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Sample records for vocalizations single words

  1. Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence o...

  2. Detailed vocalic information in Danish 20-month-olds' novel words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    results were found at 16 months with a simplified word-learning task (Havy & Nazzi, 2009). This indicated that vocalic information is given less weight than consonantal information when learning novel words. On the other hand, English 14- or 18-month-olds were sensitive to vowel mispronunciations of three......  Infants are endowed with an amazing capacity to perceive speech sounds. However, when learning new words, infants appear to not always use their perceptual capacities to their fullest. Recent research has provided conflicting evidence regarding the extent to which infants form new lexical...... representations with fully specified vowels. In a recent study, French 20-month-olds were able to learn two new words that differed by a single consonant but not words that differed by a single vowel, even when changing two or more phonetic features, in a name-based categorization task (Nazzi, 2005); similar...

  3. Repeated imitation makes human vocalizations more word-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Perlman, Marcus; Lupyan, Gary

    2018-03-14

    People have long pondered the evolution of language and the origin of words. Here, we investigate how conventional spoken words might emerge from imitations of environmental sounds. Does the repeated imitation of an environmental sound gradually give rise to more word-like forms? In what ways do these forms resemble the original sounds that motivated them (i.e. exhibit iconicity)? Participants played a version of the children's game 'Telephone'. The first generation of participants imitated recognizable environmental sounds (e.g. glass breaking, water splashing). Subsequent generations imitated the previous generation of imitations for a maximum of eight generations. The results showed that the imitations became more stable and word-like, and later imitations were easier to learn as category labels. At the same time, even after eight generations, both spoken imitations and their written transcriptions could be matched above chance to the category of environmental sound that motivated them. These results show how repeated imitation can create progressively more word-like forms while continuing to retain a resemblance to the original sound that motivated them, and speak to the possible role of human vocal imitation in explaining the origins of at least some spoken words. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Syllable Durations of Preword and Early Word Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Michael P.; Saxman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The continuity in development of syllable duration patterns was examined in seven young children as they progressed from preword to multiword periods of vocalization development. Results revealed no systematic increase or decrease in the duration of bisyllables produced by the children as a group, whereas lengthening of final syllables was…

  5. Vocalization Latencies of Skilled and Less Skilled Comprehenders for Words Written in Hiragana and Kanji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds that Japanese fifth graders' naming speed was a good indicator of the automaticity of the lexical access for both syllabaries and morphograms, but that skilled/less-skilled differences in vocalization latencies were greater for real words than for pseudowords for both hiragana and kanji. Discusses the applicability of C. A. Perfetti's verbal…

  6. Coding of vocalizations by single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Diltz, Mark D; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal activity in single prefrontal neurons has been correlated with behavioral responses, rules, task variables and stimulus features. In the non-human primate, neurons recorded in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) have been found to respond to species-specific vocalizations. Previous studies have found multisensory neurons which respond to simultaneously presented faces and vocalizations in this region. Behavioral data suggests that face and vocal information are inextricably linked in animals and humans and therefore may also be tightly linked in the coding of communication calls in prefrontal neurons. In this study we therefore examined the role of VLPFC in encoding vocalization call type information. Specifically, we examined previously recorded single unit responses from the VLPFC in awake, behaving rhesus macaques in response to 3 types of species-specific vocalizations made by 3 individual callers. Analysis of responses by vocalization call type and caller identity showed that ∼19% of cells had a main effect of call type with fewer cells encoding caller. Classification performance of VLPFC neurons was ∼42% averaged across the population. When assessed at discrete time bins, classification performance reached 70 percent for coos in the first 300 ms and remained above chance for the duration of the response period, though performance was lower for other call types. In light of the sub-optimal classification performance of the majority of VLPFC neurons when only vocal information is present, and the recent evidence that most VLPFC neurons are multisensory, the potential enhancement of classification with the addition of accompanying face information is discussed and additional studies recommended. Behavioral and neuronal evidence has shown a considerable benefit in recognition and memory performance when faces and voices are presented simultaneously. In the natural environment both facial and vocalization information is present simultaneously and

  7. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose ± standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 ± 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 ± 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 ± 8 Gy and 36 ± 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  8. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Sarah O.S., E-mail: s.osman@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose {+-} standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 {+-} 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 {+-} 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 {+-} 8 Gy and 36 {+-} 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  9. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  10. On the single-mass model of the vocal folds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M S; McGowan, R S

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions necessary to support self-sustained oscillations of a single-mass mechanical model of the vocal folds subject to a nominally steady subglottal overpressure. The single-mass model of Fant and Flanagan is re-examined and an analytical representation of vortex shedding during 'voiced speech' is proposed that promotes cooperative, periodic excitation of the folds by the glottal flow. Positive feedback that sustains glottal oscillations is shown to occur during glottal contraction, when the flow separates from the 'trailing edge' of the glottis producing a low-pressure 'suction' force that tends to pull the folds together. Details are worked out for flow that can be regarded as locally two-dimensional in the glottal region. Predictions of free-streamline theory are used to model the effects of quasi-static variations in the separation point on the glottal wall. Numerical predictions are presented to illustrate the waveform of the sound radiated towards the mouth from the glottis. The theory is easily modified to include feedback on the glottal flow of standing acoustic waves, both in the vocal tract beyond the glottis and in the subglottal region. (invited paper)

  11. Single injection of basic fibroblast growth factor to treat severe vocal fold lesions and vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Lee, Yogaku; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Kunieda, Chikako; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    Severe vocal fold lesions such as vocal fold sulcus, scars, and atrophy induce a communication disorder due to severe hoarseness, but a treatment has not been established. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) therapies by either four-time repeated local injections or regenerative surgery for vocal fold scar and sulcus have previously been reported, and favorable outcomes have been observed. In this study, we modified bFGF therapy using a single of bFGF injection, which may potentially be used in office procedures. Retrospective chart review. Five cases of vocal fold sulcus, six cases of scars, seven cases of paralysis, and 17 cases of atrophy were treated by a local injection of bFGF. The injection regimen involved injecting 50 µg of bFGF dissolved in 0.5 mL saline only once into the superficial lamina propria using a 23-gauge injection needle. Two months to 3 months after the injection, phonological outcomes were evaluated. The maximum phonation time (MPT), mean airflow rate, pitch range, speech fundamental frequency, jitter, and voice handicap index improved significantly after the bFGF injection. Furthermore, improvement in the MPT was significantly greater in patients with (in increasing order) vocal fold atrophy, scar, and paralysis. The improvement in the MPT among all patients was significantly correlated with age; the MPT improved more greatly in younger patients. Regenerative treatments by bFGF injection—even a single injection—effectively improve vocal function in vocal fold lesions. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Discrimination of Communication Vocalizations by Single Neurons and Groups of Neurons in the Auditory Midbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David M.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic...

  13. Vocal reaction times to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract words: towards a theory of differential right hemispheric semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastatter, M; Dell, C W; McGuire, R A; Loren, C

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies investigating hemispheric organization for processing concrete and abstract nouns have provided conflicting results. Using manual reaction time tasks some studies have shown that the right hemisphere is capable of analyzing concrete words but not abstract. Others, however, have inferred that the left hemisphere is the sole analyzer of both types of lexicon. The present study tested these issues further by measuring vocal reaction times of normal subjects to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract items. Results were consistent with a model of functional localization which suggests that the minor hemisphere is capable of differentially processing both types of lexicon in the presence of a dominant left hemisphere.

  14. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansereau Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  15. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Radfar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  16. The Effect of Time on Word Learning: An Examination of Decay of the Memory Trace and Vocal Rehearsal in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Spaulding, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of time to response in a fast-mapping word learning task for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typically developing language skills (TD). Manipulating time to response allows us to examine decay of the memory trace, the use of vocal rehearsal, and their…

  17. Discrimination of communication vocalizations by single neurons and groups of neurons in the auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David M; Woolley, Sarah M N

    2010-06-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic models of pooled neural responses to test whether the responses of groups of neurons discriminated among songs better than the responses of single neurons and whether discrimination by groups of neurons was related to spectrotemporal tuning and trial-to-trial response variability. The responses of single auditory midbrain neurons could be used to discriminate among vocalizations with a wide range of abilities, ranging from chance to 100%. The ability to discriminate among songs using single neuron responses was not correlated with spectrotemporal tuning. Pooling the responses of pairs of neurons generally led to better discrimination than the average of the two inputs and the most discriminating input. Pooling the responses of three to five single neurons continued to improve neural discrimination. The increase in discriminability was largest for groups of neurons with similar spectrotemporal tuning. Further, we found that groups of neurons with correlated spike trains achieved the largest gains in discriminability. We simulated neurons with varying levels of temporal precision and measured the discriminability of responses from single simulated neurons and groups of simulated neurons. Simulated neurons with biologically observed levels of temporal precision benefited more from pooling correlated inputs than did neurons with highly precise or imprecise spike trains. These findings suggest that pooling correlated neural responses with the levels of precision observed in the

  18. Wireless multi-channel single unit recording in freely moving and vocalizing primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-15

    The ability to record well-isolated action potentials from individual neurons in naturally behaving animals is crucial for understanding neural mechanisms underlying natural behaviors. Traditional neurophysiology techniques, however, require the animal to be restrained which often restricts natural behavior. An example is the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate species, used in our laboratory to study the neural correlates of vocal production and sensory feedback. When restrained by traditional neurophysiological techniques marmoset vocal behavior is severely inhibited. Tethered recording systems, while proven effective in rodents pose limitations in arboreal animals such as the marmoset that typically roam in a three-dimensional environment. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed a wireless neural recording technique that is capable of collecting single-unit data from chronically implanted multi-electrodes in freely moving marmosets. A lightweight, low power and low noise wireless transmitter (headstage) is attached to a multi-electrode array placed in the premotor cortex of the marmoset. The wireless headstage is capable of transmitting 15 channels of neural data with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparable to a tethered system. To minimize radio-frequency (RF) and electro-magnetic interference (EMI), the experiments were conducted within a custom designed RF/EMI and acoustically shielded chamber. The individual electrodes of the multi-electrode array were periodically advanced to densely sample the cortical layers. We recorded single-unit data over a period of several months from the frontal cortex of two marmosets. These recordings demonstrate the feasibility of using our wireless recording method to study single neuron activity in freely roaming primates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced auditory processing capacity during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, Miri; Henkin, Yael; Lamy, Dominique; Tetin-Schneider, Simona; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-02-01

    Because abnormal Auditory Efferent Activity (AEA) is associated with auditory distortions during vocalization, we tested whether auditory processing is impaired during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism (SM). Participants were children with SM and abnormal AEA, children with SM and normal AEA, and normally speaking controls, who had to detect aurally presented target words embedded within word lists under two conditions: silence (single task), and while vocalizing (dual task). To ascertain specificity of auditory-vocal deficit, effects of concurrent vocalizing were also examined during a visual task. Children with SM and abnormal AEA showed impaired auditory processing during vocalization relative to children with SM and normal AEA, and relative to control children. This impairment is specific to the auditory modality and does not reflect difficulties in dual task per se. The data extends previous findings suggesting that deficient auditory processing is involved in speech selectivity in SM.

  20. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  1. Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were…

  2. Advance Planning of Form Properties in the Written Production of Single and Multiple Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Markus F.; Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the scope of advance planning in written production. Experiment 1 manipulated phonological factors in single word written production, and Experiments 2 and 3 did the same in the production of adjective-noun utterances. In all three experiments, effects on latencies were found which mirrored those previously…

  3. Investigation of the Functional Neuroanatomy of Single Word Reading and Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Erica D.; Brown, Timothy T.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the processing underlying single word reading will provide insight into how skilled reading is achieved, with important implications for reading education and impaired reading. Investigation of the functional neuroanatomy of both the mature and the developing systems will be critical for reaching this understanding. To this…

  4. Single-word multiple-bit upsets in static random access devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Pinkerton, S.D.; Lie, T.J.; Crawford, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    Energetic ions and protons can cause single event upsets (SEUs) in static random access memory (SRAM) cells. In some cases multiple bits may be upset as the result of a single event. Space-borne electronics systems incorporating high-density SRAM are vulnerable to single-word multiple-bit upsets (SMUs). The authors review here recent observations of SMU, present the results of a systematic investigation of the physical cell arrangements employed in several currently available SRAM device types, and discuss implications for the occurrence and mitigation of SMU

  5. Auditory comprehension: from the voice up to the single word level

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Anna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Auditory comprehension, the ability to understand spoken language, consists of a number of different auditory processing skills. In the five studies presented in this thesis I investigated both intact and impaired auditory comprehension at different levels: voice versus phoneme perception, as well as single word auditory comprehension in terms of phonemic and semantic content. In the first study, using sounds from different continua of ‘male’-/pæ/ to ‘female’-/tæ/ and ‘male’...

  6. Don’t words come easy?A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi eStarrfelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a word superiority effect can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modelling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect.

  7. The Influence of Visual Word Form in Reading: Single Case Study of an Arabic Patient with Deep Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaraf, Assia; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Deep dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of non-words, and advantage for concrete over abstract words with production of semantic, visual and morphological errors. In this single case study of an Arabic patient with input deep dyslexia, we investigated the impact of graphic features of Arabic on manifestations of…

  8. Single Vocal Cord Irradiation: Image Guided Intensity Modulated Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy for T1a Glottic Cancer: Early Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim, E-mail: a.almamgani@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology – Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kwa, Stefan L.S.; Tans, Lisa; Moring, Michael; Fransen, Dennie; Mehilal, Robert; Verduijn, Gerda M. [Department of Radiation Oncology – Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Baatenburg de Jong, Rob J. [Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery – Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology – Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, on the feasibility, outcome, toxicity, and voice-handicap index (VHI) of patients with T1a glottic cancer treated by a novel intensity modulated radiation therapy technique developed at our institution to treat only the involved vocal cord: single vocal cord irradiation (SVCI). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with T1a glottic cancer were treated by means of SVCI. Dose prescription was set to 16 × 3.63 Gy (total dose 58.08 Gy). The clinical target volume was the entire vocal cord. Setup verification was done by means of an online correction protocol using cone beam computed tomography. Data for voice quality assessment were collected prospectively at baseline, end of treatment, and 4, 6, and 12 weeks and 6, 12, and 18 months after treatment using VHI questionnaires. Results: After a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 7-50 months), the 2-year local control and overall survival rates were 100% and 90% because no single local recurrence was reported and 3 patients died because of comorbidity. All patients have completed the intended treatment schedule; no treatment interruptions and no grade 3 acute toxicity were reported. Grade 2 acute dermatitis or dysphagia was reported in only 5 patients (17%). No serious late toxicity was reported; only 1 patient developed temporary grade 2 laryngeal edema, and responded to a short-course of corticosteroid. The VHI improved significantly, from 33.5 at baseline to 9.5 and 10 at 6 weeks and 18 months, respectively (P<.001). The control group, treated to the whole larynx, had comparable local control rates (92.2% vs 100%, P=.24) but more acute toxicity (66% vs 17%, P<.0001) and higher VHI scores (23.8 and 16.7 at 6 weeks and 18 months, respectively, P<.0001). Conclusion: Single vocal cord irradiation is feasible and resulted in maximal local control rate at 2 years. The deterioration in VHI scores was slight and temporary and

  9. Psychometric characteristics of single-word tests of children's speech sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipsen, Peter; Ogiela, Diane A

    2015-04-01

    Our understanding of test construction has improved since the now-classic review by McCauley and Swisher (1984). The current review article examines the psychometric characteristics of current single-word tests of speech sound production in an attempt to determine whether our tests have improved since then. It also provides a resource that clinicians may use to help them make test selection decisions for their particular client populations. Ten tests published since 1990 were reviewed to determine whether they met the 10 criteria set out by McCauley and Swisher (1984), as well as 7 additional criteria. All of the tests reviewed met at least 3 of McCauley and Swisher's (1984) original criteria, and 9 of 10 tests met at least 5 of them. Most of the tests met some of the additional criteria as well. The state of the art for single-word tests of speech sound production in children appears to have improved in the last 30 years. There remains, however, room for improvement.

  10. Attention and Gaze Control in Picture Naming, Word Reading, and Word Categorizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2007-01-01

    The trigger for shifting gaze between stimuli requiring vocal and manual responses was examined. Participants were presented with picture-word stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows. They vocally named the picture (Experiment 1), read the word (Experiment 2), or categorized the word (Experiment 3) and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  11. Attention and gaze control in picture naming, word reading, and word categorizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The trigger for shifting gaze between stimuli requiring vocal and manual responses was examined. Participants were presented with picture–word stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows. They vocally named the picture (Experiment 1), read the word (Experiment 2), or categorized the word (Experiment

  12. Selectivity of N170 for visual words in the right hemisphere: Evidence from single-trial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhao, Jing; Gaspar, Carl M; Chen, Wei; Tan, Yufei; Weng, Xuchu

    2017-08-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have identified the involvement of the right posterior region in the processing of visual words. Interestingly, in contrast, ERP studies of the N170 typically demonstrate selectivity for words more strikingly over the left hemisphere. Why is right hemisphere selectivity for words during the N170 epoch typically not observed, despite the clear involvement of this region in word processing? One possibility is that amplitude differences measured on averaged ERPs in previous studies may have been obscured by variation in peak latency across trials. This study examined this possibility by using single-trial analysis. Results show that words evoked greater single-trial N170s than control stimuli in the right hemisphere. Additionally, we observed larger trial-to-trial variability on N170 peak latency for words as compared to control stimuli over the right hemisphere. Results demonstrate that, in contrast to much of the prior literature, the N170 can be selective to words over the right hemisphere. This discrepancy is explained in terms of variability in trial-to-trial peak latency for responses to words over the right hemisphere. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the communicative production of gestrural and vocal modalities by 8 normally developing children in two different cultures (Danish and Zapotec: Mexican indigenous) 16 to 20 months). We analyzed spontaneous production of gestrures and words in children's transition to the two-word...... the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a transition...

  14. Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Vocal Fold Paralysis On this page: What is vocal fold ... Where can I get additional information? What is vocal fold paralysis? Structures involved in speech and voice production ...

  15. Reading in Developmental Prosopagnosia: Evidence for a Dissociation Between Word and Face Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. Results: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. Method: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: a) single word reading with words of varying length, b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  16. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...... in a time-window extending beyond early visual analysis. In a second experiment, different participants were asked to produce either single noun or adjective-noun dual-word phrases to black-and-white and coloured line drawings, respectively. Adjective-noun phrase production (2W) resulted in naming latencies...

  17. Single dose antidepressant administration modulates the neural processing of self-referent personality trait words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Cowen, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    categorisation and recognition of self-referent personality trait words were assessed using event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Reboxetine had no effect on neuronal response during self-referent categorisation of positive or negative personality trait words. However, in a subsequent...

  18. Learning while Babbling: Prelinguistic Object-Directed Vocalizations Indicate a Readiness to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Syal, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    Two studies illustrate the functional significance of a new category of prelinguistic vocalizing--object-directed vocalizations (ODVs)--and show that these sounds are connected to learning about words and objects. Experiment 1 tested 12-month-old infants' perceptual learning of objects that elicited ODVs. Fourteen infants' vocalizations were…

  19. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  20. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  1. Psychosocial interventions for reducing vocal challenging behavior in persons with autistic disorder: a multilevel meta-analysis of single-case experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkerken, Lien; Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Vocal challenging behavior (VCB) forms a common problem in individuals with autistic disorder. Since VCB is associated with negative outcomes for the individual and his or her environment, it is important to know how to manage this type of CB. To evaluate the effectiveness of several psychosocial interventions applied to decrease VCB in individuals with autistic disorder, we conducted a meta-analysis of single-case experiments (SCEs). Fifty-two SCEs, including 74 participants, were combined using a multilevel meta-analysis. The overall treatment effect was large and statistically significant. However, the effect varied significantly over the included studies and participants. Examining this variance, evidence was found for a moderator effect of VCB type and intervention type, with, on average, the largest effects for interventions used to reduce VCB including stereotypical VCB and for interventions containing both antecedent and consequence components. Age, gender, primary treatment setting, publication year, and study quality did not significantly moderate the intervention effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of phonation into a straw on the vocal tract adjustments and formant frequencies. A preliminary MRI study on a single subject completed with acoustic results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Krupa, P.; Švec, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-57 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal exercises * semi-occlusions * vocal tract setting Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1746809411000097

  3. Teaching Formulaic Sequences: The Same as or Different from Teaching Single Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Fatima A.; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Formulaic language is an important component of discourse and needs to be addressed in teaching pedagogy. Unfortunately, there has been little research into the most effective ways of teaching formulaic language. In this study, Kuwaiti students were taught words and idioms using the same teaching methodologies, and their learning was measured. The…

  4. Single-Word Predictions of Upcoming Language During Comprehension: Evidence from the Cumulative Semantic Interference Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel; Runnqvist, Elin; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehenders predict upcoming speech and text on the basis of linguistic input. How many predictions do comprehenders make for an upcoming word? If a listener strongly expects to hear the word “sock”, is the word “shirt” partially expected as well, is it actively inhibited, or is it ignored? The present research addressed these questions by measuring the “downstream” effects of prediction on the processing of subsequently presented stimuli using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. In three experiments, subjects named pictures (sock) that were presented either in isolation or after strongly constraining sentence frames (“After doing his laundry, Mark always seemed to be missing one…”). Naming sock slowed the subsequent naming of the picture shirt – the standard cumulative semantic interference effect. However, although picture naming was much faster after sentence frames, the interference effect was not modulated by the context (bare vs. sentence) in which either picture was presented. According to the only model of cumulative semantic interference that can account for such a pattern of data, this indicates that comprehenders pre-activated and maintained the pre-activation of best sentence completions (sock) but did not maintain the pre-activation of less likely completions (shirt). Thus, comprehenders predicted only the most probable completion for each sentence. PMID:25917550

  5. A case of bilateral vocal fold mucosal bridges, bilateral trans-vocal fold type III sulci vocales, and an intracordal polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Melin; Pitman, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    We present a patient with a novel finding of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales, and a vocal fold polyp. Although sulci and mucosal bridges occur in the vocal folds, it is rare to find multiples of these lesions in a single patient, and it is even more uncommon when they occur in conjunction with a vocal fold polyp. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a vocal fold polyp in combination with multiple vocal fold bridges and multiple type III sulci vocales in a single patient. To describe and visually present the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an intracordal polyp, bilateral mucosal bridges, as well as bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales. Presentation of a set of high definition intraoperative photos displaying the extent of the vocal fold lesions and the resection of the intracordal polyp. This patient presented with only 6 months of significant dysphonia. It was felt that the recent change in voice was because of the polyp and not the bridges or sulci vocales. Considering the patient's presentation and the possible morbidity of resection of mucosal bridges and sulci, only the polyp was excised. Postoperatively, the patient's voice returned to his acceptable mild baseline dysphonia, and the benefit has persisted 6 months postoperatively. The combination of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III sulcus vocalis, and an intracordal polyp in one patient is rare if not novel. Treatment of the polyp alone returned the patient's voice to his lifelong baseline of mild dysphonia. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  8. Vocal effort modulates the motor planning of short speech structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitz, Alan; Shalom, Diego E.; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2018-05-01

    Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants. We then used a battery of statistical tests and mathematical vocal models to show that delays reflect the motor planning of CCVs and transitions are proxy indicators of the vocal effort needed to produce them. These results support that the effort required to produce the sequence of movements of a vocal gesture modulates the onset of the motor plan.

