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Sample records for vocalization program written

  1. A Comparison of Written, Vocal, and Video Feedback When Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kally M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Wu, Wai-Ling; Dupuis, Danielle L.; Hussein, Louisa A.

    2018-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of and preference for different feedback strategies when training six special education teachers during a 5-day summer training program. In Experiment 1, teachers received written or vocal feedback while learning to implement two different types of preference assessments. In Experiment 2, we compared either written or…

  2. Vocalization Latencies of Skilled and Less Skilled Comprehenders for Words Written in Hiragana and Kanji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds that Japanese fifth graders' naming speed was a good indicator of the automaticity of the lexical access for both syllabaries and morphograms, but that skilled/less-skilled differences in vocalization latencies were greater for real words than for pseudowords for both hiragana and kanji. Discusses the applicability of C. A. Perfetti's verbal…

  3. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  4. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  5. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Choi-Cardim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento. RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550, entre 31 e 40 anos (p = 0,557, lecionando para mais de um grau de ensino (p = 0,345 com até 30 alunos/sala (p = 0,521, com presença de ruído no trabalho (p = 0,660, que relataram cuidados vocais (p = 0,231 e utilizavam voz extra-profissionalmente (p = 0,713, não tabagistas (p = 0,010 nem alcoolistas (p = 0,029. Em contrapartida, no G1 observou-se carga horária diária de trabalho de até 5 horas, enquanto a maior parte do G2 trabalhava de 6 a 10 horas (p 4 os grupos; sendo a média de 3,5 (57% para G1 e 5,8 (98,05% para G2 - (p PURPOSE: to analyze vocal symptoms from two groups of teachers assessed during two different instances of a vocal health program. METHODS: correlate work conditions and habits with the number of vocal symptoms submitted by 411 teachers divided into G1 (256 subjects to be submitted to a prevention program and G2 (155 subjects to be submitted to a prevention and treatment program. RESULTS: it was observed that in both groups there was a larger number of women (p=0.550, aged 31 to 40 years (p=0.557, teaching for more than one grade (p=0.345 and with up to 30 students per class (p=0.521; they related presence of noise in their work environment (p=0.660, used to take care of their voices (p=0.231, were non-smokers (p=0.010, used their voices in extra-professional activities and did not have the habit of drinking. On the other hand, both groups were different upon relating daily work hours; in G1 most teachers worked up to 5 hours a day

  6. Introduction to the Atari Computer. A Program Written in the Pilot Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Designed to be an introduction to the Atari microcomputers for beginners, the interactive computer program listed in this document is written in the Pilot programing language. Instructions are given for entering and storing the program in the computer memory for use by students. (MES)

  7. Comparison of Perceptual Signs of Voice before and after Vocal Hygiene Program in Adults with Dysphonia

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    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal abuse and misuse are the most frequent causes of voice disorders. Consequently some therapy is needed to stop or modify such behaviors. This research was performed to study the effectiveness of vocal hygiene program on perceptual signs of voice in people with dysphonia.Methods: A Vocal hygiene program was performed to 8 adults with dysphonia for 6 weeks. At first, Consensus Auditory- Perceptual Evaluation of Voice was used to assess perceptual signs. Then the program was delivered, Individuals were followed in second and forth weeks visits. In the last session, perceptual assessment was performed and individuals’ opinions were collected. Perceptual findings were compared before and after the therapy.Results: After the program, mean score of perceptual assessment decreased. Mean score of every perceptual sign revealed significant difference before and after the therapy (p≤0.0001. «Loudness» had maximum score and coordination between speech and respiration indicated minimum score. All participants confirmed efficiency of the therapy.Conclusion: The vocal hygiene program improves all perceptual signs of voice although not equally. This deduction is confirmed by both clinician-based and patient-based assessments. As a result, vocal hygiene program is necessary for a comprehensive voice therapy but is not solely effective to resolve all voice problems.

  8. Effectiveness of a Voice Training Program for Student Teachers on Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Bernhard; Nusseck, Manfred; Spahn, Claudia; Echternach, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of a preventive training program on vocal health for German student teachers was investigated on specific vocal parameters. The voice quality as described by the Dysphonia Severity Index of 204 student teachers (training group: n = 123; control group: n = 81) was measured at the beginning and at the end of the student teachers training period (duration 1.5 years). Additionally, for investigating the voice-carrying capacity, a vocal loading test (VLT) was performed. Finally, participants had to provide a subjective judgment of a possible Voice Handicap Index. The training program improved the voice quality of the trained group compared with that of the control group, whose voice quality declined. The trained group was also able to better sustain their voice quality across the VLT than the control group. Both groups, however, reported a similar increase in subjective vocal strain. The presented training program clearly showed a positive impact on the voice quality and the vocal capacity. The results maintain the importance of such a training program to be integrated in the education and occupational routine of teachers. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brief Report: Reduction of Inappropriate Vocalizations for a Child with Autism Using a Self-Management Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancina, Catherine; Tankersley, Melody; Kamps, Debra; Kravits, Tammy; Parrett, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the effects of a self-management program used to reduce high rates of inappropriate vocalizations (e.g., humming, tongue clucking, perseveration, and echolalic words/phases) in a 12-year-old girl with autism. When self-management was applied to inappropriate vocalizations during leisure, prevocational, and reading tasks, the…

  10. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

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    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  11. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  12. A precompiler written in SPITBOL applied to programs to analyze nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, K.; Croome, D.

    1985-01-01

    For an interactive data acquisition and analysis system for nuclear physics experiments a precompiler is provided to expand system specific macros in user written analysis programs. It is written with help of the string processing language SPITBOL and generates PL/I or PL-11 code. It is shown that SPITBOL is a suitable precompiler language for this kind of medium size precompile problems. (orig.)

  13. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Choi-Cardim; Mara Behlau; Fabiana Zambon

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo) e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento). RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550), entre 3...

  14. APL MITRA extensions to graphics. Call programs written in another language with APL MITRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouanes, Mohamed Kamel

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns: - A new way of using APL to deal with graphics problems. For this, the extensions to the APL-MITRA interpreter are: - the definition of graphic variables, - the creation of a graphic environment using new graphic system variables (□AX, □CA, □MΦ), - dealing with a set of primitive graphic system functions (□GΦ, □GI, □GR, □GF, □GC) which handle graphic input/output operations on a Tektronix console (4000 series, especially the 4013 and 4015). A new system function (□CI) which permits APL programs to call programs written in other languages. (author) [fr

  15. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  16. The composer’s program note for newly-written classical music: content and intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mary Blom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular the study sought to understand the intended recipient, intended role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating cComposers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer’s interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer and listener. For some composers this collaboration was intended to result in performative listening in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers’ responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener and the work itself

  17. Development of a written assessment for a national interprofessional cardiotocography education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellesen, Line; Bergholt, Thomas; Hedegaard, Morten; Colov, Nina Palmgren; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Kristine Sylvan; Sorensen, Jette Led

    2017-05-18

    To reduce the incidence of hypoxic brain injuries among newborns a national cardiotocography (CTG) education program was implemented in Denmark. A multiple-choice question test was integrated as part of the program. The aim of this article was to describe and discuss the test development process and to introduce a feasible method for written test development in general. The test development was based on the unitary approach to validity. The process involved national consensus on learning objectives, standardized item writing, pilot testing, sensitivity analyses, standard setting and evaluation of psychometric properties using Item Response Theory models. Test responses and feedback from midwives, specialists and residents in obstetrics and gynecology, and medical and midwifery students were used in the process (proofreaders n = 6, pilot test participants n = 118, CTG course participants n = 1679). The final test included 30 items and the passing score was established at 25 correct answers. All items fitted a loglinear Rasch model and the test was able to discriminate levels of competence. Seven items revealed differential item functioning in relation to profession and geographical regions, which means the test is not suitable for measuring differences between midwives and physicians or differences across regions. In the setting of pilot testing Cronbach's alpha equaled 0.79, whereas Cronbach's alpha equaled 0.63 in the setting of the CTG education program. This indicates a need for more items and items with a higher degree of difficulty in the test, and illuminates the importance of context when discussing validity. Test development is a complex and time-consuming process. The unitary approach to validity was a useful and applicable tool for development of a CTG written assessment. The process and findings supported our proposed interpretation of the assessment as measuring CTG knowledge and interpretive skills. However, for the test to function as a

  18. Teaching Literature Written in English in Undergraduate Language Teacher Education Programs: A Dialogic-Pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison Marden Bandeira de Melo Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to be part of the ongoing discussion on the teaching of literature written in English (LWE in literature classes in undergraduate language programs. In order to do that, it shows the challenges posed by the Letras DCN (National Curriculum Guidelines for the undergraduate Language Teacher Education programs as well as the reality literature teachers face due to the reduced number of hours of literature classes assigned in course curricula and to students' limited knowledge of English. Based on the dialogical concept of language and on the possibility of cooperation between scientific trends, we present a cooperative work between DDA (Dialogical Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics, showing how consonant and dissonant they are. Besides, we present part of the analysis of Alice Walker's short story Her Sweet Jerome done by students, which, in this context of teaching LWE to students with limited knowledge of English, pointed to the possibility of Pragmatics being the first step towards a dialogical analysis of literary texts.

  19. "I Like to Plan Events": A Document Analysis of Essays Written by Applicants to a Public Relations Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    A document analysis of 249 essays written during a 5-year period by applicants to a public relations program at a major state university in the southeast suggests that there are enduring reasons why students choose to major in public relations. Public relations is described as a major that allows for and encourages creative expression and that…

  20. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  1. Computerized Attention Training Program and Vocal Ensemble Classes – means of Adolescent Attention Focusing Ability Development

    OpenAIRE

    Trubina, Irēna; Sīle, Maruta; Vaļēviča, Evita; Voita, Daina

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays adolescents encounter difficulties focusing on particular, effective and long-term activities. These difficulties depend on their age group development regularities. The aim of the research is to evaluate computer attention training software in comparison with vocal ensemble classes on the subject of adolescent attention focusing ability development. Participants – 24 adolescents (both sexes, average age 14 ± 0,87 years) were divided into three experimental groups – experimental grou...

  2. Exploring the Written Dialogues of Two First-Year Secondary Science Teachers in an Online Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the yearlong learning processes of two first-year secondary science teachers participating in an online mentoring program, through examination of their written dialogues within the program and other data. Using a case study method, this study (a) explored the patterns of written dialogues between the two new teachers and their mentors over the course of a year, (b) documented pertinent topics of importance, and finally (c) illustrated the new realities created in the mentees' classrooms as a result of the online mentoring process. Penelope and Bradley, who taught at an urban school and at a suburban school respectively, were selected as subjects. Our analysis revealed that the two pairs of mentee-mentors showed different participation patterns that affected the intensity of the creation of new realities, and affected whether the mentees tried/vetted new teaching practices suggested by their mentors. Yet, analysis also revealed that certain elements in the written dialogues between pairs were found to be similar, in that construction of knowledge was evident between both pairs when friction developed and appropriate teamwork emerged to deal with it. The topics of greatest interest and importance within the dialogues were those related to the logistics of the school system and the processes and methodologies of teaching. These results suggest that online mentoring programs are an effective dialogical tool for transferring the knowledge of experts to novices, and for thus expediting the professional induction and growth of new science teachers.

  3. The Effectiveness of the Comprehensive Voice Rehabilitation Program Compared With the Vocal Function Exercises Method in Behavioral Dysphonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Vanessa; Pontes, Antônio; Pontes, Paulo; Behlau, Mara; Peccin, Stella Maria

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Comprehensive Voice Rehabilitation Program (CVRP) compared with Vocal Function Exercises (VFEs) to treat functional dysphonia. This is a randomized blinded clinical trial. Eighty voice professionals presented with voice complaints for more than 6 months with a functional dysphonia diagnosis. Subjects were randomized into two voice treatment groups: CVRP and VFE. The rehabilitation program consisted of six voice treatment sessions and three assessment sessions performed before, immediately after, and 1 month after treatment. The outcome measures were self-assessment protocols (Voice-Related Quality of Life [V-RQOL] and Voice Handicap Index [VHI]), perceptual evaluation of vocal quality, and a visual examination of the larynx, both blinded. The randomization process produced comparable groups in terms of age, gender, signs, and symptoms. Both groups had positive outcome measures. The CVRP effect size was 1.09 for the V-RQOL, 1.17 for the VHI, 0.79 for vocal perceptual evaluation, and 1.01 for larynx visual examination. The VFE effect size was 0.86 for the V-RQOL, 0.62 for the VHI, 0.48 for the vocal perceptual evaluation, and 0.51 for larynx visual examination. Only 10% of the patients were lost over the study. Both treatment programs were effective. The probability of a patient improving because of the CVRP treatment was similar to that of the VFE treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Listening to the vocal citizens: how do politically active individuals choose between life saving programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsberg, J. [Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-07-01

    Large disparities in the cost per life saved for different life saving interventions have been reported in many studies. According to some researchers, these differences reflect the public's preoccupation with selected qualitative aspects of risk. However, it is not obvious that these disparities reflect public preferences. In studies of the variation in cost per life saved the public accept, most respondents are willing to trade qualitative characteristics for lives saved, but there is a small but significant group of respondents who will not make the tradeoff, i.e. assign infinite value to one or more of the qualitative factors. It has been suggested that this group could be particularly vocal, which might account for the large variation in cost per life saved. In the first attempt to address this issue, a survey of people living under a power line in Stockholm was undertaken. This population was chosen because the local government had decided to remove the power line after being pressured by the citizens and on interest group. Tests of how more politically active individuals differ from less active were undertaken. Most importantly, it was found that more politically active respondents were less likely to trade qualitative characteristics for lives saved, but only for the risk in which they were active and only up to a point. There still was a group of respondents who were unwilling to make the tradeoff. (author)

  5. Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Vocal Fold Paralysis On this page: What is vocal fold ... Where can I get additional information? What is vocal fold paralysis? Structures involved in speech and voice production ...

  6. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  7. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  9. The vocal quality in female student teachers during the 3 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Claeys, S; Dhaeseleer, E; Deley, S; Derde, K; Herregods, I; Strybol, I; Wuyts, F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the objective vocal quality and the vocal characteristics (vocal risk factors, vocal and corporal complaints) in 143 female student teachers during the 3 years of study. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Perceptual voice assessment, the Voice Handicap Index, questionnaires addressing vocal risks, and vocal and corporal complaints during and/or after voice usage were performed. Student teachers have a normal perceptual and objective vocal quality corresponding with a DSI% of 76. The analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement of the vocal quality between the first and the third year of study. No psychosocial handicapping effect of the voice was observed, though there are some vocal complaints and almost all student teachers reported the presence of corporal pain during and/or after speaking. Especially sore throat and headache were mentioned as the most present corporal pain symptoms. Due to the decreased awareness and the multifactorial genesis of the potential vocal risk factors, the student teachers are at risk for developing an occupational dysphonia during their teaching career. Because teaching is a high-risk profession for the development of voice problems, the incorporation of a direct vocal training technique to increase vocal endurance during teaching together with a vocal hygiene program, dietetics, and a stress management training program during the 3 years of study is needed to prevent occupational dysphonia. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of written information and counseling (WOMAN-PRO II Program) on symptom outcomes in women with vulvar neoplasia: A multicenter randomized controlled phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphaelis, Silvia; Mayer, Hanna; Ott, Stefan; Mueller, Michael D; Steiner, Enikö; Joura, Elmar; Senn, Beate

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether written information and/or counseling based on the WOMAN-PRO II Program decreases symptom prevalence in women with vulvar neoplasia by a clinically relevant degree, and to explore the differences between the 2 interventions in symptom prevalence, symptom distress prevalence, and symptom experience. A multicenter randomized controlled parallel-group phase II trial with 2 interventions provided to patients after the initial diagnosis was performed in Austria and Switzerland. Women randomized to written information received a predefined set of leaflets concerning wound care and available healthcare services. Women allocated to counseling were additionally provided with 5 consultations by an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) between the initial diagnosis and 6months post-surgery that focused on symptom management, utilization of healthcare services, and health-related decision-making. Symptom outcomes were simultaneously measured 5 times to the counseling time points. A total of 49 women with vulvar neoplasia participated in the study. Symptom prevalence decreased in women with counseling by a clinically relevant degree, but not in women with written information. Sporadically, significant differences between the 2 interventions could be observed in individual items, but not in the total scales or subscales of the symptom outcomes. The results indicate that counseling may reduce symptom prevalence in women with vulvar neoplasia by a clinically relevant extent. The observed group differences between the 2 interventions slightly favor counseling over written information. The results justify testing the benefit of counseling thoroughly in a comparative phase III trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  12. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  13. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  14. A new measure of child vocal reciprocity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Amy L; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Tapp, Jon; Wade, Joshua W; Warlaumont, Anne S; Yoder, Paul J

    2018-03-06

    Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure. The first used simulated vocal samples with randomly sequenced child and adult vocalizations to test the accuracy of the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity. The second was an empirical study of 21 children with ASD who were preverbal or in the early stages of language development. Daylong vocal samples collected in the natural environment were computer analyzed to derive the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity, which was highly stable when derived from two daylong vocal samples and was associated with speechlikeness of vocal communication. This association was significant even when controlling for chance probability of child vocalizations to adult vocal responses, probability of adult vocalizations, or probability of child vocalizations. A valid measure of children's vocal reciprocity might eventually improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A link to a free, publicly-available software program to derive the new measure of child vocal reciprocity is provided. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children and adults often engage in back-and-forth vocal exchanges. The extent to which they do so is believed to support children's early speech and language development. Two studies tested a new measure of child vocal reciprocity using computer-generated and real

  15. Mentorship in Grades 5 through 12 Gifted Vocal Music Programs: Learners' and Educators' Perceptions of Mentorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jimmy Lee

    2017-01-01

    Although the implementation of effective instructional practice is paramount to the academic success of gifted music programs in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12), many learners in gifted music programs lack critical thinking skills, self-directed learning, a learner-centered paradigm, and learner-mentor relationship during instruction.…

  16. Vocal effort modulates the motor planning of short speech structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitz, Alan; Shalom, Diego E.; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2018-05-01

    Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants. We then used a battery of statistical tests and mathematical vocal models to show that delays reflect the motor planning of CCVs and transitions are proxy indicators of the vocal effort needed to produce them. These results support that the effort required to produce the sequence of movements of a vocal gesture modulates the onset of the motor plan.

  17. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  18. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  19. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  20. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana COSMAN

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the work of researchers primarily interested in the investigation of written communication in business settings. The author regards 'business discourse' as a field of study with distinct features in the domain of discourse analysis. Thus, the paper overviews the most important contributions to the development of written business discourse with a number of landmark studies. To gain a greater understanding of the written business discourse, the author also investigates some...

  1. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  2. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...

  3. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral infections. Some viral infections, such as Lyme disease, Epstein-Barr and herpes, can cause inflammation and damage directly to the nerves in the larynx. Neurological conditions. If you have certain ... disease, you may experience vocal cord paralysis. Risk factors ...

  4. Effects of a three-week vocal exercise program using the Finnish Kuukka exercises on the speaking voice of Norwegian broadcast journalism students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Sipilä, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Nine broadcast journalism students attended 10 hours in Kuukka vocal exercises, which aims at producing a ringing vocal quality. Nine control subjects received no training. A text was read at habitual loudness before and after the course. Five speech specialists evaluated the text samples for perceptual voice quality and analyzed mean fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), and long-term average spectrum (LTAS). For the Training Group, voice quality improved and correlated negatively with firmness and timbre (less firm and darker qualities being considered more desirable), and F0 increased slightly. Leq increased significantly in both groups. The results show positive and perceivable differences after the course. However, the aimed ring was not reached, may be due to too short time.

  5. Evaluation of Vocal Fold Motion Abnormalities: Are We All Seeing the Same Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lyndsay L; Rosen, Clark A

    2017-01-01

    Flexible laryngoscopy is the principle tool for the evaluation of vocal fold motion. As of yet, no consistent, unified outcome metric has been developed for vocal fold paralysis/immobility research. The goal of this study was to evaluate vocal fold motion assessment (inter- and intra-rater reliability) among general otolaryngologists and fellowship-trained laryngologists. Prospective video perceptual analysis study. Flexible laryngoscopic examinations, with sound, of 15 unique patient cases (20 seconds each) were sent to 10 general otolaryngologists and 10 fellowship-trained laryngologists blinded to clinical history. Reviewers were given written definitions of vocal fold mobility and immobility and two video examples. The cases included bilateral vocal fold mobility (six), unilateral vocal fold immobility (five), and unilateral vocal fold hypomobility (four). Five examinations were repeated to determine intra-rater reliability. Participants were asked to judge if there was or there was no purposeful motion, as described by written definitions, for each vocal fold (800 tokens in total). Twenty reviewers (100%) replied. Both general otolaryngologists and fellowship-trained laryngologists had an overall inter-rater reliability of 95%. Difference in inter-rater reliability between the two groups of raters was negligible: 95% for general otolaryngologists and 97.5% for fellowship-trained laryngologists. There was no variability in intra-rater reliability within either rater group (99%). Intra- and inter-rater agreement in determining whether the patient had purposeful vocal fold motion on flexible laryngoscopic examination was excellent in both groups. This study demonstrates that otolaryngologists can consistently and accurately judge the presence and the absence of vocal fold motion. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  7. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy B Sirotin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5-10 Hz. During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, ’50 kHz’ were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5−10 Hz and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1-4 Hz. Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations.

  9. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  10. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz......The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from...... the soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...

  11. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  12. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  13. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  14. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.

  15. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken

  17. Vocal Fold Vibration Following Surgical Intervention in Three Vocal Pathologies: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy captures the cycle-to-cycle vibratory motion of each individual vocal fold in normal and severely disordered phonation. Therefore, it provides a direct method to examine the specific vibratory changes following vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vocal fold vibratory pattern changes in the surgically treated pathologic vocal fold and the contralateral vocal fold in three vocal pathologies: vocal polyp (n = 3), paresis or paralysis (n = 3), and scar (n = 3). Digital kymography was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the digital kymography to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of each vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Surgical modification resulted in significantly improved spectral power of the treated pathologic vocal fold. Furthermore, the contralateral vocal fold also presented with improved spectral power irrespective of vocal pathology. In comparison with normal vocal fold spectrum, postsurgical vocal fold vibrations continued to demonstrate decreased vibratory amplitude in both vocal folds. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  19. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Talita; Beraldinelle, Roberta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when pwomen (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this ability in individuals with communication disorders must be intensified.

  20. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  1. Reconsidering Written Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of elite thinkers in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries pursued an agenda which historian Paolo Rossi calls the “quest for a universal language,” a quest which was deeply interwoven with the emergence of the scientific method. From a modern perspective, one of the many surprising aspects of these efforts is that they relied on a diverse array of memorization techniques as foundational elements. In the case of Leibniz’s universal calculus, the ultimate vision was to create a pictorial language that could be learned by anyone in a matter of weeks and which would contain within it a symbolic representation of all domains of contemporary thought, ranging from the natural sciences, to theology, to law. In this brief article, I explore why this agenda might have been appealing to thinkers of this era by examining ancient and modern memory feats. As a thought experiment, I suggest that a society built entirely upon memorization might be less limited than we might otherwise imagine, and furthermore, that cultural norms discouraging the use of written language might have had implications for the development of scientific methodology. Viewed in this light, the efforts of Leibniz and others seem significantly less surprising. I close with some general observations about cross-cultural origins of scientific thought.

  2. [Environmental factors and vocal habits regarding pre-school teachers and functionaries suffering voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrreto-Munévar, Deisy P; Cháux-Ramos, Oriana M; Estrada-Rangel, Mónica A; Sánchez-Morales, Jenifer; Moreno-Angarita, Marisol; Camargo-Mendoza, Maryluz

    2011-06-01

    Determining the relationship between vocal habits and environmental/ occupational conditions with the presence of vocal disturbance (dysphonia) in teachers and functionaries working at community-based, initial childhood education centres (kindergartens). This was a descriptive study which adopted across-sectional approach using 198 participants which was developed in three phases. Phase 1: consisted of identifying participants having the highest risk of presenting vocal disturbance. Phase 2consisted of observation-analysis concerning the voice use and vocal habits of participants who had been identified in phase 1. Phase 3consisted of perceptual and computational assessment of participants' voices using Wilson's vocal profile and the multidimensional voice program. Individuals having pitch breaks, throat clearing, increased voice intensity, and gastro-oesophageal reflux were found to present below standard fundamental frequency (FF). Subjects having altered breathing and increased voice intensity were identified as having above standard shimmer and jitter acoustic values. A high rate of inability to work was found due to vocal disturbance. It is thus suggested that there is a correlation between vocal habits and vocal disorders presented by preschool teachers in kindergarten settings.

  3. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B

    2014-01-01

    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  4. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa wvvollen@postino.up.ac.za. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  5. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  6. CHAMBER VOCAL CREATIONS BY SNEJANA PÎSLARI: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS, GENRE AND STYLE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COADĂ TATIANA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests a general characterization of the chamber vocal creations by Snejana Pîslari. The present work represents a detailed analysis of the romances, written by the composer on lyrics by M. Eminescu and N. Labiş. The author reveals the genre and style features of the chamber vocal works composed by S. Pîslari and the eccentricity of the musical language. Another landmark of the present work is S. Pîslari’s individual composition style which is distinguishable by the use of experimental ideas with elements of folklore, as well as by the use of new means of musical expressivity.

