小平

    2012-01-01

    Under the current complex social background, graduates, higher vocational graduates in particular, face great psychological pres- sure in the course of employment and have unhealthy psychology like low self-esteem, comparing unrealistically, dependency and etc. Akning at the psychological problems in employment, combining with the reality of the society, colleges and the students, the paper explores the countermeasures to these problems.%在当前错综复杂的社会大背景下,高校毕业生尤其是高职院校毕业生面临着较大的就业心理压力,在就业过程中产生了自卑、攀比、依赖等不良心理。针对高职学生就业心理问题,结合社会、高校及学生自身等方面的问题,探讨相应对策。

  20. Strategies on Students' Psychological Health Education of Vocational School under Network Environment%网络环境下职校学生心理健康教育策略初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英

    2012-01-01

    Network as a medium tor human being to transfer information has changed people's living space and life style. Due to its faultiness and weakness in social morality of network, it brings serious psychological effects on teenagers' mental health. According to psychological characteristics of students from vocational school, the article analyzes the problems of their psychological health education under the network background and presents strategies on how to carry out the work of mental health education.%网络作为人类传递信息的媒介,改变着人们的生存空间和生活方式。由于管理的不完善以及网络社会道德规范存在的薄弱环节,给青少年的心理健康带来了严重的影响。因此,我们必须从职校学生心理特征出发,分析网络环境下心理健康教育所面临的职校生白控能力差、道德规范缺失等问题,提出网络环境下培养学生意志品质、开展心理咨询等心理健康教育策略。

  1. An Explanation of the Shifting of Vocatives Based on Adaptation Theory%称呼语转换策略的顺应性阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林有苗

    2007-01-01

    称呼语转换(shifting of vocatives)①,作为广义语码转换(code-switching)的一个部分,应视为一种言语选择或日语用策略.本文以Verschueren的语言顺应性理论(Adaptation Theory)为基本框架,分析、解读英汉跨语言的语料,继而指出称呼语转换是与语言使用者的物理世界、社交世界、心理世界等相互顺应之结果.它印证了语言的使用是一个以策略为基础的选择过程,是一个交际者顺应语境变量和语言结构成份的动态过程.

  2. 微课在高职生心理健康教育教学中的应用研究%Application Research for Micro-lecture in Psychological Health Education of Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉洁

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of the course construction of the mental health education, the paper was reviewed the definition and application status of micro -lecture in psychological health education, and was explained the important meaning of higher vocational colleges students' mental health education which using micro -lecture. Furthermore, we offer the proposals based on the following three dimensions: building resource pool of micro -video, establishing the classroom teaching model of micro -mental health education and enacting the model of teaching evaluation respectively, in order to promote the development of micro-lecture educational reform of higher vocational college students' mental health.%基于高职心理健康课程建设的研究视角, 综述了微课教学及其在心理健康教育中的应用现状, 并对微课引入高职生心理健康教育的意义进行了阐述. 此外, 分别从构建"微视频" 资源库、 建立心理健康微课课堂教学模式和制定教学评价模式三个角度提出具体建议, 以期推动高职生心理健康微课教学改革的发展.

  3. 中职政治学科教学中渗透心理健康教育初探%On Penetration Psychological Health Education in Secondary Vocational School of Political Science Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尔古果果

    2015-01-01

    中职学校的学生大多数是经常被老师"特殊关照"的弱势群体,这一年龄阶段的学生正处于青春期,这就决定了他们的心理问题易发和频发.因此,加强中职学生心理健康教育显得尤为重要.然而,目前有些中职学校受师资、教学实施等条件的制约,心理健康教育仍然是教育教学中的薄弱环节.笔者结合自己所教的政治学科,初步探讨如何在政治学科教学中渗透心理健康教育.%Most of the students in grade school teacher is often"special care"of vulnerable groups, the age of the students are in adolescence, which determines their mental problems and prone to frequent. Therefore, strengthening vocational stu-dents' psychological health education is very important. However, some vocational schools is subject teachers, teaching im-plementation and other conditions, mental health education remains a weak link in education. The author combined with his political science teaching, and explore how to penetrate the mental health education in political science teaching.

  4. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  5. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire.

  6. A close examination of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of psychological reactance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Scott, Allison M; Ledbetter, Andrew M

    2011-07-01

    This study used psychological reactance theory (PRT) to investigate (a) the effectiveness of 2 message features (freedom-threatening language and character frame) and (b) the role of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of a perceived freedom threat. Within the context of organ donation, the results indicated no differences for character frame among the donor, recipient, or waiting list narratives. However, freedom-threatening language was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. In turn, a perceived freedom threat was positively associated with state reactance, which was inversely, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with organ donation attitudes. Attitudes predicted intentions to be an organ donor. Results also revealed that trait reactance was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. Although not associated with a freedom threat, issue involvement was positively associated with organ donation attitudes and intent to be a donor. Additionally, a trait reactance by issue involvement by freedom-threatening language interaction predicted a perceived freedom threat. Results are discussed with an emphasis on these moderators in PRT.

  7. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Psychological Theory of Dependency to Improve Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern.

  8. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Gorjala, Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors) was accounted for by the behavioral model (R2adj = 0.23). Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity. PMID:20700411

  9. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  10. Identity Change during Vocational Teacher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Henriette

    New vocational teachers cross a boundary when they move from one occupation to a job as teacher. A vocational teacher already has an education when he becomes a teacher. He also has several years of work experience. In Denmark, the educational background is related to the type of vocational schoo...... educations, reduce dropout rates and increase the supply of labor. The theoretical framework is identity theories....

  11. Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Robert B.; Russell, Joyce E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Based on perspectives of counseling psychology and industrial/organizational psychology, this article reviews publications relevant to vocational behavior that appeared during 1986. Of the over 700 articles and 70 books or book chapters located, slightly less than one-half are reviewed. (Author/NB)

  12. Speeding for fun? Exploring the speeding behavior of riders of heavy motorcycles using the theory of planned behavior and psychological flow theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Wen

    2011-05-01

    This paper focuses on a special segment of motorcyclists in Taiwan--riders of heavy motorcycles--and investigates their speeding behavior and its affecting factors. It extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore motorcyclist speeding behavior by including the variables of psychological flow theory. The levels of sensation-seeking and riding experience are also used as grouping variables to investigate group differences from the influences of their affecting factors on speeding behavior. The results reveal that the psychological flow variables have greater predictive power in explaining speeding behavior than the TPB variables, providing useful insights into the unique nature of this group of motorcyclists, who are more prone to engage in speeding. Group differences with regard to both sensation-seeking and rider experience in speeding behavior are highlighted, and the implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Serf- employment Psychological Problems in Freud Theory and Its Correction%弗洛伊德理论视角下大学生创业心理问题及矫正研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志梅; 黄永久

    2012-01-01

    Max's survey data of the status-quo of Chinese college students' entrepreneurship shows that students' self -employment state has been in the doldrums in recent years. That is because many factom take effect. The author has been engaged in the work of vocational guidance and teaching for many years and accumulated some practical guidance experience. Taking Freud's classical psychological theory as a starting point and aiming at students' poor self- employ- ment state, it' s necessary to guide and train students to have good self- employment psychological capital.%根据"麦克斯"对中国大学生近年创业现状调查数据显示:连续近几年,大学生自主创业状态都处于低谷。究其原因,其中有诸多因素在起作用。笔者因多年从事职业指导工作和教学工作,积淀了一定实践指导经验。以弗洛伊德的经典心理理论的视角作为切入点,针对大学生创业心理的诸多不良现状,指导和培养大学生要具备良好的创业心理资本的充分准备。

  14. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  15. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  16. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  17. Teaching Experimental Research of the Sport Education Patter Influencing Students Psychological Health in Vocational College%运动教育模式对高职学生心理健康影响的教学实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国锋

    2012-01-01

    结合高职院校的篮球课教学,通过教学实验研究了运动教育模式对高职学生心理健康的影响,结果表明:实验班实验后与实验前心理健康的总均分及躯体、人际关系、抑郁、焦虑、敌对因子有显著性差异.实验班学生实验后与实验前相比,应付解决问题的方式及自责、求助因子得到显著改善,学生状态焦虑显著降低,自我效能感显著提高.运动模式的实施对高职学生心理健康水平的提高有一定的促进作用.%Combing basketball teaching in vocational college, the sport education patter influencing students phychological health was studied by teaching experiment. Results showed.before experiment and affer,the students of experimental class had significant differences in the general value of psychological health, body and treating interpersonal relation, depression, anxiety and hostility factors had also significant differences. Affer experiment, students" coping ability of solving problems, factors of one- self blaming and recourse were raised, state anxiety were decreased significantly, and self-efficacy were increased. It indicated that sports education patter can enehance level of students psychological health in higher vocational colleges.