  9. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence for a dissociation between word and face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders; Gerlach, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition, as the difference in performance with faces and words was significantly greater for participants with developmental prosopagnosia than for controls. Adult developmental prosopagnosics read as quickly and fluently as controls, while they are seemingly unable to learn efficient strategies for recognizing faces. We suggest that this is due to the differing demands that face and word recognition put on the perceptual system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Discrete versus multiple word displays: A re-analysis of studies comparing dyslexic and typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi eZoccolotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines whether impairments in reading a text can be explained by a deficit in word decoding or an additional deficit in the processes governing the integration of reading subcomponents (including eye movement programming and pronunciation should also be postulated. We report a re-analysis of data from eleven previous experiments conducted in our lab where the reading performance on single, discrete word displays as well multiple displays (texts, and in few cases also word lists was investigated in groups of dyslexic children and typically developing readers. The analysis focuses on measures of time and not accuracy.Across experiments, dyslexic children are slower and more variable than typically developing readers in reading texts as well as vocal RTs to singly presented words; the dis-homogeneity in variability between groups points to the inappropriateness of standard measures of size effect (such as Cohen’s d, and suggests the use of the ratio between groups’ performance. The mean ratio for text reading is 1.95 across experiments. Mean ratio for vocal RTs for singly presented words is considerably smaller (1.52. Furthermore, this latter value is probably an overestimation as considering total reading times (i.e., a measure including also the pronunciation component considerably reduces the group difference in vocal RTs (1.19 according to Martelli et al., 2014. The ratio difference between single and multiple displays does not depend upon the presence of a semantic context in the case of texts as large ratios are also observed with lists of unrelated words (though studies testing this aspect were few.We conclude that, if care is taken in using appropriate comparisons, the deficit in reading texts or lists of words is appreciably greater than that revealed with discrete word presentations. Thus, reading multiple stimuli present a specific, additional challenge to dyslexic children indicating that models of reading should

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of word selection in speech production: Insights from electrocorticography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Ries

    2015-04-01

    Our results suggest that the posterior inferior LTC is involved in word selection as semantic concepts become available. Posterior medial and left PFC regions may be involved in trial-by-trial top-down control over LTC to help overcome interference caused by semantically-related alternatives in word selection. The single-case result supports this hypothesis and suggests that the posterior medial PFC plays a causal role in resolving this interference in word selection. Lastly, the sensitivity to semantic interference of the post-vocal onset posterior LTC activity suggests the semantic interference effect does not only reflect word selection difficulty but is also present at post-selection stages such as verbal response monitoring. In sum, this study reveals a dynamic network of interacting brain regions that support word selection in language production.

  12. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  13. Examination of vocal fold movement by ultra-short pulse X radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noscoe, N.J.; Berry, R.J.; Brown, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Antero-posterior radiographs of the larynx lack spatial and temporal resolution, due to the movement of the vocal folds during phonation. By utilising the electrolaryngograph to monitor vocal fold movement, single X-ray pulses of 30 nanoseconds duration have been triggered at pre-determined points during the cycle of vocal fold movement to visualise these in normal phonation. (author)

  14. An English-French-German-Spanish Word Frequency Dictionary: A Correlation of the First Six Thousand Words in Four Single-Language Frequency Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Helen S., Comp.

    This semantic frequency list for English, French, German, and Spanish correlates 6,474 concepts represented by individual words in an order of diminishing occurrence. Designed as a research tool, the work is segmented into seven comparative "Thousand Concepts" lists with 115 sectional subdivisions, each of which begins with the key English word…

  15. How Many Pages in a Single Word: Alternative Typo-poetics of Surrealist Magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Andonovska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the experimental design, typography and editorial strategies of the rare avant-garde publication Four Pages - Onanism of Death - And So On (1930, published by Oskar Davičo, Đorđe Kostić and Đorđe Jovanović, probably the first Surrealist Edition of the Belgrade surrealist group. Starting from its unconventional format and the way authors (reshape and (misdirect each page in an autonomous fashion, I further analyze the intrinsic interaction between the text, its graphic embodiment and surrounding para-textual elements (illustrations, body text, titles, folding, dating, margins, comments. Special attention is given to the concepts of depersonalization, free association and automatic writing as primary poetical sources for the delinearisation of the reading process and 'emancipation' of the text, its content and syntax as well as its position, direction, and visual materiality on the page. Resisting conventional classifications and simplified distinctions between established print media and genres, this surrealist single-issue placard magazine mixes elements of the poster, magazine, and booklet. Its ambiguous nature leads us toward theoretical discussion of the avant-garde magazine as an autonomous literary genre and original, self-sufficient artwork, as was already suggested by the theory of Russian formalism.

  16. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  17. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  18. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  19. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  20. A validated battery of vocal emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maurage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the exploration of emotions focused on facial expression, and vocal expression of emotion has only recently received interest. However, no validated battery of emotional vocal expressions has been published and made available to the researchers’ community. This paper aims at validating and proposing such material. 20 actors (10 men recorded sounds (words and interjections expressing six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral and sadness. These stimuli were then submitted to a double validation phase: (1 preselection by experts; (2 quantitative and qualitative validation by 70 participants. 195 stimuli were selected for the final battery, each one depicting a precise emotion. The ratings provide a complete measure of intensity and specificity for each stimulus. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first validated, freely available and highly standardized battery of emotional vocal expressions (words and intonations. This battery could constitute an interesting tool for the exploration of prosody processing among normal and pathological populations, in neuropsychology as well as psychiatry. Further works are nevertheless needed to complement the present material.

  1. Disruption of Spelling-to-Sound Correspondence Mapping during Single-Word Reading in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Processing and/or hemispheric differences in the neural bases of word recognition were examined in patients with long-standing, medically-intractable epilepsy localized to the left (N = 18) or right (N = 7) temporal lobe. Participants were asked to read words that varied in the frequency of their spelling-to-sound correspondences. For the right…

  2. Domestic Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris are Sensitive to the “Human” Qualities of Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gibson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, domestic dogs have been recognized for their ability to utilize human communicative gestures in choice tasks, as well as communicate with humans through visual and auditory means. A few dogs have even demonstrated the capacity to learn hundreds to thousands of human words and object labels with extensive training. However less is known about dogs‟ understanding or perception of human vocalizations in the absence of explicit training. This study was conducted to determine what aspects of human scolding vocalizations dogs would be most responsive to when presented with a choice to consume or avoid available food items. Variables included the gender, authenticity, word clarity and the human quality of the vocal commands. Our results suggest that dogs are generally cautious about novel sounds produced in the proximity of food. However they are most likely to avoid consumption when hearing a vocalization originally produced by a scolding human, suggesting awareness of vocal qualities common to human speech.

  3. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Poletto, Christopher J; Saxon, Keith G; Kearney, Pamela R; Ludlow, Christy L

    2008-01-01

    Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and may benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Prospective single effects study. The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using 10 different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (P vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (P = .03). Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing, and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening.

  4. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausen, Adi; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2018-01-01

    The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these factors to explain

  5. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Lausen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these

  6. Increased motor preparation activity during fluent single word production in DS: A correlate for stuttering frequency and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Santens, Patrick; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal speech motor preparation is suggested to be a neural characteristic of stuttering. One of the neurophysiological substrates of motor preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). The CNV is an event-related, slow negative potential that occurs between two defined stimuli. Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely studied in developmental stuttering (DS). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate motor preparation in DS by use of a CNV task. Twenty five adults who stutter (AWS) and 35 fluent speakers (FS) were included. They performed a picture naming task while an electro-encephalogram was recorded. The slope of the CNV was evaluated at frontal, central and parietal electrode sites. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed with stuttering severity and frequency measures. There was a marked increase in CNV slope in AWS as compared to FS. This increase was observed over the entire scalp with respect to stimulus onset, and only over the right hemisphere with respect to lip movement onset. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between CNV slope and stuttering frequency and severity. As the CNV is known to reflect the activity in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical-network, the present findings confirm an increased activation of this loop during speech motor preparation in stuttering. The more a person stutters, the more neurons of this cortical-subcortical network seem to be activated. Because this increased CNV slope was observed during fluent single word production, it is discussed whether or not this observation refers to a successful compensation strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural Response After a Single ECT Session During Retrieval of Emotional Self-Referent Words in Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Macoveanu, Julian; Jørgensen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    of their electroconvulsive therapy course in a double-blind, between-groups design. The following day, patients were given a self-referential emotional word categorization test and a free recall test. This was followed by an incidental word recognition task during whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T...... response may reflect early facilitation of memory for positive self-referent information, which could contribute to improvements in depressive symptoms including feelings of self-worth with repeated treatments....

  8. Possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and vocal fold leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Hai-Tao

    2018-03-06

    Several studies have indicated the larynx as possible Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) reservoirs. This study explored the association between H. pylori and vocal fold leukoplakia. The case-control study involved 51 patients with vocal fold leukoplakia and 35 control patients with vocal polyps. Helicobacter pylori was detected in tissues by the rapid urease test, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and single-step PCR. The H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin antibodies were detected in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Helicobacter pylori-positive rate of vocal fold leukoplakia and vocal polyps was 23.5% versus 11.4% (P = .157), 37.2% versus 14.3% (P = .020), 27.5% versus 8.6% (P = .031), and 70.6% versus 68.6% (P = .841) detected by rapid urease test, nested PCR, single-step PCR, and ELISA, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that H. pylori infection (P = .044) was the independent risk factor for vocal fold leukoplakia. Helicobacter pylori infection exists in the larynx and may be associated with vocal fold leukoplakia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...

  10. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral infections. Some viral infections, such as Lyme disease, Epstein-Barr and herpes, can cause inflammation and damage directly to the nerves in the larynx. Neurological conditions. If you have certain ... disease, you may experience vocal cord paralysis. Risk factors ...

  11. A restricted test of single word intelligibility in 3-year-old children with and without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In a previous study, children with cleft palate with hard palate closure at 12 months of age showed more typical phonological development than children with an unrepaired hard palate at 36 months of age. This finding was based on narrow transcription of word initial target...... hard palate closure at either12 months (HPR (hard palate repaired)) or 36 months (HPU (hard palate unrepaired)), were compared to data obtained from 14 age-matched, typically developing, control children. Methods: Video recordings of the children naming target words were shown to 84 naïve listeners...... consonants obtained from a simple naming test. To evaluate the relevance of this finding, we investigated how well the children's target words were understood by 84 naïve listeners. Design: A cross-sectional study. Participants: Data obtained from twenty-eight children with UCLP, 3 years of age, who received...

  12. Brief Report: Reduction of Inappropriate Vocalizations for a Child with Autism Using a Self-Management Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancina, Catherine; Tankersley, Melody; Kamps, Debra; Kravits, Tammy; Parrett, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the effects of a self-management program used to reduce high rates of inappropriate vocalizations (e.g., humming, tongue clucking, perseveration, and echolalic words/phases) in a 12-year-old girl with autism. When self-management was applied to inappropriate vocalizations during leisure, prevocational, and reading tasks, the…

  13. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  15. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  16. The relationship between prelinguistic vocalization and later expressive vocabulary in young children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCathren, R B; Yoder, P J; Warren, S F

    1999-08-01

    This study tested the relationship between prelinguistic vocalization and expressive vocabulary 1 year later in young children with mild to moderate developmental delays. Three vocalization variables were tested: rate of all vocalization, rate of vocalizations with consonants, and rate of vocalizations used interactively. The 58 toddlers in the study were 17-34 months old, not sensory impaired, and had Bayley Mental Development Indices (Bayley, 1969; Bayley, 1993) from 35-85. In addition, the children had fewer than 3 words in their expressive vocabularies and during classroom observation each showed at least one instance of intentional prelinguistic communication before testing. Selected sections of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales procedures (CSBS; Wetherby & Prizant, 1993) were administered at the beginning and at the end of the study. The vocal measures were obtained in the initial CSBS session. One measure of expressive vocabulary was obtained in the CSBS session at the end of the study. In addition, expressive vocabulary was measured in a nonstructured play session at the end of the study. We predicted that rate of vocalization, rate of vocalizations with consonants, and rate of vocalizations used interactively would all be positively related to later expressive vocabulary. The results confirmed the predictions.

  17. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  18. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Selectivity of lexical-semantic disorders in Polish-speaking patients with aphasia: evidence from single-word comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodzio, Krzysztof; Biechowska, Daria; Leszniewska-Jodzio, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with brain damage may demonstrate selective category-specific deficits of auditory comprehension. The present paper reports on an investigation of aphasic patients' preserved ability to perform a semantic task on spoken words despite severe impairment in auditory comprehension, as shown by failure in matching spoken words to pictured objects. Twenty-six aphasic patients (11 women and 15 men) with impaired speech comprehension due to a left-hemisphere ischaemic stroke were examined; all were right-handed and native speakers of Polish. Six narrowly defined semantic categories for which dissociations have been reported are colors, body parts, animals, food, objects (mostly tools), and means of transportation. An analysis using one-way ANOVA with repeated measures in conjunction with the Lambda-Wilks Test revealed significant discrepancies among these categories in aphasic patients, who had much more difficulty comprehending names of colors than they did comprehending names of other objects (F((5,21))=13.15; pexplanation in terms of word frequency and/or visual complexity was ruled out. Evidence from the present study support the position that so called "global" aphasia is an imprecise term and should be redefined. These results are discussed within the connectionist and modular perspectives on category-specific deficits in aphasia.

  20. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  1. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    of computational and mechanical processes towards an anesthetic. Each team received a single word, translating and evolving that word first into a double-curved computational surface, next a ruled computational surface, and then a physically shaped foam mold via a 6-axis robot. The foam molds then operated...

  2. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  3. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  4. Attention to spoken word planning: Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  5. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Word Intelligibility in Spoken and Sung Phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty listeners were exposed to spoken and sung passages in English produced by three trained vocalists. Passages included representative words extracted from a large database of vocal lyrics, including both popular and classical repertoires. Target words were set within spoken or sung carrier phrases. Sung carrier phrases were selected from classical vocal melodies. Roughly a quarter of all words sung by an unaccompanied soloist were misheard. Sung passages showed a seven-fold decrease in intelligibility compared with their spoken counterparts. The perceptual mistakes occurring with vowels replicate previous studies showing the centralization of vowels. Significant confusions are also evident for consonants, especially voiced stops and nasals.

  7. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz......The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from...... the soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...

  8. Neural Response After a Single ECT Session During Retrieval of Emotional Self-Referent Words in Depression: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Macoveanu, Julian; Jørgensen, Martin B; Støttrup, Mette M; Ott, Caroline V; Jensen, Hans M; Jørgensen, Anders; Harmer, J; Paulson, Olaf B; Kessing, Lars V; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Negative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of depression that is reversed by antidepressant drug treatment. However, it is unclear whether modulation of neurocognitive bias is a common mechanism of distinct biological treatments. This randomized controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study explored the effects of a single electroconvulsive therapy session on self-referent emotional processing. Methods Twenty-nine patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder were randomized to one active or sham electroconvulsive therapy session at the beginning of their electroconvulsive therapy course in a double-blind, between-groups design. The following day, patients were given a self-referential emotional word categorization test and a free recall test. This was followed by an incidental word recognition task during whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Mood was assessed at baseline, on the functional magnetic resonance imaging day, and after 6 electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Data were complete and analyzed for 25 patients (electroconvulsive therapy: n = 14, sham: n = 11). The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library randomize algorithm, and the Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement method was used to identify significant clusters (corrected at P words. However, electroconvulsive therapy reduced the retrieval-specific neural response for positive words in the left frontopolar cortex. This effect occurred in the absence of differences between groups in behavioral performance or mood symptoms. Conclusions The observed effect of electroconvulsive therapy on prefrontal response may reflect early facilitation of memory for positive self-referent information, which could contribute to improvements in depressive symptoms including feelings of self-worth with repeated treatments. PMID:29718333

  9. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  10. Retrieving self-vocalized information: An event-related potential (ERP) study on the effect of retrieval orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Timm; Johansson, Mikael; Sprondel, Volker; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-11-18

    Retrieval orientation refers to a pre-retrieval process and conceptualizes the specific form of processing that is applied to a retrieval cue. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we sought to find evidence for an involvement of the auditory cortex when subjects attempt to retrieve vocalized information, and hypothesized that adopting retrieval orientation would be beneficial for retrieval accuracy. During study, participants saw object words that they subsequently vocalized or visually imagined. At test, participants had to identify object names of one study condition as targets and to reject object names of the second condition together with new items. Target category switched after half of the test trials. Behaviorally, participants responded less accurately and more slowly to targets of the vocalize condition than to targets of the imagine condition. ERPs to new items varied at a single left electrode (T7) between 500 and 800ms, indicating a moderate retrieval orientation effect in the subject group as a whole. However, whereas the effect was strongly pronounced in participants with high retrieval accuracy, it was absent in participants with low retrieval accuracy. A current source density (CSD) mapping of the retrieval orientation effect indicated a source over left temporal regions. Independently from retrieval accuracy, the ERP retrieval orientation effect was surprisingly also modulated by test order. Findings are suggestive for an involvement of the auditory cortex in retrieval attempts of vocalized information and confirm that adopting retrieval orientation is potentially beneficial for retrieval accuracy. The effects of test order on retrieval-related processes might reflect a stronger focus on the newness of items in the more difficult test condition when participants started with this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, J F; Peters, S; Nowicki, S; Mooney, R

    2008-01-17

    Brain mechanisms for communication must establish a correspondence between sensory and motor codes used to represent the signal. One idea is that this correspondence is established at the level of single neurons that are active when the individual performs a particular gesture or observes a similar gesture performed by another individual. Although neurons that display a precise auditory-vocal correspondence could facilitate vocal communication, they have yet to be identified. Here we report that a certain class of neurons in the swamp sparrow forebrain displays a precise auditory-vocal correspondence. We show that these neurons respond in a temporally precise fashion to auditory presentation of certain note sequences in this songbird's repertoire and to similar note sequences in other birds' songs. These neurons display nearly identical patterns of activity when the bird sings the same sequence, and disrupting auditory feedback does not alter this singing-related activity, indicating it is motor in nature. Furthermore, these neurons innervate striatal structures important for song learning, raising the possibility that singing-related activity in these cells is compared to auditory feedback to guide vocal learning.

  12. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  13. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  14. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  15. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena eKrefta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such ‘bilingual’ mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct – single or dual – language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1 – English (L2 childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading, and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants’ performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual

  16. Short-term retention of a single word relies on retrieval from long-term memory when both rehearsal and refreshing are disrupted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S; Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-07-01

    Many working memory (WM) models propose that the focus of attention (or primary memory) has a capacity limit of one to four items, and therefore, that performance on WM tasks involves retrieving some items from long-term (or secondary) memory (LTM). In the present study, we present evidence suggesting that recall of even one item on a WM task can involve retrieving it from LTM. The WM task required participants to make a deep (living/nonliving) or shallow ("e"/no "e") level-of-processing (LOP) judgment on one word and to recall the word after a 10-s delay on each trial. During the delay, participants either rehearsed the word or performed an easy or a hard math task. When the to-be-remembered item could be rehearsed, recall was fast and accurate. When it was followed by a math task, recall was slower, error-prone, and benefited from a deeper LOP at encoding, especially for the hard math condition. The authors suggest that a covert-retrieval mechanism may have refreshed the item during easy math, and that the hard math condition shows that even a single item cannot be reliably held in WM during a sufficiently distracting task--therefore, recalling the item involved retrieving it from LTM. Additionally, performance on a final free recall (LTM) test was better for items recalled following math than following rehearsal, suggesting that initial recall following math involved elaborative retrieval from LTM, whereas rehearsal did not. The authors suggest that the extent to which performance on WM tasks involves retrieval from LTM depends on the amounts of disruption to both rehearsal and covert-retrieval/refreshing maintenance mechanisms.

  17. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  18. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  19. From Mimicry to Language: A Neuroanatomically Based Evolutionary Model of the Emergence of Vocal Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliva, Oren

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex communicates with the frontal lobe via the middle temporal gyrus (auditory ventral stream; AVS) or the inferior parietal lobule (auditory dorsal stream; ADS). Whereas the AVS is ascribed only with sound recognition, the ADS is ascribed with sound localization, voice detection, prosodic perception/production, lip-speech integration, phoneme discrimination, articulation, repetition, phonological long-term memory and working memory. Previously, I interpreted the juxtaposition of sound localization, voice detection, audio-visual integration and prosodic analysis, as evidence that the behavioral precursor to human speech is the exchange of contact calls in non-human primates. Herein, I interpret the remaining ADS functions as evidence of additional stages in language evolution. According to this model, the role of the ADS in vocal control enabled early Homo (Hominans) to name objects using monosyllabic calls, and allowed children to learn their parents' calls by imitating their lip movements. Initially, the calls were forgotten quickly but gradually were remembered for longer periods. Once the representations of the calls became permanent, mimicry was limited to infancy, and older individuals encoded in the ADS a lexicon for the names of objects (phonological lexicon). Consequently, sound recognition in the AVS was sufficient for activating the phonological representations in the ADS and mimicry became independent of lip-reading. Later, by developing inhibitory connections between acoustic-syllabic representations in the AVS and phonological representations of subsequent syllables in the ADS, Hominans became capable of concatenating the monosyllabic calls for repeating polysyllabic words (i.e., developed working memory). Finally, due to strengthening of connections between phonological representations in the ADS, Hominans became capable of encoding several syllables as a single representation (chunking). Consequently, Hominans began vocalizing and

  20. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, ...... and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect....

  1. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  2. Electroglottographic parameterization of the effects of gender, vowel and phonatory registers on vocal fold vibratory patterns: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilanjan; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Mukherjee, Biswarup

    2011-01-01

    In-depth study on laryngeal biomechanics and vocal fold vibratory patterns reveal that a single vibratory cycle can be divided into two major phases, the closed and open phase, which is subdivided into opening and closing phases. Studies reveal that the relative time course of abduction and adduction, which in turn is dependent on the relative relaxing and tensing of the vocal fold cover and body, to be the determining factor in production of a particular vocal register like the modal (or chest), falsetto, glottal fry registers. Studies further point out Electroglottography to be particularly suitable for the study of vocal vibratory patterns during register changes. However, to date, there has been limited study on quantitative parameterization of EGG wave form in vocal fry register. Moreover, contradictory findings abound in literature regarding effects of gender and vowel types on vocal vibratory patterns, especially during phonation at different registers. The present study endeavors to find out the effects of vowel and gender differences on the vocal fold vibratory patterns in different registers and how these would be reflected in standard EGG parameters of Contact Quotient (CQ) and Contact Index (CI), taking into consideration the Indian sociolinguistic context. Electroglottographic recordings of 10 young adults (5 males and 5 females) were taken while the subjects phonated the three vowels /a/,/i/,/u/ each in two vocal registers, modal and vocal fry. Obtained raw EGG were further normalized using the Derived EGG algorithm and theCQ and CI values were derived. Obtained data were subject to statistical analysis using the 3-way ANOVA with gender, vowel and vocal register as the three variables. Post-hoc Dunnett C multiple comparison analysis were also performed. Results reveal that CQ values are significantly higher in vocal fry than modal phonation for both males and females, indicating a relatively hyperconstricted vocal system during vocal fry. The males

  3. The effect of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casby, J A; Holm, M B

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term-care facility (LTCF) residents with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Three subjects diagnosed with DAT who had a history of repetitive disruptive vocalizations were selected for the study. Three single-subject withdrawal designs (ABA, ACA, and ABCA) were used to assess subjects' repetitive disruptive vocalizations during each phase: no intervention (A); relaxing, classical music (B); and favorite music (C). Classical music and favorite music significantly decreased the number of vocalizations in two of the three subjects (p < .05). These findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in those with DAT in the least restrictive manner, as mandated by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Vocal Fold Scarring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Vibe Lindeblad; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Jensen, David H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells exhibits potential for the development of novel interventions for many diseases and injuries. The use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative therapy for vocal fold scarring exhibited promising results to reduce stiffness and enhance...... the biomechanical properties of injured vocal folds. This study evaluated the biomechanical effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of vocal fold scarring. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched. METHODS: Controlled studies that assessed...... the biomechanical effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of vocal fold scarring were included. Primary outcomes were viscoelastic properties and mucosal wave amplitude. RESULTS: Seven preclinical animal studies (n = 152 single vocal folds) were eligible for inclusion. Evaluation of viscoelastic...