  7. The Effectiveness of Using Vocal Music as the Content Area of English Immersion Classes for Japanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven Gene

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to determine if English can be taught effectively to Japanese children through a content-based instruction program that uses vocal music as the content area. A total of 240 children participated in the study. The treatment group at a private elementary school in Tokyo received weekly vocal music lessons taught in English for one…

  8. Vocal plasticity in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2017-05-31

    Sophisticated vocal communication systems of birds and mammals, including human speech, are characterized by a high degree of plasticity in which signals are individually adjusted in response to changes in the environment. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first evidence for vocal plasticity in a reptile. Like birds and mammals, tokay geckos ( Gekko gecko ) increased the duration of brief call notes in the presence of broadcast noise compared to quiet conditions, a behaviour that facilitates signal detection by receivers. By contrast, they did not adjust the amplitudes of their call syllables in noise (the Lombard effect), which is in line with the hypothesis that the Lombard effect has evolved independently in birds and mammals. However, the geckos used a different strategy to increase signal-to-noise ratios: instead of increasing the amplitude of a given call type when exposed to noise, the subjects produced more high-amplitude syllable types from their repertoire. Our findings demonstrate that reptile vocalizations are much more flexible than previously thought, including elaborate vocal plasticity that is also important for the complex signalling systems of birds and mammals. We suggest that signal detection constraints are one of the major forces driving the evolution of animal communication systems across different taxa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Use of loud phonation as a voice therapy technique for children with vocal nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Nishiyama, Koichiro

    2003-10-01

    For the treatment of vocal nodules, educational programs for vocal hygiene and voice training for acquisition of correct phonation are essential. In the case of children, special considerations are necessary as some of their vocal behaviors and reaction to voice disorders are different from those of adults. In this study, a voice therapy program for child vocal nodules were developed and good results were obtained for six children. They were four boys and two girls (Age: 4-11 yr) and bilateral nodules were found for all of them. In addition to a conventional vocal hygiene program for children, correct production of loud voice (so-called gBeltingh) was the major focus of the voice therapy as the visual inspection of the larynges and perceptual evaluations of the voice revealed inappropriate loud voice production with laryngeal constriction in all children. After 5-24 voice therapy sessions, disappearance of the nodules was found in five children and the reduction of the nodule sizes was found in one child. Improvement of the GRBAS scores, longer maximum phonation time, and extension of vocal ranges were found after the completion of the therapy programs.

  10. Are written information or counseling (WOMAN-PRO II program) able to improve patient satisfaction and the delivery of health care of women with vulvar neoplasms? Secondary outcomes of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Larissa; Kobleder, Andrea; Werner, Birgit; Denhaerynck, Kris; Senn, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with vulvar neoplasms report a lack of information, missing support in self-management and a gap in delivery of health care. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate if written information or counseling based on the WOMAN-PRO II program are able to improve patient satisfaction and the delivery of health care from the health professional's perspective of women with vulvar neoplasms. Method: Patient satisfaction and the delivery of health care have been investigated as two secondary outcomes in a multicenter randomized controlled parallel-group phase II study (Clinical Trial ID: NCT01986725). In total, 49 women, from four hospitals (CH, AUT), completed the questionnaire PACIC-S11 after written information (n = 13) and counseling (n = 36). The delivery of health care was evaluated by ten Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) by using the G-ACIC before and after implementing counseling based on the WOMAN-PRO II program. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups identified (p = 0.25). Only few aspects were rated highly by all women, such as the overall satisfaction (M = 80.3 %) and satisfaction with organization of care (M = 83.0 %). The evaluation of delivery of health care by APNs in women who received counseling improved significantly (p = 0.031). Conclusions: There are indications, that the practice of both interventions might have improved patient satisfaction and counseling the delivery of health care. The aspects that have been rated low in the PACIC-S11 and G-ACIC indicate possibilities to optimize the delivery of health care.

  11. Readability and Understandability of Online Vocal Cord Paralysis Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vini; Chandy, Zachariah; Hseih, Amy; Bui, Thanh-Lan; Verma, Sunil P

    2016-03-01

    Patients use several online resources to learn about vocal cord paralysis (VCP). The objective of this study was to assess the readability and understandability of online VCP patient education materials (PEMs), with readability assessments and the Patient Education Materials Evaluation Tool (PEMAT), respectively. The relationship between readability and understandability was then analyzed. Descriptive and correlational design. Online PEMs were identified by performing a Google search with the term "vocal cord paralysis." After scientific webpages, news articles, and information for medical professionals were excluded, 29 articles from the first 50 search results were considered. Readability analysis was performed with 6 formulas. Four individuals with different educational backgrounds conducted understandability analysis with the PEMAT. Fleiss's Kappa interrater reliability analysis determined consistency among raters. Correlation between readability and understandability was determined with Pearson's correlation test. The reading level of the reviewed articles ranged from grades 9 to 17. Understandability ranged from 29% to 82%. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong negative correlation between materials' readability and understandability (r = -0.462, P Online PEMs pertaining to VCP are written above the recommended reading levels. Overall, materials written at lower grade levels are more understandable. However, articles of identical grade levels had varying levels of understandability. The PEMAT may provide a more critical evaluation of the quality of a PEM when compared with readability formulas. Both readability and understandability should be used to evaluate PEMs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  13. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  14. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  16. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  17. Vocalization Subsystem Responses to a Temporarily Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, Daniel J.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantify the interactions of the 3 vocalization subsystems of respiration, phonation, and resonance before, during, and after a perturbation to the larynx (temporarily induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis) in 10 vocally healthy participants. Using dynamic systems theory as a guide, we hypothesized that…

  18. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  19. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 42 CFR 456.180 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.180 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or...

  2. Written narrative practices in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.

  3. Consciência fonológica e linguagem escrita: efeitos de um programa de intervenção Phonological awareness and written language: effects of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A consciência fonológica, entendida como habilidade de reflexão e manipulação dos sons da fala, está relacionada ao êxito na aquisição da linguagem escrita. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a eficácia de um programa de intervenção para desenvolver habilidades metafonológicas e facilitar a aprendizagem da escrita em crianças falantes do português do Brasil. Participaram 90 crianças de 5 a 6 anos que frequentavam classes de alfabetização. Foi utilizado delineamento quase experimental em três fases: pré-teste, intervenção e pós-teste, com aplicação de provas às crianças. Os resultados mostraram que as habilidades metafonológicas têm papel facilitador no início do processo de aquisição da linguagem escrita e podem ser desenvolvidas por meio de programas de intervenção em diferentes condições de aplicação.The phonological awareness, understood as the ability of reflection and manipulation of speech sounds, is related to succeeding in the written language acquisition process. This research aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to develop metaphonological skills and aid the learning of writing for Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children. A total of 90 children between 5 and 6 years old who attended the literacy classes participated in this research. A quasi-experimental design was used in three steps: pre-test, intervention and post-test, with the application of exams to the children. The results showed that the metaphonological skills have an aiding role at the beginning of the written language acquisition process, and that they can be developed through intervention programs in different application conditions.

  4. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  5. Vocalization of Emotional and Social Expressions in Korean-Speaking Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Sook; Shin, Yee Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Lee, Gui Jong; Ryu, Jeong; Son, Oweol; Cho, Sook Whan

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the development of socializing and emotional expressions through vocalizations and joint attention (JA) behaviors in Korean-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared to those with developmental delay (DD). Video samples were collected from 28 toddlers with ASD and 18 age-matched toddlers with DD, and vocalizations were each coded in detail for the purpose of this retrospective research. In addition to some statistical analysis, Computerized Language Analysis was conducted to obtain the final results. Although they produced a higher number of vocalizations than the DD group, the ASD group did not engage in emotional or social interactions with their caretakers, whereas the DD group did. The children with ASD used more atypical vocalizations and socially unengaged vocalizations than the children with DD did. JA using vocalizations in the ASD group, in particular, was largely dyadic, with triadic types occurring at a significantly lower frequency than those in the DD group. Results from this study indicate the importance of assessing early vocalizations in toddlers with ASD, suggesting that some common symptoms of ASD, such as lack of typical, emotional, and social functions in early vocalizations, could be used to develop screening and intervention programs related to ASD. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  6. For whom were Gospels written?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bauckham

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This arlcie challenges the current consensus in Gospels scholarship that each Gospel was written for a specific church or group of churches. It argues that, since all our evidence about the early Christian movement shows it to have been a network of communities in constant, close communication, since all our evidence about early Christian leaders, such as might have written Gospels, shows them to have been typically people who travelled widely around the churches, and since, moreover, the evidence we have about early Christian literature shows that it did in fact circulate rapidily and widely, the strong probability is that the Gospels were written for general circulation around all the churches.

  7. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  8. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  9. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  10. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  11. [Clinical analysis of vocal fold firbrous mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sun, Jing Wu; Wan, Guang Lun; Hu, Yan Ming

    2018-03-01

    To explore the character of laryngoscopy finding, voice, and therapy of vocal fold fibrous mass. Clinical data, morphology, voice character, surgery and pathology of 15 cases with vocal fold fibrous mass were analyzed. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Laryngoscopy revealed shuttle line appearance, smoothness and decreased mucosal wave of vocal fold. These patients were invalid for voice training and might be improved by surgery, but recovery is slow. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Conservative treatment is ineffective for this disease, and surgery might improve. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  12. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  14. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  15. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H

    1998-06-01

    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  16. Failure to Follow Written Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Most tasks in aviation have a mandated written procedure to be followed specifically under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 14, Section 43.13(a). However, the incidence of Failure to Follow Procedure (FFP) events continues to be a major iss...

  17. Vocal warm-up practices and perceptions in vocalists: a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Allison; Kunduk, Melda; Sims, Loraine; McWhorter, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Investigated in a pilot study the type, duration, and frequency of vocal warm-up regimens in the singing community using a survey. One hundred seventeen participants completed an online survey. Participants included voice students from undergraduate, masters, and doctoral music programs and professional singers. Fifty-four percent of participants reported always using vocal warm-up before singing. Twenty-two percent of the participants used vocal cool down. The most preferred warm-up duration was of 5-10 minutes in duration. Despite using vocal warm-up, 26% of the participants reported experiencing voice problems. Females tended to use vocal warm-up more frequently than males. Females also tended to use longer warm-up sessions than males. Education of the participants did not appear to have any noticeable effect on the vocal warm-up practices. The most commonly used singing warm-up exercises were ascending/descending five-note scales, ascending/descending octave scales, legato arpeggios, and glissandi. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  19. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  1. Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  2. Numerical approximations of flow induced vibrations of vocal folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sváček Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on mathematical modelling of incompressible fluid flow interacting with vibrations of an elastic vocal fold. The flow in moving domain is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE form. The channel geometry is an approximation of the human glottal region. The flow model is coupled with a simplified structure model. The problem is mathematically described and the resulting fluid-structure interaction problem is discretized by a stabilized finite element method. A strong coupling algorithm is applied for solution of the coupled fluid-structure problem. The choice of boundary conditions is discussed, particularly the choice of different artificial inlet/outlet boundary conditions is described in details. The numerical results are shown.

  3. Numerical approximations of flow induced vibrations of vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sváček, Petr

    The paper focus on mathematical modelling of incompressible fluid flow interacting with vibrations of an elastic vocal fold. The flow in moving domain is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) form. The channel geometry is an approximation of the human glottal region. The flow model is coupled with a simplified structure model. The problem is mathematically described and the resulting fluid-structure interaction problem is discretized by a stabilized finite element method. A strong coupling algorithm is applied for solution of the coupled fluid-structure problem. The choice of boundary conditions is discussed, particularly the choice of different artificial inlet/outlet boundary conditions is described in details. The numerical results are shown.

  4. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  5. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the role of emerging voluntary control of vocalization in language evolution. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé, Gino

    2016-03-01

    This comment will be focused on the role of monkey vocal control in the evolution of language. I will essentially reiterate the observations expressed in a commentary [1] about the book ;How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis;, written by Arbib [2]. I will hopefully clarify our suggestion that non-human primates vocal communication, in conjunction with gestures, could have had an active role in the emergence of the first voluntary forms of utterances that will later shape protospeech. This suggestion is mainly rooted in neurophysiological data about vocal control in monkey. I will very briefly summarize how neurophysiological data allowed us to suggest a possible role for monkey vocalization in language evolution. We conducted a study [3] in which we recorded from ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of macaques trained to emit vocalizations (i.e. coo-calls). The results showed that the rostro-lateral part of PMv contains neurons that fire during conditioned vocalization. The involvement of PMv in vocalization production was further supported by electrical microstimulation of the cortical sector where some of the vocalization neurons were found. Microstimulation elicited in some cases a combination of jaw, tongue and larynx movements. To us, the evolutionary implications of those results were obvious: a partial voluntary vocal control was already taking place in the primate PMv cortex some 25 million years ago.

  7. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  8. Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Benkrid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC. This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM. This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.

  9. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  10. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  11. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  12. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  13. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. The Vocal Extent Measure: Development of a Novel Parameter in Voice Diagnostics and Initial Clinical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp P. Caffier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice range profile (VRP and evaluation using the dysphonia severity index (DSI represent essentials of instrument-based objective voice diagnostics and are implemented in different standardized registration programs. The respective measurement results, however, show differences. The aim of the study was to prove these differences statistically and to develop a new parameter, the Vocal Extent Measure (VEM, which is not influenced by the measurement program. VRPs of 97 subjects were recorded by two examiners using the established registration programs DiVAS (XION medical and LingWAVES (WEVOSYS simultaneously. The VEM was developed on the basis of VRP area and perimeter. All 194 VRP files were analyzed for various parameters and gender independence. The registration programs exhibited significant differences in several vocal parameters. A significant gender influence for DSI was found with DiVAS (p<0.01, but not with LingWAVES. The VEM quantified the dynamic performance and frequency range by a unidimensional, interval-scaled value without unit, mostly between 0 and 120. This novel parameter represents an intelligible and user-friendly positive measure of vocal function, allows simple and stable VRP description, and seems to be suitable for quantification of vocal capacity. In contrast to DSI, the VEM proved to be less susceptible to registration program and gender.

  15. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. L'enseignement du francais par ordinateur: Les programmes conversationnels au Cafe (Cours autodidactique de francais ecrit) [Teaching French by Computer: Conversational Programs in "Cafe" (Self-instructional Course in Written French)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landriault, Bernard; Connolly, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Computer technology has been used to develop "Cafe," a self-instructional course in written French communication, which is offered to the general public by the University of Montreal. The course consists of three workbooks containing 1200 items dealing with vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, agreements, morphology, syntax, and fine points of…

  17. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsner-Smith, Mara R.; Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal…

  19. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  20. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  1. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  2. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  3. 47 CFR 76.936 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.936 Written decision. (a) A franchising authority... of interested parties. A franchising authority is not required to issue a written decision that...

  4. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  5. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  6. Endo-extralaryngeal Laterofixation of the Vocal Folds in Patients with Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Susanne; Teymoortash, Afshin; Hanschmann, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis can result in shortness of breath and severe dyspnea which can be life-threatening. Thirty-five patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endo-extralaryngeal laterofixation according to Lichtenberger were retrospectively analyzed regarding etiology, symptoms, treatment and complications. In 27 patients, laterofixation of the vocal cord alone was performed. Eight patients underwent laterofixation and additional posterior chordectomy of the opposite vocal cord according to Dennis and Kashima. The time of intervention ranged from 1 day to 38 years after the onset of bilateral vocal cord immobility. The intraoperative course was uneventful in all patients. None of the patients had postoperative aspiration. Postoperative voice function was acceptable in all patients. Complications of suture laterofixation were laryngeal edema, formation of fibrin, and malposition of the suture. Laterofixation of the vocal cords according to Lichtenberger is a safe and easy method that can be used as a first-stage treatment of vocal cord paralysis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  8. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    OpenAIRE

    Louzada,Talita; Beraldinelle,Roberta; Berretin-Felix,Giédre; Brasolotto,Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: F...

  9. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  11. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    ” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline......Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa...... pain. Furthermore, changes from nonpainful to painful stimulations in these parameters also significantly predicted concurrent changes in pain ratings. Conclusion: Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific...

  12. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    for studying the origins and neural basis of human language. Vocalizations belonging to the same species, or Conspecific Vocalizations (CVs), are...applications including automatic speech recognition [17], speech enhancement [18], voice activity detection [19], hyper-nasality detection [20], and emotion ...vocalizations. The feature sets chosen have the desirable property of capturing characteristics of the signals that are useful in both identifying and

  13. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  14. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  15. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  16. 42 CFR 456.80 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.80 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a hospital or before authorization for... and rehabilitative services; (iv) Activities; (v) Social services; (vi) Diet; (4) Plans for continuing...

  17. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  18. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... because it offers a quantitative measure of the voice capacity and intensity, which are the major problems experienced by patients with vocal fold paralysis. Used together, these tools are highly instrumental in guiding the patient's choice of surgery or no surgery. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  19. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  20. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  1. [Biofeedback in young singer vocal training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Paula; Ciochină, Al D; Burlui, Ada; Zaharia, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a learning process that is based on "operant conditioning" techniques. To estimate the significance of biofeedback to an accurate and faster control of singing voice emission. Significantly, it was discovered that professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theatre repertoire with regard to the visual-kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affect vocal timbre. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for youth singer vocal training, may be useful to these singers.

  2. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  3. Functional results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Denk, Doris-Maria; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    A persistent insufficiency of glottal closure is mostly a consequence of a unilateral vocal fold movement impairment. It can also be caused by vocal fold atrophy or scarring processes with regular bilateral respiratory vocal fold function. Because of consequential voice, breathing, and swallowing impairments, a functional surgical treatment is required. The goal of the study was to outline the functional results after medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant according to Friedrich. In the period of 1999 to 2001, an external vocal fold medialization using the titanium implant was performed on 28 patients (12 women and 16 men). The patients were in the age range of 19 to 84 years. Twenty-two patients had a paralysis of the left-side vocal fold, and six patients, of the right-side vocal fold. Detailed functional examinations were executed on all patients before and after the surgery: perceptive voice sound analysis according to the "roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness" method, judgment of the s/z ratio and voice dysfunction index, voice range profile measurements, videostroboscopy, and pulmonary function tests. In case of dysphagia/aspiration, videofluoroscopy of swallowing was also performed. The respective data were statistically analyzed (paired t test, Wilcoxon-test). All patients reported on improvement of voice, swallowing, and breathing functions postoperatively. Videostroboscopy revealed an almost complete glottal closure after surgery in all of the patients. All voice-related parameters showed a significant improvement. An increase of the laryngeal resistance by the medialization procedure could be excluded by analysis of the pulmonary function test. The results confirm the external medialization of the vocal folds as an adequate method in the therapy of voice, swallowing, and breathing impairment attributable to an insufficient glottal closure. The titanium implant offers, apart from good tissue tolerability, the

  4. Vocal Tract and Glottal Function During and After Vocal Exercising With Resonance Tube and Straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzman, M.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Krupa, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J.G.; Geneid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), "523.e19"-"523.e34" ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vocal exercises * resonance tube * vocal tract impedance * computerized tomography * singer’s/speaker’s formant cluster Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08921997

  5. Vocal Fold Injection: Review of Indications, Techniques, and Materials for Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mallur, Pavan S.; Rosen, Clark A.

    2010-01-01

    Vocal fold injection is a procedure that has over a 100 year history but was rarely done as short as 20 years ago. A renaissance has occurred with respect to vocal fold injection due to new technologies (visualization and materials) and new injection approaches. Awake, un-sedated vocal fold injection offers many distinct advantages for the treatment of glottal insufficiency (vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold atrophy and vocal fold scar). A review of materials available and ...

  6. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  7. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  8. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  9. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  10. Glass ionomer application for vocal fold augmentation: Histopathological analysis on rabbit vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Callıoglu, Elif Ersoy; Yumusak, Nihat; Arslan, Necmi; Baltacı, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an injection material for vocal fold augmentation and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Under general anesthesia, 0.1-cc GIC was injected to one vocal fold and the augmentation of vocal fold was observed. No injection was applied to the opposite side, which was accepted as the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months and the laryngeal specimens were histopathologically evaluated. The injected and the noninjected control vocal folds were analyzed. The GIC particles were observed in histological sections on the injected side, and no foreign body giant cells, granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, or marked chronic inflammation were detected around the glass ionomer particles. Mild inflammatory reactions were noticed in only two specimens. The noninjected sides of vocal folds were completely normal. The findings of this study suggest that GIC is biocompatible and may be further investigated as an alternative injection material for augmentation of the vocal fold. Further studies are required to examine the viscoelastic properties of GIC and the long-term effects in experimental studies. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  12. Hemispheric processing of vocal emblem sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann-Werth, Yael; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K

    2013-01-01

    Vocal emblems, such as shh and brr, are speech sounds that have linguistic and nonlinguistic features; thus, it is unclear how they are processed in the brain. Five adult dextral individuals with left-brain damage and moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia, five adult dextral individuals with right-brain damage, and five Controls participated in two tasks: (1) matching vocal emblems to photographs ('picture task') and (2) matching vocal emblems to verbal translations ('phrase task'). Cross-group statistical analyses on items on which the Controls performed at ceiling revealed lower accuracy by the group with left-brain damage (than by Controls) on both tasks, and lower accuracy by the group with right-brain damage (than by Controls) on the picture task. Additionally, the group with left-brain damage performed significantly less accurately than the group with right-brain damage on the phrase task only. Findings suggest that comprehension of vocal emblems recruits more left- than right-hemisphere processing.

  13. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  14. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  15. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  16. Targeted transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Thompson, Paul; Kolb, Ilya; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-06-01

    Paralysis of the structures in the head and neck due to stroke or other neurological disorder often causes dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). Patients with dysphagia have a significantly higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that control the vocal folds, travels superiorly in parallel to the trachea in the tracheoesophageal groove. This study tests the hypothesis that functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transtracheal electrodes can produce controlled vocal fold adduction. Bipolar electrodes were placed at 15° intervals around the interior mucosal surface of the canine trachea, and current was applied to the tissue while electromyography (EMG) from the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and vocal fold movement visualization via laryngoscopy were recorded. The lowest EMG thresholds were found at an average location of 100° to the left of the ventral midsagittal line and 128° to the right. A rotatable pair of bipolar electrodes spaced 230° apart were able to stimulate bilaterally both RLNs in every subject. Laryngoscopy showed complete glottal closure with transtracheal stimulation in six of the eight subjects, and this closure was maintained under simultaneous FES-induced laryngeal elevation. Transtracheal stimulation is an effective tool for minimally invasive application of FES to induce vocal fold adduction, providing an alternative mechanism to study airway protection.

  17. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  18. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this reportwe present an adult patient with hemangioma ofthe left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnosticinvestigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extendedfrom the anterior comissure to the posterior partof true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventriculeand extending to supraglottic region. Directlaryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excisedbecause of its widespread extension in the larynx. JClin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 91-94

  19. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  20. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa; Niebuhr, Oliver; Kunz, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels "u," "a," "i", and "schwa"

  1. Effects of vocal training in a musicophile with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbiks, Jonathan M P; Vuvan, Dominique T; Girard, Pier-Yves; Peretz, Isabelle; Russo, Frank A

    2016-12-01

    Congenital amusia is a condition in which an individual suffers from a deficit of musical pitch perception and production. Individuals suffering from congenital amusia generally tend to abstain from musical activities. Here, we present the unique case of Tim Falconer, a self-described musicophile who also suffers from congenital amusia. We describe and assess Tim's attempts to train himself out of amusia through a self-imposed 18-month program of formal vocal training and practice. We tested Tim with respect to music perception and vocal production across seven sessions including pre- and post-training assessments. We also obtained diffusion-weighted images of his brain to assess connectivity between auditory and motor planning areas via the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Tim's behavioral and brain data were compared to that of normal and amusic controls. While Tim showed temporary gains in his singing ability, he did not reach normal levels, and these gains faded when he was not engaged in regular lessons and practice. Tim did show some sustained gains with respect to the perception of musical rhythm and meter. We propose that Tim's lack of improvement in pitch perception and production tasks is due to long-standing and likely irreversible reduction in connectivity along the AF fiber tract.