  18. 基于PDCA理论的高职工商管理学生职业能力培养研究%Vocational Ability Training Model Based on PDCA Theory for Business Management Students in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡昆; 卞迎河

    2016-01-01

    职业能力的培养需要精细化与重复训练,将工商管理学生职业能力的培养贯穿于专业课程教学的全过程,按照PDCA管理环原理设计课程的教学流程。改革后的教学工作包括:确定职业能力培养目标,建立包含职业能力各要素在内的课程考核标准,设计包含职业能力要素的实训任务,实施精细化的训练,自我评价与小组评价,总结训练成果及存在问题,将改善方案带入下一阶段的任务及训练。通过实证研究,调查数据显示: PDCA模式下学生的职业能力各项指标测评数值高于传统模式。%Vocational ability training should be carried out by refined and repeated practices through the whole pro-cess of major course teaching. This study proposed a new model based on PDCA theory which broke the regular modes concerning key abilities such as professional spirit shaped by ideological and political works, job skills by major course teaching, comprehensive ability by replacement internship and management ability by books. After the refor-mation, the teaching works should include:targeting the training objectives, establishing standards of the professional ability in curriculum checks, designing the training tasks, implementing the refined practices, self-evaluating and group-evaluating the processes, summarizing the training results and problems, improving the program into the next phase of the task and training. Through cyclic practical training, key elements should be integrated into contents of major courses, the studentsˊvocational ability will improve stably.

  19. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  20. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  1. Speech Act Theory and English Listening Teaching in Vocational Colleges%言语行为理论与高职院校英语听力教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章超

    2013-01-01

    言语行为理论是语用学中的非常重要的理论之一。文章运用该理论并结合高职院校听力教学需求,以近年听力理解考试短对话的真题为例,探讨如何帮助和引导高职学生根据语境去推断和正确理解听力材料中一些话语的言外之意,也就是它隐含在表象下的真实意图,以提高学生英语听力水平和英语综合应用能力。%Speech act theory is one of the most important theories in pragmatics. Based on the theory, in combination with the listening teaching demand in vocational colleges,this paper tries to analyze short conversation examples in listening comprehension of CET-4 2013 to illustrate how to help the students understand the illocutionary speech acts better and improve their English listening skills and comprehensive ability.

  2. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  3. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  4. Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David Navarrete

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We suggest that increases in adherence to ingroup ideology in response to adaptive challenges are manifestations of normative mental representations emanating from psychological systems designed to enhance coordination and membership in social groups. In providing an alternative to TMT, we (1 explain why the theory is inconsistent with contemporary evolutionary biology, (2 demonstrate that mortality-salience does not have the unique evocative powers ascribed to it by TMT advocates, and (3 discuss our approach to coalitional psychology, a framework consistent with modern evolutionary theory and informed by a broad understanding of cultural variation, can be employed to help account for both the corpus of results in TMT research and the growing body of findings inconsistent with TMT's predictions.

  5. Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B

    2008-04-01

    This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology.

  6. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  7. Schema Theory and the Psychology-Christianity Dialogue: New Theoretical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    Two misconceptions about the apparent burgeoning interest in the relationship between psychology and Christianity are discussed: that the interest in this dialogue is equally operative on both sides and that those involved in this dialogue share a common set of understandings. The history of the relationship between psychology and Christianity is…

  8. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  9. Roles for Software Technologies in Advancing Research and Theory in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Allyson F.; Winne, Philip H.; Nesbit, John C.

    2005-01-01

    While reviews abound on theoretical topics in educational psychology, it is rare that we examine our field's instrumentation development, and what effects this has on educational psychology's evolution. To repair this gap, this paper investigates and reveals the implications of software technologies for researching and theorizing about core issues…

  10. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  11. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  12. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  13. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R; Lee, Jae H; Jaglal, Susan B

    2012-08-28

    benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses' behaviour associated with HH.

  14. Application of Career Anchor Theory in Higher Vocational Teachers’ Training%职业锚理论在高职教师培训中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗娟

    2013-01-01

    职业锚是人们选择和发展职业时围绕的中心,与职业发展的定位密切相关。从职业锚的概念和类型出发,对高职教师培训中应用职业锚理论的必要性进行分析,并基于职业锚理论,提出高职教师培训的新思路:了解培训对象的职业锚,确立明确的培训目标;充分考虑培训对象的职业锚,提高培训师资质量;以人为本,创新培训模式;以职业锚为导向,健全培训效果评价机制。%Career anchor is the center when people do the occupation choice and make it developed, and it’s closely related to the orientation of the occupation development. Based on the concept and types of career anchor, the author analyzed the necessity of application of career anchor theory in higher vocational teachers’s training, and then put forward some new ideas for higher vocational teachers’ chaining:understand the career anchor of the teacher to be trained, and establish the training objectives;take the career anchor of the teacher to be trained into account, and improve the quality of lecturers;innovate the training model in people-oriented;strengthen the eval-uation mechanism of training effect in career anchor-oriented.

  15. Vocational Teaching Cube System of Engineering Graphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangDaofu; LiuShenli

    2003-01-01

    Based on long-time research on vocational teaching cube theory in graphics education and analyzing on the intellectual structure in the process of reading engineering drawing, the graphics intellectual three-dimensional model, which is made up of 100 cubes, is founded and tested in higher vocational graphics education. This system serves as a good guidance to the graphics teaching.

  16. The Research of Linkage of the Training Targets of Secondary and Higher Vocational Education from the perspective of System Theory%系统论视阈下中高职培养目标的衔接研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳; 余家军

    2013-01-01

    Both of secondary vocational education and higher vocational education belong to the vocational education category . However, in practice, the training target system is disjointed between the secondary and higher vocational education .The setting of training goals during the linkage of secondary and higher vocational education influences the subsequent specialty setting , cur-riculum system, teaching process, teaching training, etc..Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the intrinsic reason why the train-ing target system cannot connect and make the training targets according to the system theory after setting the training targets ac -curately, multilateral participants'communication and mediation and considering the requirement of human comprehensive devel -opment for the purpose of the effective linkage of secondary and higher vocational education .%  中职教育与高职教育同属职业教育范畴,但在职业教育的实践中却出现了中高职的脱节、断层现象,而中高职衔接中培养目标的准确定位对于后续专业设置、课程体系、教学过程、教师培养、评价机制等具有十分重要的影响作用。针对目前中高职教育培养目标无法有效衔接的内在原因,基于系统论,从中高职培养目标的准确定位、各方参与者的沟通协调及人的全面发展需要等方面着手制定培养目标,促使中高职教育有效衔接。

  17. 克拉申的监控理论在高职英语教学中的运用及思考%The Application and Thinking of Krashen's Monitor Theory in Higher Vocational English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光勇

    2012-01-01

    本文通过对高职英语教学现状分析,针对高职学生英语水平偏低的实际,提出要提高高职英语教学水平,需要注重二语习得理论的指导。克拉申的二语习得理论是目前世界上语言教学理论中最具影响力的理论,由五个互相联系的核心假说构成,对于我们高职院校大学英语教学有着重大的指导作用。%In this paper, through the analysis on vocational English teaching status, for the actual situation that students' English level is low, to improve the level of vocational English teaching, you need to pay attention to the guidance of second language acquisition theory. Kmshen, Second Language Acquisition Theory is the most influential theory in language teaching theory on the world, consists of five interrelated core hypothesis has a major role in guiding our vocational college English teaching.

  18. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.