  5. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004) proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway), and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway). Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the "best" performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to develop new motor

  7. Vocal Fold Vibration Following Surgical Intervention in Three Vocal Pathologies: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy captures the cycle-to-cycle vibratory motion of each individual vocal fold in normal and severely disordered phonation. Therefore, it provides a direct method to examine the specific vibratory changes following vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vocal fold vibratory pattern changes in the surgically treated pathologic vocal fold and the contralateral vocal fold in three vocal pathologies: vocal polyp (n = 3), paresis or paralysis (n = 3), and scar (n = 3). Digital kymography was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the digital kymography to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of each vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Surgical modification resulted in significantly improved spectral power of the treated pathologic vocal fold. Furthermore, the contralateral vocal fold also presented with improved spectral power irrespective of vocal pathology. In comparison with normal vocal fold spectrum, postsurgical vocal fold vibrations continued to demonstrate decreased vibratory amplitude in both vocal folds. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  9. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  10. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  11. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B

    2014-01-01

    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  12. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  13. High-precision spatial localization of mouse vocalizations during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jesse J; Proville, Rémi; Heckman, Gert J; Azarfar, Alireza; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2017-06-07

    Mice display a wide repertoire of vocalizations that varies with age, sex, and context. Especially during courtship, mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of high complexity, whose detailed structure is poorly understood. As animals of both sexes vocalize, the study of social vocalizations requires attributing single USVs to individuals. The state-of-the-art in sound localization for USVs allows spatial localization at centimeter resolution, however, animals interact at closer ranges, involving tactile, snout-snout exploration. Hence, improved algorithms are required to reliably assign USVs. We develop multiple solutions to USV localization, and derive an analytical solution for arbitrary vertical microphone positions. The algorithms are compared on wideband acoustic noise and single mouse vocalizations, and applied to social interactions with optically tracked mouse positions. A novel, (frequency) envelope weighted generalised cross-correlation outperforms classical cross-correlation techniques. It achieves a median error of ~1.4 mm for noise and ~4-8.5 mm for vocalizations. Using this algorithms in combination with a level criterion, we can improve the assignment for interacting mice. We report significant differences in mean USV properties between CBA mice of different sexes during social interaction. Hence, the improved USV attribution to individuals lays the basis for a deeper understanding of social vocalizations, in particular sequences of USVs.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulation of picture naming and word reading: A meta-analysis of single session tDCS applied to healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Samuel J; Romani, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Recent reviews quantifying the effects of single sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (or tDCS) in healthy volunteers find only minor effects on cognition despite the popularity of this technique. Here, we wanted to quantify the effects of tDCS on language production tasks that measure word reading and picture naming. We reviewed 14 papers measuring tDCS effects across a total of 96 conditions to a) quantify effects of conventional stimulation on language regions (i.e., left hemisphere anodal tDCS administered to temporal/frontal areas) under normal conditions or under conditions of cognitive (semantic) interference; b) identify parameters which may moderate the size of the tDCS effect within conventional stimulation protocols (e.g., online vs offline, high vs. low current densities, and short vs. long durations), as well as within types of stimulation not typically explored by previous reviews (i.e., right hemisphere anodal tDCS or left/right hemisphere cathodal tDCS). In all analyses there was no significant effect of tDCS, but we did find a small but significant effect of time and duration of stimulation with stronger effects for offline stimulation and for shorter durations (tDCS and its poor efficacy in healthy participants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  16. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  17. Vocal plasticity in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2017-05-31

    Sophisticated vocal communication systems of birds and mammals, including human speech, are characterized by a high degree of plasticity in which signals are individually adjusted in response to changes in the environment. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first evidence for vocal plasticity in a reptile. Like birds and mammals, tokay geckos ( Gekko gecko ) increased the duration of brief call notes in the presence of broadcast noise compared to quiet conditions, a behaviour that facilitates signal detection by receivers. By contrast, they did not adjust the amplitudes of their call syllables in noise (the Lombard effect), which is in line with the hypothesis that the Lombard effect has evolved independently in birds and mammals. However, the geckos used a different strategy to increase signal-to-noise ratios: instead of increasing the amplitude of a given call type when exposed to noise, the subjects produced more high-amplitude syllable types from their repertoire. Our findings demonstrate that reptile vocalizations are much more flexible than previously thought, including elaborate vocal plasticity that is also important for the complex signalling systems of birds and mammals. We suggest that signal detection constraints are one of the major forces driving the evolution of animal communication systems across different taxa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Clinical Significance of Contralateral Reactive Lesion in Vocal Fold Polyp and Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Hae; Choi, Yong-Sug; Joo, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Hak; Sun, Dong-Il

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of contralateral reactive lesions in patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery for benign vocal fold lesions such as vocal polyps and cysts. This was a retrospective, single institution cohort study. Patient medical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics; acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual analyses; and Voice Handicap Index score before and after laryngeal microsurgery. Definitive diagnoses were made via intraoperative microlaryngoscopic evaluations. Clinical parameters were assessed to identify risk factors for contralateral reactive lesions. We evaluated surgical outcome using voice analysis. We enrolled 268 patients (109 men and 159 women) with benign vocal fold lesions. A total of 195 (72.8%) had a contralateral reactive vocal fold lesion. A multivariable analysis revealed that being a never smoker and having a hoarseness duration ≥6 months, vocal polyps, and small primary lesions were independent risk factors for contralateral reactive lesions (P vocal fold lesions are frequently detected in patients with vocal polyp and cyst. The reactive lesions had an adverse effect on voice quality. Simultaneous excision of primary and contralateral reactive lesions may be an alternative treatment for better voice outcome. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  20. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  1. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  2. Integration of lexical and sublexical processing in the spelling of regular words: a multiple single-case study in Italian dysgraphic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiacona, Marcella; Capitani, Erminio; Zonca, Giusy; Scola, Ilaria; Saletta, Paola; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated 12 cases of "mixed dysgraphia", a spelling impairment where regular words are spelt better than either ambiguous words or regular non-words. Two explanations of mixed dysgraphia were formerly offered by Luzzatti et al. (1998): (i) a double functional lesion of the orthographic output lexicon (or damage to its access) and of the acoustic-to-phonological conversion; and (ii) some kind of interaction/summation between lexical and sublexical spelling routes when processing regular words. We first analysed whether a double functional lesion was sufficient to explain the mixed dysgraphia, checking acoustic-to-phonological conversion by means of the repetition of words and non-words: the answer was positive in five cases and uncertain in three. We tested the remaining four cases to see if there was an interaction between lexical and sublexical processing of regular words, quantifying for each patient, on a probabilistic basis, the separate contribution of the residual lexical and sublexical resources. We investigated whether the processing along these routes was simultaneous but independent ("independent cooperation") or if instead there was "interaction", i.e., the simultaneous activity led to an added increase of efficiency over and above the mere combination of separate success probabilities. For one case the processing along the two routes was independent, in the other three cases an interaction resulted. Following the same approach, we found that for the five cases with a double functional lesion, the observed success on regular word spelling was higher than that expected on a probabilistic basis, but the interpretation of this finding was different.

  3. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  4. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  5. The Effects of the Literal Meaning of Emotional Phrases on the Identification of Vocal Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Sumi

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the discrepancy between the literal emotional content of speech and emotional tone in the identification of speakers' vocal emotions in both the listeners' native language (Japanese), and in an unfamiliar language (random-spliced Japanese). Both experiments involve a "congruent condition," in which the emotion contained in the literal meaning of speech (words and phrases) was compatible with vocal emotion, and an "incongruent condition," in which these forms of emotional information were discordant. Results for Japanese indicated that performance in identifying emotions did not differ significantly between the congruent and incongruent conditions. However, the results for random-spliced Japanese indicated that vocal emotion was correctly identified more often in the congruent than in the incongruent condition. The different results for Japanese and random-spliced Japanese suggested that the literal meaning of emotional phrases influences the listener's perception of the speaker's emotion, and that Japanese participants could infer speakers' intended emotions in the incongruent condition.

  6. Long-term consequences of vocal fold hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Lewis J; Estes, Christine; Oromendia, Clara; Christos, Paul; Sulica, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term impact of vocal fold hemorrhage (VFH) on vocal function and health, and compare these parameters to those in similar patients who have not had VFH. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a history of VFH (N = 41) were characterized through a review of records and assessed by means of a survey for vocal health and professional functioning as well as the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and, if appropriate (n = 30, 73.2%), the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). They were compared to a group of demographically and occupationally similar patients without VFH (N = 25, 60.9%). Patients with multiple episodes of VFH (n = 9, 22.0%) were compared to patients with a single event. After a median of 41 months follow-up, patients with VFH had favorable vocal function assessment and low median VHI-10 and SVHI-10 scores (4 and 6, respectively), substantially similar to patients without VFH (VHI-10, P = .905 and SVHI 10, P =.991). The two groups showed similarly low rates of change in occupation (7.3%vs. 8.0%, P =.999). Patients with VFH were more likely to have missed days of work due to a voice problem. Analysis of patients with one versus multiple VFH episodes showed no differences, except patients with multiple episodes had significantly greater confidence in their ability to address future VFH. Contrary to commonly held belief, VFH appears to have no significant long-term impact on vocational stability, subjective voice quality, or perceptions of vocal function. Moreover, among those with VFH, recurrence seems only to diminish anxiety over this transient injury. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:900-906, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K

    2008-01-01

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications

  9. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K [Groningen Voice Research Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, 9700 AD Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-05-21

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications.

  10. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  12. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  13. Vocalization Subsystem Responses to a Temporarily Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, Daniel J.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantify the interactions of the 3 vocalization subsystems of respiration, phonation, and resonance before, during, and after a perturbation to the larynx (temporarily induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis) in 10 vocally healthy participants. Using dynamic systems theory as a guide, we hypothesized that…

  14. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  15. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  18. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...

  19. The Separability of Morphological Processes from Semantic Meaning and Syntactic Class in Production of Single Words: Evidence from the Hebrew Root Morpheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated to what extent the morphological facilitation effect induced by the derivational root morpheme in Hebrew is independent of semantic meaning and grammatical information of the part of speech involved. Using the picture-word interference paradigm with auditorily presented distractors, Experiment 1 compared the…

  20. Priming effect on word reading and recall

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Isabel Hub; Luegi, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on priming as a function of exposure to bimodal stimuli of European Portuguese screen centred single words and isolated pictures inserted at the screen’s right upper corner, with four kinds of word-picture relation. The eye movements of 18 Portuguese native university students were registered while reading four sets of ten word-picture pairs, and their respective oral recall lists of words or pictures were kept. The results reveal a higher phonological primin...

  1. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  2. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  3. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  4. Effects of Vocal Emotion on Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    Emotional content can enhance memory for visual stimuli, and older adults often perform better if stimuli portray positive emotion. Vocal emotion can enhance the accuracy of word repetition in noise when vocal prosody portrays attention-capturing emotions such as fear and pleasant surprise. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of vocal emotion on the accuracy of repetition and recall in younger and older adults when words are presented in quiet or in a background of competing babble. Younger and older adults (Mage = 20 and 72 years, respectively) participated. Lists of 100 items (carrier phrase plus target word) were presented in recall sets of increasing size. Word repetition accuracy was tested after each item and recall after each trial in each set size. In Experiment 1, one list spoken in a neutral voice and another with emotion (fear, pleasant surprise, sad, neutral) were presented in quiet (n = 24 per group). In Experiment 2, participants (n = 12 per group) were presented the emotional list in noise. In quiet, word repetition accuracy was near perfect for both groups and did not vary systematically with set size for the list spoken in a neutral voice; however, for the emotional list, repetition was less accurate, especially for the older group. Recall in quiet was higher for younger than older adults; collapsed over groups, recall was higher for the neutral than for the emotional list and it decreased with increasing set size. In noise, emotion-specific effects emerged; word repetition for the older group and word recall for both groups (more for younger than older) was best for fear or pleasant surprise and worst for sad. In quiet, vocal emotion reduced the word repetition accuracy of the older group and recall accuracy for both groups. In noise, there were emotion-specific effects on the repetition accuracy of older adults and the recall accuracy of both groups. Both groups, but especially the younger group, performed better for items

  5. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal categories. Moreover, we used a principal component analysis, followed by signal classification with a discriminant function analysis, for statistical validation of the vocalisation types. In addition, we identified the behavioural contexts in which calls were uttered. The results show that four basic vocalisations can be found in the vocal repertoire of adult African Penguin, namely a contact call emitted by isolated birds, an agonistic call used in aggressive interactions, an ecstatic display song uttered by single birds, and a mutual display song vocalised by pairs, at their nests. Moreover, we identified two distinct vocalisations interpreted as begging calls by nesting chicks (begging peep) and unweaned juveniles (begging moan). Finally, we discussed the importance of specific acoustic parameters in classifying calls and the possible use of the source-filter theory of vocal production to study penguin vocalisations.

  6. Animal vocal sequences: not the Markov chains we thought they were.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Bowles, Ann E; Freeberg, Todd M; Jin, Dezhe Z; Lameira, Adriano R; Bohn, Kirsten

    2014-10-07

    Many animals produce vocal sequences that appear complex. Most researchers assume that these sequences are well characterized as Markov chains (i.e. that the probability of a particular vocal element can be calculated from the history of only a finite number of preceding elements). However, this assumption has never been explicitly tested. Furthermore, it is unclear how language could evolve in a single step from a Markovian origin, as is frequently assumed, as no intermediate forms have been found between animal communication and human language. Here, we assess whether animal taxa produce vocal sequences that are better described by Markov chains, or by non-Markovian dynamics such as the 'renewal process' (RP), characterized by a strong tendency to repeat elements. We examined vocal sequences of seven taxa: Bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica, Carolina chickadees Poecile carolinensis, free-tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis, rock hyraxes Procavia capensis, pilot whales Globicephala macrorhynchus, killer whales Orcinus orca and orangutans Pongo spp. The vocal systems of most of these species are more consistent with a non-Markovian RP than with the Markovian models traditionally assumed. Our data suggest that non-Markovian vocal sequences may be more common than Markov sequences, which must be taken into account when evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of signalling complexity, and perhaps human language origins. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  8. [Clinical analysis of vocal fold firbrous mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sun, Jing Wu; Wan, Guang Lun; Hu, Yan Ming

    2018-03-01

    To explore the character of laryngoscopy finding, voice, and therapy of vocal fold fibrous mass. Clinical data, morphology, voice character, surgery and pathology of 15 cases with vocal fold fibrous mass were analyzed. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Laryngoscopy revealed shuttle line appearance, smoothness and decreased mucosal wave of vocal fold. These patients were invalid for voice training and might be improved by surgery, but recovery is slow. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Conservative treatment is ineffective for this disease, and surgery might improve. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  9. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  11. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  12. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H

    1998-06-01

    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  13. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  14. Evidence for the involvement of a nonlexical route in the repetition of familiar words: A comparison of single and dual route models of auditory repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Dell, Gary S; Kay, Janice; Baron, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we attempt to simulate the picture naming and auditory repetition performance of two patients reported by Hanley, Kay, and Edwards (2002), who were matched for picture naming score but who differed significantly in their ability to repeat familiar words. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that the model of naming and repetition put forward by Foygel and Dell (2000) is better able to accommodate this pattern of performance than the model put forward by Dell, Schwartz, Martin, Saffran, and Gagnon (1997). Nevertheless, Foygel and Dell's model underpredicted the repetition performance of both patients. In Experiment 2, we attempt to simulate their performance using a new dual route model of repetition in which Foygel and Dell's model is augmented by an additional nonlexical repetition pathway. The new model provided a more accurate fit to the real-word repetition performance of both patients. It is argued that the results provide support for dual route models of auditory repetition.

  15. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  17. Abelian primitive words

    OpenAIRE

    Domaratzki, Michael; Rampersad, Narad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Abelian primitive words, which are words that are not Abelian powers. We show that unlike classical primitive words, the set of Abelian primitive words is not context-free. We can determine whether a word is Abelian primitive in linear time. Also different from classical primitive words, we find that a word may have more than one Abelian root. We also consider enumeration problems and the relation to the theory of codes. Peer reviewed

  18. Symptomatic unilateral vocal fold paralysis following cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Cassandra; Modzeski, Mara C; Orbelo, Diana; Ekbom, Dale C

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) is a complication associated with cardiothoracic procedures that presents clinically as dysphonia and/or dysphagia with or without aspiration. The literature lacks both data on recovery of mobility and consensus on best management. Herein, our goals are to 1) Identify cardiothoracic procedures associated with symptomatic UVFP at our institution; 2) Review timing and nature of laryngology diagnosis and management; 3) Report spontaneous recovery rate of vocal fold mobility. Retrospective case series at single tertiary referral center between 2002 and 2015. 141 patients were included who underwent laryngology interventions (micronized acellular dermis injection laryngoplasty and/or type 1 thyroplasty) to treat symptomatic UVFP diagnosed subsequent to cardiothoracic surgery. Pulmonary procedures were most often associated with UVFP (n=50/141; 35.5%). 87.2% had left-sided paralysis (n=123/141). Median time to diagnosis was 42days (x¯=114±348). Over time, UVFP was diagnosed progressively earlier after cardiothoracic surgery. 63.4% of patients (n=95/141) underwent injection laryngoplasty as their initial intervention with median time from diagnosis to injection of 11days (x¯=29.6±54). 41.1% (n=58/141) ultimately underwent type 1 thyroplasty at a median of 232.5days (x¯=367±510.2) after cardiothoracic surgery. 10.2% (n=9/88) of those with adequate follow-up recovered full vocal fold mobility. Many cardiothoracic procedures are associated with symptomatic UVFP, predominantly left-sided. Our data showed poor recovery of vocal fold mobility relative to other studies. Early diagnosis and potential surgical medialization is important in the care of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  20. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  1. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Syllabic Length Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ranjbar Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on visual word recognition have resulted in different and sometimes contradictory proposals as Multi-Trace Memory Model (MTM, Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC, and Parallel Distribution Processing Model (PDP. The role of the number of syllables in word recognition was examined by the use of five groups of English words and non-words. The reaction time of the participants to these words was measured using reaction time measuring software. The results indicated that there was syllabic effect on recognition of both high and low frequency words. The pattern was incremental in terms of syllable number. This pattern prevailed in high and low frequency words and non-words except in one syllable words. In general, the results are in line with the PDP model which claims that a single processing mechanism is used in both words and non-words recognition. In other words, the findings suggest that lexical items are mainly processed via a lexical route.  A pedagogical implication of the findings would be that reading in English as a foreign language involves analytical processing of the syllable of the words.

  3. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  4. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms. PMID:22676326

  5. BioWord: a sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldi, Laura J; Muñoz-Fernández, Daniel; Erill, Ivan

    2012-06-07

    The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  6. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  7. Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Benkrid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC. This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM. This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.

  8. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  9. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  10. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  11. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Competition between multiple words for a referent in cross-situational word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Yurovsky, Daniel; Smith, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments investigated competition between word-object pairings in a cross-situational word-learning paradigm. Adults were presented with One-Word pairings, where a single word labeled a single object, and Two-Word pairings, where two words labeled a single object. In addition to measuring learning of these two pairing types, we measured competition between words that refer to the same object. When the word-object co-occurrences were presented intermixed in training (Experiment 1), we found evidence for direct competition between words that label the same referent. Separating the two words for an object in time eliminated any evidence for this competition (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 demonstrated that adding a linguistic cue to the second label for a referent led to different competition effects between adults who self-reported different language learning histories, suggesting both distinctiveness and language learning history affect competition. Finally, in all experiments, competition effects were unrelated to participants’ explicit judgments of learning, suggesting that competition reflects the operating characteristics of implicit learning processes. Together, these results demonstrate that the role of competition between overlapping associations in statistical word-referent learning depends on time, the distinctiveness of word-object pairings, and language learning history. PMID:27087742

  13. Development of a device for real-time light-guided vocal fold injection: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wonjae; Ro, Jung Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Geun-Hyo; Lee, Yeon Woo

    2016-04-01

    Vocal fold injection is a minimally invasive technique for various vocal fold pathologies. The shortcomings of the cricothyroid (CT) membrane approach are mainly related to invisibility of the injection needle. If localization of the needle tip can be improved during vocal fold injection with the CT approach, the current problems of the technique can be overcome. We have conceptualized real-time light-guided vocal fold injection that enables simultaneous injection under precise localization. In this study, we developed a device for real-time light-guided vocal fold injection and applied it in excised canine larynx. Animal model. A single optic fiber was inserted in an unmodified 25-gauge needle. A designated connector for the device was attached to the needle, the optic fiber, and the syringe. A laser diode module was used as the light source. An ex vivo canine larynx model was used to validate the device. The location of the needle tip was accurately indicated, and the depth from the mucosa could be estimated according to the brightness and size of the red light. The needle was inserted and could be localized in the canine vocal fold by the light of the device. Precise injection at the intended location was easily performed with no manipulation of the device or the needle. Real-time light-guided vocal fold injection might be a feasible and promising technique for treatment of vocal fold pathology. It is expected that this technique can improve the precision of vocal fold injection and expand its indication in laryngology. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  15. Clinical Strategies for Sampling Word Recognition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S; Carney, Edward

    2018-04-17

    Computer simulation was used to estimate the statistical properties of searches for maximum word recognition ability (PB max). These involve presenting multiple lists and discarding all scores but that of the 1 list that produced the highest score. The simulations, which model limitations inherent in the precision of word recognition scores, were done to inform clinical protocols. A secondary consideration was a derivation of 95% confidence intervals for significant changes in score from phonemic scoring of a 50-word list. The PB max simulations were conducted on a "client" with flat performance intensity functions. The client's performance was assumed to be 60% initially and 40% for a second assessment. Thousands of estimates were obtained to examine the precision of (a) single lists and (b) multiple lists using a PB max procedure. This method permitted summarizing the precision for assessing a 20% drop in performance. A single 25-word list could identify only 58.4% of the cases in which performance fell from 60% to 40%. A single 125-word list identified 99.8% of the declines correctly. Presenting 3 or 5 lists to find PB max produced an undesirable finding: an increase in the word recognition score. A 25-word list produces unacceptably low precision for making clinical decisions. This finding holds in both single and multiple 25-word lists, as in a search for PB max. A table is provided, giving estimates of 95% critical ranges for successive presentations of a 50-word list analyzed by the number of phonemes correctly identified.

  16. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of vocal function exercises on muscle tension dysphonia in Vietnamese female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Duy; Kenny, Dianna T

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the treatment effects of vocal function exercises on muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) in tonal language speakers. Single-blinded, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Forty female primary school teachers from Northern Vietnam, diagnosed with MTD, were randomly allocated into a treatment group (n = 22), which used a full vocal exercise protocol (FE) (modified for use with Vietnamese speakers), and a control group (n = 18) which was treated with a partial vocal exercise protocol (PE). The treatment duration was 4 weeks for both groups. Acoustic and perceptual data were used as primary outcome measures. Acoustic parameters included frequency and amplitude perturbation, harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), mean fundamental frequency of the broken and rising tones, and parameters representing pitch movement in the rising tone. Perceptual analyses were performed on pre- and posttreatment samples of the sustained /a/ sound using anchor vocal samples. Self-report data, collected via a posttreatment questionnaire, comprised the secondary outcome measure. Significant changes in perturbation, HNR, and perceptual data were observed in the FE group but not in the PE group. The FE group showed increased size and speed of pitch change. Participants from both groups showed positive changes in some tonal parameters after treatment. However, the magnitude of change and the number of participants with positive changes were larger in the FE group. The data showed that vocal function exercises may be a cost-effective treatment for MTD.