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal

  3. A case of bilateral vocal fold mucosal bridges, bilateral trans-vocal fold type III sulci vocales, and an intracordal polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Melin; Pitman, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    We present a patient with a novel finding of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales, and a vocal fold polyp. Although sulci and mucosal bridges occur in the vocal folds, it is rare to find multiples of these lesions in a single patient, and it is even more uncommon when they occur in conjunction with a vocal fold polyp. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a vocal fold polyp in combination with multiple vocal fold bridges and multiple type III sulci vocales in a single patient. To describe and visually present the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an intracordal polyp, bilateral mucosal bridges, as well as bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales. Presentation of a set of high definition intraoperative photos displaying the extent of the vocal fold lesions and the resection of the intracordal polyp. This patient presented with only 6 months of significant dysphonia. It was felt that the recent change in voice was because of the polyp and not the bridges or sulci vocales. Considering the patient's presentation and the possible morbidity of resection of mucosal bridges and sulci, only the polyp was excised. Postoperatively, the patient's voice returned to his acceptable mild baseline dysphonia, and the benefit has persisted 6 months postoperatively. The combination of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III sulcus vocalis, and an intracordal polyp in one patient is rare if not novel. Treatment of the polyp alone returned the patient's voice to his lifelong baseline of mild dysphonia. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A CDL written intercom editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.S.; Shirikov, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    This report contains the formalized description of the program EDITOR which is the most important part of the teleprocessing system INTERCOM driving terminals for CDC series 6000 and CYBER computers. CDL (Compiler Description language) is used for this description. EDITOR is a tool for the text file acquisition and modifications. It also gives the possibility to execute some commands to the computer software. The EDITOR independent description may be used for the implementation of EDITOR-like programmes for different types of computers (is particular, small computers)

  5. Catecholaminergic contributions to vocal communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2015-05-01

    Social context affects behavioral displays across a variety of species. For example, social context acutely influences the acoustic and temporal structure of vocal communication signals such as speech and birdsong. Despite the prevalence and importance of such social influences, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the social modulation of communication. Catecholamines are implicated in the regulation of social behavior and motor control, but the degree to which catecholamines influence vocal communication signals remains largely unknown. Using a songbird, the Bengalese finch, we examined the extent to which the social context in which song is produced affected immediate early gene expression (EGR-1) in catecholamine-synthesising neurons in the midbrain. Further, we assessed the degree to which administration of amphetamine, which increases catecholamine concentrations in the brain, mimicked the effect of social context on vocal signals. We found that significantly more catecholaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (but not the central grey, locus coeruleus or subcoeruleus) expressed EGR-1 in birds that were exposed to females and produced courtship song than in birds that produced non-courtship song in isolation. Furthermore, we found that amphetamine administration mimicked the effects of social context and caused many aspects of non-courtship song to resemble courtship song. Specifically, amphetamine increased the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing, the repetition of vocal elements and the degree of sequence completions. Taken together, these data highlight the conserved role of catecholamines in vocal communication across species, including songbirds and humans. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. A sonoridade vocal e a prática coral no Barroco: subsídios para a performance barroca nos dias atuais The vocal sonority and the choral practice in the Baroque period: guidelines for today's Baroque music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo José Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma pequena parte de uma ampla pesquisa sobre prática e sonoridade de diversos estilos de música coral. A partir de uma investigação bibliográfica, que inclui autores desde o período Barroco, temos como objetivos: a descrição da sonoridade vocal e coral ao longo do referido período; a abordagem dos tipos vocais da época; a análise de alguns procedimentos técnico-vocais; a descrição de características importantes da prática coral no período; e, por fim, uma apresentação de sugestões técnicas e estilísticas para a prática da música coral barroca na atualidade.This paper is a small part of a large research on practice and sonority of many choral music styles. Through bibliographical investigation of works written by authors from the Baroque period to the present, our goals are: the description of the vocal sonority throughout the Baroque period; the presentations of the vocal types in the Baroque; the analysis of some vocal techniques; the description of important aspects of the choral practice of the period; and finally, the presentation of some technical and stylistic suggestions for the practice of the Baroque choral music in the present.

  8. Perfil vocal do guia de turismo Vocal profile of tourism guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil vocal dos guias de turismo, bem como gênero e idade. MÉTODOS: participaram desse estudo 23 guias de turismo, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 25 a 64 anos, participantes do Sindicato de Guias de Turismo do Estado de Pernambuco, que compareceram às reuniões trimestrais no período da coleta. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo, observacional e transversal. Para coleta foi realizada avaliação perceptivo-auditiva GRBAS. RESULTADOS: observou-se que a maioria dos guias apresentou loudness adequada, pitch normal e voz alterada. Além disso, as médias dos tempos máximos de fonação das vogais e das fricativas encontravam-se reduzidas e ataque vocal isocrônico. A ressonância, na maioria dos guias, estava equilibrada, mas houve uma incidência de ressonância laringo-faringea. A articulação foi precisa, com tipo e modo respiratório misto e nasal, respectivamente. Quanto à escala GRBAS as alterações apareceram de forma leve no G (grau de alteração vocal em 68%. CONCLUSÃO: na amostra estudada, a maioria era do gênero feminino com média de idade de 46 anos, e perfil vocal caracterizado por tempo máximo de fonação reduzidos, relação s/z adequado, ataque vocal isocrônico, pitch normal, loudness adequado, qualidade vocal alterada, com presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, tensão. A ressonância da maioria estava equilibrada e a articulação precisa, com tipo e modo respiratório misto e nasal, respectivamente. Quanto à escala GRBAS, as alterações apareceram de forma leve no grau de alteração vocal (G em 68% e tensão (S em 78% dos sujeitos.PURPOSE: to characterize the vocal profile of tourism guides, as well as gender and age. METHODS: 23 guides took part in this study, of both genders, with age between 25 to 64 years, partakers of the Union of Tourism Guides of the State of Pernambuco, who appeared to the quarterly meetings in the period of the collection. It is a descriptive

  9. Feedforward: helping students interpret written feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Hurford, Donna; Read, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners... "(Assessment Reform Group, 2002, p.2): for the Higher Education tutor, written feedback forms an integral part of this. This short article reports on teaching methods to engage students in feedback and assessment of their written work.

  10. Is laughter a better vocal change detector than a growl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Vasconcelos, Margarida; Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-07-01

    The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach. Specifically, we examined the brain response to standards (Repetition Positivity) and to deviants (Mismatch Negativity - MMN), as well as the anticipatory response to the vocal sounds (pre-stimulus beta oscillatory power). Short neutral, happy (laughter), and angry (growls) vocalizations were presented both as standard and deviant stimuli in a passive oddball listening task while participants watched a silent movie and were instructed to ignore the vocalizations. MMN amplitude was increased for happy compared to neutral and angry vocalizations. The Repetition Positivity was enhanced for happy standard vocalizations. Induced pre-stimulus upper beta power was increased for happy vocalizations, and predicted the modulation of the standard Repetition Positivity. These findings indicate enhanced sensory prediction for positive vocalizations such as laughter. Together, the results suggest that positive vocalizations are more effective predictors in social communication than angry and neutral ones, possibly due to their high social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vocal quality in university teachers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, E; Claeys, S; Wuyts, F; Van Lierde, K M

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the vocal quality of 20 male and 9 female university teachers using a multi-parameter approach. Secondly, the effect of an academic lecture on the voice profiles of the university teachers was measured. All groups underwent subjective voice evaluations (perceptual evaluation, Voice Handicap Index, anamnesis of vocal complaints and vocal abuse) and objective voice evaluations (aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, vocal performance, and the Dysphonia Severity Index). The same voice assessment was performed after an academic lecture with a mean length of one and a half hours. The mean DSI score was + 2.2 for the male teachers and + 4.0 for the female teachers. The mean VHI score was 13. Perceptually, all voice parameters were rated as normal. The questionnaire revealed a relatively high amount of vocal abuse. No changes in the objective vocal parameters were found after the lecture. Perceptually, however, the voices of the university teachers were significantly less instable after the lecture. Although no negative changes in objective vocal quality were observed, 48% of the university teachers experienced subjective vocal changes. The authors concluded that university teachers are professional voice users with good vocal quality who suffer no handicapping effect from possible voice disorders. No important changes in the vocal profile after a teaching activity of one and a half hours were found, despite the high prevalence of voice complaints.

  12. Vocal fold paresis - a debilitating and underdiagnosed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G; O'Meara, C; Pemberton, C; Rough, J; Darveniza, P; Tisch, S; Cole, I

    2017-07-01

    To review the clinical signs of vocal fold paresis on laryngeal videostroboscopy, to quantify its impact on patients' quality of life and to confirm the benefit of laryngeal electromyography in its diagnosis. Twenty-nine vocal fold paresis patients were referred for laryngeal electromyography. Voice Handicap Index 10 results were compared to 43 patients diagnosed with vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal videostroboscopy analysis was conducted to determine side of paresis. Blinded laryngeal electromyography confirmed vocal fold paresis in 92.6 per cent of cases, with vocal fold lag being the most common diagnostic sign. The laryngology team accurately predicted side of paresis in 76 per cent of cases. Total Voice Handicap Index 10 responses were not significantly different between vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis groups (26.08 ± 0.21 and 22.93 ± 0.17, respectively). Vocal fold paresis has a significant impact on quality of life. This study shows that laryngeal electromyography is an important diagnostic tool. Patients with persisting dysphonia and apparently normal vocal fold movement, who fail to respond to appropriate speech therapy, should be investigated for a diagnosis of vocal fold paresis.

  13. Quantitative electromyographic characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Han; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis with no preceding causes is diagnosed as idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis. However, comprehensive guidelines for evaluating the defining characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis are still lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis may have different clinical and neurologic characteristics from unilateral vocal fold paralysis caused by surgical trauma. Retrospective, case series study. Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were evaluated using quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice acoustic analysis, the Voice Outcome Survey, and the Short Form-36 Health Survey quality-of-life questionnaire. Patients with idiopathic and iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis were compared. A total of 124 patients were recruited. Of those, 17 with no definite identified causes after evaluation and follow-up were assigned to the idiopathic group. The remaining 107 patients with surgery-induced vocal fold paralysis were assigned to the iatrogenic group. Patients in the idiopathic group had higher recruitment of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex and better quality of life compared with the iatrogenic group. Idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis has a distinct clinical presentation, with relatively minor denervation changes in the involved laryngeal muscles, and less impact on quality of life compared with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:E362-E368, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation. PMID:25992109

  15. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  16. Changes after voice therapy in objective and subjective voice measurements of pediatric patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.

  17. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Watts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. Methods A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL. Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Results Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Conclusions Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment

  19. Repeated imitation makes human vocalizations more word-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Perlman, Marcus; Lupyan, Gary

    2018-03-14

    People have long pondered the evolution of language and the origin of words. Here, we investigate how conventional spoken words might emerge from imitations of environmental sounds. Does the repeated imitation of an environmental sound gradually give rise to more word-like forms? In what ways do these forms resemble the original sounds that motivated them (i.e. exhibit iconicity)? Participants played a version of the children's game 'Telephone'. The first generation of participants imitated recognizable environmental sounds (e.g. glass breaking, water splashing). Subsequent generations imitated the previous generation of imitations for a maximum of eight generations. The results showed that the imitations became more stable and word-like, and later imitations were easier to learn as category labels. At the same time, even after eight generations, both spoken imitations and their written transcriptions could be matched above chance to the category of environmental sound that motivated them. These results show how repeated imitation can create progressively more word-like forms while continuing to retain a resemblance to the original sound that motivated them, and speak to the possible role of human vocal imitation in explaining the origins of at least some spoken words. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  1. Effect of Vocal Fold Medialization on Dysphagia in Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Daniel J; Venkatesan, Naren N; Strong, Brandon; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    The effect of vocal fold medialization (VFM) on vocal improvement in persons with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) is well established. The effect of VFM on the symptom of dysphagia is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate dysphagia symptoms in patients with UVFI pre- and post-VFM. Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary care medical center. The charts of 44 persons with UVFI who underwent VFM between June 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, were abstracted from a prospectively maintained database at the University of California, Davis, Voice and Swallowing Center. Patient demographics, indications, and type of surgical procedure were recorded. Self-reported swallowing impairment was assessed with the validated 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) before and after surgery. A paired samples t test was used to compare pre- and postmedialization EAT-10 scores. Forty-four patients met criteria and underwent either vocal fold injection (73%) or thyroplasty (27%). Etiologies of vocal fold paralysis were iatrogenic (55%), idiopathic (29%), benign or malignant neoplastic (9%), traumatic (5%), or related to the late effects of radiation (2%). EAT-10 (mean ± SD) scores improved from 12.2 ± 11.1 to 7.7 ± 7.2 after medialization (P dysphagia and report significant improvement in swallowing symptoms following VFM. The symptomatic improvement appears to be durable over time. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  4. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  5. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  6. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  7. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  8. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  9. A validated battery of vocal emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maurage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the exploration of emotions focused on facial expression, and vocal expression of emotion has only recently received interest. However, no validated battery of emotional vocal expressions has been published and made available to the researchers’ community. This paper aims at validating and proposing such material. 20 actors (10 men recorded sounds (words and interjections expressing six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral and sadness. These stimuli were then submitted to a double validation phase: (1 preselection by experts; (2 quantitative and qualitative validation by 70 participants. 195 stimuli were selected for the final battery, each one depicting a precise emotion. The ratings provide a complete measure of intensity and specificity for each stimulus. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first validated, freely available and highly standardized battery of emotional vocal expressions (words and intonations. This battery could constitute an interesting tool for the exploration of prosody processing among normal and pathological populations, in neuropsychology as well as psychiatry. Further works are nevertheless needed to complement the present material.

  10. Discourse Features of Written Mexican Spanish: Current Research in Contrastive Rhetoric and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Harmon, Maria Rosario

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes discourse features of compositions written in Spanish by secondary school students in Mexico, draws comparisons with those written in English by Anglo-American students in the United States, and discusses the implications of the results for teaching and evaluating composition skills in Spanish language programs. (29 references) (GLR)

  11. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  12. Acoustic vocal tract model of one-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović, Milan; Bogavac, Ivana; Dobrijević, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant) frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract...

  13. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  14. The voice conveys specific emotions: Evidence from vocal burst displays

    OpenAIRE

    Simon-Thomas, E.; Keltner, D.; Sauter, D.; Sinicropi-Yao, L.; Abramson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more ...

  15. 10 CFR 2.813 - Written communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other written communications under the regulations of this chapter is requested but not required to cite whenever practical, in the upper right corner of the first page of the submission, the specific regulation...

  16. Defects in ultrasonic vocalization of cadherin-6 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although some molecules have been identified as responsible for human language disorders, there is still little information about what molecular mechanisms establish the faculty of human language. Since mice, like songbirds, produce complex ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication in several social contexts, they can be good mammalian models for studying the molecular basis of human language. Having found that cadherins are involved in the vocal development of the Bengalese finch, a songbird, we expected cadherins to also be involved in mouse vocalizations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine whether similar molecular mechanisms underlie the vocalizations of songbirds and mammals, we categorized behavioral deficits including vocalization in cadherin-6 knockout mice. Comparing the ultrasonic vocalizations of cadherin-6 knockout mice with those of wild-type controls, we found that the peak frequency and variations of syllables were differed between the mutant and wild-type mice in both pup-isolation and adult-courtship contexts. Vocalizations during male-male aggression behavior, in contrast, did not differ between mutant and wild-type mice. Open-field tests revealed differences in locomotors activity in both heterozygote and homozygote animals and no difference in anxiety behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that cadherin-6 plays essential roles in locomotor activity and ultrasonic vocalization. These findings also support the idea that different species share some of the molecular mechanisms underlying vocal behavior.

  17. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Human Vocal Fold Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgezen, Tolga; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Yigit, Ozgur; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the existence of sex hormone receptors in the subunits of vocal fold. This is a cadaver study. The androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors were examined in the epithelium (EP), superficial layer of the lamina propria (SLP), vocal ligament (VL), and macula flava (MF) of the vocal folds from 42 human cadavers (21 male, 21 female) by immunohistochemical methods. Their staining ratios were scored and statistically compared. The androgen receptor score was significantly higher for the MF than for the EP and SLP (P vocal fold, mostly in the MF and VLs. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  19. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  20. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  1. The influence of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies was investigated in a muscularly controlled continuum model of the vocal folds. Unlike the general understanding that vocal fold fundamental frequency was determined by vocal fold tension, this study showed that vocal fold eigenfrequencies were primarily determined by vocal fold stiffness. This study further showed that, with reference to the resting state of zero stra...

  2. The influence of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies was investigated in a muscularly controlled continuum model of the vocal folds. Unlike the general understanding that vocal fold fundamental frequency was determined by vocal fold tension, this study showed that vocal fold eigenfrequencies were primarily determined by vocal fold stiffness. This study further showed that, with reference to the resting state of zero strain, vocal fold stiffness in both body and cover layers increased with either vocal fold elongation or shortening. As a result, whether vocal fold eigenfrequencies increased or decreased with CT/TA activation depended on how the CT/TA interaction influenced vocal fold deformation. For conditions of strong CT activation and thus an elongated vocal fold, increasing TA contraction reduced the degree of vocal fold elongation and thus reduced vocal fold eigenfrequencies. For conditions of no CT activation and thus a resting or slightly shortened vocal fold, increasing TA contraction increased the degree of vocal fold shortening and thus increased vocal fold eigenfrequencies. In the transition region of a slightly elongated vocal fold, increasing TA contraction first decreased and then increased vocal fold eigenfrequencies. PMID:23654401

  3. Gender Differences in the Reporting of Vocal Fatigue in Teachers as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Banks, Russell E

    2017-12-01

    Occupational voice users report higher instances of vocal health problems. Women, who are more likely than men to report voice problems, are the largest members of some occupational voice users, such as teachers. While a common complaint among this population is vocal fatigue, it has been difficult to quantify. Therefore, the goal of this study is to quantify vocal fatigue generally in school teachers and investigate any related gender differences. Six hundred forty (518 female, 122 male) teachers were surveyed using an online questionnaire consisting in part of the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI), an index specifically designed to quantify vocal fatigue. Compared to vocally healthy adults, the teachers surveyed were 3 times as likely to report vocal tiredness or vocal avoidance and over 3 times as likely to report physical voice discomfort. Additionally, female teachers were more likely to have scores approaching those with dysphonia. The VFI quantified elevated levels of vocal fatigue in teachers, with a significant prevalence of symptoms reported among females compared to males. Further, because the VFI indicated elevated complaints (between normal and dysphonic) in a population likely to be elevated, the VFI might be used to identify early indications of voice problems and/or track recovery.

  4. Incidence of vocal fold immobility in patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Ross, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    This study prospectively investigated the incidence of vocal fold immobility, unilateral and bilateral, and its influence on aspiration status in a referred population of 1452 patients for a dysphagia evaluation from a large, urban, tertiary-care, teaching hospital. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of vocal fold immobility and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, etiology, and side of vocal fold immobility, i.e., right, left, or bilateral. Overall incidence of vocal fold immobility was 5.6% (81 of 1452 patients), including 47 males (mean age 55.7 yr) and 34 females (mean age 59.7 yr). In the subgroup of patients with vocal fold immobility, 31% (25 of 81) exhibited unilateral right, 60% (49 of 81) unilateral left, and 9% (7 of 81) bilateral impairment. Overall incidence of aspiration was found to be 29% (426 of 1452) of all patients referred for a swallow evaluation. Aspiration was observed in 44% (36 of 81) of patients presenting with vocal fold immobility, i.e., 44% (11 of 25) unilateral right, 43% (21 of 49) unilateral left, and 57% (4 of 7) bilateral vocal fold immobility. Left vocal fold immobility occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. A liquid bolus was aspirated more often than a puree bolus. Side of vocal fold immobility and age were not factors that increased incidence of aspiration. In conclusion, vocal fold immobility, with an incidence of 5.6%, is not an uncommon finding in patients referred for a dysphagia evaluation in the acute-care setting, and vocal fold immobility, when present, was associated with a 15% increased incidence of aspiration when compared with a population already being evaluated for dysphagia.

  5. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Low frequency mechanical resonance of the vocal tract in vocal exercises that apply tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jaromír; Radolf, Vojtěch; Laukkanen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, August (2017), s. 39-49 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01246S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * vocal tract acoustics * phonation into tubes * water resistance voice therapy * bubbling frequency * formant frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2016

  7. Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, J F; Peters, S; Nowicki, S; Mooney, R

    2008-01-17

    Brain mechanisms for communication must establish a correspondence between sensory and motor codes used to represent the signal. One idea is that this correspondence is established at the level of single neurons that are active when the individual performs a particular gesture or observes a similar gesture performed by another individual. Although neurons that display a precise auditory-vocal correspondence could facilitate vocal communication, they have yet to be identified. Here we report that a certain class of neurons in the swamp sparrow forebrain displays a precise auditory-vocal correspondence. We show that these neurons respond in a temporally precise fashion to auditory presentation of certain note sequences in this songbird's repertoire and to similar note sequences in other birds' songs. These neurons display nearly identical patterns of activity when the bird sings the same sequence, and disrupting auditory feedback does not alter this singing-related activity, indicating it is motor in nature. Furthermore, these neurons innervate striatal structures important for song learning, raising the possibility that singing-related activity in these cells is compared to auditory feedback to guide vocal learning.

  8. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction with a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gabriel E.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E.; Zañartu, Matías

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method: A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is…

  9. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  10. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  11. Vocal cord paralysis associated with Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna

    2014-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is defined by herpes zoster oticus and peripheral facial nerve palsy which is often associated with otalgia. The syndrome is, in rare cases, associated with other cranial nerve paralyses including the vagal nerve causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Vocal cord paralysis...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  13. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  14. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  15. Assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Aubin, Thierry

    2014-08-06

    Vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. Such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. For example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. This approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, and even then may be affected by differences in syllable complexity. Using skylarks (Alauda arvensis) as a birdsong model with a very complex song structure, we detected another performance trade-off: minimum gap duration between syllables was longer when the frequency ratio between the end of one syllable and the start of the next syllable (inter-syllable frequency shift) was large. This allowed us to apply a novel measure of vocal performance ¿ vocal gap deviation: the deviation from a lower-bound regression of gap duration on inter-syllable frequency shift. We show that skylarks increase vocal performance in an aggressive context suggesting that this trait might serve as a signal for competitive potential. We suggest using vocal gap deviation in future studies to assess vocal performance in songbird species with complex structure.

  16. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relations of Mothers' Controlling Vocalizations to Children's Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Coded maternal vocalizations during videotaped play sessions of mothers and their six- or seven-year-old children. Children's intrinsic motivation was assessed by observing children's play when they were alone in a room. Found a negative relationship between maternal controlling vocalizations and children's intrinsic motivation. (MM)

  18. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Poletto, Christopher J; Saxon, Keith G; Kearney, Pamela R; Ludlow, Christy L

    2008-01-01

    Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and may benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Prospective single effects study. The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using 10 different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (P vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (P = .03). Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing, and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening.

  19. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  20. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  2. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  3. Alternative measures to observe and record vocal fold vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; McCafferty, G; Coman, W; Carroll, R

    1996-01-01

    Vocal fold vibration patterns form the basis for the production of vocal sound. Over the years much effort has been spend to optimize the ways to visualize and give a description of these patterns. Before video possibilities became available the description of the patterns was Very time-consuming.

  4. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  5. Acute vocal fold hemorrhage caught on video during office exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L; Smith, Libby J

    2009-03-01

    This article presents a unique video of a laryngeal exam during which a vocal fold hemorrhage occurs. This patient had likely been suffering from intermittent vocal fold hemorrhages for the last decade due to a persistent vascular lesion and an underlying chronic cough.

  6. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  7. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-time system for studies of the effects of acoustic feedback on animal vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eSkocik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of behavioral and neural responses to distorted auditory feedback can help shed light on the neural mechanisms of animal vocalizations. We describe an apparatus for generating real-time acoustic feedback. The system can very rapidly detect acoustic features in a song and output acoustic signals if the detected features match the desired acoustic template. The system uses spectrogram-based detection of acoustic elements. It is low-cost and can be programmed for a variety of behavioral experiments requiring acoustic feedback or neural stimulation. We use the system to study the effects of acoustic feedback on birds' vocalizations and demonstrate that such an acoustic feedback can cause both immediate and long-term changes to birds’ songs.

  9. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head...

  10. IMPAIRED MOBILITY OF VOCAL FOLDS - etiology and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Pintarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords affects some significant aspects of a human life: breathing, swallowing and speech. The major causes for reduced mobility or even immobility are innervation damage, less often fixation of vocal cord or impaired mobility of crycoarytenoid joint. An injury of the superior or/and inferior laryngeal nerve can be a consequence of different medical procedures, tumor growth, trauma, infection, neurological disorders, radiation exposure, toxic damage, impaired circulation of the area or it is idiopathic. The symptoms are different in the case of unilateral and bilateral paresis of the vocal folds. They also depend on the cause for the impaired mobility. In the patients with unilateral vocal fold paresis, hoarseness and aspiration during swallowing are the leading symptoms. In the bilateral vocal fold paralysis, dyspnea prevails. 

  11. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  12. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  13. Oral vs. written evaluation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions......In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions...

  14. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Teaching Experience and Specialty (Vocal or Instrumental) on Vocal Health Ratings of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2010-01-01

    The current study sought to determine the relationship among music teachers' length of teaching experience, specialty (vocal or instrumental), and ratings of behaviors and teaching activities related to vocal health. Participants (N = 379) were experienced (n = 208) and preservice (n = 171) music teachers, further categorized by specialty, either…

  16. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  17. RIJOQ: VOCAL MUSIC OF DAYAK BENUAQ FROM KUTAI, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rijoq, a Dayak Benuaq vocal music, has been passed down from generation to generation through oral tradition for hundreds of years. When and how it was founded, developed and preserved in the Dayak community remains questionable. But according to some research done by scholars, Rijoq has its origin from Dayak Bawo, a tribe living in the borderlines between Central, South, and East Kalimantan. Rijoq is normally performed during festivities, such as: initiation, reconciliation, menugal (rice planting and potong kerbau (buffalo slaughtering. Rijoq’s texts have very deep messages which are considered still relevant to today’s life context. On the one hand, it speaks about the horizontal relationship—human beings and their fellows, and human beings and its nature—; and on the other hand, the vertical relationship—human beings with their Creator. The primary concern of doing this research is to preserve Rijoq as written and recorded documents. So far, this research has been successful in notating and recording five kinds of Rijoq, that is Peket Muat Bolupm (working together to build lives, Rijoq Patuk Ajer (advice, Rijoq Natal Tautn Bayuq (Christmas and New Year, Rijoq Isiq Asekng Sookng Bawe (the expression of a man’s feeling who is falling in love with a woman, and Rijoq Lati Tana Orekng Tepa (forests and lands are disappearing and gone. But this paper is not intended to discuss these five kinds of Rijoq. Isiq Asekng Sookng Bawe is chosen as it is the oldest and the most difficult Rijoq among the rest.