  19. On the Cause, Danger and Elimination of the Psychological Frustration of Higher Vocational College Students%高职学生心理挫折的成因、危害及消除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞

    2013-01-01

      心理挫折是高职学生比较普遍存在的心理状态,家庭经济困难,高考失利以及社会传统观念和不当舆论影响是其产生的外因。错报专业,不习惯新的教学方式以及社会适应能力差是其产生的内因。增强学生自信心,根据气质特点进行个别教育,树立远大理想,鉴定专业思想是消除心理挫折的几项重要工作。%Psychological frustration is common in higher vocational college students. Difficult backgrounds, failure in the college entrance examination, social bias and improper public opinion are the external causes. Mistake in choosing major, not used to the new way of teaching and poor adaptability to the society are the internal causes. In order to eliminate the psychological frustration of the students, several tasks should be undertaken which include the building-up of the students’ confidence, individual education, and professional opinion appraise.

  20. 基于可能自我概念的高职生心理健康教育%Higher vocational students’ psychological health education based on possible self conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宗翰; 江铭

    2016-01-01

    Possible self conception belong to the category of psychology,the paper analyze psychological characteris-tics of vocational college students under the current environment,combine contents and causes of possible self con-ception from both horizontal and vertical aspects. Introduce how we use this conception in actual management work for students,improving students self awareness,fundamentally caring for this group from mind and behavior.%可能自我概念属于心理学范畴,本文通过分析当前环境下高职生的心理特点,结合可能自我横向和纵向两个方面的内容及其形成原因,介绍了在实际学生工作中如何利用这一概念做好思想教育工作,改善高职生自我认知,从根本上对这一群体给予心灵和行为上的关怀。

  1. 催眠在高职教师心理保健方面的应用%The Application of Hypnosis to the Psychological Health Care of Vocational College Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左彩云

    2012-01-01

    As one of technologies of psychological counseling,hypnosis plays an important role in relaxing people's mind and body and reducing their pressure.Through the introduction of hypnosis technology and its function,this paper lists the experience of teachers who are hypnotized and get health care and treatment.All these mentioned above simply serve as a catalyst to gain more suggestions and contributions,which can finally contribute to the rapid and wide application of hypnosis in vocational college teachers' psychological health treatment.%催眠是心理咨询的技术之一,对人身的身心具有放松、减压等作用。通过对催眠技术及其作用的介绍,以及列举被催眠而得到保健、治疗的教师的体验,进行抛砖引玉,促使催眠技术能更快、更普及地应用于高职院校教师心理保健工作中。

  2. 社会心理学视阈下高职院校教师职业倦怠分析%A Study on the Job Burnout of Teachers in Vocational Colleges From the Perspective of Social Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 曹将栋

    2016-01-01

    基于社会心理学视角,从社会动机、社会认知、社会心理、社会行为及社会影响等方面探究高职院校教师产生职业倦怠的原因,并针对以上原因提出动机纠偏、认知改良、心理防御、人际关系拓展、行为合理把控等缓解策略。%From the perspective of social psychology,this article probes into possible causes of the job burnout of teachers in vocational colleges in the aspects of social motives,cognition,psychology,behaviors and impact.In addi-tion,it presents relevant solutions to its relief like the rectification of the deviations of their motives,the improvement of their cognition,the mental defense,the expansion of their personal relations and the reasonable control of their be-haviors.

  3. The Active Role of Sports Modernization to the Psychological Health of Higher Vocational College Students%论体育现代化对高职大学生心理健康的积极作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志华

    2012-01-01

    The talent of the 21st century should have three characteristics: a strong body, profound knowledge and sound personality. In order to meet the demand of social development and the intense market competition, the modern vocational college students, the pillars of the State and the builders of socialist modernization, not only need to learn professional skills and improve physical quality, but also need to cultivate healthy psychology. At present our country college students'psychological health is not optimistic, which Education institutions and the society pay attention to. There are a lot of measures to cultivate college students'mental health, and sports is a very important one. Sports play the active role in the psychological health of the vocational college students, boosting the self - confidence of students, tempering strong will, regulating mood, coordinating interpersonal, and promoting the all - round devel- opment of personality and the improvement of the overall quality.%当代高职大学生作为国家的栋梁之才和社会主义现代化的建设者,不仅需要学好专业技能、提高身体素质,更需要培养健康的心理,这也是体育现代化的目标,这样也才能更适应社会发展的需要和激烈的市场竞争。目前我国高职大学生心理健康状况不太乐观,教育机构和社会对此极其关注。体育现代化旨使学生在体育运动中培养健康的心理,体育现代化对高职大学生的心理健康有着积极的作用,有利于增强高职大学生的自信心,锻炼坚强意志,调节情绪,协调人际关系和促进人格的全面发展和综合素质的提高。

  4. 双因素理论在高职院校学生管理中的运用探究%Exploration on the Application of Two-Factor Theory in the Student Management of Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠英

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of the education system reform in recent years, the enrollment work of higher vocational colleges has changed compared with the past, so some new situations also appear in the student management of higher vocational colleges accordingly. To this end, by means of the two-factor theory that is widely applied in various management fields such as catering, e-ducation, security, investment and so on, we make a theoretical exploration on the realistic problems in the student management of higher vocational colleges, and meanwhile, propose the solving strategies based on the theory, in order to improve higher voca-tional college students' initiative in learning science and technol-ogy, and improve the quality of high-technology talent cultivation in higher vocational colleges.%最近几年,在教育体制改革的大背景下,高职院校的招生工作与以往相比有所变动,因而,高职院校学生的管理工作也随之出现了一些新状况。为此,我们借助被广泛应用于餐饮、教育、证券、投资等诸多管理领域的双因素理论,针对高职院校学生管理工作中的现实问题,进行理论运用探究,同时也提出基于双因素理论的解决策略,以提高高职院校学生学习科学技术的积极性,进而提高高职院校培养高技术人才的质量。

  5. 增强高职院校思想政治理论课教学实效性的策略%The Strategies on Improving Teaching Effect of Higher Vocational College Ideological and Political Theory Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾业伟

    2013-01-01

    文章针对高职院校思想政治理论课教学的特点,从教育理念、教学内容、教学方法和教学语言等方面,探索增强高职院校思想政治理论课教学实效的策略。%According to the characteristics in the education of ideological and political theory course in higher vocational colleges, this paper explored strategies to enhance teaching effect of higher vocational college ideological and political theory course from the education idea,teaching contents,teaching methods and teaching language and so on.

  6. 高职院校军事理论课的魅力浅析--以辽宁金融职业学院为例%A Brief Analysis on the Charm of Military Theory Course in Higher Vocational Colleges:A Case Study on Liaoning Finance Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金颖

    2015-01-01

    普通高等学校军事课教学大纲规定军事理论课教学时数为36学时,学生在学习中没有压力,而且教学中采用高职高专规划教材也对军事理论教学起了很大的作用。把理论课讲活、不枯燥,激发学生的学习积极性。各院校也给军事理论课很大的支持。新生军训之后,教官的军人作风使大学生充满了对军事的向往,任课教师的人格魅力也让学生热衷军事理论课的学习。军事理论课在高职院校还是很受欢迎的。%The teaching syllabus of military course in regular in-stitutions of higher learning determines that the quantity of mili-tary theory course teaching is 36 periods, in which students will not have pressure, and the textbook designed for higher vocation-al education also plays an important role in military theory teach-ing. Making theory course vivid and not dull can stimulate stu-dents' enthusiasm. Colleges and universities have also provided a great amount of support for military theory course. After the mili-tary training for freshmen, they are impressed by the military style of their military instructors and become interested in military, and besides, the personal charisma of teachers for military theory course will also motivate students' learning of military theory. In a word, military theory course is deeply favored in higher vocational colleges.

  7. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  8. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  9. Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis: psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Semin, Gün R; Berntson, Gary G

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These philosophical perspectives have different strengths and weaknesses and have been regarded as incommensurate: Scientific realism fosters theoretical rigor, verifiability, parsimony, and debate, whereas scientific instrumentalism fosters theoretical innovation, synthesis, generativeness, and scope. The authors review the evolution of scientific realism and instrumentalism in psychology and propose that the categorical distinction between the 2 is overstated as a prescription for scientific practice. The authors propose that the iterative deployment of these 2 perspectives, just as the iterative application of inductive and deductive reasoning in science, may promote more rigorous, integrative, cumulative, and useful scientific theories.

  10. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscart Veronique M

    2012-08-01

    administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH.