  18. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  20. Tracking Eye Movements to Localize Stroop Interference in Naming: Word Planning Versus Articulatory Buffering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators have found no agreement on the functional locus of Stroop interference in vocal naming. Whereas it has long been assumed that the interference arises during spoken word planning, more recently some investigators have revived an account from the 1960s and 1970s holding that the

  1. Universal Lyndon Words

    OpenAIRE

    Carpi, Arturo; Fici, Gabriele; Holub, Stepan; Oprsal, Jakub; Sciortino, Marinella

    2014-01-01

    A word $w$ over an alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a Lyndon word if there exists an order defined on $\\Sigma$ for which $w$ is lexicographically smaller than all of its conjugates (other than itself). We introduce and study \\emph{universal Lyndon words}, which are words over an $n$-letter alphabet that have length $n!$ and such that all the conjugates are Lyndon words. We show that universal Lyndon words exist for every $n$ and exhibit combinatorial and structural properties of these words. We then defi...

  2. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  3. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  4. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  5. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message

  6. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  7. Knowledge inhibition and N400: a study with words that look like common words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruille, J B

    1998-04-01

    In addition to their own representations, low frequency words, such as BRIBE, can covertly activate the representations of higher frequency words they look like (e.g., BRIDE). Hence, look-alike words can activate knowledge that is incompatible with the knowledge corresponding to accurate representations. Comparatively, eccentric words, that is, low frequency words that do not look as much like higher frequency words, are less likely to activate incompatible knowledge. This study focuses on the hypothesis that the N400 component of the event-related potential reflects the inhibition of incompatible knowledge. This hypothesis predicts that look-alike words elicit N400s of greater amplitudes than eccentric words in conditions where incompatible knowledge is inhibited. Results from a single item lexical decision experiment are reported which support the inhibition hypothesis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Comparison of St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations with field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchok, Catherine; Bradley, David; Gabrielson, Thomas; Sears, Richard

    2003-04-01

    During four field seasons from 1998-2001, vocalizations were recorded in the presence of St. Lawrence blue whales using a single omni-directional hydrophone. Both long duration infrasonic calls (~18 Hz, 5-20 s) as well as short duration higher frequency calls (85-25 Hz, ~2 s) were detected and compared with field observations. Two trends were noted. First, the long infrasonic call series were concentrated primarily in the deep (300 m) channel. These call series appear to compare well with blue whale vocalizations recorded by others in the deep open ocean. Second, the shorter audible calls were more evenly distributed over bathymetry and seem to be a form of short distance communication with at least one case occurring during an agonistic interaction. A comparison of these calls with biological parameters such as density of whales in the area, percentages of paired versus single whales, and numbers of males versus females will also be discussed. [Project supported by ARL/PSU, NSF, and the American Museum of Natural History.

  9. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  10. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  11. Endo-extralaryngeal Laterofixation of the Vocal Folds in Patients with Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Susanne; Teymoortash, Afshin; Hanschmann, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis can result in shortness of breath and severe dyspnea which can be life-threatening. Thirty-five patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endo-extralaryngeal laterofixation according to Lichtenberger were retrospectively analyzed regarding etiology, symptoms, treatment and complications. In 27 patients, laterofixation of the vocal cord alone was performed. Eight patients underwent laterofixation and additional posterior chordectomy of the opposite vocal cord according to Dennis and Kashima. The time of intervention ranged from 1 day to 38 years after the onset of bilateral vocal cord immobility. The intraoperative course was uneventful in all patients. None of the patients had postoperative aspiration. Postoperative voice function was acceptable in all patients. Complications of suture laterofixation were laryngeal edema, formation of fibrin, and malposition of the suture. Laterofixation of the vocal cords according to Lichtenberger is a safe and easy method that can be used as a first-stage treatment of vocal cord paralysis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  13. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    OpenAIRE

    Louzada,Talita; Beraldinelle,Roberta; Berretin-Felix,Giédre; Brasolotto,Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: F...

  14. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  17. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    ” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline......Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa...... pain. Furthermore, changes from nonpainful to painful stimulations in these parameters also significantly predicted concurrent changes in pain ratings. Conclusion: Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific...

  18. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    for studying the origins and neural basis of human language. Vocalizations belonging to the same species, or Conspecific Vocalizations (CVs), are...applications including automatic speech recognition [17], speech enhancement [18], voice activity detection [19], hyper-nasality detection [20], and emotion ...vocalizations. The feature sets chosen have the desirable property of capturing characteristics of the signals that are useful in both identifying and

  19. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  20. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  1. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  2. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  3. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  4. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  5. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  6. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  7. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... because it offers a quantitative measure of the voice capacity and intensity, which are the major problems experienced by patients with vocal fold paralysis. Used together, these tools are highly instrumental in guiding the patient's choice of surgery or no surgery. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  8. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  9. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  10. [Biofeedback in young singer vocal training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Paula; Ciochină, Al D; Burlui, Ada; Zaharia, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a learning process that is based on "operant conditioning" techniques. To estimate the significance of biofeedback to an accurate and faster control of singing voice emission. Significantly, it was discovered that professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theatre repertoire with regard to the visual-kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affect vocal timbre. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for youth singer vocal training, may be useful to these singers.

  11. At the interface of the auditory and vocal motor systems: NIf and its role in vocal processing, production and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian; Vyssotski, Alexei; Hahnloser, Richard H R; Schmidt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Communication between auditory and vocal motor nuclei is essential for vocal learning. In songbirds, the nucleus interfacialis of the nidopallium (NIf) is part of a sensorimotor loop, along with auditory nucleus avalanche (Av) and song system nucleus HVC, that links the auditory and song systems. Most of the auditory information comes through this sensorimotor loop, with the projection from NIf to HVC representing the largest single source of auditory information to the song system. In addition to providing the majority of HVC's auditory input, NIf is also the primary driver of spontaneous activity and premotor-like bursting during sleep in HVC. Like HVC and RA, two nuclei critical for song learning and production, NIf exhibits behavioral-state dependent auditory responses and strong motor bursts that precede song output. NIf also exhibits extended periods of fast gamma oscillations following vocal production. Based on the converging evidence from studies of physiology and functional connectivity it would be reasonable to expect NIf to play an important role in the learning, maintenance, and production of song. Surprisingly, however, lesions of NIf in adult zebra finches have no effect on song production or maintenance. Only the plastic song produced by juvenile zebra finches during the sensorimotor phase of song learning is affected by NIf lesions. In this review, we carefully examine what is known about NIf at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels. We reexamine conclusions drawn from previous studies in the light of our current understanding of the song system, and establish what can be said with certainty about NIf's involvement in song learning, maintenance, and production. Finally, we review recent theories of song learning integrating possible roles for NIf within these frameworks and suggest possible parallels between NIf and sensorimotor areas that form part of the neural circuitry for speech processing in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  12. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  13. Distributed acoustic cues for caller identity in macaque vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Doyle, Alex M; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Individual primates can be identified by the sound of their voice. Macaques have demonstrated an ability to discern conspecific identity from a harmonically structured 'coo' call. Voice recognition presumably requires the integrated perception of multiple acoustic features. However, it is unclear how this is achieved, given considerable variability across utterances. Specifically, the extent to which information about caller identity is distributed across multiple features remains elusive. We examined these issues by recording and analysing a large sample of calls from eight macaques. Single acoustic features, including fundamental frequency, duration and Weiner entropy, were informative but unreliable for the statistical classification of caller identity. A combination of multiple features, however, allowed for highly accurate caller identification. A regularized classifier that learned to identify callers from the modulation power spectrum of calls found that specific regions of spectral-temporal modulation were informative for caller identification. These ranges are related to acoustic features such as the call's fundamental frequency and FM sweep direction. We further found that the low-frequency spectrotemporal modulation component contained an indexical cue of the caller body size. Thus, cues for caller identity are distributed across identifiable spectrotemporal components corresponding to laryngeal and supralaryngeal components of vocalizations, and the integration of those cues can enable highly reliable caller identification. Our results demonstrate a clear acoustic basis by which individual macaque vocalizations can be recognized.

  14. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  15. Functional results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Denk, Doris-Maria; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    A persistent insufficiency of glottal closure is mostly a consequence of a unilateral vocal fold movement impairment. It can also be caused by vocal fold atrophy or scarring processes with regular bilateral respiratory vocal fold function. Because of consequential voice, breathing, and swallowing impairments, a functional surgical treatment is required. The goal of the study was to outline the functional results after medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant according to Friedrich. In the period of 1999 to 2001, an external vocal fold medialization using the titanium implant was performed on 28 patients (12 women and 16 men). The patients were in the age range of 19 to 84 years. Twenty-two patients had a paralysis of the left-side vocal fold, and six patients, of the right-side vocal fold. Detailed functional examinations were executed on all patients before and after the surgery: perceptive voice sound analysis according to the "roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness" method, judgment of the s/z ratio and voice dysfunction index, voice range profile measurements, videostroboscopy, and pulmonary function tests. In case of dysphagia/aspiration, videofluoroscopy of swallowing was also performed. The respective data were statistically analyzed (paired t test, Wilcoxon-test). All patients reported on improvement of voice, swallowing, and breathing functions postoperatively. Videostroboscopy revealed an almost complete glottal closure after surgery in all of the patients. All voice-related parameters showed a significant improvement. An increase of the laryngeal resistance by the medialization procedure could be excluded by analysis of the pulmonary function test. The results confirm the external medialization of the vocal folds as an adequate method in the therapy of voice, swallowing, and breathing impairment attributable to an insufficient glottal closure. The titanium implant offers, apart from good tissue tolerability, the

  16. Vocal Tract and Glottal Function During and After Vocal Exercising With Resonance Tube and Straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzman, M.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Krupa, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J.G.; Geneid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), "523.e19"-"523.e34" ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vocal exercises * resonance tube * vocal tract impedance * computerized tomography * singer’s/speaker’s formant cluster Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08921997

  17. Vocal Fold Injection: Review of Indications, Techniques, and Materials for Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mallur, Pavan S.; Rosen, Clark A.

    2010-01-01

    Vocal fold injection is a procedure that has over a 100 year history but was rarely done as short as 20 years ago. A renaissance has occurred with respect to vocal fold injection due to new technologies (visualization and materials) and new injection approaches. Awake, un-sedated vocal fold injection offers many distinct advantages for the treatment of glottal insufficiency (vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold atrophy and vocal fold scar). A review of materials available and ...

  18. The Effect of Known-and-Unknown Word Combinations on Intentional Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kiwamu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether learning a known-and-unknown word combination is superior in terms of retention and retrieval of meaning to learning a single unknown word. The term "combination" in this study means a two-word collocation of a familiar word and a word that is new to the participants. Following the results of…

  19. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  20. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  1. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  2. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  3. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  4. Glass ionomer application for vocal fold augmentation: Histopathological analysis on rabbit vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Callıoglu, Elif Ersoy; Yumusak, Nihat; Arslan, Necmi; Baltacı, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an injection material for vocal fold augmentation and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Under general anesthesia, 0.1-cc GIC was injected to one vocal fold and the augmentation of vocal fold was observed. No injection was applied to the opposite side, which was accepted as the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months and the laryngeal specimens were histopathologically evaluated. The injected and the noninjected control vocal folds were analyzed. The GIC particles were observed in histological sections on the injected side, and no foreign body giant cells, granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, or marked chronic inflammation were detected around the glass ionomer particles. Mild inflammatory reactions were noticed in only two specimens. The noninjected sides of vocal folds were completely normal. The findings of this study suggest that GIC is biocompatible and may be further investigated as an alternative injection material for augmentation of the vocal fold. Further studies are required to examine the viscoelastic properties of GIC and the long-term effects in experimental studies. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  6. Hemispheric processing of vocal emblem sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann-Werth, Yael; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K

    2013-01-01

    Vocal emblems, such as shh and brr, are speech sounds that have linguistic and nonlinguistic features; thus, it is unclear how they are processed in the brain. Five adult dextral individuals with left-brain damage and moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia, five adult dextral individuals with right-brain damage, and five Controls participated in two tasks: (1) matching vocal emblems to photographs ('picture task') and (2) matching vocal emblems to verbal translations ('phrase task'). Cross-group statistical analyses on items on which the Controls performed at ceiling revealed lower accuracy by the group with left-brain damage (than by Controls) on both tasks, and lower accuracy by the group with right-brain damage (than by Controls) on the picture task. Additionally, the group with left-brain damage performed significantly less accurately than the group with right-brain damage on the phrase task only. Findings suggest that comprehension of vocal emblems recruits more left- than right-hemisphere processing.

  7. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  8. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  9. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  10. Targeted transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Thompson, Paul; Kolb, Ilya; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-06-01

    Paralysis of the structures in the head and neck due to stroke or other neurological disorder often causes dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). Patients with dysphagia have a significantly higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that control the vocal folds, travels superiorly in parallel to the trachea in the tracheoesophageal groove. This study tests the hypothesis that functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transtracheal electrodes can produce controlled vocal fold adduction. Bipolar electrodes were placed at 15° intervals around the interior mucosal surface of the canine trachea, and current was applied to the tissue while electromyography (EMG) from the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and vocal fold movement visualization via laryngoscopy were recorded. The lowest EMG thresholds were found at an average location of 100° to the left of the ventral midsagittal line and 128° to the right. A rotatable pair of bipolar electrodes spaced 230° apart were able to stimulate bilaterally both RLNs in every subject. Laryngoscopy showed complete glottal closure with transtracheal stimulation in six of the eight subjects, and this closure was maintained under simultaneous FES-induced laryngeal elevation. Transtracheal stimulation is an effective tool for minimally invasive application of FES to induce vocal fold adduction, providing an alternative mechanism to study airway protection.

  11. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  12. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this reportwe present an adult patient with hemangioma ofthe left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnosticinvestigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extendedfrom the anterior comissure to the posterior partof true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventriculeand extending to supraglottic region. Directlaryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excisedbecause of its widespread extension in the larynx. JClin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 91-94

  13. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  14. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa; Niebuhr, Oliver; Kunz, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels "u," "a," "i", and "schwa"

  15. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal

  17. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The WordPress Bible provides a complete and thorough guide to the largest self hosted blogging tool. This guide starts by covering the basics of WordPress such as installing and the principles of blogging, marketing and social media interaction, but then quickly ramps the reader up to more intermediate to advanced level topics such as plugins, WordPress Loop, themes and templates, custom fields, caching, security and more. The WordPress Bible is the only complete resource one needs to learning WordPress from beginning to end.

  18. Catecholaminergic contributions to vocal communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2015-05-01

    Social context affects behavioral displays across a variety of species. For example, social context acutely influences the acoustic and temporal structure of vocal communication signals such as speech and birdsong. Despite the prevalence and importance of such social influences, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the social modulation of communication. Catecholamines are implicated in the regulation of social behavior and motor control, but the degree to which catecholamines influence vocal communication signals remains largely unknown. Using a songbird, the Bengalese finch, we examined the extent to which the social context in which song is produced affected immediate early gene expression (EGR-1) in catecholamine-synthesising neurons in the midbrain. Further, we assessed the degree to which administration of amphetamine, which increases catecholamine concentrations in the brain, mimicked the effect of social context on vocal signals. We found that significantly more catecholaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (but not the central grey, locus coeruleus or subcoeruleus) expressed EGR-1 in birds that were exposed to females and produced courtship song than in birds that produced non-courtship song in isolation. Furthermore, we found that amphetamine administration mimicked the effects of social context and caused many aspects of non-courtship song to resemble courtship song. Specifically, amphetamine increased the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing, the repetition of vocal elements and the degree of sequence completions. Taken together, these data highlight the conserved role of catecholamines in vocal communication across species, including songbirds and humans. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Learning to breathe and sing: development of respiratory-vocal coordination in young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Lena; Aronov, Dmitriy; Fee, Michale S

    2011-10-01

    How do animals with learned vocalizations coordinate vocal production with respiration? Songbirds such as the zebra finch learn their songs, beginning with highly variable babbling vocalizations known as subsong. After several weeks of practice, zebra finches are able to produce a precisely timed pattern of syllables and silences, precisely coordinated with expiratory and inspiratory pulses (Franz M, Goller F. J Neurobiol 51: 129-141, 2002). While respiration in adult song is well described, relatively little is known about respiratory patterns in subsong or about the processes by which respiratory and vocal patterns become coordinated. To address these questions, we recorded thoracic air sac pressure in juvenile zebra finches prior to the appearance of any consistent temporal or acoustic structure in their songs. We found that subsong contains brief inspiratory pulses (50 ms) alternating with longer pulses of sustained expiratory pressure (50-500 ms). In striking contrast to adult song, expiratory pulses often contained multiple (0-8) variably timed syllables separated by expiratory gaps and were only partially vocalized. During development, expiratory pulses became shorter and more stereotyped in duration with shorter and fewer nonvocalized parts. These developmental changes eventually resulted in the production of a single syllable per expiratory pulse and a single inspiratory pulse filling each gap, forming a coordinated sequence similar to that of adult song. To examine the role of forebrain song-control nuclei in the development of respiratory patterns, we performed pressure recordings before and after lesions of nucleus HVC (proper name) and found that this manipulation reverses the developmental trends in measures of the respiratory pattern.

  1. On-line cone beam CT image guidance for vocal cord tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Gangsaas, Anne; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: We are developing a technique for highly focused vocal cord irradiation in early glottic carcinoma to optimally treat a target volume confined to a single cord. This technique, in contrast with the conventional methods, aims at sparing the healthy vocal cord. As such a technique requires sub-mm daily targeting accuracy to be effective, we investigate the accuracy achievable with on-line kV-cone beam CT (CBCT) corrections. Materials and methods: CBCT scans were obtained in 10 early glottic cancer patients in each treatment fraction. The grey value registration available in X-ray volume imaging (XVI) software (Elekta, Synergy) was applied to a volume of interest encompassing the thyroid cartilage. After application of the thus derived corrections, residue displacements with respect to the planning CT scan were measured at clearly identifiable relevant landmarks. The intra- and inter-observer variations were also measured. Results: While before correction the systematic displacements of the vocal cords were as large as 2.4 ± 3.3 mm (cranial-caudal population mean ± SD Σ), daily CBCT registration and correction reduced these values to less than 0.2 ± 0.5 mm in all directions. Random positioning errors (SD σ) were reduced to less than 1 mm. Correcting only for translations and not for rotations did not appreciably affect this accuracy. The residue random displacements partly stem from intra-observer variations (SD = 0.2-0.6 mm). Conclusion: The use of CBCT for daily image guidance in combination with standard mask fixation reduced systematic and random set-up errors of the vocal cords to <1 mm prior to the delivery of each fraction dose. Thus, this facilitates the high targeting precision required for a single vocal cord irradiation.

  2. Assessing neglect dyslexia with compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Stefan; Schunck, Alexander; Schaadt, Anna Katharina; Adams, Michaela; Simon, Alexandra; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The neglect syndrome is frequently associated with neglect dyslexia (ND), which is characterized by omissions or misread initial letters of single words. ND is usually assessed with standardized reading texts in clinical settings. However, particularly in the chronic phase of ND, patients often report reading deficits in everyday situations but show (nearly) normal performances in test situations that are commonly well-structured. To date, sensitive and standardized tests to assess the severity and characteristics of ND are lacking, although reading is of high relevance for daily life and vocational settings. Several studies found modulating effects of different word features on ND. We combined those features in a novel test to enhance test sensitivity in the assessment of ND. Low-frequency words of different length that contain residual pronounceable words when the initial letter strings are neglected were selected. We compared these words in a group of 12 ND-patients suffering from right-hemispheric first-ever stroke with word stimuli containing no existing residual words. Finally, we tested whether the serially presented words are more sensitive for the diagnosis of ND than text reading. The severity of ND was modulated strongly by the ND-test words and error frequencies in single word reading of ND words were on average more than 10 times higher than in a standardized text reading test (19.8% vs. 1.8%). The novel ND-test maximizes the frequency of specific ND-errors and is therefore more sensitive for the assessment of ND than conventional text reading tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Polydimethylsiloxane Injection Laryngoplasty for Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Bettini, Margherita; Botti, Cecilia; Busi, Giulia; Tassi, Sauro; Malagoli, Andrea; Molteni, Gabriele; Trebbi, Marco; Luppi, Maria Pia; Bergamini, Giuseppe; Presutti, Livio

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the long-term objective, perceptive, and subjective outcomes after endoscopic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) injection laryngoplasty in unilateral vocal fold paralysis. A retrospective study carried out between January 2008 and January 2012. Head and Neck Department, University Hospital of Modena, Modena, Italy. This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endoscopic injection of PDMS under general anesthesia. A voice evaluation protocol was performed for all patients, which included videolaryngostroboscopy, maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency, analysis of the harmonic structure of the vowel /a/ and the word /aiuole/, Grade of Dysphonia, Instability, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, and Voice Handicap Index. The protocol was performed before surgery, in the immediate postoperative period, and at least 3 years after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 73 months (range 39-119 months). The statistical analysis showed a significant improvement (P injection laryngoplasty with PDMS guarantees long-lasting effects over time. No complications were reported in our series. Injection laryngoplasty with PDMS can be considered to be a minimally invasive and safe technique for the treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Moreover, it allows very good and stable results to be obtained over time, avoiding repeated treatments and improving the quality of life of the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into the role of elastin in vocal fold health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Elastic fibers are large, complex and surprisingly poorly understood extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules. The elastin fiber, generated from a single human gene - elastin (ELN), is a self assembling integral protein that endows critical mechanic proprieties to elastic tissues and organs such as the skin, lungs, and arteries. The biology of elastic fibers is complex because they have multiple components, a tightly regulated developmental deposition, a multi-step hierarchical assembly and unique biomechanical functions. Elastin is present in vocal folds, where it plays a pivotal role in the quality of phonation. This review article provides an overview of the genesis of elastin and its wide- ranging structure and function. Specific distribution within the vocal fold lamina propria across the lifespan in normal and pathological states and its contribution to vocal fold biomechanics will be examined. Elastin and elastin-derived molecules are increasingly investigated for their application in tissue engineering. The properties of various elastin– based materials will be discussed and their current and future applications evaluated. A new level of understanding of the biomechanical properties of vocal fold elastin composites and their molecular basis should lead to new strategies for elastic fiber repair and regeneration in aging and disease. PMID:21708449

  5. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eMayko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a major center for integration of auditory information as itreceives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projectionsfrom the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory andinhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important forshaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined therole inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearingadult mice (CBA/CaJ strain. Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses tovocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitryin the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonicmouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAARand glycine receptor (GlyR antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR andGlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curvesin response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibitionplays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

  6. Perfil vocal do guia de turismo Vocal profile of tourism guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil vocal dos guias de turismo, bem como gênero e idade. MÉTODOS: participaram desse estudo 23 guias de turismo, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 25 a 64 anos, participantes do Sindicato de Guias de Turismo do Estado de Pernambuco, que compareceram às reuniões trimestrais no período da coleta. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo, observacional e transversal. Para coleta foi realizada avaliação perceptivo-auditiva GRBAS. RESULTADOS: observou-se que a maioria dos guias apresentou loudness adequada, pitch normal e voz alterada. Além disso, as médias dos tempos máximos de fonação das vogais e das fricativas encontravam-se reduzidas e ataque vocal isocrônico. A ressonância, na maioria dos guias, estava equilibrada, mas houve uma incidência de ressonância laringo-faringea. A articulação foi precisa, com tipo e modo respiratório misto e nasal, respectivamente. Quanto à escala GRBAS as alterações apareceram de forma leve no G (grau de alteração vocal em 68%. CONCLUSÃO: na amostra estudada, a maioria era do gênero feminino com média de idade de 46 anos, e perfil vocal caracterizado por tempo máximo de fonação reduzidos, relação s/z adequado, ataque vocal isocrônico, pitch normal, loudness adequado, qualidade vocal alterada, com presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, tensão. A ressonância da maioria estava equilibrada e a articulação precisa, com tipo e modo respiratório misto e nasal, respectivamente. Quanto à escala GRBAS, as alterações apareceram de forma leve no grau de alteração vocal (G em 68% e tensão (S em 78% dos sujeitos.PURPOSE: to characterize the vocal profile of tourism guides, as well as gender and age. METHODS: 23 guides took part in this study, of both genders, with age between 25 to 64 years, partakers of the Union of Tourism Guides of the State of Pernambuco, who appeared to the quarterly meetings in the period of the collection. It is a descriptive

  7. Is laughter a better vocal change detector than a growl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Vasconcelos, Margarida; Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-07-01

    The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach. Specifically, we examined the brain response to standards (Repetition Positivity) and to deviants (Mismatch Negativity - MMN), as well as the anticipatory response to the vocal sounds (pre-stimulus beta oscillatory power). Short neutral, happy (laughter), and angry (growls) vocalizations were presented both as standard and deviant stimuli in a passive oddball listening task while participants watched a silent movie and were instructed to ignore the vocalizations. MMN amplitude was increased for happy compared to neutral and angry vocalizations. The Repetition Positivity was enhanced for happy standard vocalizations. Induced pre-stimulus upper beta power was increased for happy vocalizations, and predicted the modulation of the standard Repetition Positivity. These findings indicate enhanced sensory prediction for positive vocalizations such as laughter. Together, the results suggest that positive vocalizations are more effective predictors in social communication than angry and neutral ones, possibly due to their high social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocal quality in university teachers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, E; Claeys, S; Wuyts, F; Van Lierde, K M

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the vocal quality of 20 male and 9 female university teachers using a multi-parameter approach. Secondly, the effect of an academic lecture on the voice profiles of the university teachers was measured. All groups underwent subjective voice evaluations (perceptual evaluation, Voice Handicap Index, anamnesis of vocal complaints and vocal abuse) and objective voice evaluations (aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, vocal performance, and the Dysphonia Severity Index). The same voice assessment was performed after an academic lecture with a mean length of one and a half hours. The mean DSI score was + 2.2 for the male teachers and + 4.0 for the female teachers. The mean VHI score was 13. Perceptually, all voice parameters were rated as normal. The questionnaire revealed a relatively high amount of vocal abuse. No changes in the objective vocal parameters were found after the lecture. Perceptually, however, the voices of the university teachers were significantly less instable after the lecture. Although no negative changes in objective vocal quality were observed, 48% of the university teachers experienced subjective vocal changes. The authors concluded that university teachers are professional voice users with good vocal quality who suffer no handicapping effect from possible voice disorders. No important changes in the vocal profile after a teaching activity of one and a half hours were found, despite the high prevalence of voice complaints.