  18. Comparative analysis of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and indirect laryngoscopy for vocal assessment of a population with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Kátia; Amar, Ali; Abrahão, Marcio; Leite, Grazielle Capatto de Almeida; Köhle, Juliana; Santos, Alexandra de O; Correa, Luiz Artur Costa

    2005-01-01

    As a result of technology evolution and development, methods of voice evaluation have changed both in medical and speech and language pathology practice. To relate the results of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and medical evaluation in the diagnosis of vocal and/or laryngeal affections of the population with vocal complaint. Clinical prospective. 29 people that attended vocal health protection campaign were evaluated. They were submitted to perceptual evaluation (AFPA), acoustic analysis (AA), indirect laryngoscopy (LI) and telelaryngoscopy (TL). Correlations between medical and speech language pathology evaluation methods were established, verifying possible statistical signification with the application of Fischer Exact Test. There were statistically significant results in the correlation between AFPA and LI, AFPA and TL, LI and TL. This research study conducted in a vocal health protection campaign presented correlations between speech language pathology evaluation and perceptual evaluation and clinical evaluation, as well as between vocal affection and/or laryngeal medical exams.

  19. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  20. 37 CFR 251.43 - Written cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and redirect) must be referenced. (d) In the case of a royalty fee distribution proceeding, each party... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.43 Written cases. (a) All parties who have filed a notice of...

  1. Comparisons between written and computerised patient histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaak, Martien; Westerman, R. Frans; van Bemmel, Jan H.

    1987-01-01

    Patient histories were obtained from 99 patients in three different ways: by a computerised patient interview (patient record), by the usual written interview (medical record), and by the transcribed record, which was a computerised version of the medical record. Patient complaints, diagnostic

  2. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  3. 34 CFR 32.9 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the employee has submitted the financial statement and written explanation required under § 32.4(c... stating the facts supporting the nature and origin of the debt and the hearing official's analysis... determination of the existence and the amount of the overpayment or the extreme financial hardship caused by the...

  4. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  5. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  6. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  7. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  8. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds.

  9. Vocal cord palsy: An uncommon presenting feature of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Prahlad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord palsy can have myriad causes. Unilateral vocal cord palsy is common and frequently asymptomatic. Trauma, head, neck and mediastinal tumors as well as cerebrovascular accidents have been implicated in causing unilateral vocal cord palsy. Viral neuronitis accounts for most idiopathic cases. Bilateral vocal cord palsy, on the other hand, is much less common and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies targeting the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor, has been infrequently implicated in its causation. We report here a case of bilateral vocal cord palsy developing in a 68-year-old man with no prior history of myasthenia gravis 2 months after he was operated on for diverticulitis of the large intestine. Delay in considering the diagnosis led to endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation with attendant complications. Our case adds to the existing literature implicating myasthenia gravis as an infrequent cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy. Our case is unusual as, in our patient, acute-onset respiratory distress and stridor due to bilateral vocal cord palsy was the first manifestation of a myasthenic syndrome.

  10. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  11. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

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    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  12. Social vocalizations of big brown bats vary with behavioral context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A Gadziola

    Full Text Available Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller.

  13. Vocal evaluation in teachers with or without symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Elaine L M; Martins, Regina H G

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to perform voice evaluation in teachers with and without vocal symptoms, identifying etiologic factors of dysphonia, voice symptoms, vocal qualities, and laryngeal lesions. Eighty teachers were divided into two groups: GI (without or sporadic symptoms, 40) and GII (with frequent vocal symptoms, 40). They answered a specific questionnaire, and were subject to a perceptual vocal assessment (maximum phonation time, glottal attack, resonance, coordination of breathing and voicing, pitch, and loudness), GIRBAS scale, and to videolaryngoscopy. Females were predominant in both groups, and the age range was from 36 to 50 years. Elementary teachers predominated, working in classes with 31-40 students. Voice symptoms and alterations in the perceptual vocal analysis and in the GIRBAS scale were more frequent in GII. In 46 teachers (GI-16; GII-30), videolaryngoscopy exams were abnormal with the vocal nodules being the most frequent lesions. These results indicate that a teacher's voice is compromised, and requires more attention including control of environmental factors and associated diseases, preventive vocal hygiene, periodic laryngeal examinations, and access to adequate specialist treatment.

  14. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  15. Possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and vocal fold leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Hai-Tao

    2018-03-06

    Several studies have indicated the larynx as possible Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) reservoirs. This study explored the association between H. pylori and vocal fold leukoplakia. The case-control study involved 51 patients with vocal fold leukoplakia and 35 control patients with vocal polyps. Helicobacter pylori was detected in tissues by the rapid urease test, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and single-step PCR. The H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin antibodies were detected in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Helicobacter pylori-positive rate of vocal fold leukoplakia and vocal polyps was 23.5% versus 11.4% (P = .157), 37.2% versus 14.3% (P = .020), 27.5% versus 8.6% (P = .031), and 70.6% versus 68.6% (P = .841) detected by rapid urease test, nested PCR, single-step PCR, and ELISA, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that H. pylori infection (P = .044) was the independent risk factor for vocal fold leukoplakia. Helicobacter pylori infection exists in the larynx and may be associated with vocal fold leukoplakia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Specific features of vocal fold paralysis in functional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, H.; Serafin, Z.; Nawrocka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis is usually recognized in laryngological examination, and detailed vocal fold function may be established based on laryngovideostroboscopy. Additional imaging should exclude any morphological causes of the paresis, which should be treated pharmacologically or surgically. The aim of this paper was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) images of the larynx in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. CT examinations of the larynx were performed in 10 patients with clinically defined unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The examinations consisted of unenhanced acquisition and enhanced 3-phased acquisition: during free breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and phonation. The analysis included the following morphologic features of the paresis.the deepened epiglottic vallecula, the deepened piriform recess, the thickened and medially positioned aryepiglottic fold, the widened laryngeal pouch, the anteriorly positioned arytenoid cartilage, the thickened vocal fold, and the filled infraglottic space in frontal CT reconstruction. CT images were compared to laryngovideostroboscopy. The most common symptoms of vocal cord paralysis in CT were the deepened epiglottic vallecula and piriform recess, the widened laryngeal pouch with the filled infraglottic space, and the thickened aryepiglottic fold. Regarding the efficiency of the paralysis determination, the three functional techniques of CT larynx imaging used did not differ significantly, and laryngovideostroboscopy demonstrated its advantage over CT. CT of the larynx is a supplementary examination in the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis, which may enable topographic analysis of the fold dysfunction. The knowledge of morphological CT features of the paralysis may help to prevent false-positive diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. (author)

  17. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  18. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Radiation Fibrosis of the Vocal Fold: From Man to Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michael M.; Kolachala, Vasantha; Berg, Eric; Muller, Susan; Creighton, Frances X.; Branski, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize fundamental late tissue effects in the human vocal fold following radiation therapy. To develop a murine model of radiation fibrosis to ultimately develop both treatment and prevention paradigms. Design Translational study using archived human and fresh murine irradiated vocal fold tissue. Methods 1) Irradiated vocal fold tissue from patients undergoing laryngectomy for loss of function from radiation fibrosis were identified from pathology archives. Histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and whole-genome microarray as well as real-time transcriptional analyses was performed. 2) Focused radiation to the head and neck was delivered to mice in a survival fashion. One month following radiation, vocal fold tissue was analyzed with histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR transcriptional analysis for selected markers of fibrosis. Results Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrated increased collagen transcription with increased deposition and disorganization of collagen in both the thyroarytenoid muscle and the superficial lamina propria. Fibronectin were increased in the superficial lamina propria. Laminin decreased in the thyroarytenoid muscle. Whole genome microarray analysis demonstrated increased transcription of markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glycosaminoglycan production and apoptosis. Irradiated murine vocal folds demonstrated increases in collagen and fibronectin transcription and deposition in the lamina propria. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased in the lamina propria. Conclusion Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrate molecular changes leading to fibrosis that underlie loss of vocal fold pliability that occurs in patients following laryngeal irradiation. Irradiated murine tissue demonstrates similar findings, and this mouse model may have utility in creating prevention and treatment strategies for vocal fold radiation fibrosis. PMID:23242839

  20. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Innovative Acoustic Analysis to Predict the Postoperative Outcomes of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

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    Yung-An Tsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Autologous fat injection laryngoplasty is ineffective for some patients with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis, and additional laryngeal framework surgery is often required. An acoustically measurable outcome predictor for lipoinjection laryngoplasty would assist phonosurgeons in formulating treatment strategies. Methods. Seventeen thyroid surgery patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis participated in this study. All subjects underwent lipoinjection laryngoplasty to treat postsurgery vocal hoarseness. After treatment, patients were assigned to success and failure groups on the basis of voice improvement. Linear prediction analysis was used to construct a new voice quality indicator, the number of irregular peaks (NIrrP. It compared with the measures used in the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP, such as jitter (frequency perturbation and shimmer (perturbation of amplitude. Results. By comparing the [i] vowel produced by patients before the lipoinjection laryngoplasty (AUC = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.78–0.99, NIrrP was shown to be a more accurate predictor of long-term surgical outcomes than jitter (AUC = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.47–0.91 and shimmer (AUC = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.37–0.85, as identified by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusions. NIrrP measured using the LP model could be a more accurate outcome predictor than the parameters used in the MDVP.

  2. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  3. Comment on "Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s.

  4. Endoscopic vocal fold injection using a 25-gauge butterfly needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M A; Riffat, F; Palme, C E

    2016-04-01

    To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure. This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth. This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed. This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.

  5. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelou Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group. We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments.

  6. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  7. Voz e posição de prega vocal em homens com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal Voice and vocal fold position in men with unilateral vocal fold paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O posicionamento da prega vocal paralisada e o grau de disfonia são fatores importantes para decidir as opções de tratamento na paralisia de prega vocal unilateral (PPVU. OBJETIVO: Verificar as características perceptivo-auditivas da voz e a posição da prega vocal paralisada, em homens, com PPVU. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, coorte histórica, com corte transversal, com dados de 24 homens com PPVU, com média de 60,7 anos, submetidos à avaliação vocal perceptivo-auditiva da voz, por três juízas fonoaudiólogas e perceptivo-visual das imagens laríngeas, com a classificação da posição da prega vocal paralisada, por três juízes otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: A prega vocal paralisada em posição paramediana ocorreu em 45,83% dos casos; a intermediária, em 25%; a lateral, em 20,83%, e a mediana, em 4,16%; a disfonia resultante da PPVU foi caracterizada pela rouquidão, aspereza e tensão, de grau moderado; soprosidade (maior frequência do grau grave; astenia e instabilidade (maior frequência do grau leve; a posição da prega vocal paralisada influenciou significativamente o grau geral de desvio vocal. CONCLUSÃO: O grau geral de disfonia está relacionado com a posição da prega vocal paralisada; a disfonia é caracterizada pela presença de rouquidão, soprosidade, aspereza e tensão de grau moderado a grave.The paralyzed vocal fold positioning and the degree of dysphonia are important inputs when one is deciding upon treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP. OBJECTIVE: To check voice characteristics and paralyzed vocal fold position in men with UVFP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective historical cross-sectional cohort study, with data from 24 men with UVFP with mean age of 60.7 years, submitted to voice assessment by three speech therapists and three ENT physicians used laryngeal images to classify the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. RESULTS: The paralyzed vocal fold

  8. When internal communication becomes multi-vocal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory case study of communication on internal social media within the Danish bank, Jyske Bank. The study involved an analysis of staff interaction on internal social media over three months, as well as interviews with 17 of the bank......’s employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers...... are likely to converse about how to solve product and customer-related challenges, and to discuss working conditions. In addition, this study shows that coworkers co-construct organizational identity when they discuss questions such as: Who are we as an organization? Which products should we provide...

  9. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  10. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma.

  11. Memory for vocal tempo and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending. Experiment 2 examined the ability to recognise pitch or tempo when the two dimensions co-varied and found that the presence of one influenced the other: performance was best when both dimensions were positively correlated with one another. As a set, these findings indicate that pitch and tempo are automatically processed in a holistic, integral fashion [Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.] which has a number of cognitive implications.

  12. Differentiating vocal cord dysfunction from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretzayas A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Fretzayas,1,2 Maria Moustaki,3 Ioanna Loukou,3 Konstantinos Douros4 1Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece; 2Athens Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Marousi, Greece; 3Department of Cystic Fibrosis, “Aghia Sofia”, Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece; 4Respiratory Unit, Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece Abstract: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD-associated symptoms are not rare in pediatric patients. Dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, chest pain or tightness and throat discomfort are the most commonly encountered symptoms. They may occur either at rest or more commonly during exercise in patients with VCD, as well as in asthmatic subjects. The phase of respiration (inspiration rather than expiration, the location of the wheezing origin, the rapid resolution of symptoms, and the timing occurring in relation to exercise, when VCD is exercise induced, raise the suspicion of VCD in patients who may have been characterized as merely asthmatics and, most importantly, had not responded to the appropriate treatment. The gold standard method for the diagnosis of VCD is fiberoptic laryngoscopy, which may also identify concomitant laryngeal abnormalities other than VCD. However, as VCD is an intermittent phenomenon, the procedure should be performed while the patient is symptomatic. For this reason, challenges that induce VCD symptoms should be performed, such as exercise tests. Recently, for the evaluation of patients with exercise-induced VCD, continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (such as treadmill, bicycle ergometer, swimming was used. A definite diagnosis of VCD is of importance, especially for those patients who have been erroneously characterized as asthmatics, without adequate response to treatment. In these cases, another therapeutic approach is necessary, which will depend on

  13. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  14. Vocal pedagogy and contemporary commercial music : reflections on higher education non-classical vocal pedagogy in the United States and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Anu Katri

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the discipline of higher education contemporary commercial music (CCM) vocal pedagogy through the experiences of two vocal pedagogy teachers, the other in the USA and the other in Finland. The aim of this study has been to find out how the discipline presently looks from a vocal pedagogy teacher's viewpoint, what has the process of building higher education CCM vocal pedagogy courses been like, and where is the field headed. The discussion on CCM pedagogy, also kn...

  15. SOME METHODIC ASPECTS OF VOCAL RESPIRATION WITHIN ACADEMIC SINGING TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGA LUDMILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author’s reflections on the methodical problems of vocal respiration treated by Ludmila Aga as one of the essential elements of vocal technique. Based on her own rich experience as opera soloist and vocal teacher, the author reviews some theoretical principles which treat this problem. Besides, L. Aga proposes some helpful exercises for developing vocal respiration abilities. The article combines data from physiology, history and the theory of performing arts, methods of singing. Having an applied character, this work might be helpful for the singing teachers from the colleges and higher instituti­ons of music proile, as well as for the students of the Academic Singing Department.

  16. Trends in Utilization of Vocal Fold Injection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E

    2015-11-01

    Office-based vocal fold injections have become increasingly popular over the past 15 years. Examination of trends in procedure coding for vocal fold injections in the United States from 2000 to 2012 was undertaken to see if they reflect this shift. The US Part B Medicare claims database was queried from 2000 through 2012 for multiple Current Procedural Terminology codes. Over the period studied, the number of nonoperative laryngoscopic injections (31513, 31570) and operative medialization laryngoplasties (31588) remained constant. Operative vocal fold injection (31571) demonstrated marked linear growth over the 12-year study period, from 744 procedures in 2000 to 4788 in 2012-an increase >640%. The dramatic increased incidence in the use of code 31571 reflects an increasing share of vocal fold injections being performed in the operating room and not in an office setting, running counter to the prevailing trend toward awake, office-based injection procedures. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Phonosurgery of the vocal folds : a classification proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remacle, M; Friedrich, G; Dikkers, FG; de Jong, F

    The Phonosurgery Committee of the European Laryngological Society (ELS) has examined the definition and technical description of phonosurgical procedures. Based on this review, the committee has proposed a working classification. The current presentation is restricted to vocal fold surgery (VFS)

  18. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  19. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  20. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  1. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  2. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  3. Cervical osteophytes presenting as unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskovitch, A; Kantor, S

    2001-05-01

    Any process involving either the vagus nerve, its recurrent laryngeal branch or the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve may cause paralysis of the vocal fold. The most common cause is neoplasm. Clinically, the patients often present with a hoarse, breathy voice as well as symptoms of aspiration. The following represents a unique case of unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia caused by a degenerative disease of the cervical spine, resluting in extrinsic compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  4. Time course of recovery of idiopathic vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Solomon; Sadoughi, Babak; Mor, Niv; Levin, Ariana M; Sulica, Lucian

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time course of recovery in patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis. Retrospective chart review. Medical records for all patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis over a 10-year period were reviewed to obtain demographic and clinical information, including onset of disease and recovery of vocal function. Stroboscopic exams of patients who recovered voice were reviewed blindly to assess return of vocal fold motion. Thirty-eight of 55 patients (69%) recovered vocal function. Time course of recovery could be assessed in 34 patients who did not undergo injection augmentation. The mean time to recovery was 152.8 ± 109.3 days (left, 179.8 ± 111.3 days; right, 105.3 ± 93.7 days; P = .088). Two-thirds of patients recovered within 6 months. Probability of recovery declined over time. Five of 22 patients who recovered voice had return of vocal fold motion; 17 did not. The mean time to recovery did not differ between these groups (return of motion, 127.4 ± 132.3 days; no return of motion, 160.1 ± 105.1 days; P = .290). Sixty-nine percent of patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis recovered vocal function, two-thirds doing so within 6 months of onset. Age, gender, laterality, use of injection augmentation did not influence recovery rate. Declining probability of recovery over time leads us to consider framework surgery after 6 months in patients with idiopathic paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:148-152, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Social Ultrasonic Vocalization in Awake Head-Restrained Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Benjamin; Hertz, Stav; Perets, Nisim; London, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats, and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding, and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM) to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM) and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in a free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM) and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter-syllable interval distribution, and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing the vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have a higher proportion of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  6. Mathematics of pulsed vocalizations with application to killer whale biphonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith C

    2008-05-01

    Formulas for the spectra of pulsed vocalizations for both the continuous and discrete cases are rigorously derived from basic formulas for Fourier analysis, a topic discussed qualitatively in Watkins' classic paper on "the harmonic interval" ["The harmonic interval: Fact or artifact in spectral analysis of pulse trains," in Marine Bioacoustics 2, edited by W. N. Tavogla (Pergamon, New York, 1967), pp. 15-43]. These formulas are summarized in a table for easy reference, along with most of the corresponding graphs. The case of a "pulse tone" is shown to involve multiplication of two temporal wave forms, corresponding to convolution in the frequency domain. This operation is discussed in detail and shown to be equivalent to a simpler approach using a trigonometric formula giving sum and difference frequencies. The presence of a dc component in the temporal wave form, which implies physically that there is a net positive pressure at the source, is discussed, and examples of the corresponding spectra are calculated and shown graphically. These have application to biphonation (two source signals) observed for some killer whale calls and implications for a source mechanism. A MATLAB program for synthesis of a similar signal is discussed and made available online.

  7. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  8. Distress vocalization sequences broadcasted by bats carry redundant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechavarría, Julio C; Beetz, M Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Distress vocalizations (also known as alarm or screams) are an important component of the vocal repertoire of a number of animal species, including bats, humans, monkeys and birds, among others. Although the behavioral relevance of distress vocalizations is undeniable, at present, little is known about the rules that govern vocalization production when in alarmful situations. In this article, we show that when distressed, bats of the species Carollia perspicillata produce repetitive vocalization sequences in which consecutive syllables are likely to be similar to one another regarding their physical attributes. The uttered distress syllables are broadband (12-73 kHz) with most of their energy focussing at 23 kHz. Distress syllables are short (~4 ms), their average sound pressure level is close to 70 dB SPL, and they are produced at high repetition rates (every 14 ms). We discuss that, because of their physical attributes, bat distress vocalizations could serve a dual purpose: (1) advertising threatful situations to conspecifics, and (2) informing the threatener that the bats are ready to defend themselves. We also discuss possible advantages of advertising danger/discomfort using repetitive utterances, a calling strategy that appears to be ubiquitous across the animal kingdom.

  9. Recurrence of vocal fold leukoplakia after carbon dioxide laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Haitao

    2017-09-01

    This work aims to analyze the recurrence of vocal fold leukoplakia after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser resection. In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing CO 2 laser resection of vocal fold leukoplakia were followed up for at least 2 years. Recurrence was diagnosed as any presence of leukoplakia in the vocal cord subsequent to previous successful complete resection. A total of 326 patients with complete resection of vocal fold leukoplakia and follow-up subsequent surveillance laryngoscopy were studied. The recurrence rate, the recurrence time, and risk factors were evaluated. Of these, 52 (16.0%) patients experienced recurrence with a mean follow-up time of 50.5 ± 15.4 months. The mean time to recurrence was 16.2 ± 14.1 months. Univariate analysis showed that the size of lesion (P vocal fold leukoplakia, long-term follow-up is required after CO 2 laser resection. In conclusion, the size of lesion combined with the pathological grade are important risk factors that predict vocal fold leukoplakia recurrence.

  10. Idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Alciato, L; Slaïm, L; Bonfils, P; Laccourreye, O

    2018-02-02

    To analyze the characteristics of adult idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis. Retrospective study of diagnostic problems, clinical data and recovery in an inception cohort of 100 adult patients with idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group A) and comparison with a cohort of 211 patients with isolated non-idiopathic non-traumatic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group B). Diagnostic problems were noted in 24% of cases in Group A: eight patients with concomitant common upper aerodigestive tract infection, five patients with a concomitant condition liable to induce immunodepression and 11 patients in whom a malignant tumor occurred along the path of the ipsilateral vagus and inferior laryngeal nerves or in the ipsilateral paralyzed larynx. There was no recovery of vocal-fold motion beyond 51 months after onset of paralysis. The 5-year actuarial estimate for recovery differed significantly (Pvocal-fold paralysis. In non-traumatic vocal-fold paralysis in adult patients, without recovery of vocal-fold motion, a minimum three years' regular follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vocal cord paralysis due to extralaryngeal causes : evaluation with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik; Cho, Jae Min; Han, Boo Kyung; Son, Young Ik; Baek, Chung Whan

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the use of CT in patients with vocal cord paralysis due to extralaryngeal causes, and to use CT for the assessment of extralaryngeal diseases causing vocal cord paralysis. We prospectively studied the results of CT in 41 patients with vocal cord paralysis in whom laryngoscopy revealed no laryngeal cause and physical examination demonstrated no definite extralaryngeal cause. The extralaryngeal cause of vocal cord palsy was determined after comprehensive clinical diagnosis. Enhanced CT scans were acquired from the skull base and continued to the level of the aorticopulmonary window. We used CT to assess the detection rate for extralaryngeal causes and to extimate the extent of extralaryngeal disease and the distribution of lesions. CT revealed that in 20 of 41 patients(49%) the extralarygeal causes of vocal paralysis were as follows : thyroid cancer(n=10), nodal disease(n=6), esophageal cancer(n=2), neurogenic tumor(n=1), aortic aneurysm(n=1). Lesions were located on the left side in 13 patients(65%), and in the tracheoesophageal groove in 15(75%). In patients with vocal cord paralysis in whom no definite lesion is seen on physical examination , CT could be a useful primary imaging method for the assessment of extralaryngeal causes

  13. Do Talkativeness and Vocal Loudness Correlate With Laryngeal Pathology? A Study of the Vocal Overdoer/Underdoer Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Robert W; Thomas, James P

    2016-09-01

    Assess the correlation between self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness with various types of voice disorders. This is a retrospective study. A total of 974 patients were analyzed. The cohort study included 430 consecutive patients presenting to the senior author with voice complaints from December 1995 to December 1998. The case-control study added 544 consecutive patients referred to the same examiner from January 1988 to December 1998 for vocal fold examination before thyroid, parathyroid, and carotid surgery. Patient responses on seven-point Likert self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness were compared with laryngeal disease. Mucosal lesions clearly associated with vibratory trauma are strongly associated with a high self-rating of talkativeness. Laryngeal deconditioning disorders were associated with a low self-rating of talkativeness. Use of a simple self-rating scale of vocal loudness and talkativeness during history taking can reliably orient the examiner to the types of voice disorders likely to be diagnosed subsequently during vocal capability testing and visual laryngeal examination. The high degree of talkativeness and loudness seen in vocal overdoers correlates well with mucosal disorders such as nodules, polyps, capillary ectasia, epidermoid inclusion cysts, and hemorrhage. A lower degree of talkativeness correlates with muscle deconditioning disorders such as vocal fold bowing, atrophy, presbyphonia, and vocal fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling statistical properties of written text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Angeles Serrano

    Full Text Available Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf's law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on burstiness, Heaps' law describing the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across documents absent in random null models. We introduce and validate a generative model that explains the simultaneous emergence of all these patterns from simple rules. As a result, we find a connection between the bursty nature of rare words and the topical organization of texts and identify dynamic word ranking and memory across documents as key mechanisms explaining the non trivial organization of written text. Our research can have broad implications and practical applications in computer science, cognitive science and linguistics.