  11. The Schema Theory and English Lexical Phrases Teaching in Five-Year Higher Vocational School%图式理论与五年制高职英语词汇短语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis tends to apply the Schema Theory to lexical phrases teaching in five-year higher vocational school so as to solve the students' difficulties of learning English.%  本文试图将图式理论应用到五年制高职生英语词汇短语的教学中,以期解决学生在学习词汇短语中的困难。

  12. Application of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences in Promoting the Development of Students of Vocational Schools%应用多元智能理论 促进中等职业学校学生发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷英

    2012-01-01

    应用多元智能理论,提出中等职业教育的发展策略,对促进中职学生发展有一定的积极意义。%The education of teachers and students with the theory of multiple intelligences and the construction of the multi-evaluation system may play a positive role in promoting the development of students in vocational schools.

  13. Vocational rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2014-01-01

    Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability...... for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts....

  14. Vocational rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2014-01-01

    Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability...... for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts....

  15. Sociological Theory or Psychological Types: A Case Study of Attitudes to-wards Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Laura; Elliot, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Sociological theories can be viewed as models of (sub)-populations. In this paper we explore the possibility of representing social theories as attitudinal types rather than as descriptions of society at large. To test this idea we investigate the relevance of four different theories of couple relationships to the attitudes of 18 to 30 year olds. Rather than testing these theories via aggregate social trends, we investigate the plausibility of treating the four social theories as attitudinal ...

  16. Study of Incentive for Vocational College Students Based on Goal-setting Theory%基于目标设置理论的高职学生激励问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓波

    2011-01-01

    高职学生学习动机不足是目前阻碍高职院校教学效果和教学质量提升的一个重要问题。根据高职学生的特点,以目标设置理论为理论基础,通过以目标为主导激励措施,提升学生的努力程度,形成持久的学习动力,最终提升高职教学的绩效水平。%Vocational college students are short of learning motivation, which is now an important issue for upgrading teaching effect and quality of vocational colleges. Based on the characteristics of vocational college students and the goal-setting theory, this paper tends to improve students' effort by goal-oriented incentive measures. A permanent learning motivation is expected to form and ultimately the teaching level of higher vocational education is improved.

  17. Psychometric Examination of an Inventory of Self-Efficacy for the Holland Vocational Themes Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon M.; Betz, Nancy E.; Edwards, Michael C.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of measures of self-efficacy for the six themes of Holland's theory were examined using item response theory. Item and scale quality were compared across levels of the trait continuum; all the scales were highly reliable but differentiated better at some levels of the continuum than others. Applications for adaptive…

  18. Psychometric Examination of an Inventory of Self-Efficacy for the Holland Vocational Themes Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon M.; Betz, Nancy E.; Edwards, Michael C.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of measures of self-efficacy for the six themes of Holland's theory were examined using item response theory. Item and scale quality were compared across levels of the trait continuum; all the scales were highly reliable but differentiated better at some levels of the continuum than others. Applications for adaptive…

  19. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  20. "The casual cruelty of our prejudices": on Walter Lippmann's theory of stereotype and its "obliteration" in psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history.

  1. What about Building 7? A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Wood

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations versus rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the conspiracy theory label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations.

  2. "What about building 7?" A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J; Douglas, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the "conspiracy theory" label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations.

  3. Vocational Behavior and Career Development, 1983: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Heesacker, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature related to vocational behavior and career development published during 1983, including 445 articles in 42 journals. The review is organized around issues pertinent to the counseling psychology perspective (career development, vocational choice, assessment, intervention) and the industrial/organizational psychology…

  4. 基于霍兰德职业类型理论的大学生职业兴趣调查与分析%The Survey and Analysis of College Students' Vocational Interest Based on the Theory of Holland Vocational Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文琤

    2016-01-01

    根据霍兰德职业类型理论以福建江夏学院学生为样本进行职业兴趣倾向调查,分析了样本的总体职业兴趣倾向、倾向水平,并以性别和专业为因子进行方差分析。研究发现,大学生职业兴趣倾向的顺序排名(从高到低)为企业型、社会型、常规型、艺术型、研究型与现实型;性别和专业对于大学生的职业兴趣倾向的分布有显著影响;大多数学生的兴趣分化水平不高。在此基础上,提出了针对政府与学校的生涯教育、企业招聘和学生个体生涯发展的建议。%According to the of Holland's vocational theory,we survey students'vocational interest of Fujian Jiangxia University,analyzes the overall sample's tendency and level,and analysis of variance for gender and major.Results show that the order of the college students'vocational interest (from high to low) is enterprising,social,conventional,artistic,investigative and realistic.Gender and major have significant impact on the distribution of college students'vocational interest.The level of college students'vocational interest is low tendency group (24.1%),medium level group (70.4%),high level group (5.5%).On this basis,we present some suggestions for school career education,enterprise recruitment,the government and the students themselves.

  5. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  6. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  7. Secondary vocational students’ common psychological problems and tutoring strategy%中职学生常见学习心理问题及辅导策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕

    2015-01-01

    学习心理辅导是学校心理健康教育工作的重要内容之一,不良学习动机、消极学业自我概念、学习倦怠、学习自我监控能力弱等都是常见的学习心理问题,这些问题涵盖了从动机、态度、情感到能力等各个层面。学习心理辅导必须做到教师的全员参与,基于学生的个别差异,实施有针对性的辅导,同时关注积极心理,实现心理健康教育三级目标的协同。%The learning psychological counseling is an important content of school mental health education work, bad learning motivation, negative academic self-concept, learning burnout and learning self-monitoring ability weak and so on are common learning psychological problems, these problems ranging from such levels as motivation, attitude, emotion to ability. To study psychological counselling teachers must participate, based on the student's individual difference, the implementation of targeted tutoring, at the same time focus on positive psychology, realize the goal of psychological health education level of synergy.

  8. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  9. 积极心理健康教育在高职院校第二课堂中的探索与实践%Research and Practice on Second Classroom of Positive Psychological Health Education of the Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江; 周桂霞

    2014-01-01

    作为为社会输送高素质技能型人才的高职院校,如何培养出专业素养高,心理素质过硬的合格人才,是摆在职业教育工作者面前需要探索的课题。学校第二课堂是积极心理健康教育的主要阵地之一,如何在高职院校第二课堂中开展好积极心理健康教育显得尤为重要。%As the vocational colleges to cultivate high -qualified skilled personnel for the society , how to cultivate high professionalism ,excellent psychological qualified personnel ,is the task faced by vocational educators that need to be explored .The second classroom is one of the main positions of posi‐tive psychological health education ,how to carry out the positive psychological health education on sec‐ond classroom vocational colleges is very important .

  10. Application of Group Psychological Counseling in Higher Vocational College——With Wuhan Institute of Shipbuilding as a case study%团体心理辅导在高职院校心理健康教育中的应用——以武汉船院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春晓

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of experience activity,group psychological group counseling plays a positive role in higher vocational psychological health education.Starting from the practical significance of group psychological counseling in higher vocational college,this essay takes Wuhan Institute of Shipbuilding as a study case,analyses the shortcomings of current group counseling in higher vocational colleges,and proposes relevant suggestions.%团体心理辅导作为一种体验式活动,在高职院校心理健康教育中有着积极的应用。文章从团体心理辅导在高职院校心理健康教育中的实践意义出发,结合武汉船院班级团体心理辅导活动的开展情况,重点分析了当前高职院校团体心理辅导的不足之处,并提出了相关建议。

  11. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  12. Students' personal professional theories in competence-based vocational education : the construction of personal knowledge through internalisation and socialisation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Harmen; Bruijn, Elly de; Schaaf, Marieke van der; Kirschner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to provide an insight into how students construct their professional knowledge and what the content and nature of personal professional knowledge is through the concept of PPTs (personal professional theories).

  13. The New Connotation of English Teacher's Role in Higher Vocational Education under Modern Theory of Vocational Education%现代职教理论下高职英语教师角色的新内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴琳

    2009-01-01

    在新的历史时期下,高等职业教育理念有了极大的改变,给传统教学中的教师角色带来了巨大的冲击和挑战,赋予了高职英语教师角色新的内涵.%In the new historical period, the ideology of higher vocational education had the enormous change, brought great impact and the challenges to the teacher' s role of traditional teaching and provided a new conno-tation for the role of vocational English teacher.