  9. Vocal fold paresis - a debilitating and underdiagnosed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G; O'Meara, C; Pemberton, C; Rough, J; Darveniza, P; Tisch, S; Cole, I

    2017-07-01

    To review the clinical signs of vocal fold paresis on laryngeal videostroboscopy, to quantify its impact on patients' quality of life and to confirm the benefit of laryngeal electromyography in its diagnosis. Twenty-nine vocal fold paresis patients were referred for laryngeal electromyography. Voice Handicap Index 10 results were compared to 43 patients diagnosed with vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal videostroboscopy analysis was conducted to determine side of paresis. Blinded laryngeal electromyography confirmed vocal fold paresis in 92.6 per cent of cases, with vocal fold lag being the most common diagnostic sign. The laryngology team accurately predicted side of paresis in 76 per cent of cases. Total Voice Handicap Index 10 responses were not significantly different between vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis groups (26.08 ± 0.21 and 22.93 ± 0.17, respectively). Vocal fold paresis has a significant impact on quality of life. This study shows that laryngeal electromyography is an important diagnostic tool. Patients with persisting dysphonia and apparently normal vocal fold movement, who fail to respond to appropriate speech therapy, should be investigated for a diagnosis of vocal fold paresis.

  10. Quantitative electromyographic characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Han; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis with no preceding causes is diagnosed as idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis. However, comprehensive guidelines for evaluating the defining characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis are still lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis may have different clinical and neurologic characteristics from unilateral vocal fold paralysis caused by surgical trauma. Retrospective, case series study. Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were evaluated using quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice acoustic analysis, the Voice Outcome Survey, and the Short Form-36 Health Survey quality-of-life questionnaire. Patients with idiopathic and iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis were compared. A total of 124 patients were recruited. Of those, 17 with no definite identified causes after evaluation and follow-up were assigned to the idiopathic group. The remaining 107 patients with surgery-induced vocal fold paralysis were assigned to the iatrogenic group. Patients in the idiopathic group had higher recruitment of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex and better quality of life compared with the iatrogenic group. Idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis has a distinct clinical presentation, with relatively minor denervation changes in the involved laryngeal muscles, and less impact on quality of life compared with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:E362-E368, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation. PMID:25992109

  12. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  13. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2014-03-26

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not

  14. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects.

  15. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  16. Word Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003

  17. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  18. Effect of Vocal Fold Medialization on Dysphagia in Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Daniel J; Venkatesan, Naren N; Strong, Brandon; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    The effect of vocal fold medialization (VFM) on vocal improvement in persons with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) is well established. The effect of VFM on the symptom of dysphagia is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate dysphagia symptoms in patients with UVFI pre- and post-VFM. Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary care medical center. The charts of 44 persons with UVFI who underwent VFM between June 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, were abstracted from a prospectively maintained database at the University of California, Davis, Voice and Swallowing Center. Patient demographics, indications, and type of surgical procedure were recorded. Self-reported swallowing impairment was assessed with the validated 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) before and after surgery. A paired samples t test was used to compare pre- and postmedialization EAT-10 scores. Forty-four patients met criteria and underwent either vocal fold injection (73%) or thyroplasty (27%). Etiologies of vocal fold paralysis were iatrogenic (55%), idiopathic (29%), benign or malignant neoplastic (9%), traumatic (5%), or related to the late effects of radiation (2%). EAT-10 (mean ± SD) scores improved from 12.2 ± 11.1 to 7.7 ± 7.2 after medialization (P dysphagia and report significant improvement in swallowing symptoms following VFM. The symptomatic improvement appears to be durable over time. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  19. Baby's first 10 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A

    2008-07-01

    Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers completed MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories and reported them to produce between 1 and 10 words. Analyses of individual words indicated striking commonalities in the first words that children learn. However, substantive cross-linguistic differences appeared in the relative prevalence of common nouns, people terms, and verbs as well as in the probability that children produced even one of these word types when they had a total of 1-3, 4-6, or 7-10 words in their vocabularies. These data document cross-linguistic differences in the types of words produced even at the earliest stages of vocabulary learning and underscore the importance of parental input and cross-linguistic/cross-cultural variations in children's early word-learning.

  20. Word 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Herb

    2010-01-01

    In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

  1. Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

  2. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  3. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  4. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  5. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  6. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  7. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...

  8. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  9. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  10. Acoustic vocal tract model of one-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović, Milan; Bogavac, Ivana; Dobrijević, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant) frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract...

  11. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  12. The voice conveys specific emotions: Evidence from vocal burst displays

    OpenAIRE

    Simon-Thomas, E.; Keltner, D.; Sauter, D.; Sinicropi-Yao, L.; Abramson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more ...

  13. Higher-order semantic structures in an African Grey parrot's vocalizations: evidence from the hyperspace analog to language (HAL) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Allison B; Colbert-White, Erin N; Burgess, Curt

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has described the significant role that social interaction plays in both the acquisition and use of speech by parrots. The current study analyzed the speech of one home-raised African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) across three different social contexts: owner interacting with parrot in the same room, owner and parrot interacting out of view in adjacent rooms, and parrot home alone. The purpose was to determine the extent to which the subject's speech reflected an understanding of the contextual substitutability (e.g., the word street can be substituted in context for the word road) of the vocalizations that comprised the units in her repertoire (i.e., global co-occurrence of repertoire units; Burgess in Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 30:188-198, 1998; Lund and Burgess in Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 28:203-208, 1996). This was accomplished via the human language model hyperspace analog to language (HAL). HAL is contextually driven and bootstraps language "rules" from input without human intervention. Because HAL does not require human tutelage, it provided an objective measure to empirically examine the parrot's vocalizations. Results indicated that the subject's vocalization patterns did contain global co-occurrence. The presence of this quality in this nonhuman's speech may be strongly indicative of higher-order cognitive skills.

  14. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  15. Defects in ultrasonic vocalization of cadherin-6 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although some molecules have been identified as responsible for human language disorders, there is still little information about what molecular mechanisms establish the faculty of human language. Since mice, like songbirds, produce complex ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication in several social contexts, they can be good mammalian models for studying the molecular basis of human language. Having found that cadherins are involved in the vocal development of the Bengalese finch, a songbird, we expected cadherins to also be involved in mouse vocalizations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine whether similar molecular mechanisms underlie the vocalizations of songbirds and mammals, we categorized behavioral deficits including vocalization in cadherin-6 knockout mice. Comparing the ultrasonic vocalizations of cadherin-6 knockout mice with those of wild-type controls, we found that the peak frequency and variations of syllables were differed between the mutant and wild-type mice in both pup-isolation and adult-courtship contexts. Vocalizations during male-male aggression behavior, in contrast, did not differ between mutant and wild-type mice. Open-field tests revealed differences in locomotors activity in both heterozygote and homozygote animals and no difference in anxiety behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that cadherin-6 plays essential roles in locomotor activity and ultrasonic vocalization. These findings also support the idea that different species share some of the molecular mechanisms underlying vocal behavior.

  16. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Human Vocal Fold Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgezen, Tolga; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Yigit, Ozgur; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the existence of sex hormone receptors in the subunits of vocal fold. This is a cadaver study. The androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors were examined in the epithelium (EP), superficial layer of the lamina propria (SLP), vocal ligament (VL), and macula flava (MF) of the vocal folds from 42 human cadavers (21 male, 21 female) by immunohistochemical methods. Their staining ratios were scored and statistically compared. The androgen receptor score was significantly higher for the MF than for the EP and SLP (P vocal fold, mostly in the MF and VLs. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Word Processing for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Pupils with special educational needs are finding that the use of word processors can give them a new confidence and pride in their own abilities. This article describes the use of such devices as the "mouse," on-screen word lists, spell checkers, and overlay keyboards. (JDD)

  18. The influence of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies was investigated in a muscularly controlled continuum model of the vocal folds. Unlike the general understanding that vocal fold fundamental frequency was determined by vocal fold tension, this study showed that vocal fold eigenfrequencies were primarily determined by vocal fold stiffness. This study further showed that, with reference to the resting state of zero stra...

  19. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  20. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  1. Drug delivery system of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel for restoration of acute vocal fold scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    There continue to be therapeutic challenges in the management of vocal fold scarring. We previously showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection has therapeutic potential for vocal fold scarring. However, the working time of bFGF is relatively short, and multiple injections were required in many cases to obtain the regenerative effect. An efficacious delivery system for bFGF has yet to be established. We designed a method of sustained drug delivery system (DDS) of bFGF by using a gelatin hydrogel. Hydrogel has been developed for targeted delivery and controlled release of bFGF. Hydrogel of the particle type is also injectable and commercially available. The current study aims to investigate the effects of a single injection of bFGF-DDS on acute vocal fold scarring using a canine model. Vocal folds from eight beagles were unilaterally scarred by stripping the lamina propria. One month later, hydrogels (0.5ml) containing 10μg of bFGF were injected into the scarred vocal folds of four beagles (FGF-hydrogel group). Saline (0.5ml) was injected into the other four beagles (sham group). Vibratory and histological examination of excised larynges was performed 5 months after treatment. Comparative analysis between the current data and our previous data with repeated injection of bFGF solution was also completed. Vibratory examination demonstrated significantly improved vibration in the bFGF hydrogel-treated group. Histological examination of the bFGF hydrogel group showed restoration of hyaluronic acid in the lamina propria as compared to sham. Comparison between the DDS system and our previous bFGF solution injection indicated better effects of the DDS system on vibratory amplitude. A single injection of bFGF hydrogel has regenerative effects on acute vocal fold scarring, which is at least similar to repeated injection of bFGF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Grapheme to Phonological Output: Performance of Adults Who Stutter on a Word Jumble Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megann McGill

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task.Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category were randomly jumbled using a web-based application. During the experimental task, 26 participants were asked to silently manipulate the scrambled letters to form a real word. Each vocal response was coded for accuracy and speech reaction time (SRT.Adults who stutter attempted to solve fewer word jumble stimuli than adults who do not stutter at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths. Additionally, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate solving word jumble tasks at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths compared to adults who do not stutter. At the longest word length (6-letter, SRT was significantly slower for the adults who stutter than the fluent controls.Results of the current study lend further support to the notion that differences in various aspects of phonological processing, including vision-to-sound conversions, sub-vocal stimulus manipulation, and/or lexical access are compromised in adults who stutter.

  3. The influence of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies was investigated in a muscularly controlled continuum model of the vocal folds. Unlike the general understanding that vocal fold fundamental frequency was determined by vocal fold tension, this study showed that vocal fold eigenfrequencies were primarily determined by vocal fold stiffness. This study further showed that, with reference to the resting state of zero strain, vocal fold stiffness in both body and cover layers increased with either vocal fold elongation or shortening. As a result, whether vocal fold eigenfrequencies increased or decreased with CT/TA activation depended on how the CT/TA interaction influenced vocal fold deformation. For conditions of strong CT activation and thus an elongated vocal fold, increasing TA contraction reduced the degree of vocal fold elongation and thus reduced vocal fold eigenfrequencies. For conditions of no CT activation and thus a resting or slightly shortened vocal fold, increasing TA contraction increased the degree of vocal fold shortening and thus increased vocal fold eigenfrequencies. In the transition region of a slightly elongated vocal fold, increasing TA contraction first decreased and then increased vocal fold eigenfrequencies. PMID:23654401

  4. Gender Differences in the Reporting of Vocal Fatigue in Teachers as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Banks, Russell E

    2017-12-01

    Occupational voice users report higher instances of vocal health problems. Women, who are more likely than men to report voice problems, are the largest members of some occupational voice users, such as teachers. While a common complaint among this population is vocal fatigue, it has been difficult to quantify. Therefore, the goal of this study is to quantify vocal fatigue generally in school teachers and investigate any related gender differences. Six hundred forty (518 female, 122 male) teachers were surveyed using an online questionnaire consisting in part of the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI), an index specifically designed to quantify vocal fatigue. Compared to vocally healthy adults, the teachers surveyed were 3 times as likely to report vocal tiredness or vocal avoidance and over 3 times as likely to report physical voice discomfort. Additionally, female teachers were more likely to have scores approaching those with dysphonia. The VFI quantified elevated levels of vocal fatigue in teachers, with a significant prevalence of symptoms reported among females compared to males. Further, because the VFI indicated elevated complaints (between normal and dysphonic) in a population likely to be elevated, the VFI might be used to identify early indications of voice problems and/or track recovery.

  5. Relationship Between the Electroglottographic Signal and Vocal Fold Contact Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampala, Vít; Garcia, Maxime; Švec, Jan G; Scherer, Ronald C; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-03-01

    Electroglottography (EGG) is a widely used noninvasive method that purports to measure changes in relative vocal fold contact area (VFCA) during phonation. Despite its broad application, the putative direct relation between the EGG waveform and VFCA has to date only been formally tested in a single study, suggesting an approximately linear relationship. However, in that study, flow-induced vocal fold (VF) vibration was not investigated. A rigorous empirical evaluation of EGG as a measure of VFCA under proper physiological conditions is therefore still needed. Three red deer larynges were phonated in an excised hemilarynx preparation using a conducting glass plate. The time-varying contact between the VF and the glass plate was assessed by high-speed video recordings at 6000 fps, synchronized to the EGG signal. The average differences between the normalized [0, 1] VFCA and EGG waveforms for the three larynges were 0.180 (±0.156), 0.075 (±0.115), and 0.168 (±0.184) in the contacting phase and 0.159 (±0.112), -0.003 (±0.029), and 0.004 (±0.032) in the decontacting phase. Overall, there was a better agreement between VFCA and the EGG waveform in the decontacting phase than in the contacting phase. Disagreements may be caused by nonuniform tissue conductance properties, electrode placement, and electroglottograph hardware circuitry. Pending further research, the EGG waveform may be a reasonable first approximation to change in medial contact area between the VFs during phonation. However, any quantitative and statistical data derived from EGG should be interpreted cautiously, allowing for potential deviations from true VFCA. Copyright © 2016 The Auhors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of vocal fold immobility in patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Ross, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    This study prospectively investigated the incidence of vocal fold immobility, unilateral and bilateral, and its influence on aspiration status in a referred population of 1452 patients for a dysphagia evaluation from a large, urban, tertiary-care, teaching hospital. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of vocal fold immobility and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, etiology, and side of vocal fold immobility, i.e., right, left, or bilateral. Overall incidence of vocal fold immobility was 5.6% (81 of 1452 patients), including 47 males (mean age 55.7 yr) and 34 females (mean age 59.7 yr). In the subgroup of patients with vocal fold immobility, 31% (25 of 81) exhibited unilateral right, 60% (49 of 81) unilateral left, and 9% (7 of 81) bilateral impairment. Overall incidence of aspiration was found to be 29% (426 of 1452) of all patients referred for a swallow evaluation. Aspiration was observed in 44% (36 of 81) of patients presenting with vocal fold immobility, i.e., 44% (11 of 25) unilateral right, 43% (21 of 49) unilateral left, and 57% (4 of 7) bilateral vocal fold immobility. Left vocal fold immobility occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. A liquid bolus was aspirated more often than a puree bolus. Side of vocal fold immobility and age were not factors that increased incidence of aspiration. In conclusion, vocal fold immobility, with an incidence of 5.6%, is not an uncommon finding in patients referred for a dysphagia evaluation in the acute-care setting, and vocal fold immobility, when present, was associated with a 15% increased incidence of aspiration when compared with a population already being evaluated for dysphagia.

  7. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  9. Word learning mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Arunachalam, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms. We review some of these mechanisms to examine the relationship between the input that is available to learners and learners' intake of that input-that is, the organized, interpreted, and stored representations they form. We discuss how learners segment individual words from the speech stream and identify their grammatical categories, how they identify the concepts denoted by these words, and how they refine their initial representations of word meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1435. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1435 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Psychology > Language. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cross-sample validation provides enhanced proteome coverage in rat vocal fold mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan V Welham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The vocal fold mucosa is a biomechanically unique tissue comprised of a densely cellular epithelium, superficial to an extracellular matrix (ECM-rich lamina propria. Such ECM-rich tissues are challenging to analyze using proteomic assays, primarily due to extensive crosslinking and glycosylation of the majority of high M(r ECM proteins. In this study, we implemented an LC-MS/MS-based strategy to characterize the rat vocal fold mucosa proteome. Our sample preparation protocol successfully solubilized both proteins and certain high M(r glycoconjugates and resulted in the identification of hundreds of mucosal proteins. A straightforward approach to the treatment of protein identifications attributed to single peptide hits allowed the retention of potentially important low abundance identifications (validated by a cross-sample match and de novo interpretation of relevant spectra while still eliminating potentially spurious identifications (global single peptide hits with no cross-sample match. The resulting vocal fold mucosa proteome was characterized by a wide range of cellular and extracellular proteins spanning 12 functional categories.

  11. Relative speed of processing determines color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2017-10-01

    In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses. For Experiment 2, participants switched to vocal responding, in which reading words is considerably faster than naming colors, and we obtained a contingency-learning effect only for color naming, the slower dimension. In Experiment 3, previewing the color information resulted in a reduced contingency-learning effect for color naming, but it enhanced the contingency-learning effect for word reading. These results are all consistent with contingency learning influencing performance only when the nominally irrelevant feature is faster to process than the relevant feature, and therefore are entirely in accord with a relative-speed-of-processing explanation.

  12. Reproduction of mouse-pup ultrasonic vocalizations by nanocrystalline silicon thermoacoustic emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Takashi; Harada, Toshihiro; Kato, Masahiro; Nakano, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Osamu; Kikusui, Takefumi; Koshida, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    As one of the functional properties of ultrasound generator based on efficient thermal transfer at the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) layer surface, its potential as an ultrasonic simulator of vocalization signals is demonstrated by using the acoustic data of mouse-pup calls. The device composed of a surface-heating thin-film electrode, an nc-Si layer, and a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, exhibits an almost completely flat frequency response over a wide range without any mechanical surface vibration systems. It is shown that the fabricated emitter can reproduce digitally recorded ultrasonic mouse-pups vocalizations very accurately in terms of the call duration, frequency dispersion, and sound pressure level. The thermoacoustic nc-Si device provides a powerful physical means for the understanding of ultrasonic communication mechanisms in various living animals.

  13. Low frequency mechanical resonance of the vocal tract in vocal exercises that apply tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jaromír; Radolf, Vojtěch; Laukkanen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, August (2017), s. 39-49 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01246S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * vocal tract acoustics * phonation into tubes * water resistance voice therapy * bubbling frequency * formant frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2016

  14. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction with a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gabriel E.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E.; Zañartu, Matías

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method: A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is…

  15. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  16. BASIC APPROACHES TO THE ORGANIZATION OF PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION IN SCHOOL VOCAL CHOIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Kuzmenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basic approaches to the school music teacher’s creative and educational interaction with vocal and choral group. The significance of singing in the national artistic culture of Ukraine is singled out. Students’ practical work on study singing is generalized, it allows to form a vocal and choral musical education system that recreates the natural child’s sound and provides euphonious cantilena voice sounding and availability of mastering this kind of activity. The author also singles out some components such as orientation (it involves goals, content, tasks, volume of learning information; competence one (it is defined as musical and educational complex which includes the high level of knowledge, skills in sound production and psychological peculiarities of learning children of different ages to sing; communication one (it is the process of teacher and pupils’ interaction with the help of different communication means, sharing learning information and its discussion using different technical tools; executive one ( it provides the level of students’ performance skills and creative interpretation of vocal and choral works. The main attention is paid to proper planning and practices at school music lessons, rehearsals, vocal choirs, ensembles, presentations, concerts. It is proved that efficient using methods of achieving content filling of creative and educational interaction of the conductor with a school choral group is due to defining necessary principles that determine his experience. They include effective mastering choirmaster skills, accurate diagnostics and analysis of information and problem material, that sounds jarringly; paying attention to those imperfections which should be corrected in each case for getting positive results.

  17. Vocal cord paralysis associated with Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna

    2014-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is defined by herpes zoster oticus and peripheral facial nerve palsy which is often associated with otalgia. The syndrome is, in rare cases, associated with other cranial nerve paralyses including the vagal nerve causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Vocal cord paralysis...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  19. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  20. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  1. Assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Aubin, Thierry

    2014-08-06

    Vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. Such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. For example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. This approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, and even then may be affected by differences in syllable complexity. Using skylarks (Alauda arvensis) as a birdsong model with a very complex song structure, we detected another performance trade-off: minimum gap duration between syllables was longer when the frequency ratio between the end of one syllable and the start of the next syllable (inter-syllable frequency shift) was large. This allowed us to apply a novel measure of vocal performance ¿ vocal gap deviation: the deviation from a lower-bound regression of gap duration on inter-syllable frequency shift. We show that skylarks increase vocal performance in an aggressive context suggesting that this trait might serve as a signal for competitive potential. We suggest using vocal gap deviation in future studies to assess vocal performance in songbird species with complex structure.

  2. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relations of Mothers' Controlling Vocalizations to Children's Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Coded maternal vocalizations during videotaped play sessions of mothers and their six- or seven-year-old children. Children's intrinsic motivation was assessed by observing children's play when they were alone in a room. Found a negative relationship between maternal controlling vocalizations and children's intrinsic motivation. (MM)

  4. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  5. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  7. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  8. Alternative measures to observe and record vocal fold vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; McCafferty, G; Coman, W; Carroll, R

    1996-01-01

    Vocal fold vibration patterns form the basis for the production of vocal sound. Over the years much effort has been spend to optimize the ways to visualize and give a description of these patterns. Before video possibilities became available the description of the patterns was Very time-consuming.

  9. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  10. Acute vocal fold hemorrhage caught on video during office exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L; Smith, Libby J

    2009-03-01

    This article presents a unique video of a laryngeal exam during which a vocal fold hemorrhage occurs. This patient had likely been suffering from intermittent vocal fold hemorrhages for the last decade due to a persistent vascular lesion and an underlying chronic cough.