  15. Written argument underlying the Brokdorf verdict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In December 1979, the Schleswig administrative court delivered its judgment (AZ.: 10 A 512/76) against the plaintiffs (four neighbouring communities and nine individuals), who had brought in an action against the first part-construction permit for the Brokdorf nuclear power plant, issued on October 25, 1976. In mid-march 1980, the written argument underlying this court ruling (58 pages) has been sent out. The written argument conscientiously explains the reasoning of the court which delivered its verdict after several days of oral proceedings in October and November 1979, and clearly states the position of the court with regard to the limits of control by administrative jurisdiction as well as to the controversial legal problem of whether there is a lawful connection between the licensing in accordance with section 7, sub-section 2 of the AtG (Atomic Energy Act) and sufficient nuclear waste management provisions according to section 9a AtG. The court ruling declared the action to be substantially admissible but hot well-founded. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Written culture: reading pratices and printed book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eugenia Cavalcante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the written culture and the reading practices is the subject argued in this article. It aims at to understand the trajectory of the printed book in its materiality, as well as the processes delineated from the undisputed cultural presence and politics of this support for the modern society. Search to evidence the reading practices, the phenomena and the mutations that fortify such support per centuries, approaching the “book crisis”, its causes and effects. Therefore, it deals with the particularitities of the written culture, that if they had accomplished in the Siècle des Lumières and if they had consecrated in “acting” of the spirit of the authors and the readers of that time, whose propagation influenced the western person. It analyzes the sociological and historical conditions of the place of the modern reader between Science, Philosophy and Romance, continuously transformed for the renewal of the thought and the culture.

  17. The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project: a study of vocal demands and vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly L

    2012-09-01

    The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  19. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  20. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  1. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vampola T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two 3D finite element (FE models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed by exciting the models with acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display the cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. The formants F1–F3 correspond to classical vibration modes also solvable by 1D vocal tract model. However, for higher formants, there occur more complicated transversal modes which require 3D modelling. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses and valleculae. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region being the most effective. The higher formants created a clear formant cluster around 4 kHz after the vocal exercise with the tube. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4–F5 is effective for communication. The results suggest that exercising using phonation into tubes help in improving the vocal economy.

  2. Is voice therapy effective for the treatment of dysphonic patients with benign vocal fold lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Inohara, Hidenori

    2017-08-22

    To update our knowledge regarding the effectiveness of voice therapy for the treatment of vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions, including vocal polyps, nodules and cysts, and for determining the utility of voice therapy in treating organic voice disorders, while highlighting problems for the future development of this clinical field. We conducted a review of the most recent literature on the therapeutic effects of voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or direct vocal training on vocal quality, the lesion appearance and discomfort felt by patients due to the clinical entity of benign vocal fold mass lesions. Although voice therapy is principally indicated for the treatment of functional dysphonia without any organic abnormalities in the vocal folds, a number of clinicians have attempted to perform voice therapy even in dysphonic patients with benign mass lesions in the vocal folds. The two major possible reasons for the effectiveness of voice therapy on vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions are hypothesized to be the regression of lesions and the correction of excessive/inappropriate muscle contraction of the phonatory organs. According to the current literature, a substantial proportion of vocal polyps certainly tend to shrink after voice therapy, but whether or not the regression results from voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or a natural cure is unclear at present due to the lack of controlled studies comparing two groups with and without interventions. Regarding vocal nodules, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of voice therapy using proper experimental methodology. Vocal cysts are difficult to cure by voice therapy without surgical excision according to previous studies. Evidences remains insufficient to support the use of voice therapy against benign vocal fold lesions. Evidences at present is therefore still insufficient to support the use of voice therapy for the treatment of benign vocal fold

  3. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  4. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  5. Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Vocal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for automatic music transcription applied to audio recordings of a cappella performances with multiple singers. We propose a system for multi-pitch detection and voice assignment that integrates an acoustic and a music language model. The acoustic model performs spectrogram decomposition, extending probabilistic latent component analysis (PLCA using a six-dimensional dictionary with pre-extracted log-spectral templates. The music language model performs voice separation and assignment using hidden Markov models that apply musicological assumptions. By integrating the two models, the system is able to detect multiple concurrent pitches in polyphonic vocal music and assign each detected pitch to a specific voice type such as soprano, alto, tenor or bass (SATB. We compare our system against multiple baselines, achieving state-of-the-art results for both multi-pitch detection and voice assignment on a dataset of Bach chorales and another of barbershop quartets. We also present an additional evaluation of our system using varied pitch tolerance levels to investigate its performance at 20-cent pitch resolution.

  6. Facial biases on vocal perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-06-01

    Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of children's narrative written by women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sánchez-Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our work tries to approach the study of a corpus of children’s literature published in the adults’ Spanish press during the period from 1920 to 1939 and whose authorship is feminine. It’s fundamental aims, are therefore, to make this production visible; to analyze the different aesthetic and ideological propacals formalised in this writing and reintegrate this artistic production into the literary system which it took place, since it is born inside of this and they are the subsequent historical circumstances that isolate it and turn it into a minor writing. The work is constituted in three phases: women authors who publish in the last third of the nineteenth century; authors who published between 1900 and 1920, and authors writing between 1920 and 1939. The areas for which these women produced are are the school, the family, the woman’s associacions, the editorial, the wold of drawing, and the written press.

  8. Recognizing vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese: a validated database of Chinese vocal emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Pell, Marc D

    2012-12-01

    To establish a valid database of vocal emotional stimuli in Mandarin Chinese, a set of Chinese pseudosentences (i.e., semantically meaningless sentences that resembled real Chinese) were produced by four native Mandarin speakers to express seven emotional meanings: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, pleasant surprise, and neutrality. These expressions were identified by a group of native Mandarin listeners in a seven-alternative forced choice task, and items reaching a recognition rate of at least three times chance performance in the seven-choice task were selected as a valid database and then subjected to acoustic analysis. The results demonstrated expected variations in both perceptual and acoustic patterns of the seven vocal emotions in Mandarin. For instance, fear, anger, sadness, and neutrality were associated with relatively high recognition, whereas happiness, disgust, and pleasant surprise were recognized less accurately. Acoustically, anger and pleasant surprise exhibited relatively high mean f0 values and large variation in f0 and amplitude; in contrast, sadness, disgust, fear, and neutrality exhibited relatively low mean f0 values and small amplitude variations, and happiness exhibited a moderate mean f0 value and f0 variation. Emotional expressions varied systematically in speech rate and harmonics-to-noise ratio values as well. This validated database is available to the research community and will contribute to future studies of emotional prosody for a number of purposes. To access the database, please contact pan.liu@mail.mcgill.ca.

  9. Arytenoid and posterior vocal fold surgery for bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, VyVy N; Rosen, Clark A

    2011-12-01

    Many procedures exist to address the airway restriction often seen with bilateral vocal fold immobility. We review the most recent studies involving arytenoid and/or posterior vocal fold surgery to provide an update on the issues related to these procedures. Specific focus is placed on selection of the surgical approach and operative side, use of adjunctive therapies, and outcome measures including decannulation rate, revision and complication rate, and postoperative results. Ten studies were identified between 2004 and 2011. Modifications to the orginal transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy techniques continue to be investigated to seek improvement in dyspnea symptoms with minimal decline in voice and/or swallowing function. Decannulation rates for these approaches are high. Postoperative dysphagia appears to be less commonly observed but requires continued study. The use of mitomycin-C in these procedures has been poorly studied to date. Both transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy procedures result in high success rates. However, many questions related to these procedures remain unanswered, particularly with respect to preoperative and postoperative evaluations of voice quality, swallowing function, and pulmonary status. There is need for rigorous prospective clinical studies to address these many issues further.

  10. Single injection of basic fibroblast growth factor to treat severe vocal fold lesions and vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Lee, Yogaku; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Kunieda, Chikako; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    Severe vocal fold lesions such as vocal fold sulcus, scars, and atrophy induce a communication disorder due to severe hoarseness, but a treatment has not been established. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) therapies by either four-time repeated local injections or regenerative surgery for vocal fold scar and sulcus have previously been reported, and favorable outcomes have been observed. In this study, we modified bFGF therapy using a single of bFGF injection, which may potentially be used in office procedures. Retrospective chart review. Five cases of vocal fold sulcus, six cases of scars, seven cases of paralysis, and 17 cases of atrophy were treated by a local injection of bFGF. The injection regimen involved injecting 50 µg of bFGF dissolved in 0.5 mL saline only once into the superficial lamina propria using a 23-gauge injection needle. Two months to 3 months after the injection, phonological outcomes were evaluated. The maximum phonation time (MPT), mean airflow rate, pitch range, speech fundamental frequency, jitter, and voice handicap index improved significantly after the bFGF injection. Furthermore, improvement in the MPT was significantly greater in patients with (in increasing order) vocal fold atrophy, scar, and paralysis. The improvement in the MPT among all patients was significantly correlated with age; the MPT improved more greatly in younger patients. Regenerative treatments by bFGF injection—even a single injection—effectively improve vocal function in vocal fold lesions. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Failure of operant control of vocal learning in budgerigars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Seki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Budgerigars were trained by operant conditioning to produce contact calls immediately after hearing a stimulus contact call. In Experiments 1 and 2, playback stimuli were chosen from two different contact call classes from the bird’s repertoire. Once this task was learned, the birds were then tested with other probe stimulus calls from its repertoire, which differed from the original calls drawn from the two classes. Birds failed to mimic the probe stimuli but instead produced one of the two call classes as in the training sessions, showing that birds learned that each stimulus call served as a discriminative stimulus but not as a vocal template for imitation. In Experiment 3, birds were then trained with stimulus calls falling along a 24-step acoustic gradient which varied between the two sounds representing the two contact call categories. As before, birds obtained a reward when the bird’s vocalization matched that of the stimulus above a criterion level. Since the first step and the last step in the gradient were the birds’ original contact calls, these two patterns were easily matched. Intermediate contact calls in the gradient were much harder for the birds to match. After extensive training, one bird learned to produce contact calls that had only a modest similarity to the intermediate contact calls along the gradient. In spite of remarkable vocal plasticity under natural conditions, operant conditioning methods with budgerigars, even after extensive training and rigorous control of vocal discriminative stimuli, failed to show vocal learning.

  12. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  13. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  14. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  15. Recovery of Vocal Fold Epithelium after Acute Phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Valenzuela, Carla V; Mizuta, Masanobu; Daniero, James J; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. This initial 24-h period was also characterized by the significant downregulation of junction proteins. Interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β1 were upregulated for 3 and 7 days, respectively, followed by an increase in epithelial cell surface depth at 3 and 7 days. These data appear to demonstrate a shift from inflammatory response to the initiation of a restorative process in the vocal fold epithelium between 24 h and 3 days. Despite the initial damage from raised-intensity phonation, the vocal fold epithelium demonstrates a remarkable capacity for the expeditious recovery of structural changes from transient episodes of acute phonotrauma. While structurally intact, the return of functional barrier integrity may be delayed by repeated episodes of phonotrauma and may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of vocal fold lesions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Acoustic correlate of vocal effort in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Tanya L; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-03-01

    This study characterized the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listeners' perceptions of vocal effort and overall spasmodic dysphonia severity in the voices of 19 individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Twenty inexperienced listeners evaluated the vocal effort and overall severity of voices using visual analog scales. The squared correlation coefficients (R2) between average vocal effort and overall severity and RFF measures were calculated as a function of the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF estimate (from 1 to 9, of a total of 9 voiced-voiceless-voiced instances). Increases in the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF average led to increases in the variance predicted by the RFF at the first cycle of voicing onset (onset RFF) in the perceptual measures; the use of 6 or more instances resulted in a stable estimate. The variance predicted by the onset RFF for vocal effort (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.43) was higher than that for overall severity (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.35). The offset RFF was not related to the perceptual measures, irrespective of the sample size. This study indicates that onset RFF measures are related to perceived vocal effort in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. These results have implications for measuring outcomes in this population.

  17. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  19. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  20. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  1. Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D., E-mail: berath@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, Suite 739, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.

  2. Transcervical fat injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis: an easy way to do the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadan, Hisham E M; Hussein, Wael K A; Elmaghraby, Riham M

    2017-12-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting in glottic incompetence can cause impairment of laryngeal functions, including airway protection and phonation. The objective of this study is to present an easy new technique for harvesting and injection of abdominal fat into the vocal fold for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective study of patients carried out on 16 patients suffering from unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting from different etiologies. All patients were subjected to the protocol of voice assessment pre- and postoperatively. All patients were subjected to fat injection of the paralyzed vocal fold. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and postoperative grade of voice parameters. Vocal fold injection using fat medializes a paralyzed vocal fold by increasing vocal fold volume. Fat injections are safe and easily mastered; and in the absence of the standard settings for fat harvesting and injection, it could be performed with minimal equipment that are readily available in any operating room.

  3. Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.

  4. 29 CFR 100.610 - Written demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 100.610 Written demand for payment. (a) The NLRB will promptly make written demand upon the debtor for payment of money or the return of specific property. The written demand for payment will be... late charges will be 60 days from the date that the demand letter is mailed or hand-delivered. (b) The...

  5. Oral and Literate Strategies in Spoken and Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1982-01-01

    Discusses comparative analysis of spoken and written versions of a narrative to demonstrate that features which have been identified as characterizing oral discourse are also found in written discourse and that the written short story combines syntactic complexity expected in writing with features which create involvement expected in speaking.…

  6. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny in...... with their first appearance in the juvenile repertoire. The results indicate that there is variation in the degree (in terms of the number of vocal types) of modification over time among the three processes....

  7. Vocal effectiveness of speech-language pathology students: Before and after voice use during service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Stephanie; Zieba, Dominique; van der Linde, Jeannie; van der Merwe, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist’s(SLP) vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours,poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors. Objectives: To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. Method: A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research de...

  8. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a qualidade vocal, por meio de análise computadorizada e perceptivo-auditiva, de pacientes com hipertireoidismo (grupo A e hipotireoidismo (grupo B. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres não fumantes, com idades entre 18 e 55 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da instituição, foram avaliadas após o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de hipertireoidismo ou hipotireoidismo. Os parâmetros investigados foram: tempo da doença, presença de queixa vocal, tempos máximos de fonação /a/, /s/ e /z/, freqüência fundamental (F0, ruído glótico (GNE. Os aspectos avaliados na análise perceptivo-auditiva, foram: coordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória (coordenada ou incoordenada, pitch, loudness, ataque vocal, ressonância, velocidade de fala e qualidade vocal, que poderia ter até duas das seguintes classificações: neutra, rouca, soprosa, áspera ou tensa, e grau: leve, moderado ou severo. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do programa EPI-INFO 6.04b, método qualitativo Fisher, com nível de significância menor do que 0.05. RESULTADOS: A análise perceptivo-auditiva mostrou que sete pacientes hipotireoideos e nove pacientes hipertireoideos apresentaram alteração na qualidade vocal. Oito pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentaram incoordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória. Oito pacientes do grupo A e seis pacientes do grupo B referiam queixas vocais como rouquidão e voz grossa, respectivamente. Na análise acústica, nove pacientes apresentaram o ruído glótico alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciaram grande incidência de alteração vocal nos grupos estudados (grupos dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo e com hipotireoidismo, o que demonstra a relação entre disfonia e disfunções tireoideanas.PURPOSE: To characterize the vocal quality of subjects with hyperthyroidism (group A, and hypothyroidism (group B through a computer-aided and auditory-perceptive analysis. METHODS

  9. Toward Defining "Vocal Constriction": Practitioner Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-McMahon, Belinda; Hughes, Diane

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated the terminology used in relation to constriction of the singing voice from a range of practitioner perspectives. It focused on the locality, causes, consequences, management, trends, identification, and vocabulary of constriction. The research aimed to develop a holistic understanding of the term "vocal constriction" from participant experiences and perceptions (N = 10). Data collection occurred through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a range of voice care professionals. Participants included three professional groups: (1) Ear, Nose, and Throat medical specialists or laryngologists, (2) speech pathologists or speech therapists, and (3) singing teachers. Purposive sampling was used to ensure that the participants from groups 1 and 2 had extensive experience with singers in their practice. The singing teachers were experienced in either classical or contemporary styles, or both. Participant responses highlighted a discrepancy in preferred terminology, with "constriction" being less favored overall. Several anatomical locations were identified including postural, supraglottic (anteroposterior and false fold), articulatory, and in the intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal musculature; psychological issues were also identified. Primary causes, secondary causes, and influencing factors were identified. Inefficient technique and poor posture or alignment were considered primary causes; similarly, emotion and anxiety or stress were identified as influencing factors by the majority of participants. There was less uniformity in responses regarding other causes. The major findings of this research are the respective participant group distinctions, an uncertainty regarding anteroposterior constriction, and that the location and effects of constriction are individual to the singer and must be considered contextually. A definition is offered, and areas for further research are identified. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  10. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Applicability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography to the Assessment of the Vocal Tract before and after Vocal Exercises in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elisângela Zacanti; Yamashita, Hélio Kiitiro; Garcia, Davi Sousa; Padovani, Marina Martins Pereira; Azevedo, Renata Rangel; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which represents an alternative to traditional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, may be a useful instrument to study vocal tract physiology related to vocal exercises. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of CBCT to the assessment of variations in the vocal tract of healthy individuals before and after vocal exercises. Voice recordings and CBCT images before and after vocal exercises performed by 3 speech-language pathologists without vocal complaints were collected and compared. Each participant performed 1 type of exercise, i.e., Finnish resonance tube technique, prolonged consonant "b" technique, or chewing technique. The analysis consisted of an acoustic analysis and tomographic imaging. Modifications of the vocal tract settings following vocal exercises were properly detected by CBCT, and changes in the acoustic parameters were, for the most part, compatible with the variations detected in image measurements. CBCT was shown to be capable of properly assessing the changes in vocal tract settings promoted by vocal exercises. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Exercise Science Principles and the Vocal Warm-up: Implications for Singing Voice Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew; Sandage, Mary J

    2018-01-01

    Principles from exercise science literature were applied to singing warm-up pedagogy as a method for examining parallels between athletic and voice training. Analysis of the use of exercise principles in vocal warm-up should illuminate aspects of voice training that may be further developed in the future. A selected canon of standard voice pedagogy texts and well-regarded warm-up methods were evaluated for use of exercise science principles for skill acquisition and fatigue resistance. Exercises were then categorized according to whether they were used for the purpose of skill acquisition (specificity), training up to tasks (overload), or detraining (reversibility). A preliminary review of well-established voice pedagogy programs reveals a strong bias toward the skill acquisition aspects of vocal warm-up, with little commentary on the fatigue management aspects. Further, the small number of vocalises examined that are not skill-acquisition oriented fall into a third "habilitative" category that likewise does not relate to overload but may play a role in offsetting reversibility. Although a systematic pedagogy for skill acquisition has emerged in the literature and practice of voice pedagogy, a parallel pedagogy for fatigue management has yet to be established. Identification of a systematic pedagogy for training up to specific singing genres and development of a singing maintenance program to avoid detraining may help the singer avoid injury. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  14. Trial-Based Functional Analysis Informs Treatment for Vocal Scripting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Brodhead, Matthew; Wolfe, Katie; Gregori, Emily

    2018-05-01

    Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement. The structure of the trial-based format led to identification of social attention as an abolishing operation for vocal scripting. A noncontingent attention treatment was evaluated using withdrawal designs for each participant. This noncontingent attention treatment resulted in near zero levels of vocal scripting for all participants. Implications for research and practice are presented.

  15. Medical image of the week: bilateral vocal cord paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hook CJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old morbidly obese woman with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary emboli required emergency intubation. She was described by the anesthesiologist as having a difficult airway. The patient was liberated from the ventilator after two days. Following extubation she complained of hoarse voice and dyspnea. Physical exam revealed audible stridor. The upper airway was normal by CAT imaging. Flow-volume curve demonstrated marked flattening of both the inspiratory and expiratory limbs, consistent with a fixed extra-thoracic obstruction (Figure 1. Endoscopy revealed the vocal cords to be in the adducted position, with minimal movement throughout the respiratory cycle, consistent with bilateral vocal cord paralysis (Figure 2. Traumatic intubation follows thyroid surgery as the most common cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis (1. In a minority of patients spontaneous recovery may occur. Surgical treatment options include cordotomy or tracheostomy. Nocturnal BIPAP has been used in patients who decline surgery (2.

  16. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Vocal Cord Dysfunction Masquerading as Astma Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ozturk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. VCD is a relatively rare condition that may mimic asthma or upper airway obstruction. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. In this report, we describe a 65-years-old male patient who has psychological problems due to a relative loss, and a military collage student who experiencing respiratory problems during vigorous exercises. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 148-150

  18. Spontaneous resolution of hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adam M; Lehmann, Marcus; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhagic polyps are the most common benign lesions surgically removed from the vocal folds. Although this modality does offer satisfactory results in most of the cases, there is a subset of polyps that seems to resolve with conservative therapy. This study was performed to examine this subset of polyps. Thirty-four consecutive subjects diagnosed with hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of spontaneous resolution of the lesions with nonsurgical therapy. Sixteen subjects began conservative therapy, consisting of voice therapy and proper vocal hygiene, often while awaiting an optimal personal time for surgical intervention. Of these subjects, nine (56.3%) experienced a resolution of their lesion and symptoms without undergoing surgical therapy. Surgical removal of hemorrhagic polyps is often considered the standard of treatment for these benign lesions. However, these observations support a regimen of voice therapy and observation in select cases.

  19. Learning while Babbling: Prelinguistic Object-Directed Vocalizations Indicate a Readiness to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Syal, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    Two studies illustrate the functional significance of a new category of prelinguistic vocalizing--object-directed vocalizations (ODVs)--and show that these sounds are connected to learning about words and objects. Experiment 1 tested 12-month-old infants' perceptual learning of objects that elicited ODVs. Fourteen infants' vocalizations were…

  20. Examination of vocal fold movement by ultra-short pulse X radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noscoe, N.J.; Berry, R.J.; Brown, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Antero-posterior radiographs of the larynx lack spatial and temporal resolution, due to the movement of the vocal folds during phonation. By utilising the electrolaryngograph to monitor vocal fold movement, single X-ray pulses of 30 nanoseconds duration have been triggered at pre-determined points during the cycle of vocal fold movement to visualise these in normal phonation. (author)

  1. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  2. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  3. Effects of Surgery on the Phonation Threshold Pressure in Patients With Vocal Fold Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyng-Guey Wang

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Laryngomicrosurgery can lower PTP in patients with vocal fold polyps and improve the ease of phonation. PTP is one of the objective measurements for assessing the effects of surgery in patients with vocal fold polyps. Use of an accelerometer to detect vocal fold vibration improved the measurement of PTP.

  4. Influence of Left-Right Asymmetries on Voice Quality in Simulated Paramedian Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the vocal fold structural and vibratory symmetries that are important to vocal function and voice quality in a simulated paramedian vocal fold paralysis. Method: A computational kinematic speech production model was used to simulate an exemplar "voice" on the basis of asymmetric…

  5. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  6. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  7. Histopathologic study of human vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Ono, Takeharu; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Mechanotransduction caused by vocal fold vibration could possibly be an important factor in the maintenance of extracellular matrices and layered structure of the human adult vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue after the layered structure has been completed. Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the human maculae flavae of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. Maculae flavae are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate the VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. A human adult vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade was investigated histopathologically. Vocal fold mucosa unphonated for 11 years and 2 months of a 64-year-old male with cerebral hemorrhage was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The vocal fold mucosae (including maculae flavae) were atrophic. The vocal fold mucosa did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space or a layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Morphologically, the VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Consequently, VFSCs appeared to decrease their level of activity.

  8. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  9. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausen, Adi; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2018-01-01

    The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these factors to explain

  10. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Lausen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these

  11. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  12. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  13. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  14. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  15. [Retention cysts of the vocal cords (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, E W

    1979-05-01

    Present day knowledge in laryngology maintains that the free edge of the true cord mucosa is devoid of glands so that retention cysts should not occur in this tissue. When such cysts do occur, it is difficult to define their pathogenesis. Reference is made to the author's earlier study which found a regular occurrence of mucous glands in the squamous epithelial region of the vocal cords. A retention cyst in the true cord is described histologically in the present report. The glands responsible for these cysts are believed to function by moistening the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.