  14. An Inquiry into the Application of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences to Higher Vocational English Teaching%多元智能理论在高职院校英语教学中的应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培

    2013-01-01

    The theory of multiple intelligences proposed by American scholar Howard Gardiner, breaks through the tradi-tional intelligence theory, reveals a broader intelligence system, so it has been widely used in English teaching theory and prac-tice. From the perspective of the theory of multiple intelligences, this paper analyzes and discusses the applicability of the theory in English teaching in higher vocational colleges, and the model of higher vocational English teaching under the guidance of the theory.%美国学者霍华德·加德纳提出的多元智能理论,突破了传统的智力理论,揭示了一个更为宽泛的智能体系,已被广泛应用于英语教学理论和实践的研究。本文从多元智能理论的视角,分析和探讨了该理论在高职院校英语教学中的适用性,以及该理论指导下的高职院校英语教学模式。

  15. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  16. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  17. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  18. Relationship of Vocational Satisfaction to the Correspondence of Job Reinforcement and Vocational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Robert R.; Weiss, David J.

    The Theory of Work Adjustment proposes that vocational satisfaction is a function of the correspondence between the reinforcers in the work environment and the individual's vocational needs. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the means and variances of measures of satisfaction for groups differing in degree of need-reinforcer correspondence.…

  19. Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

  20. On the construction of a psychologically based, general theory of observation: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nyman, Göte

    2013-01-01

    The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.

  1. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  2. Clinical Supervision and Psychological Functions: A New Direction for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Relates Carl Jung's concept of psychological functions to four families of clinical supervision: the original clinical models, the humanistic/artistic models, the technical/didactic models, and the developmental/reflective models. Differences among clinical supervision models within these families are clarified as representing "communication…

  3. The use of the effect size in JCR Spanish journals of psychology: from theory to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Juan; Ortega Campos, Elena; De la Fuente Sánchez, Leticia

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published "Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation." The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the followup of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal.

  4. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  5. 我国中职教育吸引力弱化趋势的市场学分析%Attraction Weakening of Secondary Vocational Education in China:An Analysis of Theory Related Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志利; 邵会婷

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011,the attraction of Chinese secondary vocational education has been showing weakening tendency, the scale of students has been shrinking and the reduction has been increasing year by year.Based on the theory related market,the main reasons for this phenomenon are considered as:the labor market segmentation of human resources be-comes more and more serious;the functions and values of secondary vocational education are alienated from social expec-tations,and its education services are facing bidirectional substitution from high schools and social training institutions, and the public satisfaction to secondary vocational education is low.To promote its attraction,the negative effect of hu-man resource market segmentation should be reduced as far as possible,“connection between secondary vocational educa-tion and higher vocational education” and “mutual communication between general education and vocational education”should be strongly advanced,the target and the service concept should be scientifically established,the investment and fi-nancing mechanism should be built toward society,eventually improving school-running mechanism innovations of second-ary vocational education.%自2011年起,我国中职教育吸引力呈弱化趋势,在校生规模逐年降低,且降幅逐年加大。基于市场学相关理论,造成这一现象的主要原因在于:人力资源市场分割现象越来越严重,中职教育功能、价值与社会预期脱节,教育服务面临普通高中和社会培训机构的“双向替代”,民众对中职教育服务质量满意度较低等。提升中职教育吸引力,需立足现实,尽力降低人力资源市场分割的负面效应,强力推进“中高职衔接”与“普职沟通”,科学确立中职教育办学目标与服务理念,构建面向社会的投资融资机制,推进办学体制机制创新。

  6. Reforming vocational didactics by implementing a new VET teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Henriette; Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    2015-01-01

    from backgrounds with no tradition for education. Despite historical changes, the education as vocational college teacher also struggles with the interplay between theory and practice in the program and great diversity among vocational college teachers. Based on empirical data from focus group......A new education program, Diploma of Vocational Pedagogy, has recently been implemented in Denmark to upskill vocational college teachers and improve didactics at VET colleges in general. Among many challenges, vocational college teachers have to adapt their pedagogy to a large number of students......, and the analysis uncovers several factors that are expected to hamper the development processes....

  7. C onstruction of Flexible Curriculum System in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Constructivism Theory%基于建构主义理论的高职柔性课程体系建设思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰金; 霍览宇

    2015-01-01

    结合国内外职业教育课程体系的发展趋势,提出了基于建构主义理论的高职柔性课程体系的建设思路,从柔性能力目标、柔性课程体系、柔性教学模式三个方面介绍了具体的建设方案。%The proposed the construction ideas of the theory of Higher Vocational flexible course system based on constructivism, from three aspects of flexible ability, flexible course system, flexible teaching mode introduces the concrete construction plan, according to the development trend of domestic and international vocational education curriculum system.

  8. Dynamical Systems Theory in Quantitative Psychology and Cognitive Science: A Fair Discrimination between Deterministic and Statistical Counterparts is Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Adam; Ausloos, Marcel; Casey, Tahlia

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems.' It also considers whether the exponential (Malthus-type) or the algebraic (Pareto-type) statistical distribution ought to be effectively considered in practical interpretations. The role of repetitive specific behaviors by patients seeking treatment is examined within the NDS frame. The significance of these behaviors, involving a certain memory effect seems crucial in determining a patient's progression or regression. With this perspective, it is discussed how a sensitively applied hazardous or triggering factor can be helpful for well-controlled psychological strategic treatments; those attributable to obsessive-compulsive disorders or self-injurious behaviors are recalled in particular. There are both inherent criticality- and complexity-exploiting (reduced-variance based) relations between a therapist and a patient that can be intrinsically included in NDS theory.

  9. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  10. Applications of the Theory of Work Adjustment to Rehabilitation and Counseling. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation: XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofquist, Lloyd H.; Dawis, Rene V.

    This is one of a series of 30 monographs documenting the progress and accomplishments of the Minnesota Work Adjustment Project. Presented in this, the final report, is an overview of the project as well as detailed explanations of outcomes and activities. The conceptualized Work Adjustment Theory is the foremost accomplishment of the research…

  11. A Self-Determination Theory Based Motivational Model on Intentions to Drop out of Vocational Schools in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Bui Thi Thuy; Kaur, Amrita; Nur, Abdul Hamid Busthami

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Student motivation for positive academic outcome and persistence at school is significantly affected by personal and environmental factors. Anchored in self-determination theory, this study tested a motivational model which looked at how support in terms of perceived teacher autonomy and from school administration constituted the key…

  12. 论高职高专广告设计专业理论课教学改革%On Teaching Methods of Theory Lesson of Advertising Design Major in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田忻

    2012-01-01

    在目前高职高专教育中,广告设计专业因其专业本身的应用性和实践性的特点使得它成为与高职高专院校人才培养目标契合度非常高的专业,更成为了教学模式和教学方法改革的前沿专业。在高职高专教学活动中,理论课与实践课的关系一直是备受关注的焦点。本文以广告设计专业广告策划与创意课程的教学探索为例,探讨了高职高专理论课教学的新思路和新方法。%Advertising design in present higher vocational education has become the major which fits the talents training goal of higher vocational colleges very much because of its own special application and practical characteristics, and it also has become advanced major of teaching mode and teaching method reform. In the teaching activities of higher vocational colleges, the relation between theory class and practice class is always the focus. Taking the advertising planning of ad- vertising design major and the teaching of creative lessons as examples, this paper discusses new ideas and new methods of the teaching of theory lessons in higher vocational colleges.

  13. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development.

  14. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation.

  15. [Current aspects of attachment theory and development psychology as well as neurobiological aspects in psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Rupprecht, R

    2003-11-01

    This review covers basic principles of attachment research and its relationship to and implications for psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. A great number of studies deal with the importance of attachment theory in the development of these disorders associated with distinct attachment styles. The most well-known concept is the attachment theory created by John Bowlby (1907-1990), which has strengthened our knowledge on early mother-infant relationships and influenced guidelines for child care. Within this concept, family structure is of great importance for the psychological development of the child and later the adult. Attachment research indicates that disturbances of patients with psychosomatic, e.g., somatoform disorders, in establishing relations must be seen in a developmental genetic context. A model of vulnerability is introduced which describes the development of psychopathology concerning the formation of representations taking advantage of attachment theory. Additionally, recent progress in cognitive neurosciences addresses attachment theory. During the last decade, neurobiological studies in rodents, primates, and humans indicate that early influences of psychosocial factors could have permanent consequences for brain structure and function. Besides the psychoanalytical and behavioral view concerning psychiatric and especially psychosomatic disorders, the integration of neurobiological findings will be a major challenge for the generation of further concepts.