  11. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  12. Words that Pop!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shirley

    1988-01-01

    To excite students' appreciation of language, comic book words--onomatopoeia--are a useful tool. Exercises and books are suggested. A list of books for adults and children is recommended, and a reproducible page is provided. (JL)

  13. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prosody and Spoken Word Recognition in Early and Late Spanish-English Bilingual Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsen, Frank R.; Dvorak, Justin D.; Deweber, Derick D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and…

  15. Decorporation: officially a word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  16. Decorporation: Officially a word

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition

  17. Decorporation: Officially a word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  18. Decorporation: Officially a word

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    1999-01-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition

  19. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head...

  20. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  1. IMPAIRED MOBILITY OF VOCAL FOLDS - etiology and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Pintarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords affects some significant aspects of a human life: breathing, swallowing and speech. The major causes for reduced mobility or even immobility are innervation damage, less often fixation of vocal cord or impaired mobility of crycoarytenoid joint. An injury of the superior or/and inferior laryngeal nerve can be a consequence of different medical procedures, tumor growth, trauma, infection, neurological disorders, radiation exposure, toxic damage, impaired circulation of the area or it is idiopathic. The symptoms are different in the case of unilateral and bilateral paresis of the vocal folds. They also depend on the cause for the impaired mobility. In the patients with unilateral vocal fold paresis, hoarseness and aspiration during swallowing are the leading symptoms. In the bilateral vocal fold paralysis, dyspnea prevails. 

  2. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  3. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M; Cutler, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in certain languages that allow stand-alone vowelless open-class words. One such language is Berber (where t is indeed a word). Berber listeners here detected words affixed to nonsense contexts with or without vowels. Length effects seen in other languages replicated in Berber, but in contrast to prior findings, word detection was not hindered by vowelless contexts. When words can be vowelless, otherwise universal constraints disfavoring vowelless words do not feature in spoken-word recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Teaching Experience and Specialty (Vocal or Instrumental) on Vocal Health Ratings of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2010-01-01

    The current study sought to determine the relationship among music teachers' length of teaching experience, specialty (vocal or instrumental), and ratings of behaviors and teaching activities related to vocal health. Participants (N = 379) were experienced (n = 208) and preservice (n = 171) music teachers, further categorized by specialty, either…

  6. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  7. Comparative analysis of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and indirect laryngoscopy for vocal assessment of a population with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Kátia; Amar, Ali; Abrahão, Marcio; Leite, Grazielle Capatto de Almeida; Köhle, Juliana; Santos, Alexandra de O; Correa, Luiz Artur Costa

    2005-01-01

    As a result of technology evolution and development, methods of voice evaluation have changed both in medical and speech and language pathology practice. To relate the results of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and medical evaluation in the diagnosis of vocal and/or laryngeal affections of the population with vocal complaint. Clinical prospective. 29 people that attended vocal health protection campaign were evaluated. They were submitted to perceptual evaluation (AFPA), acoustic analysis (AA), indirect laryngoscopy (LI) and telelaryngoscopy (TL). Correlations between medical and speech language pathology evaluation methods were established, verifying possible statistical signification with the application of Fischer Exact Test. There were statistically significant results in the correlation between AFPA and LI, AFPA and TL, LI and TL. This research study conducted in a vocal health protection campaign presented correlations between speech language pathology evaluation and perceptual evaluation and clinical evaluation, as well as between vocal affection and/or laryngeal medical exams.

  8. The influence of social, individual and linguistic factors on children's performance in tasks of reading single words aloud / A Influência de fatores sociais, individuais e lingüísticos no desempenho de crianças na leitura em voz alta de palavras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva Lúcio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates social, individual and linguistic factors in the performance of a single- word reading aloud task. A group of 1st to 4th grade school children from Belo Horizonte-MG (N = 333 read aloud 323 single words presented in a computer screen. Measures of reaction time (RT and error scores were collected. The Generalized Estimating Equations method exhibited the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme regularity effect in reading and also showed an impact on the number of categories of regularity in this effect. No social factor was important to explain the results, but their mothers' education was correlated to the error scores (in opposite direction. There was no gender effect. Other factors rather than the traditional ones were also relevant, such as the age of reading acquisition and the verbal comprehension. The work brings important theoretical issues to cognitive reading assessment in Brazil.

  9. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  10. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aissati, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the

  11. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  12. Modality dependency of familiarity ratings of Japanese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, S; Kondo, T; Kakehi, K

    1995-07-01

    Familiarity ratings for a large number of aurally and visually presented Japanese words wer measured for 11 subjects, in order to investigate the modality dependency of familiarity. The correlation coefficient between auditory and visual ratings was .808, which is lower than that observed for English words, suggesting that a substantial portion of the mental lexicon is modality dependent. It was shown that the modality dependency is greater for low-familiarity words than it is for medium- or high-familiarity words. This difference between the low- and the medium- or high-familiarity words has a relationship to orthography. That is, the dependency is larger in words consisting only of kanji, which may have multiple pronunciations and usually represent meaning, than it is in words consisting only of hiragana or katakana, which have a single pronunciation and usually do not represent meaning. These results indicate that the idiosyncratic characteristics of Japanese orthography contribute to the modality dependency.

  13. Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec Word Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lucien Serapio

    This dissertation presents a phonological description and acoustic analysis of the word prosody of Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec, which involves both a complex tone system and a default stress system. The analysis of Nieves Mixtec word prosody is complicated by a close association between morphological structure and prosodic structure, and by the interactions between word prosody and phonation type, which has both contrastive and non-contrastive roles in the phonology. I contextualize these systems within the phonology of Nieves Mixtec as a whole, within the literature on other Mixtec varieties, and within the literature on cross-linguistic prosodic typology. The literature on prosodic typology indicates that stress is necessarily defined abstractly, as structured prominence realized differently in each language. Descriptions of stress in other Mixtec varieties widely report default stress on the initial syllable of the canonical bimoraic root, though some descriptions suggest final stress or mobile stress. I first present phonological evidence---from distributional restrictions, phonological processes, and loanword adaptation---that Nieves Mixtec word prosody does involve a stress system, based on trochaic feet aligned to the root. I then present an acoustic study comparing stressed syllables to unstressed syllables, for ten potential acoustic correlates of stress. The results indicate that the acoustic correlates of stress in Nieves Mixtec include segmental duration, intensity and periodicity. Building on analyses of other Mixtec tone systems, I show that the distribution of tone and the tone processes in Nieves Mixtec support an analysis in which morae may bear H, M or L tone, where M tone is underlyingly unspecified, and each morpheme may sponsor a final +H or +L floating tone. Bimoraic roots thus host up to two linked tones and one floating tone, while monomoraic clitics host just one linked tone and one floating tone, and tonal morphemes are limited to a single

  14. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  15. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds.

  16. Vocal cord palsy: An uncommon presenting feature of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Prahlad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord palsy can have myriad causes. Unilateral vocal cord palsy is common and frequently asymptomatic. Trauma, head, neck and mediastinal tumors as well as cerebrovascular accidents have been implicated in causing unilateral vocal cord palsy. Viral neuronitis accounts for most idiopathic cases. Bilateral vocal cord palsy, on the other hand, is much less common and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies targeting the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor, has been infrequently implicated in its causation. We report here a case of bilateral vocal cord palsy developing in a 68-year-old man with no prior history of myasthenia gravis 2 months after he was operated on for diverticulitis of the large intestine. Delay in considering the diagnosis led to endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation with attendant complications. Our case adds to the existing literature implicating myasthenia gravis as an infrequent cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy. Our case is unusual as, in our patient, acute-onset respiratory distress and stridor due to bilateral vocal cord palsy was the first manifestation of a myasthenic syndrome.

  17. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  18. Social vocalizations of big brown bats vary with behavioral context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A Gadziola

    Full Text Available Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller.

  19. Vocal evaluation in teachers with or without symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Elaine L M; Martins, Regina H G

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to perform voice evaluation in teachers with and without vocal symptoms, identifying etiologic factors of dysphonia, voice symptoms, vocal qualities, and laryngeal lesions. Eighty teachers were divided into two groups: GI (without or sporadic symptoms, 40) and GII (with frequent vocal symptoms, 40). They answered a specific questionnaire, and were subject to a perceptual vocal assessment (maximum phonation time, glottal attack, resonance, coordination of breathing and voicing, pitch, and loudness), GIRBAS scale, and to videolaryngoscopy. Females were predominant in both groups, and the age range was from 36 to 50 years. Elementary teachers predominated, working in classes with 31-40 students. Voice symptoms and alterations in the perceptual vocal analysis and in the GIRBAS scale were more frequent in GII. In 46 teachers (GI-16; GII-30), videolaryngoscopy exams were abnormal with the vocal nodules being the most frequent lesions. These results indicate that a teacher's voice is compromised, and requires more attention including control of environmental factors and associated diseases, preventive vocal hygiene, periodic laryngeal examinations, and access to adequate specialist treatment.

  20. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  1. Specific features of vocal fold paralysis in functional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, H.; Serafin, Z.; Nawrocka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis is usually recognized in laryngological examination, and detailed vocal fold function may be established based on laryngovideostroboscopy. Additional imaging should exclude any morphological causes of the paresis, which should be treated pharmacologically or surgically. The aim of this paper was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) images of the larynx in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. CT examinations of the larynx were performed in 10 patients with clinically defined unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The examinations consisted of unenhanced acquisition and enhanced 3-phased acquisition: during free breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and phonation. The analysis included the following morphologic features of the paresis.the deepened epiglottic vallecula, the deepened piriform recess, the thickened and medially positioned aryepiglottic fold, the widened laryngeal pouch, the anteriorly positioned arytenoid cartilage, the thickened vocal fold, and the filled infraglottic space in frontal CT reconstruction. CT images were compared to laryngovideostroboscopy. The most common symptoms of vocal cord paralysis in CT were the deepened epiglottic vallecula and piriform recess, the widened laryngeal pouch with the filled infraglottic space, and the thickened aryepiglottic fold. Regarding the efficiency of the paralysis determination, the three functional techniques of CT larynx imaging used did not differ significantly, and laryngovideostroboscopy demonstrated its advantage over CT. CT of the larynx is a supplementary examination in the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis, which may enable topographic analysis of the fold dysfunction. The knowledge of morphological CT features of the paralysis may help to prevent false-positive diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. (author)

  2. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  3. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  4. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster ) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham ). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham ) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster ), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  5. Frustration in the pattern formation of polysyllabic words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Kazuya

    2016-12-01

    A novel frustrated system is given for the analysis of (m + 1)-syllabled vocal sounds for languages with the m-vowel system, where the varieties of vowels are assumed to be m (m > 2). The necessary and sufficient condition for observing the sound frustration is that the configuration of m vowels in an m-syllabled word has a preference for the ‘repulsive’ type, in which there is no duplication of an identical vowel. For languages that meet this requirement, no (m + 1)-syllabled word can in principle select the present type because at most m different vowels are available and consequently the duplicated use of an identical vowel is inevitable. For languages showing a preference for the ‘attractive’ type, where an identical vowel aggregates in a word, there arises no such conflict. In this paper, we first elucidate for Arabic with m = 3 how to deal with the conflicting situation, where a statistical approach based on the chi-square testing is employed. In addition to the conventional three-vowel system, analyses are made also for Russian, where a polysyllabic word contains both a stressed and an indeterminate vowel. Through the statistical analyses the selection scheme for quadrisyllabic configurations is found to be strongly dependent on the parts of speech as well as the gender of nouns. In order to emphasize the relevance to the sound model of binary oppositions, analyzed results of Greek verbs are also given.

  6. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  7. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  8. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  9. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  10. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Radiation Fibrosis of the Vocal Fold: From Man to Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michael M.; Kolachala, Vasantha; Berg, Eric; Muller, Susan; Creighton, Frances X.; Branski, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize fundamental late tissue effects in the human vocal fold following radiation therapy. To develop a murine model of radiation fibrosis to ultimately develop both treatment and prevention paradigms. Design Translational study using archived human and fresh murine irradiated vocal fold tissue. Methods 1) Irradiated vocal fold tissue from patients undergoing laryngectomy for loss of function from radiation fibrosis were identified from pathology archives. Histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and whole-genome microarray as well as real-time transcriptional analyses was performed. 2) Focused radiation to the head and neck was delivered to mice in a survival fashion. One month following radiation, vocal fold tissue was analyzed with histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR transcriptional analysis for selected markers of fibrosis. Results Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrated increased collagen transcription with increased deposition and disorganization of collagen in both the thyroarytenoid muscle and the superficial lamina propria. Fibronectin were increased in the superficial lamina propria. Laminin decreased in the thyroarytenoid muscle. Whole genome microarray analysis demonstrated increased transcription of markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glycosaminoglycan production and apoptosis. Irradiated murine vocal folds demonstrated increases in collagen and fibronectin transcription and deposition in the lamina propria. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased in the lamina propria. Conclusion Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrate molecular changes leading to fibrosis that underlie loss of vocal fold pliability that occurs in patients following laryngeal irradiation. Irradiated murine tissue demonstrates similar findings, and this mouse model may have utility in creating prevention and treatment strategies for vocal fold radiation fibrosis. PMID:23242839

  12. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  14. AARP Word 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2011-01-01

    It's a whole new Word - make the most of it! Here's exactly what you need to know to get going with Word 2010. From firing up Word, using the spell checker, and working with templates to formatting documents, adding images, and saving your stuff, you'll get the first and last word on Word 2010 with this fun and easy mini guide. So get ready to channel your inner writer and start creating Word files that wow! Open the book and find:Tips for navigating Word with the keyboard and mouseAdvice on using the RibbonHow to edit text and undo mistakesThings to know

  15. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  16. Comment on "Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s.

  17. Endoscopic vocal fold injection using a 25-gauge butterfly needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M A; Riffat, F; Palme, C E

    2016-04-01

    To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure. This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth. This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed. This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.

  18. Using Serial and Discrete Digit Naming to Unravel Word Reading Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Protopapas, Athanassios; Georgiou, George K

    2018-01-01

    During reading acquisition, word recognition is assumed to undergo a developmental shift from slow serial/sublexical processing of letter strings to fast parallel processing of whole word forms. This shift has been proposed to be detected by examining the size of the relationship between serial- and discrete-trial versions of word reading and rapid naming tasks. Specifically, a strong association between serial naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed serially, whereas a strong association between discrete naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed in parallel as wholes. In this study, 429 Grade 1, 3, and 5 English-speaking Canadian children were tested on serial and discrete digit naming and word reading. Across grades, single word reading was more strongly associated with discrete naming than with serial naming of digits, indicating that short high-frequency words are processed as whole units early in the development of reading ability in English. In contrast, serial naming was not a unique predictor of single word reading across grades, suggesting that within-word sequential processing was not required for the successful recognition for this set of words. Factor mixture analysis revealed that our participants could be clustered into two classes, namely beginning and more advanced readers. Serial naming uniquely predicted single word reading only among the first class of readers, indicating that novice readers rely on a serial strategy to decode words. Yet, a considerable proportion of Grade 1 students were assigned to the second class, evidently being able to process short high-frequency words as unitized symbols. We consider these findings together with those from previous studies to challenge the hypothesis of a binary distinction between serial/sublexical and parallel/lexical processing in word reading. We argue instead that sequential processing in word reading operates on a continuum

  19. A Foxp2 mutation implicated in human speech deficits alters sequencing of ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Chabout

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of proficient spoken language skills is disrupted by mutations of the FOXP2 transcription factor. A heterozygous missense mutation in the KE family causes speech apraxia, involving difficulty producing words with complex learned sequences of syllables. Manipulations in songbirds have helped to elucidate the role of this gene in vocal learning, but findings in non-human mammals have been limited or inconclusive. Here we performed a systematic study of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs of adult male mice carrying the KE family mutation. Using novel statistical tools, we found that Foxp2 heterozygous mice did not have detectable changes in USV syllable acoustic structure, but produced shorter sequences and did not shift to more complex syntax in social contexts where wildtype animals did. Heterozygous mice also displayed a shift in the position of their rudimentary laryngeal motor cortex layer-5 neurons. Our findings indicate that although mouse USVs are mostly innate, the underlying contributions of FoxP2 to sequencing of vocalizations are conserved with humans.

  20. Cultural Image of Animal Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海燕

    2017-01-01

    This paper,after introducing the definition and forms of cultural image,focuses on the detailed comparison and analysis of cultural image of animal words both in English and in Chinese from four aspects,that is,same animal word,same cultural image;same animal word,different cultural images;different animal words,same cultural image;different animal words,different cultural images.

  1. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelou Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group. We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments.

  2. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  3. Voz e posição de prega vocal em homens com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal Voice and vocal fold position in men with unilateral vocal fold paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O posicionamento da prega vocal paralisada e o grau de disfonia são fatores importantes para decidir as opções de tratamento na paralisia de prega vocal unilateral (PPVU. OBJETIVO: Verificar as características perceptivo-auditivas da voz e a posição da prega vocal paralisada, em homens, com PPVU. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, coorte histórica, com corte transversal, com dados de 24 homens com PPVU, com média de 60,7 anos, submetidos à avaliação vocal perceptivo-auditiva da voz, por três juízas fonoaudiólogas e perceptivo-visual das imagens laríngeas, com a classificação da posição da prega vocal paralisada, por três juízes otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: A prega vocal paralisada em posição paramediana ocorreu em 45,83% dos casos; a intermediária, em 25%; a lateral, em 20,83%, e a mediana, em 4,16%; a disfonia resultante da PPVU foi caracterizada pela rouquidão, aspereza e tensão, de grau moderado; soprosidade (maior frequência do grau grave; astenia e instabilidade (maior frequência do grau leve; a posição da prega vocal paralisada influenciou significativamente o grau geral de desvio vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O grau geral de disfonia está relacionado com a posição da prega vocal paralisada; a disfonia é caracterizada pela presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, aspereza e tensão de grau moderado a grave.The paralyzed vocal fold positioning and the degree of dysphonia are important inputs when one is deciding upon treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP. OBJECTIVE: To check voice characteristics and paralyzed vocal fold position in men with UVFP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective historical cross-sectional cohort study, with data from 24 men with UVFP with mean age of 60.7 years, submitted to voice assessment by three speech therapists and three ENT physicians used laryngeal images to classify the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. RESULTS: The paralyzed vocal fold

  4. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Snell

    Full Text Available A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1. In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms. Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  5. Wording in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  6. Wording in International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, the scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  7. A Life in Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  8. Have Words, Will Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  9. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  10. Getting the Word Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandou, Julian R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests public relations strategies which science educators can adopt to spread the word about the importance of good science teaching. These include preparing a fact sheet summarizing a project/course/organization, tips on creating a newsworthy event (awards, displays at a mall, and others), and what to submit to the news media. (Author/JN)

  11. Word Problem Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  12. When internal communication becomes multi-vocal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory case study of communication on internal social media within the Danish bank, Jyske Bank. The study involved an analysis of staff interaction on internal social media over three months, as well as interviews with 17 of the bank......’s employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers...... are likely to converse about how to solve product and customer-related challenges, and to discuss working conditions. In addition, this study shows that coworkers co-construct organizational identity when they discuss questions such as: Who are we as an organization? Which products should we provide...

  13. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  14. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma.

  15. Memory for vocal tempo and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending. Experiment 2 examined the ability to recognise pitch or tempo when the two dimensions co-varied and found that the presence of one influenced the other: performance was best when both dimensions were positively correlated with one another. As a set, these findings indicate that pitch and tempo are automatically processed in a holistic, integral fashion [Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.] which has a number of cognitive implications.

  16. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  17. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  18. Differentiating vocal cord dysfunction from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretzayas A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Fretzayas,1,2 Maria Moustaki,3 Ioanna Loukou,3 Konstantinos Douros4 1Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece; 2Athens Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Marousi, Greece; 3Department of Cystic Fibrosis, “Aghia Sofia”, Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece; 4Respiratory Unit, Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece Abstract: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD-associated symptoms are not rare in pediatric patients. Dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, chest pain or tightness and throat discomfort are the most commonly encountered symptoms. They may occur either at rest or more commonly during exercise in patients with VCD, as well as in asthmatic subjects. The phase of respiration (inspiration rather than expiration, the location of the wheezing origin, the rapid resolution of symptoms, and the timing occurring in relation to exercise, when VCD is exercise induced, raise the suspicion of VCD in patients who may have been characterized as merely asthmatics and, most importantly, had not responded to the appropriate treatment. The gold standard method for the diagnosis of VCD is fiberoptic laryngoscopy, which may also identify concomitant laryngeal abnormalities other than VCD. However, as VCD is an intermittent phenomenon, the procedure should be performed while the patient is symptomatic. For this reason, challenges that induce VCD symptoms should be performed, such as exercise tests. Recently, for the evaluation of patients with exercise-induced VCD, continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (such as treadmill, bicycle ergometer, swimming was used. A definite diagnosis of VCD is of importance, especially for those patients who have been erroneously characterized as asthmatics, without adequate response to treatment. In these cases, another therapeutic approach is necessary, which will depend on

  19. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  20. Severe motor and vocal tics controlled with Sativex®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, David; Evans, Lois; Bird, Rupert

    2016-12-01

    A single case report on cannabinoid treatment for treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS). Our subject received 10.8 mg Tetrahydocannabinol and 10 mg cannabidiol daily, in the form of two oro-mucosal sprays of 'Sativex ® ', twice daily. Assessment was pre-treatment and at week one, two, and four during treatment. He completed the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale as a subjective measure, and was videoed at each stage. The videos were objectively rated by two assessors, blind to the stage of treatment, using the Original Rush Videotape Rating Scale. Both subjective and objective measures demonstrated marked improvement in the frequency and severity of motor and vocal tics post-treatment. There was good interrater reliability of results. Our results support previous research suggesting that cannabinoids are a safe and effective treatment for TS and should be considered in treatment-resistant cases. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. Vocal pedagogy and contemporary commercial music : reflections on higher education non-classical vocal pedagogy in the United States and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Anu Katri

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the discipline of higher education contemporary commercial music (CCM) vocal pedagogy through the experiences of two vocal pedagogy teachers, the other in the USA and the other in Finland. The aim of this study has been to find out how the discipline presently looks from a vocal pedagogy teacher's viewpoint, what has the process of building higher education CCM vocal pedagogy courses been like, and where is the field headed. The discussion on CCM pedagogy, also kn...

  2. SOME METHODIC ASPECTS OF VOCAL RESPIRATION WITHIN ACADEMIC SINGING TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGA LUDMILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author’s reflections on the methodical problems of vocal respiration treated by Ludmila Aga as one of the essential elements of vocal technique. Based on her own rich experience as opera soloist and vocal teacher, the author reviews some theoretical principles which treat this problem. Besides, L. Aga proposes some helpful exercises for developing vocal respiration abilities. The article combines data from physiology, history and the theory of performing arts, methods of singing. Having an applied character, this work might be helpful for the singing teachers from the colleges and higher instituti­ons of music proile, as well as for the students of the Academic Singing Department.