  16. Coding of vocalizations by single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Diltz, Mark D; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal activity in single prefrontal neurons has been correlated with behavioral responses, rules, task variables and stimulus features. In the non-human primate, neurons recorded in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) have been found to respond to species-specific vocalizations. Previous studies have found multisensory neurons which respond to simultaneously presented faces and vocalizations in this region. Behavioral data suggests that face and vocal information are inextricably linked in animals and humans and therefore may also be tightly linked in the coding of communication calls in prefrontal neurons. In this study we therefore examined the role of VLPFC in encoding vocalization call type information. Specifically, we examined previously recorded single unit responses from the VLPFC in awake, behaving rhesus macaques in response to 3 types of species-specific vocalizations made by 3 individual callers. Analysis of responses by vocalization call type and caller identity showed that ∼19% of cells had a main effect of call type with fewer cells encoding caller. Classification performance of VLPFC neurons was ∼42% averaged across the population. When assessed at discrete time bins, classification performance reached 70 percent for coos in the first 300 ms and remained above chance for the duration of the response period, though performance was lower for other call types. In light of the sub-optimal classification performance of the majority of VLPFC neurons when only vocal information is present, and the recent evidence that most VLPFC neurons are multisensory, the potential enhancement of classification with the addition of accompanying face information is discussed and additional studies recommended. Behavioral and neuronal evidence has shown a considerable benefit in recognition and memory performance when faces and voices are presented simultaneously. In the natural environment both facial and vocalization information is present simultaneously and

  17. Vocal fold composition and early glottic carcinoma infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging techniques provide only limited information pertaining to the extent of infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas into vocal fold tissue layers. Therefore, it is needed to seek the contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding examination and characterization in laryngeal carcinoma infiltration. Methods Excised larynges were collected from 30 male laryngectomy patients with an average age of 43.5 years (ranging 36 to 55 years and history of smoking (≥10 years exhibiting T1, T2, or subglottal (normal vocal fold carcinomas. Vocal folds were preserved via freezing or immersion in paraffin. The depth of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in both normal vocal folds and tumor tissues of afflicted vocal folds was measured. Results The average depths of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in normal vocal folds were 0.15 ± 0.06 mm, 2.30 ± 0.59 mm, and 2.87 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Infiltration measurements of T1 tumors showed a depth of 1.62 ± 0.51 mm and 1.32 ± 0.49 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. Similarly, T2 tumors showed a depth of 2.87 ± 0.68 mm and 2.58 ± 0.67 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. T1 and T2 tumors occupied 24.8 ± 10 and 48.5 ± 15 percent of the normal vocal fold depth, respectively. Conclusion This data provides a baseline for estimating infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas in vocal fold tissue layers, of particular interest to surgeons. This information may be used to assess typical depths of infiltration, thus allowing for more appropriate selection of surgical procedures based on individual patient assessment.

  18. A Discussion on an Expression Written about Dimensional Analysis in a Physics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss a wrong statement written about dimensional analysis in a physics text book prepared for the students who are studying in science, engineering and teaching undergraduate programs at universities and who have to take compulsory physics courses, to analyse the use of the text book including the wrong…

  19. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency Ethics...

  20. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  1. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  2. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (psinging. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  3. Working 9-5: Causal Relationships Between Singers' "Day Jobs" and Their Performance Work, With Implications for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Irene; Wilson, Pat H

    2017-03-01

    It is acknowledged generally that professional contemporary commercial music (CCM) singers engage in supplementary employment ("the day job") to achieve and maintain a reliable living wage. In this paper, consideration is given to the impact of such nonperformance employment on CCM's sustainable vocal health. Collected data from a survey of 102 professional contemporary gig singers were analysed using descriptive statistical procedures from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Although these data provided descriptions of the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, the inclusion of open format questions encouraged participants to report details of their "lived" experience. Additionally, a meta-analysis of a range of associated literature was undertaken. Sixty-five participants (N = 102) reported that in addition to their heavy performance voice use, they were employed in "other" work (the "day job") where their speaking voice loads were high. In responding to open-ended questions, many proffered written comments that were unprompted. The collected data from this element of the research study are reported here. We propose that at least some causal factors of singers' reported voice problems may lie in the misuse or overuse of their everyday speaking voice (as demanded by their "day job") rather than a misuse of their singing voice. These findings have practical application to all whose concern is care for the vocal or emotional health and performance longevity of professional singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational Vocal Health of Elite Sports Coaches: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katie L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Oates, Jennifer M

    2015-07-01

    To explore the occupational voice use and vocal health of elite football coaches. This pilot study explored coaches' voice use patterns and vocal demands across workplace environments. Each coach's experiences of voice symptoms and voice problems were also investigated. Twelve Australian professional football coaches participated in a mixed-methods data collection approach. Data were collected through acoustic voice measurement (Ambulatory Phonation Monitor), semistructured interviews, and a voice symptom questionnaire (Voice Capabilities Questionnaire). Acoustic measures suggested heavy vocal loads for coaches during player training. All participants reported experiencing voice symptoms. They also suggested that the structure of their working week, workplace tasks, and vocal demands impacted on their voices. Despite this, participants reported little previous reflection or awareness of what impacted on their voices. Coaches typically did not consider how to support their voices during daily work and discussed experiencing voice symptoms as an inevitable part of their jobs. This study demonstrates that occupational vocal demands may negatively impact on sports coaches' vocal health. This is particularly important, considering coaches' heavy vocal loads across coaching tasks and reported negative occupational vocal health experience. Furthermore, coaches' limited insight into voice use and vocal health management may impact on their vocal performance and health. Given the exploratory nature of this study, further research into coaches' occupational vocal health is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal Modification Abilities and Brain Structures in Parrots – how do they Correlate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpøth, Solveig Walløe

    are among the most encephalized birds and posses excellent vocal imitation abilities. This along with their complex fission-­fusion societies and thereby dynamic use of communication make parrots unparalleled as a model system for the neurobiology behind vocal learning. This PhD thesis is based on three...... independent studies where I 1) compare the level of vocal complexity (i.e. modification of the contact call in response to playback stimuli) with the social complexity of four different parrot species, 2) correlate the vocal modification ability of parrots with a brain region involved in vocal learning, i...... and the peach-faced lovebird with a brain nucleus, MO, involved in vocal learning. We show that the species with the highest level of vocal complexity (i.e. the peach-fronted conure) was also the species with the largest volume of MO and the highest number of neurons in MO. The budgerigar had the smallest...

  7. A Review of Hyaluronic Acid and Hyaluronic Acid-based Hydrogels for Vocal Fold Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walimbe, Tanaya; Panitch, Alyssa; Sivasankar, Preeti M

    2017-07-01

    Vocal fold scarring is a common cause of dysphonia. Current treatments involving vocal fold augmentation do not yield satisfactory outcomes in the long term. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine offer an attractive treatment option for vocal fold scarring, with the aim to restore the native extracellular matrix microenvironment and biomechanical properties of the vocal folds by inhibiting progression of scarring and thus leading to restoration of normal vocal function. Hyaluronic acid is a bioactive glycosaminoglycan responsible for maintaining optimum viscoelastic properties of the vocal folds and hence is widely targeted in tissue engineering applications. This review covers advances in hyaluronic acid-based vocal fold tissue engineering and regeneration strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Nonlinear dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor from voice analysis and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis and model simulations are used to study the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of vocal folds with vocal tremor, which can typically be characterized by low-frequency modulation and aperiodicity. Tremor voices from patients with disorders such as paresis, Parkinson's disease, hyperfunction, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia show low-dimensional characteristics, differing from random noise. Correlation dimension analysis statistically distinguishes tremor voices from normal voices. Furthermore, a nonlinear tremor model is proposed to study the vibrations of the vocal folds with vocal tremor. Fractal dimensions and positive Lyapunov exponents demonstrate the evidence of chaos in the tremor model, where amplitude and frequency play important roles in governing vocal fold dynamics. Nonlinear dynamic voice analysis and vocal fold modeling may provide a useful set of tools for understanding the dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor in patients with laryngeal diseases.

  9. Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher R; Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Portfors, Christine V; Mello, Claudio V

    2018-03-05

    Hummingbirds are a fascinating group of birds, but some aspects of their biology are poorly understood, such as their highly diverse vocal behaviors. We show here that the predominant vocalization of black jacobins (Florisuga fusca), a hummingbird prevalent in the mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, consists of a triplet of syllables with high fundamental frequency (mean F0 ∼11.8 kHz), rapid frequency oscillations and strong ultrasonic harmonics and no detectable elements below ∼10 kHz. These are the most common vocalizations of these birds, and their frequency range is above the known hearing range of any bird species recorded to date, including hearing specialists such as owls. These observations suggest that black jacobins either have an atypically high frequency hearing range, or alternatively their primary vocalization has a yet unknown function unrelated to vocal communication. Black jacobin vocalizations challenge current notions about vocal communication in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  11. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  12. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath’s linguistic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath’s law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath’s law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath’s law reflects compression—the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  13. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  14. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  15. Measurement of flow separation in a human vocal folds model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šidlof, Petr; Doaré, O.; Cadot, O.; Chaigne, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2011), s. 123-136 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200760801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal folds * flow separation * physical model Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t81114611760jp23/

  16. Vocal performance reflects individual quality in a nonpasserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicke, T.; Hahn, S.M.; Ritz, M.S.; Peter, H.-U.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on mate-quality recognition in passerines showed that females use subtle differences in sound production to assess males. We analysed long calls of brown skuas, Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, to test whether vocal performance could serve as an indicator of individual quality in a

  17. Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Evaluation of Vocal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel; Darrow, Alice Ann; Kovacs, Jolan; Dalrymple, Lucinda

    1997-01-01

    Studies whether physical attractiveness of singers affects judges' ratings of their vocal performances. Reveals that physical attractiveness does impact evaluation, that male raters were more severe than female raters, and that the rating of undergraduate majors versus graduate students and professors combined were not differently affected by…

  18. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  19. Laughter as an approach to vocal evolution: The bipedal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Laughter is a simple, stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that is ideal for the study of vocal evolution. The basic approach of describing the act of laughter and when we do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social, linguistic, and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, the punctuation effect (which describes the placement of laughter in conversation and indicates the dominance of speech over laughter), and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. Especially notable is the use of laughter to discover why humans can speak and other apes cannot. Quadrupeds, including our primate ancestors, have a 1:1 relation between breathing and stride because their thorax must absorb forelimb impacts during running. The direct link between breathing and locomotion limits vocalizations to short, simple utterances, such as the characteristic panting chimpanzee laugh (one sound per inward or outward breath). The evolution of bipedal locomotion freed the respiration system of its support function during running, permitting greater breath control and the selection for human-type laughter (a parsed exhalation), and subsequently the virtuosic, sustained, expiratory vocalization of speech. This is the basis of the bipedal theory of speech evolution.

  20. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  1. Breeding bird density does not drive vocal individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN, Douglas R. MCCLAIN, Carrie DE JESUS, Gustavo ALARCÓN-NIETO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many species produce individually specific vocalizations and sociality is a hypothesized driver of such individuality. Previous studies of how social variation influenced individuality focused on colonial or non-colonial avian species, and how social group size influenced individuality in sciurid rodents. Since sociality is an important driver of individuality, we expected that bird species that defend nesting territories in higher density neighborhoods should have more individually-distinctive calls than those that defend nesting territories in lower-density neighborhoods. We used Beecher’s information statistic to quantify individuality, and we examined the relationship between bird density (calculated with point-counts and vocal individuality on seven species of passerines. We found non-significant relationships between breeding bird density and vocal individuality whether regressions were fitted on species values, or on phylogenetically-independent contrast values. From these results, we infer that while individuality may be explained by social factors, breeding bird density is unlikely to be generally important in driving the evolution of individually-specific vocalizations [Current Zoology 58 (5: 765–772, 2012].

  2. Acoustic Characteristics of Simulated Respiratory-Induced Vocal Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of respiratory forced oscillation to the acoustic characteristics of vocal tremor. Method: Acoustical analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the intensity and fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) for speech samples obtained by Farinella, Hixon, Hoit, Story,…

  3. Biosimulation of inflammation and healing in surgically injured vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y K; Vodovotz, Yoram; Hebda, Patricia A; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2010-06-01

    The pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring is complex and remains to be deciphered. The current study is part of research endeavors aimed at applying systems biology approaches to address the complex biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring and other lesions affecting the larynx. We developed a computational agent-based model (ABM) to quantitatively characterize multiple cellular and molecular interactions involved in inflammation and healing in vocal fold mucosa after surgical trauma. The ABM was calibrated with empirical data on inflammatory mediators (eg, tumor necrosis factor) and extracellular matrix components (eg, hyaluronan) from published studies on surgical vocal fold injury in the rat population. The simulation results reproduced and predicted trajectories seen in the empirical data from the animals. Moreover, the ABM studies suggested that hyaluronan fragments might be the clinical surrogate of tissue damage, a key variable that in these simulations both is enhanced by and further induces inflammation. A relatively simple ABM such as the one reported in this study can provide new understanding of laryngeal wound healing and generate working hypotheses for further wet-lab studies.

  4. Syllable Durations of Preword and Early Word Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Michael P.; Saxman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The continuity in development of syllable duration patterns was examined in seven young children as they progressed from preword to multiword periods of vocalization development. Results revealed no systematic increase or decrease in the duration of bisyllables produced by the children as a group, whereas lengthening of final syllables was…

  5. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  6. Laryngeal Electromyography for Prognosis of Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; García-Lopez, Isabel; Santiago-Pérez, Susana; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in the prognosis of vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective descriptive study. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis on flexible laryngoscopy between 2002 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Laryngeal electromyography using a standardized protocol was performed; the outcome measures were classified and analyzed into two groups according to the degree of injury. Group 1 included patients with mild to moderate injury, and group 2 included patients with severe to complete injury. Prognosis was correlated with vocal fold motion recovery status with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up since the symptoms onset using positive and negative predictive values. Sixty patients showed acute or chronic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in laryngeal electromyography. Twelve of 41 patients included in group 1 recovered motion, and 30 of 35 patients included in group 2 did not recover, resulting in 88.2% of positive predictive value and 35.7% of negative predictive value. Our data confirm that laryngeal electromyography is a useful clinical tool in predicting poor recovery in patients with vocal fold paralysis. It allows identification of candidates for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laryngeal Electromyographic findings in patients with vocal fold motion asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak; Isseroff, Tova F; Parasher, Arjun; Richards, Amanda; Sivak, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Vocal fold motion asymmetry (VFMA) is often attributed to vocal fold paresis or an anatomical variant. Although laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) may be used to evaluate patients with vocal fold paresis, electrodiagnostic findings in VFMA have not been well defined. Review of a case series Twenty-five symptomatic patients with VFMA were examined by LEMG, and the findings were analyzed. Although all were thought to have unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis, LEMG showed only nine to have unilateral recurrent nerve paresis. There were nine with both ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve paresis, four with bilateral paresis, and three were normal. Reduced total number of units, reduced recruitment, motor units firing fast, and polyphasic units were more common, whereas fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, positive sharp waves, and complex repetitive discharges were uncommon. The LEMG findings are most consistent with old, healed neuropathy. McNemar's test for the acute versus chronic denervation potentials showed significant differences. VFMA has a high incidence of vocal fold paresis that can be better defined by LEMG. The site and side of paresis is often wrong based on laryngoscopy findings alone. The LEMG findings of VFMA appear to be consistent with old, healed neuropathy 4 Laryngoscope, 126:E273-E277, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Centre, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: s.robinson@dzu.at; Pitkaeranta, A. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy.

  9. A new generation videokymography for routine clinical vocal fold examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Qingjun; Schutte, Harm K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to introduce a new-generation videokymographic system, which provides simultaneous laryngoscopic and kymographic image, for routine clinical vocal fold examination. Study Design: The authors explored a new imaging method for diagnosis and evaluation of voice disorders.

  10. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.; Pitkaeranta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy

  11. Vocal Fold Epithelial Response to Luminal Osmotic Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Dry-air challenges increase the osmolarity of fluid lining the luminal surface of the proximal airway. The homeostasis of surface fluid is thought to be essential for voice production and laryngeal defense. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that viable vocal fold epithelium would generate a water flux to reduce an osmotic challenge (150…

  12. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    paring the data to other singing birds and vocalizing birds. As acquisition ..... In Nissl-stained sec- tions, a small RA and area X can be distinguished from ..... Neurol. 356 345–354. Watson J T, Adkins-Regan E, Whiting P, Lindstrom J M and.

  13. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  14. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  17. Individuality in harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, pup vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Opzeeland, IC; Van Parijs, SM

    In gregarious breeders, parents often use individually stereotyped vocalizations as a cue to relocate offspring. Harp seals aggregate in large colonies on pack ice during the whelping season. During the 11-day lactation period, females alternate between periods at sea and attending their pup. If

  18. Acute dysphonia secondary to vocal fold hemorrhage after vardenafil use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikas; Cohen, Seth M; Rousseau, Bernard; Noordzij, J Pieter; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Ossoff, Robert H

    2010-06-01

    Owing to their vasodilatory effects, the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have become widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Among the reported adverse events of these agents are epistaxis, variceal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and hemorrhoidal bleeding. We report a case of vocal fold hemorrhage that occurred after vardenafil use in a 31-year-old man who was a professional singer.

  19. Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Education: Competences, Roles and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mary; Reed, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on selected outcomes of the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC) "Polifonia" Working Group for Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Training in Europe (2007-2010). The introduction provides the background to the project, explains the rationale and objectives, describes the research process and gives an overview of…

  20. Audacity in Vocal Improvisation: Motivating Elementary School Students through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichivitsa, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Every day, music teachers face the challenge of motivating less-confident student singers in general music classes. Teaching vocal improvisation can be a difficult task, because students are often self-conscious about their voices and too intimidated to sing in front of their peers. Technology can be an excellent motivational tool in the classroom…

  1. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  2. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  3. Swallowing function in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2017-02-01

    Infants with bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) often have poor swallow function in addition to potential airway compromise. While there are several reports on BVFI and its effect on patients' airway status, little is known about long term swallow function. We aim to characterize the swallowing function over time in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility. A retrospective review of medical records of infants diagnosed with BVFI at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2005 and 2014 was conducted. Patient demographics, nature and etiology of immobility, laryngoscopy findings, comorbidities, and swallow outcomes at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallowing outcomes as measured by presence or absence of a gastrostomy tube were compared by etiology, vocal fold status, and normal or developmentally delay using the Fisher's exact test. 110 patients with a diagnosis of vocal fold immobility were identified. Twenty-nine (26%) had BVFI and twenty-three had complete medical records. Etiologies of vocal fold immobility include cardiac related in 13% (3/23), idiopathic in 30% (7/23) prolonged intubation in 26% (6/23) central neurologic in 22% (5/23), trauma in 4% (1/23), and infection in 4% (1/23). Average follow-up time was 44 months (range 5-94 months). Ten patients (56.5%) required a gastrostomy tube at time of diagnosis. Of this cohort who received gastrostomy tubes, three (30%) ultimately transitioned to complete oral feeds. Return of vocal fold mobility did not correlate with swallow function. In those with non-neurologic etiologies, the need for gastrostomy tube at end of follow up was unlikely. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of gastrostomy tube-free children at most recent follow up in patients who were normally developed (86%) versus those who were developmentally delayed (33%) (p = 0.02). We characterized the swallowing function of 23 pediatric patients with BVFI. Comorbidities are significant

  4. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prosody and paralanguage in speech and the social media: The vocal and graphic realisation of affective meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of prosody and paralanguage is in the first place concerned – unsurprisingly – with the phonetic and linguistic effects of non-segmental vocal variation expressed as values of the feature systems of pitch, volume and duration, but also of rhythm and tempo and further of voice qualities, etc. However, in more recent times the emergence of digitally mediated written communication (in the ‘new’ social media has led attention to the role of prosody and paralanguage in defining the characteristic informal interpersonal style of this new ‘typed conversation.’ The present article reviews the formal and functional essence of prosody and paralanguage and, drawing on data from recent corpora of text messaging and microblogging, analyses the extents to which prosodic and paralinguistic features may be reflected in such discourse, in particular the ways in which affective meaning is expressed in the graphic modality of this medium.

  6. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  7. Written Teacher Feedback: Aspects of Quality, Benefits and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2018-01-01

    was provided based on rubrics and templates for open comments. For this purpose, written teacher feedback itself, student artefacts and data from questionnaires were analysed. Furthermore, the benefits and challenges that teachers noticed in using written feedback will be examined. Finally......, it will be discussed which means of support for teachers seem necessary in order to foster the implementation of written teacher feedback as part of formative assessment in inquiry-based science education....

  8. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose ± standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 ± 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 ± 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 ± 8 Gy and 36 ± 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  9. Construction and characterization of a novel vocal fold bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerdoum, Aidan B; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-08-01

    In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues.

  10. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  11. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Sarah O.S., E-mail: s.osman@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose {+-} standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 {+-} 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 {+-} 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 {+-} 8 Gy and 36 {+-} 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  12. Voice Disorders in Teachers: Clinical, Videolaryngoscopical, and Vocal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Dysphonia is more prevalent in teachers than among the general population. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical, vocal, and videolaryngoscopical aspects in dysphonic teachers. Ninety dysphonic teachers were inquired about their voice, comorbidities, and work conditions. They underwent vocal auditory-perceptual evaluation (maximum phonation time and GRBASI scale), acoustic voice analysis, and videolaryngoscopy. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 90 dysphonic nonteachers, of similar gender and ages, and with professional activities excluding teaching and singing. In both groups, there were 85 women and five men (age range 31-50 years). In the controls, the majority of subjects worked in domestic activities, whereas the majority of teachers worked in primary (42.8%) and secondary school (37.7%). Teachers and controls reported, respectively: vocal abuse (76.7%; 37.8%), weekly hours of work between 21 and 40 years (72.2%; 80%), under 10 years of practice (36%; 23%), absenteeism (23%; 0%), sinonasal (66%; 20%) and gastroesophageal symptoms (44%; 22%), hoarseness (82%; 78%), throat clearing (70%; 62%), and phonatory effort (72%; 52%). In both groups, there were decreased values of maximum phonation time, impairment of the G parameter in the GRBASI scale (82%), decrease of F0 and increase of the rest of acoustic parameters. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant in teachers; laryngopharyngeal reflux, polyps, and sulcus vocalis predominated in the controls. Vocal symptoms, comorbidities, and absenteeism were predominant among teachers. The vocal analyses were similar in both groups. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant among teachers, whereas polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and sulcus were predominant among controls. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term consequences of vocal fold hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Lewis J; Estes, Christine; Oromendia, Clara; Christos, Paul; Sulica, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term impact of vocal fold hemorrhage (VFH) on vocal function and health, and compare these parameters to those in similar patients who have not had VFH. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a history of VFH (N = 41) were characterized through a review of records and assessed by means of a survey for vocal health and professional functioning as well as the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and, if appropriate (n = 30, 73.2%), the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). They were compared to a group of demographically and occupationally similar patients without VFH (N = 25, 60.9%). Patients with multiple episodes of VFH (n = 9, 22.0%) were compared to patients with a single event. After a median of 41 months follow-up, patients with VFH had favorable vocal function assessment and low median VHI-10 and SVHI-10 scores (4 and 6, respectively), substantially similar to patients without VFH (VHI-10, P = .905 and SVHI 10, P =.991). The two groups showed similarly low rates of change in occupation (7.3%vs. 8.0%, P =.999). Patients with VFH were more likely to have missed days of work due to a voice problem. Analysis of patients with one versus multiple VFH episodes showed no differences, except patients with multiple episodes had significantly greater confidence in their ability to address future VFH. Contrary to commonly held belief, VFH appears to have no significant long-term impact on vocational stability, subjective voice quality, or perceptions of vocal function. Moreover, among those with VFH, recurrence seems only to diminish anxiety over this transient injury. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:900-906, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Quantitative measurement of vocal fold vibration in male radio performers and healthy controls using high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Warhurst

    Full Text Available Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls.Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25-52 years and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25-52 years were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0, open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL were also performed (n = 19. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients.Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005. No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL.A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers.

  16. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.

  17. Medición de la discapacidad vocal en los pacientes con nódulos vocales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Elhendi Halawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar el grado de discapacidad que suponen los nódulos vocales para los pacientes,presentamos los resultados de la valoración subjetiva (el índice de discapacidad vocal (V.H.I.-30adaptado al español y valoración de la sintomatología asociada a la disfonía en 97 pacientesdiagnosticados de nódulos vocales, encontrando un grado importante de discapacidad reflejado por unosvalores elevados del V.H.I.-30 (61,18, por sus tres subescalas (orgánica -26,48, funcional -21,75 yemocional -12,94 y por un importante grado de afectación por los síntomas asociados. Se comparannuestros resultados con los del grupo control de nuestro entorno y se estratifican los resultados según laprofesión de los pacientes. Concluimos que la presencia de nódulos vocales supone una discapacidadimportante a nivel de las actividades sociales y laborales del paciente y un impacto emocionalconsiderable.

  18. Prevention of vocal fold scarring by local application of basic fibroblast growth factor in a rat vocal fold injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Tateya, Ichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Vocal fold scarring, which causes severe hoarseness, is intractable. The optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not been established; therefore, prevention of scarring is important. The aim of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for prevention of postsurgical vocal fold scarring. Prospective animal experiments with controls. The vocal folds of Sprague-Dawley rats were injured unilaterally or bilaterally after local application of a 10 μL solution of bFGF. Larynges ware harvested for histological and immunohistochemical examination 2 months postoperation and for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis 1 week postoperation. Histological examination showed significantly increased hyaluronic acid and decreased deposition of dense collagen in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. Immunohistochemical examination showed significantly decreased collagen type III deposition in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. qRT-PCR revealed that hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), Has3, and hepatocyte growth factor were upregulated in bFGF-treated groups compared with sham-treated group. The current results suggest that local application of bFGF at the time of injury has the potential to prevent vocal fold scarring. Preventive injection of bFGF could be applied at the time of phonomicrosurgery to avoid postoperative scar formation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:E67-E74, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of vocal acoustic and efficiency analysis parameters in medical students and academic teachers with use of iris and diagnoscope specialist software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna; Sułkowski, Wiesław J; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Miłoński, Jarosław; Mazurek, Agnieszka; Olszewski, Jurek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the parameters of vocal acoustic and vocal efficiency analyses in medical students and academic teachers with use of the IRIS and DiagnoScope Specialist software and to evaluate their usefulness in prevention and certification of occupational disease. The study group comprised 40 women, including students and employees of the Military Medical Faculty, Medical University of Łodź. After informed consent had been obtained from the participant women, the primary medical history was taken, videolaryngoscopic and stroboscopic examinations were performed and diagnostic vocal acoustic analysis was carried out with the use of the IRIS and Diagno-Scope Specialist software. Based on the results of the performed measurements, the statistical analysis evidenced the compatibility between two software programs, IRIS and DiagnoScope Specialist, with the only exception of the F4 formant. The mean values of vocal acoustic parameters in medical students and academic teachers, obtained by means of the IRIS software, can be used as standards for the female population not yet developed by the producer. When using the DiagnoScope Specialist software, some mean values were higher and some lower than the standards specified by the producer. The study evidenced the compatibility between two measurement software programs, IRIS and DiagnoScope Specialist, except for the F4 formant. It should be noted that the later has advantage over the former since the standard values of vocal acoustic parameters have been worked out by the producer. Moreover, they only slightly departed from the values obtained in our study and may be useful in diagnostics of occupational voice disorders.