  16. Vocational College Students' Learning Burnout and Intervention Strategies%高职学生学习倦怠状况及干预对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱玲; 南楠

    2015-01-01

    随着高职学院教育不断普及,教育改革不断加强深入,学生产生学习倦怠情绪越来越多,老师们逐渐认识到倦怠对高职学院学生伤害很大。高职学院学生的学习倦怠已经成为现代应用心理学中学者研究的课题。本论文将相关心理学理论结合高职学生倦怠状况相结合,结合学生的性别、城乡状况、独身子女等特点对症下药,分析高职学生产生学习倦怠的原因。从而提出干预高职学生产生学生倦怠问题的对策,能够提高高职学生学习积极性,提高老师们教学质量。%With the growing popularity of vocational college education, education reforms have been strengthened further, that students have to learn more and more emotional burnout, teachers come to realize that burnout great harm to vocational school students. Vocational college students' learning burnout has become a modern scholar applied psychology research. In this paper, the relevant psychological theory with a combination of higher vocational student burnout, combined with stu-dents' gender, urban-rural status, children, etc. single remedy, analyze the reasons for vocational students to have learning burnout. Measures which made intervention in vocational students to produce student burnout, thereby improving vocational learning enthusiasm, improve the quality of teaching teachers.

  17. Self-complexity and Self-integration: Theory and Therapy in Clinical-Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noam, Gil G.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a new theory of self, based on the principles defined by Lawrence Kohlberg in his theory of moral development. The model sets forth self complexity (schemata) and biography (themata) as dimensions of self. Describes normal and atypical development arising from interaction of these components and assesses implications for practice. (KO)

  18. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  19. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  20. [Gestalt theory of V. v. Weizsäcker from the viewpoint of the psychology emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, S

    2001-07-01

    The "Gestaltkreis" represents an important part in the psychosomatic theory-discussion, which can be understood as an incomplete contribution towards a general theory of emotions. Especially the relationship between perception and motion requires further consideration. Instead of a causal attribution, cyclic complementaries are important. Furthermore different degrees of organisation within the body-scheme and the affect-apparatus are mentioned.

  1. Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and…

  2. Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and the American Humanistic Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differences and similarities between Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration and the theories of the American humanistic psychologists. Stresses the suffering associated with attaining higher levels of spiritual development. Suggests that Dabrowski and humanists followed different theodicies. (Author/ABL)

  3. 综合心理干预提高中等职业学校护生自主学习能力的效果%Effects of Comprehensive Psychological Intervention Programs in Improving Autonomous Learning Ability for Nursing Students of Secondary Vocational School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静; 温贤秀; 易隽; 王云琼

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨综合心理干预促进中等职业学校护生自主学习能力良性转变的作用.方法 于2012年6-12月选择成都地区3所中等职业学校102名二年级护士专科学校学生作为研究对象,采用自身前后对照的方法,对研究对象进行为期3个月的综合心理干预,比较干预前后护生学习动机与策略调查问卷(learning motivation and strategy questionnaire,MSLQ)及中等职业学校护生自主学习准备度问卷的得分.结果 综合心理干预前后,护士在MSLQ问卷中“内在价值”和“认知策略的使用”以及自主学习准备度量表中“自我管理”、“热爱学习”和“自我控制”等维度上的得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 综合心理干预方案采取团体辅导、个案分析、场景模拟、实地演示及理论讲授等方式,帮助学生充分体验和效仿,持续挖掘自身内在价值,促进了中等职业学校护生自主学习能力的良性转变.%Objective To investigate the effect of comprehensive psychological intervention programs in enhancing nursing student's autonomous learning ability in secondary vocational school. Methods From June to December 2012, 102 second-year nursing students in nursing training school were enrolled into this study. By self-control method, the students underwent a 3-month comprehensive psychological intervention. Then comparisons were conducted on the scores of learning motivation and strategy questionnaire (MSLQ)and self-directed learning readiness questionnaire. Results Significant differences were observed on the scores of the two dimensions of " inside value" and"use of cognition strategy" of MSLQ and the other three dimensions of "self-management "," a passion for study" and" self-control" of the self-directed learning readiness questionnaire (P<0. 05) before and after the intervention. Conclusion The comprehensive psychological intervention programs adopt group counseling, case a

  4. The perceiving process and mystical orientation : an empirical study in psychological type theory among participants at the parliament of the world's religions

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Cargas, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 580 participants attending the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Barcelona 2004 completed the Francis-Louden Mystical Orientation Scale together with a measure of psychological type (the Francis Psychological Type Scales) in order to test the thesis based on Christopher Ross’ work that intuitive types would record significantly higher scores of mystical orientation in comparison with sensing types. The data supported Ross’ theory, and also added to the growing body of evidenc...

  5. Study on the inlfuence of psychological capital and achievement motivation on ICU male nurses' vocational delay of gratiifcation%ICU男护士心理资本、成就动机对职业延迟满足的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芳; 蓝惠兰; 付霞; 彭丽娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨心理资本、成就动机对重症监护室(ICU)男护士职业延迟满足的影响。方法:采用便利抽样法选取广东省16所综合医院的109名ICU男护士,应用心理资本量表、成就动机量表以及职业延迟满足量表进行问卷调查。结果:ICU男护士的职业延迟满足得分为(19.79±5.29)分,心理资本得分为(45.21±5.02)分,成就动机得分为(4.34±6.14)分。婚姻、月收入、职称、乐观与追求成功对职业延迟满足具有正向预测作用。结论:目前ICU男护士职业延迟满足的整体水平偏低,可通过保持乐观的工作态度、强化追求成功的信念,来改善ICU男护士的职业延迟满足状况。%Objective: To probe into inlfuence of psychological capital and achievement motivation on ICU male nurses' Vocational delay of gratification. Methods: A total of 109 nurses from 16 general hospitals in Guangdong were investigated with psychological capital scale, achievement motivation scale, and vocational delay of gratiifcation questionnaire. Results: The mean score of vocational delay of gratiifcation was 19.79±5.29. The mean score of psychological capital was 45.21±5.02. The mean score of achievement motivation was 4.34±6.14. Regression analysis showed that there were signiifcant positive correlation among marriage, income, professional title, optimism, pursuit of success and vocational delay of gratiifcation. Conclusion: The level of vocational delay of gratiifcation is still low. Maintaining optimistic attitude and strengthening motivation for succeed is an effective approach to enhance nurses' vocational delay of gratiifcation.

  6. Three-Capital Approach to the Study of Young People who Excel in Vocational Occupations: A Case of WorldSkills Competitors and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Chankseliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the entrepreneurial inclinations of young people who achieved excellence in vocational occupations. We propose a three-capital approach to the study of entrepreneurship. Relying on the existing theories and original qualitative and quantitative data analyses, findings from interviews with 30 entrepreneurial and 10 non-entrepreneurial WorldSkills competitors show that psychological capital, social capital and human capital can be combined to explore how young people who excel in vocational occupations develop entrepreneurial mindsets. We show that training for and participation in the largest vocational skills event globally - WorldSkills competition - develops selected aspects of three capitals. However, we also discover that the entrepreneurial motivation precedes competitors' involvement with WorldSkills.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. The Application of Psychological Health Education in the Management of "post-90" Higher Vocational Students%心理健康教育在“90后”高职学生管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关红; 焦宁

    2012-01-01

    随着“90后”学生进入高职院校,高职院校的学生管理工作遇到了新情况、新挑战。基于目前高职在校生的特点,将心理健康教育应用到日常的高职学生管理工作中,要尊重、关爱学生,形成良好的师生关系,学生才能易于接受。也能提高辅导员的工作效率和管理水平。%With the entering of "post-90" students into higher vocational colleges, the students' management work comes across the new circumstances challenges m higher vocational colleges, Based on the characteristics of students in higher vocational colleges at present, psychological health education to the daily management work of higher vocational students. It needs to respect and' iOve students to form the good relationship between teachers and students, so that students are easy to accept, which can also promote the work efficiency and management level of instructors.