  3. Trends in Utilization of Vocal Fold Injection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E

    2015-11-01

    Office-based vocal fold injections have become increasingly popular over the past 15 years. Examination of trends in procedure coding for vocal fold injections in the United States from 2000 to 2012 was undertaken to see if they reflect this shift. The US Part B Medicare claims database was queried from 2000 through 2012 for multiple Current Procedural Terminology codes. Over the period studied, the number of nonoperative laryngoscopic injections (31513, 31570) and operative medialization laryngoplasties (31588) remained constant. Operative vocal fold injection (31571) demonstrated marked linear growth over the 12-year study period, from 744 procedures in 2000 to 4788 in 2012-an increase >640%. The dramatic increased incidence in the use of code 31571 reflects an increasing share of vocal fold injections being performed in the operating room and not in an office setting, running counter to the prevailing trend toward awake, office-based injection procedures. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. Phonosurgery of the vocal folds : a classification proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remacle, M; Friedrich, G; Dikkers, FG; de Jong, F

    The Phonosurgery Committee of the European Laryngological Society (ELS) has examined the definition and technical description of phonosurgical procedures. Based on this review, the committee has proposed a working classification. The current presentation is restricted to vocal fold surgery (VFS)

  5. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  6. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  7. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  8. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  9. Cervical osteophytes presenting as unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskovitch, A; Kantor, S

    2001-05-01

    Any process involving either the vagus nerve, its recurrent laryngeal branch or the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve may cause paralysis of the vocal fold. The most common cause is neoplasm. Clinically, the patients often present with a hoarse, breathy voice as well as symptoms of aspiration. The following represents a unique case of unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia caused by a degenerative disease of the cervical spine, resluting in extrinsic compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  10. Time course of recovery of idiopathic vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Solomon; Sadoughi, Babak; Mor, Niv; Levin, Ariana M; Sulica, Lucian

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time course of recovery in patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis. Retrospective chart review. Medical records for all patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis over a 10-year period were reviewed to obtain demographic and clinical information, including onset of disease and recovery of vocal function. Stroboscopic exams of patients who recovered voice were reviewed blindly to assess return of vocal fold motion. Thirty-eight of 55 patients (69%) recovered vocal function. Time course of recovery could be assessed in 34 patients who did not undergo injection augmentation. The mean time to recovery was 152.8 ± 109.3 days (left, 179.8 ± 111.3 days; right, 105.3 ± 93.7 days; P = .088). Two-thirds of patients recovered within 6 months. Probability of recovery declined over time. Five of 22 patients who recovered voice had return of vocal fold motion; 17 did not. The mean time to recovery did not differ between these groups (return of motion, 127.4 ± 132.3 days; no return of motion, 160.1 ± 105.1 days; P = .290). Sixty-nine percent of patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis recovered vocal function, two-thirds doing so within 6 months of onset. Age, gender, laterality, use of injection augmentation did not influence recovery rate. Declining probability of recovery over time leads us to consider framework surgery after 6 months in patients with idiopathic paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:148-152, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Social Ultrasonic Vocalization in Awake Head-Restrained Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Benjamin; Hertz, Stav; Perets, Nisim; London, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats, and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding, and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM) to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM) and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in a free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM) and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter-syllable interval distribution, and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing the vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have a higher proportion of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  12. Long-term Effect of Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem®) in Spasmodic Dysphonia with Vocal Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) are usually managed successfully with botulinum toxin injections. Vocal tremor (VT), which accompanies SD, has a poor response to this treatment. Case Report We report a case of a female with SD and VT who became symptom-free for 10 months after the intake of a single dose of sodium oxybate (Xyrem®). The long-term treatment effect correlated with attenuated brain activity in the key regions of dystonic brain network. Discussion Our case demonstrates that the novel treatment of sodium oxybate may hold promise for SD patients, especially those who have associated VT. PMID:24386608

  13. Long-Term Effect of Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem® in Spasmodic Dysphonia with Vocal Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Simonyan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptoms of spasmodic dysphonia (SD are usually managed successfully with botulinum toxin injections. Vocal tremor (VT, which accompanies SD, has a poor response to this treatment.Case Report: We report a case of a female with SD and VT who became symptom‐free for 10 months after the intake of a single dose of sodium oxybate (Xyrem®. The long‐term treatment effect correlated with attenuated brain activity in the key regions of dystonic brain network. Discussion: Our case demonstrates that the novel treatment of sodium oxybate may hold promise for SD patients, especially those who have associated VT.

  14. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy B Sirotin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5-10 Hz. During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, ’50 kHz’ were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5−10 Hz and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1-4 Hz. Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations.

  15. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  16. Distress vocalization sequences broadcasted by bats carry redundant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechavarría, Julio C; Beetz, M Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Distress vocalizations (also known as alarm or screams) are an important component of the vocal repertoire of a number of animal species, including bats, humans, monkeys and birds, among others. Although the behavioral relevance of distress vocalizations is undeniable, at present, little is known about the rules that govern vocalization production when in alarmful situations. In this article, we show that when distressed, bats of the species Carollia perspicillata produce repetitive vocalization sequences in which consecutive syllables are likely to be similar to one another regarding their physical attributes. The uttered distress syllables are broadband (12-73 kHz) with most of their energy focussing at 23 kHz. Distress syllables are short (~4 ms), their average sound pressure level is close to 70 dB SPL, and they are produced at high repetition rates (every 14 ms). We discuss that, because of their physical attributes, bat distress vocalizations could serve a dual purpose: (1) advertising threatful situations to conspecifics, and (2) informing the threatener that the bats are ready to defend themselves. We also discuss possible advantages of advertising danger/discomfort using repetitive utterances, a calling strategy that appears to be ubiquitous across the animal kingdom.

  17. Recurrence of vocal fold leukoplakia after carbon dioxide laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Haitao

    2017-09-01

    This work aims to analyze the recurrence of vocal fold leukoplakia after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser resection. In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing CO 2 laser resection of vocal fold leukoplakia were followed up for at least 2 years. Recurrence was diagnosed as any presence of leukoplakia in the vocal cord subsequent to previous successful complete resection. A total of 326 patients with complete resection of vocal fold leukoplakia and follow-up subsequent surveillance laryngoscopy were studied. The recurrence rate, the recurrence time, and risk factors were evaluated. Of these, 52 (16.0%) patients experienced recurrence with a mean follow-up time of 50.5 ± 15.4 months. The mean time to recurrence was 16.2 ± 14.1 months. Univariate analysis showed that the size of lesion (P vocal fold leukoplakia, long-term follow-up is required after CO 2 laser resection. In conclusion, the size of lesion combined with the pathological grade are important risk factors that predict vocal fold leukoplakia recurrence.

  18. Idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Alciato, L; Slaïm, L; Bonfils, P; Laccourreye, O

    2018-02-02

    To analyze the characteristics of adult idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis. Retrospective study of diagnostic problems, clinical data and recovery in an inception cohort of 100 adult patients with idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group A) and comparison with a cohort of 211 patients with isolated non-idiopathic non-traumatic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group B). Diagnostic problems were noted in 24% of cases in Group A: eight patients with concomitant common upper aerodigestive tract infection, five patients with a concomitant condition liable to induce immunodepression and 11 patients in whom a malignant tumor occurred along the path of the ipsilateral vagus and inferior laryngeal nerves or in the ipsilateral paralyzed larynx. There was no recovery of vocal-fold motion beyond 51 months after onset of paralysis. The 5-year actuarial estimate for recovery differed significantly (Pvocal-fold paralysis. In non-traumatic vocal-fold paralysis in adult patients, without recovery of vocal-fold motion, a minimum three years' regular follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocal cord paralysis due to extralaryngeal causes : evaluation with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik; Cho, Jae Min; Han, Boo Kyung; Son, Young Ik; Baek, Chung Whan

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the use of CT in patients with vocal cord paralysis due to extralaryngeal causes, and to use CT for the assessment of extralaryngeal diseases causing vocal cord paralysis. We prospectively studied the results of CT in 41 patients with vocal cord paralysis in whom laryngoscopy revealed no laryngeal cause and physical examination demonstrated no definite extralaryngeal cause. The extralaryngeal cause of vocal cord palsy was determined after comprehensive clinical diagnosis. Enhanced CT scans were acquired from the skull base and continued to the level of the aorticopulmonary window. We used CT to assess the detection rate for extralaryngeal causes and to extimate the extent of extralaryngeal disease and the distribution of lesions. CT revealed that in 20 of 41 patients(49%) the extralarygeal causes of vocal paralysis were as follows : thyroid cancer(n=10), nodal disease(n=6), esophageal cancer(n=2), neurogenic tumor(n=1), aortic aneurysm(n=1). Lesions were located on the left side in 13 patients(65%), and in the tracheoesophageal groove in 15(75%). In patients with vocal cord paralysis in whom no definite lesion is seen on physical examination , CT could be a useful primary imaging method for the assessment of extralaryngeal causes

  1. The vocal quality in female student teachers during the 3 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Claeys, S; Dhaeseleer, E; Deley, S; Derde, K; Herregods, I; Strybol, I; Wuyts, F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the objective vocal quality and the vocal characteristics (vocal risk factors, vocal and corporal complaints) in 143 female student teachers during the 3 years of study. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Perceptual voice assessment, the Voice Handicap Index, questionnaires addressing vocal risks, and vocal and corporal complaints during and/or after voice usage were performed. Student teachers have a normal perceptual and objective vocal quality corresponding with a DSI% of 76. The analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement of the vocal quality between the first and the third year of study. No psychosocial handicapping effect of the voice was observed, though there are some vocal complaints and almost all student teachers reported the presence of corporal pain during and/or after speaking. Especially sore throat and headache were mentioned as the most present corporal pain symptoms. Due to the decreased awareness and the multifactorial genesis of the potential vocal risk factors, the student teachers are at risk for developing an occupational dysphonia during their teaching career. Because teaching is a high-risk profession for the development of voice problems, the incorporation of a direct vocal training technique to increase vocal endurance during teaching together with a vocal hygiene program, dietetics, and a stress management training program during the 3 years of study is needed to prevent occupational dysphonia. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  3. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  4. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I...Acsorbento, Cartone, Celluloee, Compiti, Disegno, !)o- cuwe-m~to, Gnibinetto, Gihills, Goinma, Lete, Licer~ .a, l!ateri.Ble, Notp, Penna, Problema ...Ostiflato, flifatto, Ruvido, Seno, Somaro, Studio, Tavolo FACILITA’( 42,31) 36 Difficolth 7 Difficile, Semplicit~. 5 Problema 2 Grande, Impossibile

  5. Role of syllable segmentation processes in peripheral word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Calabrèse, Aurélie; Castet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies of foveal visual word recognition provide evidence for a low-level syllable decomposition mechanism occurring during the recognition of a word. We investigated if such a decomposition mechanism also exists in peripheral word recognition. Single words were visually presented to subjects in the peripheral field using a 6° square gaze-contingent simulated central scotoma. In the first experiment, words were either unicolor or had their adjacent syllables segmented with two different colors (color/syllable congruent condition). Reaction times for correct word identification were measured for the two different conditions and for two different print sizes. Results show a significant decrease in reaction time for the color/syllable congruent condition compared with the unicolor condition. A second experiment suggests that this effect is specific to syllable decomposition and results from strategic, presumably involving attentional factors, rather than stimulus-driven control.

  6. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  7. Effects of providing word sounds during printed word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P.; Dongen, van A.J.N.; Custers, E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the availability of the spoken sound of words along with the printed forms during reading practice. Firstgrade children from two normal elementary schools practised reading several unfamiliar words in print. For half of the printed words the

  8. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Do Talkativeness and Vocal Loudness Correlate With Laryngeal Pathology? A Study of the Vocal Overdoer/Underdoer Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Robert W; Thomas, James P

    2016-09-01

    Assess the correlation between self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness with various types of voice disorders. This is a retrospective study. A total of 974 patients were analyzed. The cohort study included 430 consecutive patients presenting to the senior author with voice complaints from December 1995 to December 1998. The case-control study added 544 consecutive patients referred to the same examiner from January 1988 to December 1998 for vocal fold examination before thyroid, parathyroid, and carotid surgery. Patient responses on seven-point Likert self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness were compared with laryngeal disease. Mucosal lesions clearly associated with vibratory trauma are strongly associated with a high self-rating of talkativeness. Laryngeal deconditioning disorders were associated with a low self-rating of talkativeness. Use of a simple self-rating scale of vocal loudness and talkativeness during history taking can reliably orient the examiner to the types of voice disorders likely to be diagnosed subsequently during vocal capability testing and visual laryngeal examination. The high degree of talkativeness and loudness seen in vocal overdoers correlates well with mucosal disorders such as nodules, polyps, capillary ectasia, epidermoid inclusion cysts, and hemorrhage. A lower degree of talkativeness correlates with muscle deconditioning disorders such as vocal fold bowing, atrophy, presbyphonia, and vocal fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project: a study of vocal demands and vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly L

    2012-09-01

    The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  12. A new measure of child vocal reciprocity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Amy L; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Tapp, Jon; Wade, Joshua W; Warlaumont, Anne S; Yoder, Paul J

    2018-03-06

    Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure. The first used simulated vocal samples with randomly sequenced child and adult vocalizations to test the accuracy of the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity. The second was an empirical study of 21 children with ASD who were preverbal or in the early stages of language development. Daylong vocal samples collected in the natural environment were computer analyzed to derive the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity, which was highly stable when derived from two daylong vocal samples and was associated with speechlikeness of vocal communication. This association was significant even when controlling for chance probability of child vocalizations to adult vocal responses, probability of adult vocalizations, or probability of child vocalizations. A valid measure of children's vocal reciprocity might eventually improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A link to a free, publicly-available software program to derive the new measure of child vocal reciprocity is provided. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children and adults often engage in back-and-forth vocal exchanges. The extent to which they do so is believed to support children's early speech and language development. Two studies tested a new measure of child vocal reciprocity using computer-generated and real

  13. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  14. 1100 words you must know

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberg, Murray

    2018-01-01

    A Barron's best-seller for more than four decades! This brand-new edition has been expanded and updated with word lists and definitions, analogy exercises, words-in-context exercises, idiom indexes, a pronunciation guide, and more. It's the ideal way to strengthen word power!.

  15. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  16. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  17. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  18. Visual half-field presentations of incongruent color words: effects of gender and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, M; Hugdahl, K

    1986-09-01

    Right-handed (dextral) and left-handed (sinistral) males and females (N = 15) were compared for language lateralization in a visual half-field (VHF) incongruent color-words paradigm. The paradigm consists of repeated brief (less than 200 msec) presentations of color-words written in an incongruent color. Presentations are either to the right or to the left of center fixation. The task of the subject is to report the color the word is written in on each trial, ignoring the color-word. Color-bars and congruent color-words were used as control stimuli. Vocal reaction time (VRT) and error frequency were used as dependent measures. The logic behind the paradigm is that incongruent color-words should lead to a greater cognitive conflict when presented in the half-field contralateral to the dominant hemisphere. The results showed significantly longer VRTs in the right half-field for the dextral subjects. Furthermore, significantly more errors were observed in the male dextral group when the incongruent stimuli were presented in the right half-field. There was a similar trend in the data for the sinistral males. No differences between half-fields were observed for the female groups. It is concluded that the present results strengthen previous findings from our laboratory (Hugdahl and Franzon, 1985) that the incongruent color-words paradigm is a useful non-invasive technique for the study of lateralization in the intact brain.

  19. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  20. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vampola T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two 3D finite element (FE models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed by exciting the models with acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display the cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. The formants F1–F3 correspond to classical vibration modes also solvable by 1D vocal tract model. However, for higher formants, there occur more complicated transversal modes which require 3D modelling. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses and valleculae. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region being the most effective. The higher formants created a clear formant cluster around 4 kHz after the vocal exercise with the tube. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4–F5 is effective for communication. The results suggest that exercising using phonation into tubes help in improving the vocal economy.

  1. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  2. Is voice therapy effective for the treatment of dysphonic patients with benign vocal fold lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Inohara, Hidenori

    2017-08-22

    To update our knowledge regarding the effectiveness of voice therapy for the treatment of vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions, including vocal polyps, nodules and cysts, and for determining the utility of voice therapy in treating organic voice disorders, while highlighting problems for the future development of this clinical field. We conducted a review of the most recent literature on the therapeutic effects of voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or direct vocal training on vocal quality, the lesion appearance and discomfort felt by patients due to the clinical entity of benign vocal fold mass lesions. Although voice therapy is principally indicated for the treatment of functional dysphonia without any organic abnormalities in the vocal folds, a number of clinicians have attempted to perform voice therapy even in dysphonic patients with benign mass lesions in the vocal folds. The two major possible reasons for the effectiveness of voice therapy on vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions are hypothesized to be the regression of lesions and the correction of excessive/inappropriate muscle contraction of the phonatory organs. According to the current literature, a substantial proportion of vocal polyps certainly tend to shrink after voice therapy, but whether or not the regression results from voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or a natural cure is unclear at present due to the lack of controlled studies comparing two groups with and without interventions. Regarding vocal nodules, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of voice therapy using proper experimental methodology. Vocal cysts are difficult to cure by voice therapy without surgical excision according to previous studies. Evidences remains insufficient to support the use of voice therapy against benign vocal fold lesions. Evidences at present is therefore still insufficient to support the use of voice therapy for the treatment of benign vocal fold

  3. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  4. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  5. Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Vocal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for automatic music transcription applied to audio recordings of a cappella performances with multiple singers. We propose a system for multi-pitch detection and voice assignment that integrates an acoustic and a music language model. The acoustic model performs spectrogram decomposition, extending probabilistic latent component analysis (PLCA using a six-dimensional dictionary with pre-extracted log-spectral templates. The music language model performs voice separation and assignment using hidden Markov models that apply musicological assumptions. By integrating the two models, the system is able to detect multiple concurrent pitches in polyphonic vocal music and assign each detected pitch to a specific voice type such as soprano, alto, tenor or bass (SATB. We compare our system against multiple baselines, achieving state-of-the-art results for both multi-pitch detection and voice assignment on a dataset of Bach chorales and another of barbershop quartets. We also present an additional evaluation of our system using varied pitch tolerance levels to investigate its performance at 20-cent pitch resolution.

  6. Facial biases on vocal perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-06-01

    Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ins-Robust Primitive Words

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh

    2017-01-01

    Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...

  8. Recognizing vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese: a validated database of Chinese vocal emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Pell, Marc D

    2012-12-01

    To establish a valid database of vocal emotional stimuli in Mandarin Chinese, a set of Chinese pseudosentences (i.e., semantically meaningless sentences that resembled real Chinese) were produced by four native Mandarin speakers to express seven emotional meanings: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, pleasant surprise, and neutrality. These expressions were identified by a group of native Mandarin listeners in a seven-alternative forced choice task, and items reaching a recognition rate of at least three times chance performance in the seven-choice task were selected as a valid database and then subjected to acoustic analysis. The results demonstrated expected variations in both perceptual and acoustic patterns of the seven vocal emotions in Mandarin. For instance, fear, anger, sadness, and neutrality were associated with relatively high recognition, whereas happiness, disgust, and pleasant surprise were recognized less accurately. Acoustically, anger and pleasant surprise exhibited relatively high mean f0 values and large variation in f0 and amplitude; in contrast, sadness, disgust, fear, and neutrality exhibited relatively low mean f0 values and small amplitude variations, and happiness exhibited a moderate mean f0 value and f0 variation. Emotional expressions varied systematically in speech rate and harmonics-to-noise ratio values as well. This validated database is available to the research community and will contribute to future studies of emotional prosody for a number of purposes. To access the database, please contact pan.liu@mail.mcgill.ca.

  9. Arytenoid and posterior vocal fold surgery for bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, VyVy N; Rosen, Clark A

    2011-12-01

    Many procedures exist to address the airway restriction often seen with bilateral vocal fold immobility. We review the most recent studies involving arytenoid and/or posterior vocal fold surgery to provide an update on the issues related to these procedures. Specific focus is placed on selection of the surgical approach and operative side, use of adjunctive therapies, and outcome measures including decannulation rate, revision and complication rate, and postoperative results. Ten studies were identified between 2004 and 2011. Modifications to the orginal transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy techniques continue to be investigated to seek improvement in dyspnea symptoms with minimal decline in voice and/or swallowing function. Decannulation rates for these approaches are high. Postoperative dysphagia appears to be less commonly observed but requires continued study. The use of mitomycin-C in these procedures has been poorly studied to date. Both transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy procedures result in high success rates. However, many questions related to these procedures remain unanswered, particularly with respect to preoperative and postoperative evaluations of voice quality, swallowing function, and pulmonary status. There is need for rigorous prospective clinical studies to address these many issues further.

  10. Emotion Words: Adding Face Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-06-12

    Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. English words structure, history, usage

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    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  12. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  13. Failure of operant control of vocal learning in budgerigars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Seki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Budgerigars were trained by operant conditioning to produce contact calls immediately after hearing a stimulus contact call. In Experiments 1 and 2, playback stimuli were chosen from two different contact call classes from the bird’s repertoire. Once this task was learned, the birds were then tested with other probe stimulus calls from its repertoire, which differed from the original calls drawn from the two classes. Birds failed to mimic the probe stimuli but instead produced one of the two call classes as in the training sessions, showing that birds learned that each stimulus call served as a discriminative stimulus but not as a vocal template for imitation. In Experiment 3, birds were then trained with stimulus calls falling along a 24-step acoustic gradient which varied between the two sounds representing the two contact call categories. As before, birds obtained a reward when the bird’s vocalization matched that of the stimulus above a criterion level. Since the first step and the last step in the gradient were the birds’ original contact calls, these two patterns were easily matched. Intermediate contact calls in the gradient were much harder for the birds to match. After extensive training, one bird learned to produce contact calls that had only a modest similarity to the intermediate contact calls along the gradient. In spite of remarkable vocal plasticity under natural conditions, operant conditioning methods with budgerigars, even after extensive training and rigorous control of vocal discriminative stimuli, failed to show vocal learning.

  14. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  15. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.

  16. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  17. Recovery of Vocal Fold Epithelium after Acute Phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Valenzuela, Carla V; Mizuta, Masanobu; Daniero, James J; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. This initial 24-h period was also characterized by the significant downregulation of junction proteins. Interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β1 were upregulated for 3 and 7 days, respectively, followed by an increase in epithelial cell surface depth at 3 and 7 days. These data appear to demonstrate a shift from inflammatory response to the initiation of a restorative process in the vocal fold epithelium between 24 h and 3 days. Despite the initial damage from raised-intensity phonation, the vocal fold epithelium demonstrates a remarkable capacity for the expeditious recovery of structural changes from transient episodes of acute phonotrauma. While structurally intact, the return of functional barrier integrity may be delayed by repeated episodes of phonotrauma and may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of vocal fold lesions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Acoustic correlate of vocal effort in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Tanya L; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-03-01

    This study characterized the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listeners' perceptions of vocal effort and overall spasmodic dysphonia severity in the voices of 19 individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Twenty inexperienced listeners evaluated the vocal effort and overall severity of voices using visual analog scales. The squared correlation coefficients (R2) between average vocal effort and overall severity and RFF measures were calculated as a function of the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF estimate (from 1 to 9, of a total of 9 voiced-voiceless-voiced instances). Increases in the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF average led to increases in the variance predicted by the RFF at the first cycle of voicing onset (onset RFF) in the perceptual measures; the use of 6 or more instances resulted in a stable estimate. The variance predicted by the onset RFF for vocal effort (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.43) was higher than that for overall severity (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.35). The offset RFF was not related to the perceptual measures, irrespective of the sample size. This study indicates that onset RFF measures are related to perceived vocal effort in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. These results have implications for measuring outcomes in this population.

  19. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  1. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  2. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  3. The Influence of Anticipation of Word Misrecognition on the Likelihood of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul H.; Lickley, Robin J.; Corley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the experience of stuttering can result from the speaker's anticipation of his words being misrecognized. Twelve adults who stutter (AWS) repeated single words into what appeared to be an automatic speech-recognition system. Following each iteration of each word, participants provided a self-rating of whether they…

  4. Beginners Remember Orthography when They Learn to Read Words: The Case of Doubled Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donna-Marie; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2007-01-01

    Sight word learning and memory were studied to clarify how early during development readers process visual letter patterns that are not dictated by phonology, and whether their word learning is influenced by the legality of letter patterns. Forty kindergartners and first graders were taught to read 12 words containing either single consonants…

  5. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  6. Between-Word Simplification Patterns in the Continuous Speech of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harriet B.; Liu-Shea, May

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to identify and describe between-word simplification patterns in the continuous speech of children with speech sound disorders. It was hypothesized that word combinations would reveal phonological changes that were unobserved with single words, possibly accounting for discrepancies between the intelligibility of…

  7. Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D., E-mail: berath@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, Suite 739, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.