  20. Vocal Hyperfunction in Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Garcia-Real; Díaz-Román, Tomás M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of habits and symptoms of vocal hyperfunction in the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of 24 children with ADHD and 30 children of a control group completed a specific questionnaire to detect the hyperfunctional use of the voice (excessive talking, excessive loudness, talking too fast, and shouting), hoarseness, vocal fatigue, mental and physical fatigue, and the degree of parental concern for the vocal health of their child. Parents of children with ADHD spoke more often, faster, and stronger than the parents of the control group; in addition, they also used a louder volume than they usually used when they spoke to their children. The parents manifested more vocal, mental, and physical fatigue than the parents of the control group. There was a significant correlation between the "concern" for the vocal health of their children with respect to vocal symptoms of the children, the habits of vocal hyperfunctioning, and the symptoms suffered by the parents. These results suggest that the parents of children with ADHD change their vocal attitude when communicating with their children. Most likely, the increased concern of parents with ADHD children and their respective level of stress lead to hyperfunctional vocal usage. This subsequently leads to symptoms of vocal, physical, and mental fatigue at the end of the day. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui K Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male-female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study.

  2. Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis in Parkinson Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Khalifee, Elie; Tabet, Georges

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this study was to report the first case of unilateral vocal fold paralysis in a patient with Parkinson disease (PD) and to review the literature. This is a case report and literature review following PubMed search using the keywords "Parkinson," "vocal fold paralysis," "vocal fold palsy," "vocal fold immobility," "vocal fold adductor palsy," "airway obstruction," and "stridor." A total of 18 subjects diagnosed with PD and vocal fold paralysis were described. In all cases, the vocal fold paralysis was bilateral and the main presenting symptoms were stridor and shortness of breath necessitating intubation and tracheostomy. This article describes the first case of PD presenting with dysphonia secondary to unilateral vocal fold paralysis (left). The management consisted of injection laryngoplasty for medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold. Patients with PD can present with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Early treatment is advocated in view of the advent of injection laryngoplasty as a safe office procedure. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Collagen Content Limits Optical Coherence Tomography Image Depth in Porcine Vocal Fold Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jordan A; Benboujja, Fouzi; Beaudette, Kathy; Rogers, Derek; Maurer, Rie; Boudoux, Caroline; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Vocal fold scarring, a condition defined by increased collagen content, is challenging to treat without a method of noninvasively assessing vocal fold structure in vivo. The goal of this study was to observe the effects of vocal fold collagen content on optical coherence tomography imaging to develop a quantifiable marker of disease. Excised specimen study. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Porcine vocal folds were injected with collagenase to remove collagen from the lamina propria. Optical coherence tomography imaging was performed preinjection and at 0, 45, 90, and 180 minutes postinjection. Mean pixel intensity (or image brightness) was extracted from images of collagenase- and control-treated hemilarynges. Texture analysis of the lamina propria at each injection site was performed to extract image contrast. Two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance and t tests were used to determine statistical significance. Picrosirius red staining was performed to confirm collagenase activity. Mean pixel intensity was higher at injection sites of collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P Fold change in image contrast was significantly increased in collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P = .002). Picrosirius red staining in control specimens revealed collagen fibrils most prominent in the subepithelium and above the thyroarytenoid muscle. Specimens treated with collagenase exhibited a loss of these structures. Collagen removal from vocal fold tissue increases image brightness of underlying structures. This inverse relationship may be useful in treating vocal fold scarring in patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  4. Vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve-paced respiration in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Mark C; Preciado, Diego A

    2012-01-01

    Phrenic nerve pacing can be used to treat congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We report how the lack of normal vocal cord tone during phrenic paced respiration can result in passive vocal cord collapse and produce obstructive symptoms. We describe a case of passive vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve paced respiration in a patient with CCHS. As far as we know, this is the first report of this etiology of airway obstruction. The patient, a 7-year-old with CCHS and normal waking vocal cord movement, continued to require nightly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) despite successful utilization of phrenic nerve pacers. On direct laryngoscopy, the patient's larynx was observed while the diaphragmatic pacers were sequentially engaged. No abnormal vocal cord stimulation was witnessed during engaging of either phrenic nerve stimulator. However, the lack of normal inspiratory vocal cord abduction during phrenic nerve-paced respiration resulted in vocal cord collapse and partial obstruction due to passive adduction of the vocal cords through the Bernoulli effect. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation resulted in more vocal cord collapse than unilateral stimulation. The lack of vocal cord abduction on inspiration presents a limit to phrenic nerve pacers.

  5. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  6. Within-individual variation in bullfrog vocalizations: implications for a vocally mediated social recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    Acoustic signals provide a basis for social recognition in a wide range of animals. Few studies, however, have attempted to relate the patterns of individual variation in signals to behavioral discrimination thresholds used by receivers to discriminate among individuals. North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) discriminate among familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on individual variation in advertisement calls. The sources, patterns, and magnitudes of variation in eight acoustic properties of multiple-note advertisement calls were examined to understand how patterns of within-individual variation might either constrain, or provide additional cues for, vocal recognition. Six of eight acoustic properties exhibited significant note-to-note variation within multiple-note calls. Despite this source of within-individual variation, all call properties varied significantly among individuals, and multivariate analyses indicated that call notes were individually distinct. Fine-temporal and spectral call properties exhibited less within-individual variation compared to gross-temporal properties and contributed most toward statistically distinguishing among individuals. Among-individual differences in the patterns of within-individual variation in some properties suggest that within-individual variation could also function as a recognition cue. The distributions of among-individual and within-individual differences were used to generate hypotheses about the expected behavioral discrimination thresholds of receivers.

  7. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the $1...

  8. 12 CFR 704.16 - Contracts/written agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracts/written agreements. 704.16 Section 704.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.16 Contracts/written agreements. Services, facilities, personnel, or equipment...

  9. 45 CFR 99.26 - Unsponsored written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsponsored written material. 99.26 Section 99.26 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.26 Unsponsored written material. Letters...

  10. Concreteness and Imagery Effects in the Written Composition of Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Kealy, William A.; Goetz, Ernest T.; Paivio, Allan

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates (n=48 and n=50) composed written definitions of concrete and abstract nouns that were matched for frequency of use and meaningfulness. Results support previous research suggesting that common cognitive mechanisms underlie production of spoken and written language as explained by dual coding theory. (SLD)

  11. 42 CFR 2.16 - Security for written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for written records. 2.16 Section 2.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.16 Security for written records...

  12. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  13. Towards a Theory of Vernacularisation: Insights from Written Chinese Vernaculars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Don

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the history of four Chinese vernaculars which have developed written forms, and argues that five of the patterns Hanan identifies in the early development of Bai Hua can also be found in the early development of written Wu, Cantonese, and Minnan. In each of the cases studied, there is a clear pattern of early use of the…

  14. 49 CFR 1018.20 - Written demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Collection of Claims § 1018.20 Written demand for payment. (a) The Board shall make appropriate written demand upon the debtor for payment of money in terms which specify: (1) The basis for the indebtedness... the debtor has explicitly refused to pay, or that sending a further demand is futile. Depending upon...

  15. The Influence of Process Drama on Elementary Students' Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the influence of process drama on fourth grade students' written language productivity and specificity. Participants included 16 students with learning and/or behavioral challenges at an urban public charter school. The influence of process drama on students' written language was compared across contextualized and…

  16. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  17. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  18. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who admits...

  19. Teaching Computation in Primary School without Traditional Written Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the dominance of the traditional written algorithms in schools have been raised by many mathematics educators, yet the teaching of these procedures remains a dominant focus in in primary schools. This paper reports on a project in one school where the staff agreed to put the teaching of the traditional written algorithm aside,…

  20. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  1. The human vocal fold layers. Their delineation inside vocal fold as a background to create 3D digital and synthetic glottal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepáček, I.; Jirák, D.; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Janoušková, Olga; Vampola, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 529-537 ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : human vocal fold * vocal ligamentous complex * lamina propria Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2016

  2. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. Original article "Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects", written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal "SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES", Publisher "Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora". Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  3. Social Context Predicts Vocalization Use in the Courtship Behaviors of Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine R. Russell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite previous research, no study has convincingly demonstrated what role if any vocalizations might play in the reproductive behavior of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii. To better understand that role, we created an artificial territory for an adult, male Weddell seal under the shore-fast ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, and recorded its in situ vocalizations and non-vocal behaviors with an underwater video camera and hydrophone while alone, with another male, and with one or more females. Additionally, we simultaneously recorded the vocalizations and non-vocal behaviors from a female interacting with the male. Analysis of 86 hr of video and audio recordings showed: 1 the male vocalized more than the female, 2 the male’s vocal repertoire was larger than the females’ repertoire, 3 vocalizations changed quantitatively and qualitatively with social context, and 4 patterns of vocalizations and non-vocal behaviors were detected with Theme, pattern recognition software from Noldus Information Technology. These results provided strong evidence that vocalizations played an important role during courtship, and together with the significant behavioral sequences, vocal and non-vocal, they provided insight into the function of their vocalizations including chirps, growls, jaw claps, knocks, mews, trills, and trills + knocks.

  4. The relation of mothers' controlling vocalizations to children's intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Driver, R E; Hotchkiss, L; Robbins, R J; Wilson, I M

    1993-04-01

    Twenty-six mother-child dyads played together in a laboratory setting. Play sessions were surreptitiously videotaped (with mothers' permission), and each maternal vocalization was transcribed and coded, first into 1 of 24 categories and then ipso facto into one of three supercategories--namely, controlling, autonomy supportive, and neutral. The degree of mothers' controllingness was calculated as the percentage of vocalizations coded as controlling. This index was correlated with the intrinsic motivation of their 6- or 7-year-old children, as assessed primarily by the free-choice behavioral measure and secondarily by a child self-report measure of interest and liking for the task. Both correlations were significantly negative, thereby suggesting that the robust laboratory findings of a negative relation between controlling contexts and individuals' intrinsic motivation are directly generalizable to the domain of parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the processes that undermine intrinsic motivation and the means through which parental controllingness is communicated.

  5. Eficacia de la reeducación vocal en diez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El programa de rehabilitación vocal debe basarse en un diagnóstico funcional siendo indispensable lainformación que la estroboscopia proporciona para diseñar un programa de terapia específico. Losequipos de Foniatría y Logopedia colaboran en este diseño e intervención, lo que reduce la duración deltratamiento con un mejor rendimiento y menor coste para el sistema sanitario. Para verificar la eficacia dela rehabilitación con 10 sesiones de tratamiento, se realiza un estudio con pacientes tratados por unequipo formado por un Foniatra y dos Logopedas. Se realiza una evaluación pre y post-tratamiento conherramientas subjetivas y objetivas: cuestionario de confort vocal, examen perceptual de la voz y análisisacústico. Los resultados avalan la eficacia del tratamiento realizado en tan solo diez sesiones.

  6. Vocal fold granulomas in six brachycephalic dogs: clinical, macroscopical and histological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarran, D; Caron, A; Billet, J P

    2018-06-05

    Vocal cord granulomas are rarely observed in brachycephalic breeds but often reported in humans as contact granulomas. Six French bulldogs were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Endoscopic laryngeal examinations were performed on all dogs under general anaesthesia. Vocal cord lesions were exclusively unilateral, exophytic, approximately 3-mm wide ulcerated mucosal nodules, arising from the vocal cord. Histopathological examination mainly revealed chronic inflammatory changes on the laryngeal epithelium which were consistent with laryngeal granulomas described in humans, except for the location: vocal cord in dogs versus vocal process in humans. In humans, granulomas result from chronic physical or chemical insult to laryngeal mucosa (chronic cough or throat clearing, vocal abuse, gastro-esophageal reflux). In brachycephalic breeds, chronic inspiratory efforts and air turbulences and gastro-esophageal reflux are suspected to result in chronic laryngeal inflammation. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Reduced auditory processing capacity during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, Miri; Henkin, Yael; Lamy, Dominique; Tetin-Schneider, Simona; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-02-01

    Because abnormal Auditory Efferent Activity (AEA) is associated with auditory distortions during vocalization, we tested whether auditory processing is impaired during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism (SM). Participants were children with SM and abnormal AEA, children with SM and normal AEA, and normally speaking controls, who had to detect aurally presented target words embedded within word lists under two conditions: silence (single task), and while vocalizing (dual task). To ascertain specificity of auditory-vocal deficit, effects of concurrent vocalizing were also examined during a visual task. Children with SM and abnormal AEA showed impaired auditory processing during vocalization relative to children with SM and normal AEA, and relative to control children. This impairment is specific to the auditory modality and does not reflect difficulties in dual task per se. The data extends previous findings suggesting that deficient auditory processing is involved in speech selectivity in SM.

  8. Positive therapy of andrographolide in vocal fold leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jue; Xue, Tao; Bao, Ying; Wang, Dong-Hai; Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chen-Yi; Yang, Guang-Hui; Ren, Gang; Lan, Long-Jiang; Wang, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Yu-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold leukoplakia is a premalignant precursor of squamous cell carcinoma. Although many efforts have been contributed to therapy of this disease, none exhibits a satisfactory result. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of andrographolide therapy in vocal fold leukoplakia and to explore the preliminary mechanism underlying. Forty-one eligible patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were treated for 10-minute exposures of 5 ml (25mg/ml) andrographolide injection aerosols twice a day, and 2 weeks was considered as one treatment course. Electronic laryngoscope was used to observe the condition of vocal fold leukoplakia during the treatment. Every patient received one or two treatment courses, and the follow-up was carried out for 12 months. Toxic reactions of treatments were evaluated on the basis of the standards of the United States MD Anderson Cancer Center. Moreover, laryngeal carcinoma cell line Hep2 was applied to explore the mechanism of effect of andrographolide. Anti-proliferative effect on Hep2, cell nuclear morphology, express of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and pro-apoptotic protein were detected after andrographolide treatment. We found that andrographolide exhibited significant curative effects on treatments, which were accompanied by thinning of the lesion of leukoplakia, reduction in the whitish surface area, and return of pink or red epithelium. A complete response up to 85% was observed, and no toxic side effect events occurred during the study. No patient with a complete response had a recurrence in the follow-up. Moreover, cellular experiments in Hep2 indicated that andrographolide activated MAPK pathway and caspase cascade, and finally induced apoptosis in laryngeal carcinoma cell. The advantages of andrographolide are connected with minimally invasive and localized character of the treatment and no damage of collagenous tissue structures, which are more convenient and less painful

  9. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vampola, T.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-88 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomechanics of human voice * voice production modelling * vocal excersing * voice training Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/138

  10. [Vocal cord functions in patients with asthma attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Burcu; Selçuk, Omer Tarik; Ardiç, Sadik; Saylam, Güleser; Yüceege, Melike; Bilgin, Esra; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate vocal cord functions and to establish underlying vocal cord dysfunctions (VCD) in patients with asthma attack. All patients admitted to emergency service of our hospital with asthma attack between February 01, 2007 and June 01, 2007 were included in the evaluation. After the evaluation, all patients regarded to have asthma attacks based on GINA 2006 guide were enrolled in the study. After first intervention, patients underwent endoscopic larynx examination for the evaluation of vocal cord functions. Twenty four (65.7%) male and 11 female (31.4%), overall 35 patients diagnosed with asthma and who did not have the history of another disease were included in the study. At endoscopic larynx examination carried out after first medical examination, at the moment of asthma attack, tongue, tongue base, epiglottis and arytenoid were observed to be within normal limits. In 9 (25.7%) patients, upper respiratory tract was hyperemic and in 2 (5.7%) odematous. One patient had nasal polyposis (p> 0.05). In the evaluation of vocal cord functions, restriction in adduction was observed in merely one patient. All other functions were normal. Rima opening width was established to be mean 8.34 + or - 0.725. VCD was deteced in none of the patients included in the study. Although we did not detect VCD in any patient, VCD should be borne in mind in cases which presents with the clinical picture of asthma and responds weakly to the treatment or in cases of unexplained shortness of breath. This may prevent many unnecessary procedures such as medication, entubation, tracheostomy and iatrogenic mortality. Further longutudial studies are required in order to shed light on the assocation of asthma with VCD.

  11. Dose Vocal: uma revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Perpétuo Assad

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar uma revisão da literatura referente aos tipos de dose vocal e aos resultados destas medidas em diferentes situações comunicativas. Houve levantamento da literatura nacional e internacional, publicada nos idiomas Inglês, Espanhol ou Português, utilizando-se as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS e ISI (Web of Science, dos últimos 21 anos, cujos artigos estavam disponíveis na íntegra. Quinze estudos contemplaram os critérios propostos. A maioria dos artigos estudou professores, visto que são mais vulneráveis para a ocorrência de disfonia. Os tipos de dose encontrados foram porcentagem de fonação, dose temporal, dose cíclica, dose de distância, dose de energia radiada e dose de energia dissipada. O aumento da dose vocal está associado ao uso excessivo e prolongado da voz na atividade docente, principalmente entre os professores da educação infantil e os de canto. As altas doses vocais correlacionam-se também à presença de disfonia, ao maior nível de ruído ambiental, à grande variação prosódica na fala e à autopercepção de fadiga vocal. Pacientes com disfonia comportamental (nódulos e pólipos apresentam maiores doses vocais que pacientes com outros quadros disfônicos. Fatores como repouso de voz e uso do amplificador vocal indicam a diminuição da dose da voz.

  12. Symptomatic unilateral vocal fold paralysis following cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Cassandra; Modzeski, Mara C; Orbelo, Diana; Ekbom, Dale C

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) is a complication associated with cardiothoracic procedures that presents clinically as dysphonia and/or dysphagia with or without aspiration. The literature lacks both data on recovery of mobility and consensus on best management. Herein, our goals are to 1) Identify cardiothoracic procedures associated with symptomatic UVFP at our institution; 2) Review timing and nature of laryngology diagnosis and management; 3) Report spontaneous recovery rate of vocal fold mobility. Retrospective case series at single tertiary referral center between 2002 and 2015. 141 patients were included who underwent laryngology interventions (micronized acellular dermis injection laryngoplasty and/or type 1 thyroplasty) to treat symptomatic UVFP diagnosed subsequent to cardiothoracic surgery. Pulmonary procedures were most often associated with UVFP (n=50/141; 35.5%). 87.2% had left-sided paralysis (n=123/141). Median time to diagnosis was 42days (x¯=114±348). Over time, UVFP was diagnosed progressively earlier after cardiothoracic surgery. 63.4% of patients (n=95/141) underwent injection laryngoplasty as their initial intervention with median time from diagnosis to injection of 11days (x¯=29.6±54). 41.1% (n=58/141) ultimately underwent type 1 thyroplasty at a median of 232.5days (x¯=367±510.2) after cardiothoracic surgery. 10.2% (n=9/88) of those with adequate follow-up recovered full vocal fold mobility. Many cardiothoracic procedures are associated with symptomatic UVFP, predominantly left-sided. Our data showed poor recovery of vocal fold mobility relative to other studies. Early diagnosis and potential surgical medialization is important in the care of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocalizations of primary forest frog species in the Central Amazon.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Barbara L.; Bogart, James P.

    1984-01-01

    The calls of 18 species of Amazonian forest frogs were recorded in 3 localities: the Tapajos National Park near Itaituba, the Reserva Ducke near Manaus, and the INPA-WWF reserves near Manaus. Structural and time parameters and sonographs of these calls including previously undescribed vocalization by 10 species are presented. Unlike open habitat species, several forest frong species characteriscally demonstrated one on more of the following temporal parameters: very low call rates, sporadic i...

  14. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz; Carlos Eduardo Pinzón; José Rafael Tovar Cuevas; Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nod...

  15. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Kosmos Turesson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing and symbolic (referential signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet. We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols. To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  16. Dysfunction of vocal chords as cause of dyspnoea and sibilance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria Rodriguez, Oscar; Bermudez Gomez, Mary; Lobelo, Rafael; Londono Trujillo, Dario; Solarte Rodriguez, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    From the years 80 have been identified the dysfunction and the paralysis of vocal chords (DPVC), like cause of dyspnoea, sibilance and in many occasions truly critical clinical squares that simulate asthmatic crisis. Patients' reports that have required orotracheal intubations and stay in intensive care, when this illness is presented; they improve in a remarkable way when the correct diagnosis of DPVC settles down. The paper include the presentation of the case and discussion

  17. Vocal Bursts Communicate Discrete Emotions: Evidence for New Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliana Simon-Thomas; Disa Sauter; Lara Sinicropi-Yao; Anna Abramson; Dacher Keltner

    2007-01-01

    Studies of emotion signaling have proven critical to scientific advances in understanding emotion, informing claims about the evolutionary origins of different emotions1, the central and peripheral nervous system correlates of emotion 2 3 and even which states warrant consideration in emotion taxonomies 4. An initial wave of empirical studies of emotion-related facial expression5 and vocalization 6 7 has concentrated almost exclusively on a limited set of emotions - anger, disgust, fear, sadn...

  18. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Gaulin, Steven J. C.; Puts, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F 0) in men’s voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fert...

  19. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  20. Vocal cord dysfunction related to water-damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristin J; Fink, Jordan N; Vasudev, Monica; Piacitelli, Chris; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is the intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during respiration, resulting in variable upper airway obstruction. Exposure to damp indoor environments is associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, but its role in the development of VCD is not well described. We describe the spectrum of respiratory illness in occupants of 2 water-damaged office buildings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a health hazard evaluation that included interviews with managers, a maintenance officer, a remediation specialist who had evaluated the 2 buildings, employees, and consulting physicians. In addition, medical records and reports of building evaluations were reviewed. Diagnostic evaluations for VCD had been conducted at the Asthma and Allergy Center of the Medical College of Wisconsin. Two cases of VCD were temporally related to occupancy of water-damaged buildings. The patients experienced cough, chest tightness, dyspnea, wheezing, and hoarseness when in the buildings. Spirometry was normal. Methacholine challenge did not show bronchial hyperreactivity but did elicit symptoms of VCD and inspiratory flow-volume loop truncation. Direct laryngoscopy revealed vocal cord adduction during inspiration. Coworkers developed upper and lower respiratory symptoms; their diagnoses included sinusitis and asthma, consistent with recognized effects of exposure to indoor dampness. Building evaluations provided evidence of water damage and mold growth. VCD can occur with exposure to water-damaged buildings and should be considered in exposed patients with asthma-like symptoms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening.

  2. Neuromuscular compensation mechanisms in vocal fold paralysis and paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew; Soofer, Donna; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2017-07-01

    Vocal fold paresis and paralysis are common conditions. Treatment options include augmentation laryngoplasty and voice therapy. The optimal management for this condition is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess possible neuromuscular compensation mechanisms that could potentially be used in the treatment of vocal fold paresis and paralysis. In vivo canine model. In an in vivo canine model, we examined three conditions: 1) unilateral right recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paresis and paralysis, 2) unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paralysis, and 3) unilateral vagal nerve paresis and paralysis. Phonatory acoustics and aerodynamics were measured in each of these conditions. Effective compensation was defined as improved acoustic and aerodynamic profile. The most effective compensation for all conditions was increasing RLN activation and decreasing glottal gap. Increasing RLN activation increased the percentage of possible phonatory conditions that achieved phonation onset. SLN activation generally led to decreased number of total phonation onset conditions within each category. Differential effects of SLN (cricothyroid [CT] muscle) activation were seen. Ipsilateral SLN activation could compensate for RLN paralysis; normal CT compensated well in unilateral SLN paralysis; and in vagal paresis/paralysis, contralateral SLN and RLN displayed antagonistic relationships. Methods to improve glottal closure should be the primary treatment for large glottal gaps. Neuromuscular compensation is possible for paresis. This study provides insights into possible compensatory mechanisms in vocal fold paresis and paralysis. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1633-1638, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eHutchins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production.