  10. On Schoolgirls' Fear Psychology and Overcoming Method in the Teaching of Superior Middle Difficulty Item of Higher Vocational PE%谈高职体育中上难度项目教学中女生恐惧心理及克服方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包丽英

    2011-01-01

    The superior middle difficulty item is very common in the teaching of higher vocational PE,such as forward roll.It plays a good function in developing students' coordination,flexility and sensitivity.At the same time,it can train students' brave and decisive psychological quality.But in PE teaching it often needs to overcome their psychology,especially schoolgirls' fear psychology,which needs them to overcome.How schoolgirls overcome fear psychology in the teaching of superior middle difficulty item of higher vocational PE plays an active role in improving the teaching quality of PE.%以前滚翻为例的中上难度的项目是高职体育教学中常见的,对发展学生的协调性、柔韧性、灵敏性有很好的作用,同时也培养学生勇敢、果断的心理品质。但在体育教学中往往需要克服自身的心理,特别是女生更容易产生恐惧心理,需要她们去克服。在高职体育中上难度项目教学中女生如何积极克服恐惧心理对提高体育教学质量会起到积极的帮助作用。

  11. 秉承正则理念关爱学生心灵--高职高专家庭经济困难学生心理疏导的思考%Inheriting justice and caring mind- Reflections on the psychological counseling for financial-need students at higher vocational college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程媛媛

    2014-01-01

    分析思想政治教育视角下高职高专家庭经济困难学生心理疏导的必要性,以“秉承正则理念、关爱学生心灵”为主线,依托团体心理辅导协会和志愿者服务队伍,从“知、帮、建、辅”四方面入手,探讨高职高专家庭经济困难学生心理疏导的实施途径。%Based on the domestic scholars’existing researches on the psychological counseling of poor students from the perspective of ideological and political education,this thesis analyzes the necessity of higher vocational college students’ psychological counseling in order to probe into and discuss the ways of implementing the psychological counseling for the higher vocational college students.psychological counseling should be centered on “inheriting justice and law and caring mind”,group counseling work and construction of volunteer service team.

  12. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  13. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  14. Relationship between psychological resilience and life events in Tibetan nursing students receiving free vocational nursing education%藏区免费职业教育护生心理弹性与生活事件的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉玲; 黄鸿; 宋慧敏; 周瑶; 兰婷

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解藏区免费职业教育护生(以下简称藏区护生)心理弹性与生活事件现状,并探讨两者的相关性,提出相应的对策,以促进其身心健康发展。方法采用中文版Connor-Davidson心理弹性量表和青少年生活事件量表(adolescent self-rating life events check list,ASLEC)对120名藏区护生进行调查。两者的相关性采用Pearson相关分析。结果藏区护生心理弹性得分与全国常模比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);ASLEC总得分为(39.88±9.75)分。藏区护生心理弹性及各因子与ASLES总分及其与学习压力、受罚和丧失维度均呈负相关(P<0.05),与人际关系和健康与适应维度均呈正相关(P<0.05)。结论无论在藏区护生生活适应还是在专业学习上,学校和医院应制订和实施相应教学和心理支持措施,以提高藏区护生应对挫折和适应社会的能力,从而促进其身心健康。%ObjectiveTo explore relationship between psychological resilience and life events of Tibetan nursing students receiving free vocational nursing education.Method The questionnaire of Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90)and ASLEC were used in the survey among 120 nursing students to investigate the psychological resilience and life events and SPSS 17.0 was used to look into the correlations between them.Results The scores on psychological resilience of Tibetan nursing students was higher than the norm (P<0.05).There were negative correlations between life events and psychological resilience(P<0.05).Their psychological resilience was positively related to personal relations and health conditions(P<0.05)but negatively to learning pressure,punishment and losses (P<0.05).Conclusion The school and hospital should make teaching measures to psychologically support them in daily life to strengthen the abilities to handle failure and adjust to the society.

  15. 高职人才目标定位及理实一体化课程教学的建议%Definition of Talent Goals in Higher Vocational Education and Suggestion on Practice-theory Integration Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俊梅; 顾准

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of definition of talent goals in higher vocational education and the common problems existed currently in course teaching,it was determined that practice-theory integration course was taken as the subject to set curriculum in higher vocational education.Furthermore,some suggestions were proposed,such as working process was taken as the guide to establish the practice-theory integration course system,project curriculum was taken as carrier to organize the practice—theory integration course contents,integrated capability check was taken as target to establish practice-theory integration course evaluation system,and so on.%本文在分析了高职人才培养目标定位、目前高职课程教学存在的普遍问题基础上,确定了高职课程的设置应当以"理实一体化"课程为主体,提出以工作过程为导向构建理实一体课程体系,以项目课程为载体组织理实一体教学内容,以综合能力考核为目标建立理实一体评价体系等建议。

  16. Evolutionary theory, and the search for meaning and dialectics in contemporary developmental psychology/La teoria de la evolucion, y la busqueda de sentido y dialectica en la psicologia del desarrollo contemporanea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blasi, Carlos Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    .... It is suggested that, if developmental psychology takes biological knowledge seriously, particularly evolutionary theory, there might be a chance to improve both its internal cohesion and its social...

  17. View on Secondary Vocational School Students’Learning from Perspective of Field Theory%从勒温的场论看中职学生的学习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪萍

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法、访谈法、调查法、个案研究等方法,运用在勒温场论分析中职学生学习存在的问题、影响因素(个人因素:身心特点、挫折感、自我效能感低等;环境因素:政策因素、学校因素、家庭和社会环境因素等)及应对措施(增强自我效能感,重塑自信;树立奋斗目标,自我激励;以榜样为示范,荣誉激励;课内与课外相结合,寓教于乐;加强民主教育与管理,人文熏陶;加强校园文化建设,文化育人)。%With the guidance of Kurt Lewin’s field theory, the paper analyses what problems students in a voca-tional school have in learning and what influences their learning by literature review, interview,survey and case study. And then it puts forward solutions to their learning problems,such as enhancing their self-efficacy to build confidence, setting goals to motivate themselves, following models to inspire themselves, connecting in-class learning and after-class activities to balance study and life, building campus culture to educate students.

  18. War and Man: Finding Practical Value in Psychological Theories for the Military Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    describes a person as being composed of a natural disposition, acquired disposition, and feelings.34 In the 20th century, Karen Horney demonstrated that...classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.2.ii.html. 35 Karen Horney , Our Inner Conflicts: A Constructive Theory of Neurosis. (New York: W.W. Norton... Horney , Karen. Our Inner Conflicts: A Constructive Theory of Neurosis. New York: W.W. Norton, 1966. Jervis, Robert. System Effects: Complexity in

  19. A Psychological Classification of Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    This occupational classification for practical and theoretical use in vocational guidance, occupational research, vocational education, and social science rests upon a theory of personality types and includes 431 common occupations which comprise about 95 percent of the United States labor force. Each of the classification's six main classes…

  20. Thought on the Ideological and Political Theory Course and Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校思想政治理论课与创业教育思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩男

    2014-01-01

    随着我国经济社会的迅猛发展,“创业”一词已被越来越多的人们所熟知,为顺应时代需要,在高职院校中对学生开展创业教育已势在必行,在高职院校创业教育的探索道路上,思想政治理论课能够对创业教育起到其它课程很难起到的特有影响,在高职院校创业教育过程中切不可忽视思想政治理论课程所能发挥的独特作用。%With the rapid development of China’s economy and society ,the word“entrepreneur-ship” has been known by more and more people .In order to keep up with the need of the times ,it is im-perative to carry out entrepreneurship education for students in higher vocational colleges .On the way to explore the entrepreneurship education in higher vocational colleges ,the ideo-logical and political theory course can play a unique effect that other courses can not on entrepreneurship education ,which can not be ignored in the process of entrepreneurship education in higher vocational colleges .