  8. Transcervical fat injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis: an easy way to do the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadan, Hisham E M; Hussein, Wael K A; Elmaghraby, Riham M

    2017-12-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting in glottic incompetence can cause impairment of laryngeal functions, including airway protection and phonation. The objective of this study is to present an easy new technique for harvesting and injection of abdominal fat into the vocal fold for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective study of patients carried out on 16 patients suffering from unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting from different etiologies. All patients were subjected to the protocol of voice assessment pre- and postoperatively. All patients were subjected to fat injection of the paralyzed vocal fold. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and postoperative grade of voice parameters. Vocal fold injection using fat medializes a paralyzed vocal fold by increasing vocal fold volume. Fat injections are safe and easily mastered; and in the absence of the standard settings for fat harvesting and injection, it could be performed with minimal equipment that are readily available in any operating room.

  9. Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.

  10. An associative account of the development of word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M; Yim, Hyungwook; Yao, Xin; Dennis, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Word learning is a notoriously difficult induction problem because meaning is underdetermined by positive examples. How do children solve this problem? Some have argued that word learning is achieved by means of inference: young word learners rely on a number of assumptions that reduce the overall hypothesis space by favoring some meanings over others. However, these approaches have difficulty explaining how words are learned from conversations or text, without pointing or explicit instruction. In this research, we propose an associative mechanism that can account for such learning. In a series of experiments, 4-year-olds and adults were presented with sets of words that included a single nonsense word (e.g. dax). Some lists were taxonomic (i.,e., all items were members of a given category), some were associative (i.e., all items were associates of a given category, but not members), and some were mixed. Participants were asked to indicate whether the nonsense word was an animal or an artifact. Adults exhibited evidence of learning when lists consisted of either associatively or taxonomically related items. In contrast, children exhibited evidence of word learning only when lists consisted of associatively related items. These results present challenges to several extant models of word learning, and a new model based on the distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic associations is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early attentional bias for negative words when competition is induced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Shuo-Heng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Previous research (Zeelenberg, Wagenmakers, & Rotteveel, 2006) revealed that emotionally meaningful words were identified significantly better than neutral words, with no difference between positive and negative words. Since in that study only a single target word was displayed at a time, we hypothesized that the equivalent performances for positive and negative words were due to a lack of competition. To test this, in our Experiment 1, we replicated Zeelenberg and colleagues' finding, using emotion-laden Chinese words and the identical data-limited method, which measured the accuracy of a briefly shown target. We then introduced competition in Experiment 2 by simultaneously presenting two words during the target frame, and found evidence for an early attentional bias to negative words. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the bias in Experiment 2 was not due to the inevitable repetition of stimuli. Taken together, these results support our hypothesis that, in the presence of competition, negative words receive attentional priority and consequently have enhanced perceptual representations.

  12. Auditory evoked fields to vocalization during passive listening and active generation in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Deryk S; Cheyne, Douglas O; Gracco, Vincent L; Quraan, Maher A; Taylor, Margot J; De Nil, Luc F

    2010-10-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to investigate auditory evoked responses to speech vocalizations and non-speech tones in adults who do and do not stutter. Neuromagnetic field patterns were recorded as participants listened to a 1 kHz tone, playback of their own productions of the vowel /i/ and vowel-initial words, and actively generated the vowel /i/ and vowel-initial words. Activation of the auditory cortex at approximately 50 and 100 ms was observed during all tasks. A reduction in the peak amplitudes of the M50 and M100 components was observed during the active generation versus passive listening tasks dependent on the stimuli. Adults who stutter did not differ in the amount of speech-induced auditory suppression relative to fluent speakers. Adults who stutter had shorter M100 latencies for the actively generated speaking tasks in the right hemisphere relative to the left hemisphere but the fluent speakers showed similar latencies across hemispheres. During passive listening tasks, adults who stutter had longer M50 and M100 latencies than fluent speakers. The results suggest that there are timing, rather than amplitude, differences in auditory processing during speech in adults who stutter and are discussed in relation to hypotheses of auditory-motor integration breakdown in stuttering. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. APPLIED MECHANICS REVIEWS, WADEX WORD AND AUTHOR INDEX, VOLUME XVI, 1963,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Author inDEX ) an IBM 1401 prepared mechanical index, extension of KWIC. WADEX usable for browsing and searching. This second WADEX is based on 8,000 titles of APPLIED MECHANICS REVIEWS (AMR), Vol. 16, 1963, an international critical review magazine. In WADEX, titles printed fully with author names, and as many lines used as necessary (60 characters per line). WADEX entry: word in title (except forbidden word) or author’s name. Alphabetically sequenced entries printed out of context. Words are single words or hypenated word pairs or ’Tagged Words’ (TW).

  14. Vocal fold immobility and aspiration status: a direct replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Duffey, Dianne; Judson, Benjamin L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this direct replication study was to confirm the incidence of vocal fold immobility (VFI) and its relationship to pharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration. Using a single-group consecutively referred case series, a total of 2,650 participants underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing between August 2003 and December 2007. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of VFI and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, gender, etiology and pharyngeal phase bolus flow characteristics, and side of VFI (right, left, or bilateral). These data were compared to and then combined with the original study (n = 1,452) for a total of 4,102 participants. Results indicated that the incidence of VFI was 4.3% (112/2,650), i.e., 27% (31/112) unilateral right, 58% (65/112) unilateral left, and 14% (16/112) bilateral. Incidence of aspiration was 22% (580/2,650). Of those with VFI, 40% (45/112) aspirated, i.e., 42% (13/31) unilateral right, 37% (24/65) unilateral left, and 50% (8/16) bilateral. An individual with VFI had 2.50 times the odds of aspirating as someone without VFI (95% CI = 1.86-3.37). For liquid aspiration, the odds ratio (OR) = 2.41 (95% CI = 1.77-3.28), and for puree aspiration, OR = 2.08 (95% CI = 1.47-2.93). Left VFI occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. Liquid was aspirated more often than a puree. Males exhibited VFI more often than females. Side of VFI and age were not factors that increased the incidence of aspiration significantly. It was confirmed that VFI is not an uncommon finding during dysphagia testing and, when present, increased the odds of aspiration compared to a population already being evaluated for dysphagia.

  15. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny in...... with their first appearance in the juvenile repertoire. The results indicate that there is variation in the degree (in terms of the number of vocal types) of modification over time among the three processes....

  16. Vocal effectiveness of speech-language pathology students: Before and after voice use during service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Stephanie; Zieba, Dominique; van der Linde, Jeannie; van der Merwe, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist’s(SLP) vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours,poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors. Objectives: To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. Method: A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research de...

  17. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a qualidade vocal, por meio de análise computadorizada e perceptivo-auditiva, de pacientes com hipertireoidismo (grupo A e hipotireoidismo (grupo B. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres não fumantes, com idades entre 18 e 55 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da instituição, foram avaliadas após o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de hipertireoidismo ou hipotireoidismo. Os parâmetros investigados foram: tempo da doença, presença de queixa vocal, tempos máximos de fonação /a/, /s/ e /z/, freqüência fundamental (F0, ruído glótico (GNE. Os aspectos avaliados na análise perceptivo-auditiva, foram: coordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória (coordenada ou incoordenada, pitch, loudness, ataque vocal, ressonância, velocidade de fala e qualidade vocal, que poderia ter até duas das seguintes classificações: neutra, rouca, soprosa, áspera ou tensa, e grau: leve, moderado ou severo. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do programa EPI-INFO 6.04b, método qualitativo Fisher, com nível de significância menor do que 0.05. RESULTADOS: A análise perceptivo-auditiva mostrou que sete pacientes hipotireoideos e nove pacientes hipertireoideos apresentaram alteração na qualidade vocal. Oito pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentaram incoordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória. Oito pacientes do grupo A e seis pacientes do grupo B referiam queixas vocais como rouquidão e voz grossa, respectivamente. Na análise acústica, nove pacientes apresentaram o ruído glótico alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciaram grande incidência de alteração vocal nos grupos estudados (grupos dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo e com hipotireoidismo, o que demonstra a relação entre disfonia e disfunções tireoideanas.PURPOSE: To characterize the vocal quality of subjects with hyperthyroidism (group A, and hypothyroidism (group B through a computer-aided and auditory-perceptive analysis. METHODS

  18. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  19. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  20. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  1. Toward Defining "Vocal Constriction": Practitioner Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-McMahon, Belinda; Hughes, Diane

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated the terminology used in relation to constriction of the singing voice from a range of practitioner perspectives. It focused on the locality, causes, consequences, management, trends, identification, and vocabulary of constriction. The research aimed to develop a holistic understanding of the term "vocal constriction" from participant experiences and perceptions (N = 10). Data collection occurred through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a range of voice care professionals. Participants included three professional groups: (1) Ear, Nose, and Throat medical specialists or laryngologists, (2) speech pathologists or speech therapists, and (3) singing teachers. Purposive sampling was used to ensure that the participants from groups 1 and 2 had extensive experience with singers in their practice. The singing teachers were experienced in either classical or contemporary styles, or both. Participant responses highlighted a discrepancy in preferred terminology, with "constriction" being less favored overall. Several anatomical locations were identified including postural, supraglottic (anteroposterior and false fold), articulatory, and in the intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal musculature; psychological issues were also identified. Primary causes, secondary causes, and influencing factors were identified. Inefficient technique and poor posture or alignment were considered primary causes; similarly, emotion and anxiety or stress were identified as influencing factors by the majority of participants. There was less uniformity in responses regarding other causes. The major findings of this research are the respective participant group distinctions, an uncertainty regarding anteroposterior constriction, and that the location and effects of constriction are individual to the singer and must be considered contextually. A definition is offered, and areas for further research are identified. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  2. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Applicability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography to the Assessment of the Vocal Tract before and after Vocal Exercises in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elisângela Zacanti; Yamashita, Hélio Kiitiro; Garcia, Davi Sousa; Padovani, Marina Martins Pereira; Azevedo, Renata Rangel; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which represents an alternative to traditional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, may be a useful instrument to study vocal tract physiology related to vocal exercises. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of CBCT to the assessment of variations in the vocal tract of healthy individuals before and after vocal exercises. Voice recordings and CBCT images before and after vocal exercises performed by 3 speech-language pathologists without vocal complaints were collected and compared. Each participant performed 1 type of exercise, i.e., Finnish resonance tube technique, prolonged consonant "b" technique, or chewing technique. The analysis consisted of an acoustic analysis and tomographic imaging. Modifications of the vocal tract settings following vocal exercises were properly detected by CBCT, and changes in the acoustic parameters were, for the most part, compatible with the variations detected in image measurements. CBCT was shown to be capable of properly assessing the changes in vocal tract settings promoted by vocal exercises. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Why does picture naming take longer than word reading? The contribution of articulatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riès, Stéphanie; Legou, Thierry; Burle, Borís; Alario, F-Xavier; Malfait, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Since the 19th century, it has been known that response latencies are longer for naming pictures than for reading words aloud. While several interpretations have been proposed, a common general assumption is that this difference stems from cognitive word-selection processes and not from articulatory processes. Here we show that, contrary to this widely accepted view, articulatory processes are also affected by the task performed. To demonstrate this, we used a procedure that to our knowledge had never been used in research on language processing: response-latency fractionating. Along with vocal onsets, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of facial muscles while participants named pictures or read words aloud. On the basis of these measures, we were able to fractionate the verbal response latencies into two types of time intervals: premotor times (from stimulus presentation to EMG onset), mostly reflecting cognitive processes, and motor times (from EMG onset to vocal onset), related to motor execution processes. We showed that premotor and motor times are both longer in picture naming than in reading, although than in reading, although articulation is already initiated in the latter measure. Future studies based on this new approach should bring valuable clues for a better understanding of the relation between the cognitive and motor processes involved in speech production.

  5. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  6. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken

  7. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  8. Trial-Based Functional Analysis Informs Treatment for Vocal Scripting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Brodhead, Matthew; Wolfe, Katie; Gregori, Emily

    2018-05-01

    Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement. The structure of the trial-based format led to identification of social attention as an abolishing operation for vocal scripting. A noncontingent attention treatment was evaluated using withdrawal designs for each participant. This noncontingent attention treatment resulted in near zero levels of vocal scripting for all participants. Implications for research and practice are presented.

  9. Medical image of the week: bilateral vocal cord paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hook CJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old morbidly obese woman with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary emboli required emergency intubation. She was described by the anesthesiologist as having a difficult airway. The patient was liberated from the ventilator after two days. Following extubation she complained of hoarse voice and dyspnea. Physical exam revealed audible stridor. The upper airway was normal by CAT imaging. Flow-volume curve demonstrated marked flattening of both the inspiratory and expiratory limbs, consistent with a fixed extra-thoracic obstruction (Figure 1. Endoscopy revealed the vocal cords to be in the adducted position, with minimal movement throughout the respiratory cycle, consistent with bilateral vocal cord paralysis (Figure 2. Traumatic intubation follows thyroid surgery as the most common cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis (1. In a minority of patients spontaneous recovery may occur. Surgical treatment options include cordotomy or tracheostomy. Nocturnal BIPAP has been used in patients who decline surgery (2.

  10. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Vocal Cord Dysfunction Masquerading as Astma Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ozturk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. VCD is a relatively rare condition that may mimic asthma or upper airway obstruction. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. In this report, we describe a 65-years-old male patient who has psychological problems due to a relative loss, and a military collage student who experiencing respiratory problems during vigorous exercises. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 148-150

  12. Spontaneous resolution of hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adam M; Lehmann, Marcus; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhagic polyps are the most common benign lesions surgically removed from the vocal folds. Although this modality does offer satisfactory results in most of the cases, there is a subset of polyps that seems to resolve with conservative therapy. This study was performed to examine this subset of polyps. Thirty-four consecutive subjects diagnosed with hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of spontaneous resolution of the lesions with nonsurgical therapy. Sixteen subjects began conservative therapy, consisting of voice therapy and proper vocal hygiene, often while awaiting an optimal personal time for surgical intervention. Of these subjects, nine (56.3%) experienced a resolution of their lesion and symptoms without undergoing surgical therapy. Surgical removal of hemorrhagic polyps is often considered the standard of treatment for these benign lesions. However, these observations support a regimen of voice therapy and observation in select cases.

  13. The word-length effect and disyllabic words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, P; Avons, S E; Masterson, J

    2000-02-01

    Three experiments compared immediate serial recall of disyllabic words that differed on spoken duration. Two sets of long- and short-duration words were selected, in each case maximizing duration differences but matching for frequency, familiarity, phonological similarity, and number of phonemes, and controlling for semantic associations. Serial recall measures were obtained using auditory and visual presentation and spoken and picture-pointing recall. In Experiments 1a and 1b, using the first set of items, long words were better recalled than short words. In Experiments 2a and 2b, using the second set of items, no difference was found between long and short disyllabic words. Experiment 3 confirmed the large advantage for short-duration words in the word set originally selected by Baddeley, Thomson, and Buchanan (1975). These findings suggest that there is no reliable advantage for short-duration disyllables in span tasks, and that previous accounts of a word-length effect in disyllables are based on accidental differences between list items. The failure to find an effect of word duration casts doubt on theories that propose that the capacity of memory span is determined by the duration of list items or the decay rate of phonological information in short-term memory.

  14. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  15. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  16. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  17. Effects of Surgery on the Phonation Threshold Pressure in Patients With Vocal Fold Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyng-Guey Wang

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Laryngomicrosurgery can lower PTP in patients with vocal fold polyps and improve the ease of phonation. PTP is one of the objective measurements for assessing the effects of surgery in patients with vocal fold polyps. Use of an accelerometer to detect vocal fold vibration improved the measurement of PTP.

  18. Influence of Left-Right Asymmetries on Voice Quality in Simulated Paramedian Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the vocal fold structural and vibratory symmetries that are important to vocal function and voice quality in a simulated paramedian vocal fold paralysis. Method: A computational kinematic speech production model was used to simulate an exemplar "voice" on the basis of asymmetric…

  19. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  20. Histopathologic study of human vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Ono, Takeharu; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Mechanotransduction caused by vocal fold vibration could possibly be an important factor in the maintenance of extracellular matrices and layered structure of the human adult vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue after the layered structure has been completed. Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the human maculae flavae of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. Maculae flavae are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate the VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. A human adult vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade was investigated histopathologically. Vocal fold mucosa unphonated for 11 years and 2 months of a 64-year-old male with cerebral hemorrhage was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The vocal fold mucosae (including maculae flavae) were atrophic. The vocal fold mucosa did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space or a layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Morphologically, the VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Consequently, VFSCs appeared to decrease their level of activity.

  1. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e......WOB and generate hypotheses about how consumers influence each other by means of behavior in online social environments. We present a conceptual framework for categorizing eWOB, and propose a novel research design for a randomized controlled field experiment. Specifically, the ongoing experiment aims to analyze...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service....

  2. THE PRINCIPLES OF PHONOLOGICAL WORD STRUCTURE COMPARISON OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Aleksakhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phonological structure of words of Russian and Chinese languages. With phonological point of view the word as a Central significant unit of language is a sequence of consonants and vowel phonemes. A comparative study shows that the phonological structure of the Russian words prevail consonant phonemes and the phonological structure of the Chinese words prevail vowel phonemes. The phonological system of the Russian language is characterized by consonant dominant, and the phonological system of the Chinese language Mandarin is characterized by vocal dominant. In the vowel system of the Russian language there are six vowel phonemes, in the vowel system of the Chinese language Mandarin there are thirty-one vowel phonemes. The typical sound pattern of words of the Chinese language consists of vowel combinations. The strong (vowels differ in different effective modes of vocal cords vowels are implemented in the even phonological position; the weak vowels are implemented in the left and right odd phonological positions of the syllabic matrix 0123. Consonant phonemes of the Chinese language are implemented only in the zero phonological position. The Sound variety of simple one-syllable words of the Chinese language is constructed by oppositions: twenty-five consonants in the zero position, thirty-one strong vowel phonemes in the even position, as well as three weak vowels in the left odd position and five weak vowels in the right odd position . The typical distribution of consonant and vowel phonemes is shown in the following examples of words: 0123 - guai «obedient», gudi «rotate», guài «strange». The opposition of weak vowels with a derivative phonological zero is also an effective method of making words: guai «obedient» - gai «must» - gua « blow» - ga «a dark corner». Both Russian and Chinese Synharmonia variety of sound words is supported by five derivative phonological zeros that are phonetically in

  3. The Principles Of Phonological Word Structure Comparison Of Russian And Chinese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Aleksakhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phonological structure of words of Russian and Chinese languages. With phonological point of view the word as a Central significant unit of language is a sequence of consonants and vowel phonemes. A comparative study shows that the phonological structure of the Russian words prevail consonant phonemes and the phonological structure of the Chinese words prevail vowel phonemes. The phonological system of the Russian language is characterized by consonant dominant, and the phonological system of the Chinese language Mandarin is characterized by vocal dominant. In the vowel system of the Russian language there are six vowel phonemes, in the vowel system of the Chinese language Mandarin there are thirty-one vowel phonemes. The typical sound pattern of words of the Chinese language consists of vowel combinations. The strong (vowels differ in different effective modes of vocal cords vowels are implemented in the even phonological position; the weak vowels are implemented in the left and right odd phonological positions of the syllabic matrix 0123. Consonant phonemes of the Chinese language are implemented only in the zero phonological position. The Sound variety of simple one-syllable words of the Chinese language is constructed by oppositions: twenty-five consonants in the zero position, thirty-one strong vowel phonemes in the even position, as well as three weak vowels in the left odd position and five weak vowels in the right odd position . The typical distribution of consonant and vowel phonemes is shown in the following examples of words: 0123 - guai «obedient», gudi «rotate», guài «strange». The opposition of weak vowels with a derivative phonological zero is also an effective method of making words: guai «obedient» - gai «must» - gua « blow» - ga «a dark corner». Both Russian and Chinese Synharmonia variety of sound words is supported by five derivative phonological zeros that are phonetically in

  4. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  5. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  6. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  7. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  8. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Talita; Beraldinelle, Roberta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when pwomen (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this ability in individuals with communication disorders must be intensified.

  9. Semantic and associative factors in probability learning with words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L M; Hanson, B L; Taylor, G; Thorpe, J A

    1973-09-01

    Using a probability-learning technique with a single word as the cue and with the probability of a given event following this word fixed at .80, it was found (1) that neither high nor low associates to the original word and (2) that neither synonyms nor antonyms showed differential learning curves subsequent to original learning when the probability for the following event was shifted to .20. In a second study when feedback, in the form of knowledge of results, was withheld, there was a clear-cut similarity of predictions to the originally trained word and the synonyms of both high and low association value and a dissimilarity of these words to a set of antonyms of both high and low association value. Two additional studies confirmed the importance of the semantic dimension as compared with association value as traditionally measured.

  10. WordPress For Dummies

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    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  11. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  12. [Retention cysts of the vocal cords (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, E W

    1979-05-01

    Present day knowledge in laryngology maintains that the free edge of the true cord mucosa is devoid of glands so that retention cysts should not occur in this tissue. When such cysts do occur, it is difficult to define their pathogenesis. Reference is made to the author's earlier study which found a regular occurrence of mucous glands in the squamous epithelial region of the vocal cords. A retention cyst in the true cord is described histologically in the present report. The glands responsible for these cysts are believed to function by moistening the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.

  13. Vocal fold composition and early glottic carcinoma infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging techniques provide only limited information pertaining to the extent of infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas into vocal fold tissue layers. Therefore, it is needed to seek the contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding examination and characterization in laryngeal carcinoma infiltration. Methods Excised larynges were collected from 30 male laryngectomy patients with an average age of 43.5 years (ranging 36 to 55 years and history of smoking (≥10 years exhibiting T1, T2, or subglottal (normal vocal fold carcinomas. Vocal folds were preserved via freezing or immersion in paraffin. The depth of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in both normal vocal folds and tumor tissues of afflicted vocal folds was measured. Results The average depths of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in normal vocal folds were 0.15 ± 0.06 mm, 2.30 ± 0.59 mm, and 2.87 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Infiltration measurements of T1 tumors showed a depth of 1.62 ± 0.51 mm and 1.32 ± 0.49 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. Similarly, T2 tumors showed a depth of 2.87 ± 0.68 mm and 2.58 ± 0.67 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. T1 and T2 tumors occupied 24.8 ± 10 and 48.5 ± 15 percent of the normal vocal fold depth, respectively. Conclusion This data provides a baseline for estimating infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas in vocal fold tissue layers, of particular interest to surgeons. This information may be used to assess typical depths of infiltration, thus allowing for more appropriate selection of surgical procedures based on individual patient assessment.

  14. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. WordPress Top Plugins

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    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  16. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  17. Auditory word recognition: extrinsic and intrinsic effects of word frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connine, C M; Titone, D; Wang, J

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of word frequency in a phoneme identification task. Speech voicing continua were constructed so that one endpoint was a high-frequency word and the other endpoint was a low-frequency word (e.g., best-pest). Experiment 1 demonstrated that ambiguous tokens were labeled such that a high-frequency word was formed (intrinsic frequency effect). Experiment 2 manipulated the frequency composition of the list (extrinsic frequency effect). A high-frequency list bias produced an exaggerated influence of frequency; a low-frequency list bias showed a reverse frequency effect. Reaction time effects were discussed in terms of activation and postaccess decision models of frequency coding. The results support a late use of frequency in auditory word recognition.

  18. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (psinging. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  19. Matching and Compression of Strings with Automata and Word Packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye; Gørtz, Inge Li; Thomassen, Carsten

    pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters...... in (deterministic) time O (m= + logm + log log ) ; where = w= log is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = (log n). Our query time is always at least as good as the previous best known bounds and whenever several characters are packed in a word, i.e., log w, the query times are faster. Dynamic...

  20. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.