  4. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard F.; Cartmill, Matt; Balow, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian hypoglossal canal transmits the nerve that supplies the muscles of the tongue. This canal is absolutely and relatively larger in modern humans than it is in the African apes (Pan and Gorilla). We hypothesize that the human tongue is supplied more richly with motor nerves than are those of living apes and propose that canal size in fossil hominids may provide an indication about the motor coordination of the tongue and reflect the evolution of speech and language. Canals of gracile Australopithecus, and possibly Homo habilis, fall within the range of extant Pan and are significantly smaller than those of modern Homo. The canals of Neanderthals and an early “modern” Homo sapiens (Skhul 5), as well as of African and European middle Pleistocene Homo (Kabwe and Swanscombe), fall within the range of extant Homo and are significantly larger than those of Pan troglodytes. These anatomical findings suggest that the vocal capabilities of Neanderthals were the same as those of humans today. Furthermore, the vocal abilities of Australopithecus were not advanced significantly over those of chimpanzees whereas those of Homo may have been essentially modern by at least 400,000 years ago. Thus, human vocal abilities may have appeared much earlier in time than the first archaeological evidence for symbolic behavior. PMID:9560291

  5. Measurement of stress in vocal folds during phonation using spatiotemporal synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.; Zhang, Yu

    2007-01-01

    A method based on spatiotemporal synchronization is proposed to measure stress distribution in the vocal folds. It is theoretically proved that a measurement system can be synchronized with a vocal fold vibration system by coupling their surface dynamic variables. Therefore, the stress in the vocal folds is predicted by the synchronized continuous model. Numerical experiments are employed to verify this method. The influences of the different coupling variables and the parameter mismatches on stress measurement are also investigated

  6. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires

    OpenAIRE

    Geberzahn Nicole; Hultsch Henrike

    2004-01-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships...

  7. DYSFUNCTION OF THE VOCAL CORDS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Navazo-Eguía AI; Arias-Tobalina H; Suárez-Muñiz E; Mata-Franco G

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or laryngeal asthma is characterized by paroxysmal episodes of adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration and / or expiration, leading to episodes of dyspnea and stridor.CASE REPORT A 13 year old female with a history of exercise-related asthma is admitted to Hospital with a episode of stridor and dyspnea. Pulmonary function curve showed flattening of inspiratory and expiratory curve. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy: adducion of both vocal cords duri...

  8. Measurement of stress in vocal folds during phonation using spatiotemporal synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Chao [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States); Jiang, Jack J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)]. E-mail: jiang@surgery.wisc.edu; Zhang, Yu [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)

    2007-02-19

    A method based on spatiotemporal synchronization is proposed to measure stress distribution in the vocal folds. It is theoretically proved that a measurement system can be synchronized with a vocal fold vibration system by coupling their surface dynamic variables. Therefore, the stress in the vocal folds is predicted by the synchronized continuous model. Numerical experiments are employed to verify this method. The influences of the different coupling variables and the parameter mismatches on stress measurement are also investigated.

  9. High-speed Imaging of Vocal Fold Vibration Onset Delay: Normal Versus Abnormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak

    2017-05-01

    Vocal fold vibration onset delay (VFVOD) is heard frequently in spasmodic dysphonia and in muscle tension dysphonia. VFVOD changes due to other vocal pathologies have not been investigated. VFVOD during sustained vowel production was estimated with high-speed video in 10 normal and 40 pathologic subjects (scars, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold nodules, and polyps). Analysis of high-speed video was done using digital kymography. VFVOD can be divided into two portions. Pre-phonation delay (PPD) is the duration when the vocal folds are nearly approximated to the time of first observed oscillation. Steady state delay (SSD) is the time when vocal folds are observed to come into oscillation until steady state of oscillation is observed. Normal subjects have almost zero PPD with vocal fold oscillation observed before full vocal fold adduction. Pathologic cases showed prolonged PPD because of (1) false cord adduction, (2) prolonged true vocal fold adduction, and (3) delay to onset of vocal fold vibration. Normal subjects have SSD of three to five cycles before steady state. Pathologic states result in increased SSD. Causes for increased SSD include (1) slow ramping up to steady state, (2) partial vibration of vocal folds, and (3) diplophonia with alternating beats before achieving steady state. There are significant differences between normal and pathology groups in both PPD and SSD. VFVOD is elevated in pathologic states. This can be due to increase in PPD or SSD. VFVOD is an under-recognized phenomenon that may contribute to complaints of vocal fatigue and dysphonia. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred fr...

  11. Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ricceri, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In neonatal mice ultrasonic vocalizations have been studied both as an early communicative behavior of the pup-mother dyad and as a sign of an aversive affective state. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different experimental/social contexts. All these vocalizations are becoming an increasingly valuable assay for behavioral phenotyping throughout the mouse life-span and alterations of the ultrasound patterns have been reported in several mouse models...

  12. Sex differences in vocal patterns in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, Luisa F; Mendes, Francisco D C; Strier, Karen B

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether sex differences in spatial dynamics correlate with rates of staccato and neigh vocalizations in northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 2,727 10 min focal subject samples were collected on 32 adult females and 31 adult males between April 2007 and March 2008. Compared with males, females spent a significantly lower proportion of their time in proximity to other group members and gave staccatos at significantly higher rates while feeding, resting, and traveling. Conversely, males emitted neigh vocalizations at significantly higher rates than females when feeding and resting only. Both sexes gave significantly more staccatos when feeding than when they were engaged in other activities, but their respective rates of neighs did not vary across activities. Both females and males emitted staccato vocalizations at significantly higher rates during times of the year when preferred foods were scarce, but no seasonal differences in the rates of neigh vocalizations were observed in either sex. Females and males showed a reduction in the number of neighbors following staccato vocalizations and an increase in the number of neighbors following neigh vocalizations. Our findings of sex differences in the rates of staccato and neigh vocalizations and the effects of these vocalizations on interindividual spacing are consistent with sex differences in spatial dynamics, and confirm the role of vocal communication in mediating spatial associations in this species.

  13. The relationship between prelinguistic vocalization and later expressive vocabulary in young children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCathren, R B; Yoder, P J; Warren, S F

    1999-08-01

    This study tested the relationship between prelinguistic vocalization and expressive vocabulary 1 year later in young children with mild to moderate developmental delays. Three vocalization variables were tested: rate of all vocalization, rate of vocalizations with consonants, and rate of vocalizations used interactively. The 58 toddlers in the study were 17-34 months old, not sensory impaired, and had Bayley Mental Development Indices (Bayley, 1969; Bayley, 1993) from 35-85. In addition, the children had fewer than 3 words in their expressive vocabularies and during classroom observation each showed at least one instance of intentional prelinguistic communication before testing. Selected sections of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales procedures (CSBS; Wetherby & Prizant, 1993) were administered at the beginning and at the end of the study. The vocal measures were obtained in the initial CSBS session. One measure of expressive vocabulary was obtained in the CSBS session at the end of the study. In addition, expressive vocabulary was measured in a nonstructured play session at the end of the study. We predicted that rate of vocalization, rate of vocalizations with consonants, and rate of vocalizations used interactively would all be positively related to later expressive vocabulary. The results confirmed the predictions.

  14. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  15. VOCAL DEVELOPMENT AS A MAIN CONDITION IN EARLY SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne HOLM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is the evident positive vocal development in pre-lingual deaf children, who underwent a Cochlea Implantation in early age. The presented research compares the vocal speech expressions of three hearing impaired children and two children with normal hearing from 10 months to 5 years. Comparisons of the spontaneous vocal expressions were conducted by sonagraphic analyses. The awareness of the own voice as well as the voices of others is essential for the child’s continuous vocal development from crying to speech. Supra-segmental factors, such as rhythm, dynamics and melody play a very important role in this development.

  16. Feasibility of Clinical Endoscopy and Stroboscopy in Children With Bilateral Vocal Fold Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Stephanie R C; Brehm, Susan Baker; Weinrich, Barbara; Kelchner, Lisa; Tabangin, Meredith; de Alarcon, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of flexible and rigid endoscopy and stroboscopy for the identification of anatomical and physiological features in children with bilateral vocal fold lesions. The secondary purpose was to describe the age distribution of patients who could tolerate use of the different types of endoscopes. This cross-sectional clinic-based study included 38 children (ages 5 to 12 years) diagnosed with bilateral vocal fold lesions via videoendoscopy. Vocal fold vibratory characteristics (e.g., mucosal wave) were rated by 4 clinicians by consensus. Bilateral vocal fold lesions could be well described anatomically after visualization with both flexible and rigid endoscopes and were most commonly described as symmetrical and broad based. However, the clinicians' confidence in the accuracy of stroboscopy for rating vocal fold vibratory characteristics was limited for both flexible and rigid stroboscopes. Videoendoscopy was adequate for viewing and characterizing anatomical structures of bilateral vocal fold lesions in pediatric patients; however, vibratory characteristics were often not fully visualized with videostroboscopy. In view of the importance of visualizing vocal fold vibration in the differential diagnosis and treatment of vocal fold lesions, other imaging modalities, such as high-speed videoendoscopy, may provide more accurate descriptions of vocal fold vibratory characteristics in this population.

  17. Histological Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Chronic Vocal Fold Scarring in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Sohn, Jin-Ho; Bless, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat and there are currently no consistently effective treatments available. Our previous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for vocal fold scarring. However, the histological effects of bFGF on scarred vocal fold have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of bFGF on chronic vocal fold scarring. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into phosphate buffered saline (sham) and bFGF groups. Unilateral vocal fold stripping was performed and the drug was injected into the scarred vocal fold for each group 2 months postoperatively. Injections were performed weekly for 4 weeks. Two months after the last injection, larynges were harvested and histologically analyzed. A significant increase of hyaluronic acid was observed in the vocal fold of the bFGF group compared with that of the sham group. However, there was no remarkable change in collagen expression nor in vocal fold contraction. Significant increase of hyaluronic acid by local bFGF injection was thought to contribute to the therapeutic effects on chronic vocal fold scarring.

  18. Vocal fold motion outcome based on excellent prognosis with laryngeal electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A; Munin, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    As laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) becomes more refined, accurate predictions of vocal fold motion recovery are possible. Focus has been on outcomes for patients with poor prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery. Limited information is available regarding the expected rate of purposeful vocal fold motion recovery when there is good to normal motor recruitment, no signs of denervation, and no signs of synkinetic activity with LEMG, termed excellent prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of vocal fold motion recovery with excellent prognosis findings on LEMG after acute recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Retrospective review. Patients undergoing a standardized LEMG protocol, consisting of qualitative (evaluation of motor recruitment, motor unit configuration, detection of fibrillations, presence of synkinesis) and quantitative (turns analysis) measurements were evaluated for purposeful vocal-fold motion recovery, calculated after at least 6 months since onset of injury. Twenty-three patients who underwent LEMG for acute vocal fold paralysis met the inclusion criteria of excellent prognosis. Eighteen patients (78.3%) recovered vocal fold motion, as determined by flexible laryngoscopy. Nearly 80% of patients determined to have excellent prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery experienced return of vocal fold motion. This information will help clinicians not only counsel their patients on expectations but will also help guide treatment. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2310-2314, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Adaptation to Delayed Speech Feedback Induces Temporal Recalibration between Vocal Sensory and Auditory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. Participants read some sentences with specific delay times of DAF (0, 30, 75, 120 ms during three minutes to induce ‘Lag Adaptation’. After the adaptation, they then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback in producing simple voice but not speech. We found that speech production with lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  20. Vocal fold hemorrhage associated with coumadin therapy in an opera singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, J L; Rosen, C

    2000-06-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage can represent a disastrous and potentially career ending injury to a singer or professional voice user. The risk factors of vocal fold hemorrhage, including laryngeal trauma, phonotrauma, aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, and hormonal imbalances are well known. We present a case of an opera singer who developed recurrent vocal fold hemorrhage associated with coumadin anticoagulation therapy. This case highlights the importance of the risk of vocal fold hemorrhage to professional singers and professional voice users and offers an alternative to long-term coumadin therapy in this select population.

  1. Autopercepção vocal de coristas profissionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Salvatico de Aquino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar o nível de autopercepção vocal de cantores de um coral profissional. MÉTODO: participaram 44 coristas, com idades entre 20 e 75 anos ( 51,5 ± 14,36, de ambos os sexos. Estes responderam a um questionário com 30 questões objetivas sobre autopercepção vocal e queixas da voz cantada e falada; experiência com o canto e hábitos relacionados ao bem estar vocal. RESULTADOS: todos os coristas auto definiram suas vozes com características positivas, não apresentando diferença estatística entre voz falada e cantada. Os coristas identificaram também características vocais negativas para voz falada e cantada, sendo que foi encontrada diferença estatística. O índice de queixas vocais foi de 31% para voz falada e 25% para voz cantada, sem apresentar diferença estatística. 43% dos participantes realizaram aulas de canto, com tempo médio 1,95 anos (± 2,29 anos e o tempo de participação em corais variou de seis meses a 66 anos, com tempo médio de 17,74 anos (± 18,45 anos. Quanto aos hábitos relacionados ao bem estar vocal, o índice médio de ingestão diária de água foi de 1,7 litros (± 0,92 litros; 50% dos coristas fazem ingestão de álcool com frequência; o índice numérico de tabagistas foi de 4,5% e 22% dos coristas são ex-tabagistas. Não foram encontradas correlações estatísticas entre tabagismo, etilismo e experiência no canto com queixas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: os coristas avaliados apresentaram um nível elevado de autopercepção de seus aspectos vocais, podendo sugerir que o canto coral desempenha um papel importante na promoção do bem estar vocal.

  2. Life Experience of Patients With Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O; Sherman, Ariel E; Hovis, Kristen L; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Schlundt, David; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Davies, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Clinicians and patients benefit when they have a clear understanding of how medical conditions influence patients' life experiences. Patients' perspectives on life with unilateral vocal fold paralysis have not been well described. To promote patient-centered care by characterizing the patient experiences of living with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. This study used mixed methods: surveys using the voice and dysphagia handicap indexes (VHI and DHI) and semistructured interviews with adults with unilateral vocal cord paralysis recruited from a tertiary voice center. Recorded interviews were transcribed, coded using a hierarchical coding system, and analyzed using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. Symptom domains of the patient experience. In 36 patients (26 [72%] were female, and the median age and interquartile range [IQR] were 63 years [48-68 years]; median interview duration, 42 minutes), median VHI and DHI scores were 96 (IQR, 77-108) and 55.5 (IQR, 35-89) at the time of interviews, respectively. Frustration, isolation, fear, and altered self-identity were primary themes permeating patients' experiences. Frustrations related to limitations in communication, employment, and the medical system. Sources of fear included a loss of control, fear of further dysfunction or permanent disability, concern for health consequences (eg, aspiration pneumonia), and/or an inability to call for help in emergency situations. These experiences were modified by the following factors: resilience, self-efficacy, perceived sense of control, and social support systems. Effects of unilateral vocal fold paralysis extend beyond impaired voice and other somatic symptoms. Awareness of the extent to which these patients experience frustration, isolation, fear, and altered self-identity is important. A patient-centered approach to optimizing unilateral vocal fold paralysis treatment is enhanced by an understanding of both the physical dimension of this condition and how patients

  3. Using Trial Vocal Fold Injection to Select Vocal Fold Scar Patients Who May Benefit From More Durable Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L; Dezube, Aaron; Bauman, Laura A; Mallur, Pavan S

    2018-02-01

    Clinical indications for vocal fold injection augmentation (VFI) are expanding. Prior studies demonstrate the benefit of trial VFI for select causes of glottic insufficiency. No studies have examined trial VFI for glottic insufficiency resulting from true vocal fold (TVF) scar. Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent trial VFI for a dominant pathology of TVF scar causing dysphonia. Patients who subsequently underwent durable augmentation were identified. The primary study outcome was the difference in Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) score from pretrial VFI to post-durable augmentation. Twenty-eight patients underwent trial VFI for TVF scar, 22 of whom reported a positive response. Fifteen of 22 subjects who underwent durable augmentation had viable data for analysis. Mean VHI-10 improved from 26.9 to 18.6 ( P 5). A trial VFI is a potentially useful, low-risk procedure that appears to help the patient and clinician identify when global augmentation might improve the voice when vocal fold scar is present. Patients who reported successful trial VFI often demonstrated significant improvement in their VHI-10 after subsequent durable augmentation.

  4. Teaching Written Communication Strategies: A Training to Improve Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Benali Taouis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research can be described as an experimental quantitative one including: a strategy training; two homogenous experimental groups with different levels of proficiency; and two homogenous control groups. The subjects are 60 Spanish high school students, who have been selected after taking the Oxford Quick Placement-Test. The study aims at investigating the possible relationship between the effect of the strategy training and the subjects' level of proficiency. It is also designed to analyze the effect of the training on the use of communication strategies in the written medium. It is meant to study the effect of the strategy training on the subjects' writing skill in English. The results show that the students' level of proficiency exerts a strong effect on the subjects' use of written communication strategies (CSs and on their strategy preference in written production. They also demonstrate how strategy training improves the subjects' written communication ability.

  5. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, James

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  6. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements included in each essay were measured. Each student demonstrated gains in the number of words written and number of functional essay elements. Maintenance of treatment effects at follow-up varied across targets and participants. Implications for future research are suggested. PMID:17624076

  7. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condit...

  8. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  9. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  10. Extensão vocal de idosos coralistas e não coralistas Vocal range in aged choristers and non-choristers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Rocha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a extensão vocal de idosos coralistas e não coralistas e analisar a influência da prática do canto-coral amador na extensão vocal dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: extração dos valores da extensão vocal em semitons por meio de um teclado musical e análise comparativa do número de semitons entre 40 idosos coralistas e 40 não coralistas. RESULTADOS: o número de semitons atingido pelos coralistas é significativamente maior que o atingido pelos não coralistas. O perfil de extensão vocal dos idosos coralistas foi de 27 a 39 semitons, perfazendo um total de 3 oitavas, 1 tom e 1 semitom. O perfil de extensão vocal dos idosos não coralistas foi de 18 a 35 semitons, perfazendo um total de 2 oitavas, 5 tons e 1 semitom. CONCLUSÃO: a prática do canto coral amador aumenta a extensão vocal de idosos coralistas.PURPOSE: compare the vocal extension of senior choristers and non-choristers and analyze the influence of the practice of the amateur coral-song in the vocal extension of the aforementioned subjects. METHODS: extracting the vocal extension through a musical keyboard and comparative analysis of the number of half-notes among 40 senior choristers and 40 non-choristers. RESULTS: the number of half-notes achieved by the choristers is significantly higher than the one achieved by the non-choristers. The vocal extension profile of the seniors choristers was from 27 to 39 half-notes, totalizing a sum of 3 octaves, 1 tone and 1 half-note. The profile of the no-choristers seniors' vocal extension was from 18 to 35 half-notes, totalizing a sum of 2 octaves, 5 tones and 1 half-note. CONCLUSION: The practice of the amateur coral song increases the choristers seniors' vocal extension.

  11. Transcutaneous ultrasound for evaluation of vocal fold movement in patients with thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Tseng-Cheng; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Chun-Nan; Lin, Chin-Fon; Lou, Pei-Jen; Hu, Ya-Ling; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Hsieh, Fon-Jou

    2012-01-01

    Background: Preoperative evaluation of recurrent laryngeal nerve function is important in the context of thyroid surgery. Transcutaneous ultrasound may be useful to visualize vocal fold movement when evaluating thyroid disease. Methods: A 7–18 MHz linear array transducer was placed transversely on the midline of the thyroid cartilage at the anterior neck of patients with thyroid disease. The gray-scale technique was used, with the scan setting for the thyroid gland. Results: Between August 2008 and March 2010, 705 patients, including 672 patients with normal vocal fold movement and 33 patients with vocal fold paralysis were enrolled. They included 159 male and 546 female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 88 years. Vocal fold movement could be seen by ultrasound in 614 (87%) patients, including 589 (88%) patients with normal vocal fold movement and 25 (76%) patients with vocal fold paralysis (p = 0.06). The mean age of patients with visible and invisible vocal fold movement was 46.6 and 57.9 years old, respectively (p = 0.001). Ultrasound was able to see vocal fold movement in 533 (98%) female patients but only in 81 (51%) male patients (p = 0.001). Among the patients with vocal fold paralysis, ultrasound revealed palsied vocal folds in 17 of 18 (94%) female patients but in only 8 of 15 (53%) male patients (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Transcutaneous ultrasound represents an alternative tool to evaluate vocal fold movement for more than 85% of patients with thyroid disease, including more than 90% of female patients and about half of male patients.

  12. Convergent differential regulation of parvalbumin in the brains of vocal learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erina Hara

    Full Text Available Spoken language and learned song are complex communication behaviors found in only a few species, including humans and three groups of distantly related birds--songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Despite their large phylogenetic distances, these vocal learners show convergent behaviors and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. However, it is not clear whether this behavioral and anatomical convergence is associated with molecular convergence. Here we used oligo microarrays to screen for genes differentially regulated in brain nuclei necessary for producing learned vocalizations relative to adjacent brain areas that control other behaviors in avian vocal learners versus vocal non-learners. A top candidate gene in our screen was a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV. In situ hybridization verification revealed that PV was expressed significantly higher throughout the song motor pathway, including brainstem vocal motor neurons relative to the surrounding brain regions of all distantly related avian vocal learners. This differential expression was specific to PV and vocal learners, as it was not found in avian vocal non-learners nor for control genes in learners and non-learners. Similar to the vocal learning birds, higher PV up-regulation was found in the brainstem tongue motor neurons used for speech production in humans relative to a non-human primate, macaques. These results suggest repeated convergent evolution of differential PV up-regulation in the brains of vocal learners separated by more than 65-300 million years from a common ancestor and that the specialized behaviors of learned song and speech may require extra calcium buffering and signaling.

  13. Birds and babies : a comparison of the early development in vocal learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, Sita Minke ter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides a comparison of mostly perceptual development during vocal learning in songbirds (zebra finches) and human infants. The aim is to disentangle experience dependent and independent processes during vocal learning. In both human infants and juvenile songbirds, a perceptual

  14. Vocal cord paralysis following I-131 ablation of a postthyroidectomy remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.C.; Harbert, J.C.; Dejter, S.W.; Mariner, D.R.; VanDam, J.

    1985-01-01

    Vocal cord paralysis has been reported following I-131 therapy of thyrotoxicosis and following ablation of the whole thryoid. However, this rare complication has not previously been described following I-131 ablation of a postthyroidectomy remnant. The authors report a patient who required tracheostomy for bilateral vocal cord paralysis following I-131 ablation after near-total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma

  15. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (pacrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (pacrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  16. Voice amplification as a means of reducing vocal load for elementary music teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sharon L; Connor, Nadine P

    2011-07-01

    Music teachers are over four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice disorders and greater than eight times more likely to have voice-related problems than the general public. Research has shown that individual voice-use parameters of phonation time, fundamental frequency and vocal intensity, as well as vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose are significantly higher for music teachers than their classroom teacher counterparts. Finding effective and inexpensive prophylactic measures to decrease vocal load for music teachers is an important aspect for voice preservation for this group of professional voice users. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voice amplification on vocal intensity and vocal load in the workplace as measured using a KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ). Seven music teachers were monitored for 1 workweek using an APM to determine average vocal intensity (dB sound pressure level [SPL]) and vocal load as calculated by cycle dose and distance dose. Participants were monitored a second week while using a voice amplification unit (Asyst ChatterVox; Asyst Communications Company, Inc., Indian Creek, IL). Significant decreases in mean vocal intensity of 7.00-dB SPL (Pmusic teachers in the classroom. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Valence-Specific Laterality Effects in Vocal Emotion: Interactions with Stimulus Type, Blocking and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Geddes, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Valence-specific laterality effects have been frequently obtained in facial emotion perception but not in vocal emotion perception. We report a dichotic listening study further examining whether valence-specific laterality effects generalise to vocal emotions. Based on previous literature, we tested whether valence-specific laterality effects were…

  18. The Development and Validation of a Rubric to Enhance Performer Feedback for Undergraduate Vocal Solo Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrell, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    This is a study of the development and validation of a rubric to enhance performer feedback for undergraduate vocal solo performance. In the literature, assessment of vocal performance is under-represented, and the value of feedback from the assessment of musical performances, from the point of view of the performer, is nonexistent. The research…

  19. Preservice Music Teacher Voice Use, Vocal Health, and Voice Function before and during Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2018-01-01

    Preservice music teachers often use their voices differently during the semesters leading up to student teaching as compared to during the semester itself. Vocal demands often increase and change as students move from a student role to full-time teacher role. Consequently, music student teachers frequently experience vocal distress symptoms that…

  20. Differential coding of conspecific vocalizations in the ventral auditory cortical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-03-26

    The mammalian auditory cortex integrates spectral and temporal acoustic features to support the perception of complex sounds, including conspecific vocalizations. Here we investigate coding of vocal stimuli in different subfields in macaque auditory cortex. We simultaneously measured auditory evoked potentials over a large swath of primary and higher order auditory cortex along the supratemporal plane in three animals chronically using high-density microelectrocorticographic arrays. To evaluate the capacity of neural activity to discriminate individual stimuli in these high-dimensional datasets, we applied a regularized multivariate classifier to evoked potentials to conspecific vocalizations. We found a gradual decrease in the level of overall classification performance along the caudal to rostral axis. Furthermore, the performance in the caudal sectors was similar across individual stimuli, whereas the performance in the rostral sectors significantly differed for different stimuli. Moreover, the information about vocalizations in the caudal sectors was similar to the information about synthetic stimuli that contained only the spectral or temporal features of the original vocalizations. In the rostral sectors, however, the classification for vocalizations was significantly better than that for the synthetic stimuli, suggesting that conjoined spectral and temporal features were necessary to explain differential coding of vocalizations in the rostral areas. We also found that this coding in the rostral sector was carried primarily in the theta frequency band of the response. These findings illustrate a progression in neural coding of conspecific vocalizations along the ventral auditory pathway.