  1. The Application of Meta-cognitive Strategy Theory in Public English Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges%元认知策略理论在高职公共英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈桂琴

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of China’s economy and business’s rapid development, China’s public English teaching in higher vocational colleges appeared some substantive issues, so that students no better participation, resulting in the teaching effect is not ideal. In English teaching in higher vocational colleges, teachers occupy a dominant position, students are just passive listeners, so this situation needs to be targeted for the application of Meta cognitive strategy theory teaching method. Through the new English teaching mode to develop the habit of students’ independent learning and complete the national training program. This paper mainly expounds the application of the Meta cognitive strategies in the teaching of public English in higher vocational colleges.%随着社会经济的发展,我国高职公共英语教学出现了一些实质性问题,教师占据主导地位,学生只是被动听众,学生参与度低,教学效果不理想。因此,需要针对性地将元认知策略理论应用到教学当中。探讨让学生养成自主学习的习惯,完成国家培养计划,不断提高高职公共英语的教学效果。

  2. 基于系统论的高职院校教师岗位聘任管理体系构建%Construction on the Post Assignment System for Teachers from Vocational Colleges Based on the System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾志祥; 陶毅

    2013-01-01

    The managerial work of post assignment for teachers is not only a significant part of personal sys-tem reform of vocational colleges, but also a complex system work. The article illustrates the construction principles and techniques path of vocational post appointment by utilizing systems theory and optimizing the overall system as a goal. It points out the new problems which may occur after operation and made recom-mendations. The article has a practical guiding importance of carrying out managerial work for teachers in vo-cational colleges.%教师岗位聘任管理工作是高职院校人事制度改革的重要组成部分,也是一项复杂的系统工程,文章运用系统理论,以系统总体最优为目标,阐述了高职院校教师岗位聘任管理体系的构建原则与技术路径,指出了系统运行后亟待解决的新问题,并提出了建议对策,对高职院校开展教师岗位聘任管理工作具有现实的指导意义。

  3. Cognitive dissonance. 1: An overview of the literature and its integration into theory and practice in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, S; Dabbs, A

    1998-09-01

    Clinical psychology may not be making full use of the experimental psychological research available to it. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on cognitive dissonance in order to assess its usefulness in developing and deconstructing clinical psychological therapies and practice. Experimental, theoretical and review articles were examined in relation to their possible clinical implications, and included in this review if they related to the arousal, maintenance and reduction of the state termed cognitive dissonance. Well replicated findings based on experimentally sound paradigms were integrated to produce an overall view of the evidence in favour of the existence of these processes, and of the principles behind them. It is concluded that there is an effect on attitudes and behaviour of creating inconsistency in individuals, and that this is not explained away by alternative theories, which in many cases refer to special conditions which maximally arouse dissonance. The dissonant state lasts for a few minutes, but its effects can last for up to two weeks, and might be reinstated by reintroducing the original inconsistency. Individuals can react to dissonance through a variety of cognitive alterations which reinstate consistency. The choice of response is a function of its salience and the difficulty in its execution. The literature supports the existence of the phenomenon termed cognitive dissonance, and one can distil the principles underlying its production, maintenance and reduction. This body of literature may provide insights into the conduct of therapy generally, as well as into the mechanisms of specific therapies which may guide modifications or development of alternative interventions.

  4. An Adaptation Theoretic Account of Vocatives%称呼语选择的语用顺应探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛

    2014-01-01

    The prior studies focus on vocatives from a sociolinguistic perspective and ignore the pragmatic factors, such as language reality and psychological motives. Recently, many scholars turn to discussing the pragmatic strategies used in vocatives. This paper sets out to introduce the definition of vocatives and Verschueren’s adaptation theory. Then it analyzes, in light of the theory, the examples from some live Chinese talk shows and the relationship between vocative and identity con-struction.%称呼语的使用在交际中不可或缺,而中国文化向来注重对称呼的得体运用。以往的研究多从社会语言学的角度切入,忽视了交际中语言现实和心理动机等动态因素。随着语用学的发展,很多学者开始探讨称呼语的语用策略。本文将运用 Verschueren 的顺应论框架,探讨以娱乐节目语料的言语交际中称呼语的选用对语言使用者、社交世界和心理世界这三个语境要素的顺应,并揭示其与身份构建的关系。

  5. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified.

  6. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  7. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  8. Understanding the Relationship Between Suicidality and Psychopathy: An Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-07-02

    A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples.

  9. 基于TQM理论的高职人才质量管理研究%Quality Management Research of Talents in Higher Vocational Schools Based on TQM Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 杨理连

    2015-01-01

    Quality management for talents training in higher vocational schools is the keyword to improve the quality of vocational education. With the system management principles, process principles and the humanism for overall quality management as a starting point, the qualitative analysis is made about the realization of overall quality management in higher vocational schools. The guiding principles for overall talent quality in higher vocational schools are proposed. By analyzing the connotations of overall talent quality in higher vocational schools, the overall talent quality management is constructed.%高职教育人才质量管理是提高高职教育质量的核心问题。本文以全面质量管理的体系管理原理、过程原理及人本原理等为切入点,对高职院校全面质量管理进行现实性分析,提出全面质量管理下的高职人才质量管理指导思想,旨在通过高职人才质量管理的内涵分析,构建高职人才质量管理体系。

  10. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored.

  11. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.

  12. 元认知理论下高职英语写作的汉语监控与管理%Monitoring and Supervising with Chinese Language in English Writing Teaching at Higher Vocational Colleges under the Metacognitive Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓宏

    2016-01-01

    元认知理论运用于英语写作是一个探索和发现的过程,而元认知策略作为一种有效的管理策略,为高职英语写作提供了重要的理论和应用价值。鉴于高职学生英语运用水平尚处初级阶段,作者建议教师在英语写作教学过程中,运用元认知策略,引导学生借用汉语进行监控与管理,培养其自主学习能力,调动写作主动性,提高写作实效性。%The application of metacognitive theory in the English writing is a process of ezploration and discovery whereas metacog-nitive strategy provides key theories and applied value for English writing teaching for higher vocational colleges. Due to their compara-tively low English usage ability of higher vocational college students,the author proposes that teachers guide students to monitor and su-pervise English writing by taking Chinese as a vehicle to cultivate students’ learning autonomy and improve writing ability under the metacognitive theory.

  13. On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…

  14. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrisos, S.; Eccles, M.P.; Francis, J.J.; Bosch, M.C.; Dijkstra, R.F.; Johnston, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kaner, E.F.; Steen, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theori

  15. The Impact of a Brief Training on Suicide for Graduate Students in Psychology, Incorporating Thomas Joiner's Theory of Why People Die by Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherbee, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a lack of formal training in suicide for mental health professionals in graduate psychology programs (Bongar & Harmatz, 1991; Batista, 2007). Suicide is a public health issue, with one suicide occurring approximately every 16 minutes in the United States (www.cdc.gov). A recently developed theory on why people die…

  16. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  17. Burdensomeness, Belongingness, and Capability: Assessing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide With MMPI-2-RF Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C; Finn, Jacob A; Gottfried, Emily D; Hames, Jennifer L; Bodell, Lindsay P; Hagan, Christopher R; Arnau, Randolph C; Anestis, Michael D; Arbisi, Paul A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-01

    Given the emerging body of literature demonstrating the validity of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), and the importance of increasing our understanding of the development of risk factors associated with suicidal behavior, it seems worthwhile both to expand IPTS research via Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) correlates and to expand the availability of methods by which to assess the constructs of the IPTS. The present study attempted to do so in a large adult outpatient mental health sample by (a) inspecting associations between the IPTS constructs and the substantive scales of the MMPI-2-RF and (b) exploring the utility of MMPI-2-RF scale-based algorithms of the IPTS constructs. Correlates between the IPTS constructs and the MMPI-2-RF scales scores largely followed a pattern consistent with theory-based predictions, and we provide preliminary evidence that the IPTS constructs can be reasonably approximated using theoretically based MMPI-2-RF substantive scales. Implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Integrating the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide into the depression/suicidal ideation relationship: a short-term prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Liu, Richard T; Riskind, John H

    2014-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with increased beliefs about perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness identified in the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide and that these beliefs are associated with changes in suicidal ideation. Participants with clinical levels of depressive symptoms (n=299) were selected from a larger group (n=508) and completed measures of depressive symptoms, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation twice over a period of 2 months. Results of a structural equation model found that depressive symptoms were associated with increases in burdensomeness and lack of belonging, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, this hypothesized integrated model demonstrated a significantly better fit than an alternative model that assumed burdensomeness and lack of belonging were associated with changes in depressive symptoms, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that the well-established relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation is associated with changes in beliefs that one is a burden on others and lacks belonging. More generally, these results suggest that it may be fruitful to integrate theories of suicide risk to form a comprehensive model that can inform future research and clinical interventions.

  19. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  20. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy.