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Sample records for vocal tract acoustics

  1. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

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    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  2. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

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    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  3. Acoustic analysis of the vocal tract during vowel production by finite-difference time-domain method.

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    Takemoto, Hironori; Mokhtari, Parham; Kitamura, Tatsuya

    2010-12-01

    The vocal tract shape is three-dimensionally complex. For accurate acoustic analysis, a finite-difference time-domain method was introduced in the present study. By this method, transfer functions of the vocal tract for the five Japanese vowels were calculated from three-dimensionally reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The calculated transfer functions were compared with those obtained from acoustic measurements of vocal tract physical models precisely constructed from the same MRI data. Calculated transfer functions agreed well with measured ones up to 10 kHz. Acoustic effects of the piriform fossae, epiglottic valleculae, and inter-dental spaces were also examined. They caused spectral changes by generating dips. The amount of change was significant for the piriform fossae, while it was almost negligible for the other two. The piriform fossae and valleculae generated spectral dips for all the vowels. The dip frequencies of the piriform fossae were almost stable, while those of the valleculae varied among vowels. The inter-dental spaces generated very small spectral dips below 2.5 kHz for the high and middle vowels. In addition, transverse resonances within the oral cavity generated small spectral dips above 4 kHz for the low vowels.

  4. Acoustic Properties of the Voice Source and the Vocal Tract: Are They Perceptually Independent?

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    Erickson, Molly L

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether the properties of the voice source and vocal tract are perceptually independent. Within-subjects design. This study employed a paired-comparison paradigm where listeners heard synthetic voices and rated them as same or different using a visual analog scale. Stimuli were synthesized using three different source slopes and two different formant patterns (mezzo-soprano and soprano) on the vowel /a/ at four pitches: A3, C4, B4, and F5. Whereas formant pattern was the strongest effect, difference in source slope also affected perceived quality difference. Source slope and formant pattern were not independently perceived. These results suggest that when judging laryngeal adduction using perceptual information, judgments may not be accurate when the stimuli are of differing formant patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  6. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

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    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  7. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    , which is the mode that is most limited in pitch range, was tested at its pitch limit C5 (523 Hz) under normal conditions and when the singer has inhaled Helium. When inhaling Helium the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is reduced in magnitude and the resonances are scaled upwards in frequency due...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  8. Computational model for vocal tract dynamics in a suboscine bird

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    Assaneo, M. F.; Trevisan, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    In a recent work, active use of the vocal tract has been reported for singing oscines. The reconfiguration of the vocal tract during song serves to match its resonances to the syringeal fundamental frequency, demonstrating a precise coordination of the two main pieces of the avian vocal system for songbirds characterized by tonal songs. In this work we investigated the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulfuratus), a suboscine bird whose calls display a rich harmonic content. Using a recently developed mathematical model for the syrinx and a mobile vocal tract, we set up a computational model that provides a plausible reconstruction of the vocal tract movement using a few spectral features taken from the utterances. Moreover, synthetic calls were generated using the articulated vocal tract that accounts for all the acoustical features observed experimentally.

  9. Vocal tract dimensional characteristics of professional male and female singers with different types of singing voices.

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    Yan, Nan; Ng, Manwa L; Man, Mok Ka; To, Tsz Hin

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined the possible relationship between classification of professional singing voices and their vocal tract parameters including vocal tract length and volume, and vowel formant frequencies. Acoustic reflection technology (ART) was used to measure vocal tract length and volume of 107 professional singers: 32 tenors, 25 baritones, 27 sopranos, and 23 mezzo-sopranos. The first three formant frequencies (F1-F3) of the English vowels /a, æ, i/ produced by the professional singers were also obtained. Results indicated significantly shorter oral and vocal tract length, and smaller oral and vocal tract volume associated with sopranos when compared with mezzo-sopranos. Acoustically, sopranos had higher F1, F2, and F3 values than mezzo-sopranos. The present findings suggest that, in addition to vocal tract length, vocal tract volume may also affect formant frequencies, implying the possibility that classifying professional singing voices is based on both vocal tract length and volume information.

  10. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

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    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  11. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

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    Vampola T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two 3D finite element (FE models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed by exciting the models with acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display the cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. The formants F1–F3 correspond to classical vibration modes also solvable by 1D vocal tract model. However, for higher formants, there occur more complicated transversal modes which require 3D modelling. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses and valleculae. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region being the most effective. The higher formants created a clear formant cluster around 4 kHz after the vocal exercise with the tube. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4–F5 is effective for communication. The results suggest that exercising using phonation into tubes help in improving the vocal economy.

  12. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

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    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  13. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary A Lester; Story, Brad H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulati...

  14. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

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    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  15. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations: Simulations in time domain

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that during voiced speech, the human vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting source-filter coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that, in particular, contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [a, i] in the fundamental frequency (f_0) interval [180 Hz, 360 Hz]. The interval contains the first formant F1 of [i] as well as the subformants F1/4 and F1/3 of [a]. The simulations reveal a locking pattern of the f_0-trajectory at F1 of [i] in falling and rising glides. The subformants of [a] produce perturbations in the waveforms of glottal signals but no locki...

  16. On Short-Time Estimation of Vocal Tract Length from Formant Frequencies.

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    Adam C Lammert

    Full Text Available Vocal tract length is highly variable across speakers and determines many aspects of the acoustic speech signal, making it an essential parameter to consider for explaining behavioral variability. A method for accurate estimation of vocal tract length from formant frequencies would afford normalization of interspeaker variability and facilitate acoustic comparisons across speakers. A framework for considering estimation methods is developed from the basic principles of vocal tract acoustics, and an estimation method is proposed that follows naturally from this framework. The proposed method is evaluated using acoustic characteristics of simulated vocal tracts ranging from 14 to 19 cm in length, as well as real-time magnetic resonance imaging data with synchronous audio from five speakers whose vocal tracts range from 14.5 to 18.0 cm in length. Evaluations show improvements in accuracy over previously proposed methods, with 0.631 and 1.277 cm root mean square error on simulated and human speech data, respectively. Empirical results show that the effectiveness of the proposed method is based on emphasizing higher formant frequencies, which seem less affected by speech articulation. Theoretical predictions of formant sensitivity reinforce this empirical finding. Moreover, theoretical insights are explained regarding the reason for differences in formant sensitivity.

  17. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A; Story, Brad H

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulation of the glottal and vocal tract configurations. Forty-two healthy adults participated in a perceptual study involving pair-comparisons of the magnitude of "shakiness" with simulated samples of laryngeal vocal tremor. Results revealed that listeners perceived a higher magnitude of voice modulation when simulated samples had a higher mean F0, greater degree of vocal fold adduction, and vocal tract shape for /i/ vs /ɑ/. However, the effect of F0 was significant only when glottal noise was not present in the acoustic signal. Acoustical analyses were performed with the simulated samples to determine the features that affected listeners' judgments. Based on regression analyses, listeners' judgments were predicted to some extent by modulation information present in both low and high frequency bands.

  18. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

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    Lesley Wolk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  19. Teacher's voice: vocal tract discomfort symptoms, vocal intensity and noise in the classroom.

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    Mendes, Amanda Louize Félix; Lucena, Brunna Thaís Luckwu de; De Araújo, Aline Menezes Guedes Dias; Melo, Luciana Pimentel Fernandes de; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Silva, Maria Fabiana Bonfim de Lima

    2016-04-01

    To identify a possible correlation between teachers vocal intensity and the noise in the classroom, as well as between vocal intensity and the symptoms of vocal tract discomfort before and after classes. 27 Elementary School I teachers participated in the study. We used the questionnaires "Vocal Production Condition of the Teacher" and "Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale - VTD" which were applied before and after the class. A properly calibrated noise meter was used for measuring noise in the classroom and the teachers' vocal intensity. There was a moderate positive correlation between vocal intensity and noise and also a significant difference between the VTD scale and the teachers with and without vocal complaint before and after classes. When compared separately on both occasions, there was an increase in the group's scores for both groups and with and without complaints. We found association of the vocal tract symptoms before and after classes, frequency of burning, itching, sore throat and sensitive throat were observed. The intensity of symptoms was significant for sore throat, itching and feeling of lump in the throat. We observed significant values of vocal intensity and frequency and intensity of symptoms for sensitive throat and lump in the throat before the class, and sore throat and lump in the throat after the. The increase in teacher's vocal intensity correlates to high noise levels in the classroom. The evidence suggests correlation between vocal intensity and discomfort of the vocal tract, with most of the symptoms reported in greater frequency and intensity after the class.

  20. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

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    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  1. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

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    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  2. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, C; Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-01-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's vocal tract. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' tracts using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this 'normal' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, a...

  3. Contribution of the supraglottic larynx to the vocal product: imaging and acoustic analysis

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    Gracco, L. Carol

    1996-04-01

    Horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a mass lesion located in the region of the pharynx superior to the true vocal folds. In contrast to full or partial laryngectomy, patients who undergo horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy often present with little or nor involvement to the true vocal folds. This population provides an opportunity to examine the acoustic consequences of altering the pharynx while sparing the laryngeal sound source. Acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired in a group of four patients before and after supraglottic laryngectomy. Acoustic measures included the identification of vocal tract resonances and the fundamental frequency of the vocal fold vibration. 3D reconstruction of the pharyngeal portion of each subjects' vocal tract were made from MRIs taken during phonation and volume measures were obtained. These measures reveal a variable, but often dramatic difference in the surgically-altered area of the pharynx and changes in the formant frequencies of the vowel/i/post surgically. In some cases the presence of the tumor created a deviation from the expected formant values pre-operatively with post-operative values approaching normal. Patients who also underwent radiation treatment post surgically tended to have greater constriction in the pharyngeal area of the vocal tract.

  4. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

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    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  5. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

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    Alexander Mainka

    Full Text Available The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9% and volume (+ 16:8%. Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  6. Vocal tract filtering and sound radiation in a songbird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Brian S; Beckers, Gabriël J L; Suthers, Roderick A

    2005-01-01

    .... Several studies have described the dynamics with which birds actively vary beak gape while singing and it has been hypothesized that birds vary beak gape as a mechanism for varying vocal tract resonances...

  7. Acoustic signatures of sound source-tract coupling

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    Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Perl, Yonatan Sanz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2011-04-01

    Birdsong is a complex behavior, which results from the interaction between a nervous system and a biomechanical peripheral device. While much has been learned about how complex sounds are generated in the vocal organ, little has been learned about the signature on the vocalizations of the nonlinear effects introduced by the acoustic interactions between a sound source and the vocal tract. The variety of morphologies among bird species makes birdsong a most suitable model to study phenomena associated to the production of complex vocalizations. Inspired by the sound production mechanisms of songbirds, in this work we study a mathematical model of a vocal organ, in which a simple sound source interacts with a tract, leading to a delay differential equation. We explore the system numerically, and by taking it to the weakly nonlinear limit, we are able to examine its periodic solutions analytically. By these means we are able to explore the dynamics of oscillatory solutions of a sound source-tract coupled system, which are qualitatively different from those of a sound source-filter model of a vocal organ. Nonlinear features of the solutions are proposed as the underlying mechanisms of observed phenomena in birdsong, such as unilaterally produced “frequency jumps,” enhancement of resonances, and the shift of the fundamental frequency observed in heliox experiments.

  8. Frequencies, bandwidths and magnitudes of vocal tract and surrounding tissue resonances, measured through the lips during phonation.

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    Hanna, Noel; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2016-05-01

    The frequencies, magnitudes, and bandwidths of vocal tract resonances are all important in understanding and synthesizing speech. High precision acoustic impedance spectra of the vocal tracts of 10 subjects were measured from 10 Hz to 4.2 kHz by injecting a broadband acoustic signal through the lips. Between 300 Hz and 4 kHz the acoustic resonances R (impedance minima measured through the lips) and anti-resonances R¯ (impedance maxima) associated with the first three voice formants, have bandwidths of ∼50 to 90 Hz for men and ∼70 to 90 Hz for women. These acoustic resonances approximate those of a smooth, dry, rigid cylinder of similar dimensions, except that their bandwidths indicate higher losses in the vocal tract. The lossy, inertive load and airflow caused by opening the glottis further increase the bandwidths observed during phonation. The vocal tract walls are not rigid and measurements show an acousto-mechanical resonance R0 ∼ 20 Hz and anti-resonance R¯0∼200 Hz. These give an estimate of wall inertance consistent with an effective thickness of 1-2 cm and a wall stiffness of 2-4 kN m(-1). The non-rigidity of the tract imposes a lower limit of the frequency of the first acoustic resonance fR1 and the first formant F1.

  9. Perceptual and acoustic parameters of vocal nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramuglia, Andréa Cristina Joia; Tavares, Elaine L M; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Martins, Regina H G

    2014-02-01

    Vocal nodules constitute the major cause of dysphonia during childhood. Auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses have been used to differentiate vocal nodules from normal voice in children. To study the value of auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses in assessments of children with nodules. Diagnostic test study. A comparative study was carried out including 100 children with videolaryngoscopic diagnosis of vocal nodules (nodule group-NG); and 100 children without vocal symptoms and with normal videolaryngoscopic exams (control group-CG). The age range of both groups was between 4 and 11 years. All children underwent auditory-perceptual vocal analyses (GRBASI scale); maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were calculated, and acoustic vocal analysis (MDVP software) were carried out. There was no difference in the values of maximum phonation time and s/z ratio between groups. Auditory-perceptual analysis indicated greater compromising of voice parameters for NG, compared to CG: G (79 versus 24), R (53 versus 3), B (67 versus 23) and S (35 versus 1). The values of acoustic parameters jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI were higher for NG for CG. The parameter f0 did not differ between groups. Compromising of auditory-perceptual (G, R, B and S) and acoustic vocal parameters (jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI) was greater for children with nodules than for those of the control group, which makes them important methods for assessing child dysphonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Vocal Tract Resonance on the Perception of Voice Quality Changes Caused by Varying Vocal Fold Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Rosario; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Gerratt, Bruce; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Summary Experiments using animal and human larynx models are often conducted without a vocal tract. While it is often assumed that the absence of a vocal tract has only small effects on vocal fold vibration, it is not actually known how sound production and quality are affected. In this study, the validity of using data obtained in the absence of a vocal tract for voice perception studies was investigated. Using a two-layer self-oscillating physical model, three series of voice stimuli were created: one produced with conditions of left-right symmetric vocal fold stiffness, and two with left-right asymmetries in vocal fold body stiffness. Each series included a set of stimuli created with a physical vocal tract, and a second set created without a physical vocal tract. Stimuli were re-synthesized to equalize the mean F0 for each series and normalized for amplitude. Listeners were asked to evaluate the three series in a sort-and-rate task. Multidimensional scaling analysis was applied to examine the perceptual interaction between the voice source and the vocal tract resonances. The results showed that the presence or absence of a vocal tract can significantly affect perception of voice quality changes due to parametric changes in vocal fold properties, except when the parametric changes in vocal fold properties produced an abrupt shift in vocal fold vibratory pattern resulting in a salient quality change. PMID:27134616

  11. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.; Fletcher, Neville H.; Blevins, William E.

    2006-01-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song’s fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity to actively track the song’s fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  12. Vocal Tract Representation in the Recognition of Cerebral Palsied Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzicz, Frank; Hirst, Graeme; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored articulatory information as a means of improving the recognition of dysarthric speech by machine. Method: Data were derived chiefly from the TORGO database of dysarthric articulation (Rudzicz, Namasivayam, & Wolff, 2011) in which motions of various points in the vocal tract are measured during speech.…

  13. Dynamic 3-D visualization of vocal tract shaping during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I; Narayanan, Shrikanth S; Nayak, Krishna S

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and dynamics of the vocal tract during speech production. 3-D dynamic MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide 3-D dynamic visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of 3-D dynamic movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2-D dynamic data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2-D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /a.ιa/, /asa/, and /a∫a/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using dynamic time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable dynamic 3-D visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for dynamic 3-D visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms.

  14. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer E Bouchard

    Full Text Available A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial--especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics.

  16. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumanchipalli, Gopala K.; Dichter, Benjamin; Chaisanguanthum, Kris S.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial—especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics. PMID:27019106

  17. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' ``muscle memory'' is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this ``normal'' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for ``special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa.

  18. Control of vocal-tract length in speech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, C.J.

    1977-10-01

    Essential for the correct production of vowels is the accurate control of vocal-tract length. Perkell (Psychology of Speech Production (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1969)) has suggested that two important determinants of vocal-tract length are vertical larynx position and lip spreading/protrusion, often acting together. The present study was designed to determine whether constraining lip spreading/protrusion induces compensatory vertical larynx displacements, particularly on rounded vowels. Upper lip and larynx movement were monitored photoelectrically while French and Mandarin native speakers produced the vowels /i,y,u/ first under normal-speech conditions and then with lip activity constrained. Significant differences were found in upper-lip protrusion and larynx position depending on the vowel uttered. Moreover, the generally low-larynx position of rounded vowels became even lower when lip protrusion was constrained. These results imply that compensatory articulations contribute to a contrast-preserving strategy in speech production.

  19. Advances in non-invasive measures of vocal acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H

    1991-10-01

    Objective assessment of vocal pitch, loudness, and quality is a crucial adjunct to endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of vocal pathology. Historically, this assessment was made through subjective, perceptual measures that were questionable in terms of validity and reliability. Recent advances in electronic technology now permit objective analysis of the acoustic characteristics of voice. Kay Elemetric's Visi-Pitch, DSP 5500 Digital Spectrograph, and Nasometer are representative of these new instruments and are used as illustrations in the discussion of the assessment of speech acoustics.

  20. Lab experiment using physical models of the human vocal tract for high-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Arai, Takayuki; Saika, Noriko; Murahara, Yuji

    2002-11-01

    Recently, the development of educational tools for acoustics has become popular in Japan. We believe that physical models of the human vocal tract are particularly useful for teaching acoustics. Formerly we proposed three models of the vocal tract corresponding to the Japanese vowels, /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/. We presented cylindrical, nasalized, and plate type models. The models were made of transparent acrylic resin, enabling the configurations of the oral cavity to be seen from the outside of the model. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of a lab experiment in which we used these tools to teach the mechanism of vowel production to high-school students who had just finished studying basic acoustics. By manipulating the plates in the plate type model, students were able to simulate constrictions at nodes and antinodes, and they were able to hear the shift in formant frequencies. The exercise helped students to understand vowel production. We received positive feedback from those who participated in the experiment.

  1. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  2. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Cazau; Olivier Adam; Thierry Aubin; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities ...

  3. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  4. A Fast Semiautomatic Algorithm for Centerline-Based Vocal Tract Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A. Poznyakovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal tract morphology is an important factor in voice production. Its analysis has potential implications for educational matters as well as medical issues like voice therapy. The knowledge of the complex adjustments in the spatial geometry of the vocal tract during phonation is still limited. For a major part, this is due to difficulties in acquiring geometry data of the vocal tract in the process of voice production. In this study, a centerline-based segmentation method using active contours was introduced to extract the geometry data of the vocal tract obtained with MRI during sustained vowel phonation. The applied semiautomatic algorithm was found to be time- and interaction-efficient and allowed performing various three-dimensional measurements on the resulting model. The method is suitable for an improved detailed analysis of the vocal tract morphology during speech or singing which might give some insights into the underlying mechanical processes.

  5. Close relationship between the frequency of 22-kHz calls and vocal tract length in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2012-05-15

    It is known that the size of the components of the sound production apparatus in mammals may affect the acoustic structure of vocalizations. Therefore, some acoustic variables such as voice frequency may change with age in association with body size and body weight increases. However, whether this relationship also applies to ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by laboratory rats has not been investigated. Thus, in the present study, we first recorded changes in three acoustic variables (mean frequency, duration, and bandwidth) of air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in male rats during their growth period and assessed the relationship between these changes and body weight gain (Experiment 1). Then we directly recorded several body size measures including components of the sound production apparatus in 6- and 12-week-old male rats and examined the correlation between these values and the acoustic variables of 22-kHz calls (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the mean frequency of 22-kHz calls in male rats during the growth period showed negative correlations with body weight gain, while the duration of 22-kHz calls showed positive correlations. In Experiment 2, only a close negative correlation between the mean frequency of 22-kHz calls and vocal tract length in male rats was found. These results suggest that the age-related decrease in the mean frequency of 22-kHz calls may be ascribed to anatomical elongation of the vocal tract length in association with the growth of male rats. These acoustic differences could inform the receivers about the age of the signaler. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and vocal tract: Applications to the study of speech production and language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2017-04-01

    The human vocal system is highly plastic, allowing for the flexible expression of language, mood and intentions. However, this plasticity is not stable throughout the life span, and it is well documented that adult learners encounter greater difficulty than children in acquiring the sounds of foreign languages. Researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to interrogate the neural substrates of vocal imitation and learning, and the correlates of individual differences in phonetic "talent". In parallel, a growing body of work using MR technology to directly image the vocal tract in real time during speech has offered primarily descriptive accounts of phonetic variation within and across languages. In this paper, we review the contribution of neural MRI to our understanding of vocal learning, and give an overview of vocal tract imaging and its potential to inform the field. We propose methods by which our understanding of speech production and learning could be advanced through the combined measurement of articulation and brain activity using MRI - specifically, we describe a novel paradigm, developed in our laboratory, that uses both MRI techniques to for the first time map directly between neural, articulatory and acoustic data in the investigation of vocalisation. This non-invasive, multimodal imaging method could be used to track central and peripheral correlates of spoken language learning, and speech recovery in clinical settings, as well as provide insights into potential sites for targeted neural interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  8. A vocal-tract model of American English /l/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y.

    2004-03-01

    The production of the lateral sounds involves airflow paths around the tongue produced by the laterally inward movement of the tongue toward the midsagittal plane. If contact is made with the palate, a closure is formed in the flow path along the midsagittal line. The effects of the lateral channels on the sound spectrum are not clear. In this study, a vocal-tract model with parallel lateral channels and a supralingual cavity was developed. Analysis shows that the lateral channels with dimensions derived from magnetic resonance images of an American English /l/ are able to produce a pole-zero pair in the frequency range of 2-5 kHz. This pole-zero pair, together with an additional pole-zero pair due to the supralingual cavity, results in a low-amplitude and relatively flat spectral shape in the F3-F5 frequency region of the /l/ sound spectrum.

  9. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Delvaux

    Full Text Available The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output.

  11. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

    2014-01-01

    The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output.

  12. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.

    2008-01-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC a...

  13. Language-specific vocal tract configurations during nonspeech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Cook, Clare

    2003-04-01

    Previous work has been found to be surprisingly low within-speaker variability in baseline articulator positions during inter-utterance nonspeech [Gick, Phonetica (2002)], raising the question of whether these baseline positions may in fact be active in speech production. If so, then they should be specified and should vary systematically across languages. A study was conducted to test for cross-language differences in inter-utterance articulator positions. Individual video frames were extracted at the midpoint of interutterance pauses in x-ray films of 5 French and 5 English speakers. Measures were made of articulator positions relative to fixed bone points, and values normalized to jaw size. Frames with potentially confounding surrounding phonetic contexts were omitted. Results for lip measures indicate that French speakers have significantly greater protrusion of the lower lip, but significantly less upper lip protrusion, than English speakers. Additional results will be presented for lingual articulators. Thus these baseline vocal tract configurations do appear to be specified differently for different languages. Additional implications will be discussed, such as possible roles these configurations may play in phonology, potential influence on vowel systems (especially schwa), and cross-language vowel normalization. [Research supported by NSERC and NIH.

  14. A note on acoustic analysis of dairy calves’ vocalizations at 1 day after separation from dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Hwan Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vocalizations of animals are very useful in assessing an emotional state and welfare because they involve information about various emotions. Hence, the findings of the acoustic features of vocalization can be used to improve the productivity and welfare of animals. This study was conducted to analyse the vocalizations of dairy calves separated from the dam. At 6 days after birth, 12 dairy calves were moved into an individual calf pen (3.0m×2.0m bedded with sawdust and straw. One and a half litres of whole milk were fed twice daily and free access to water was allowed. The calves’ vocalizations were divided into humming vocalizations (HVs: low continuous calls without tone changed, semi-humming vocalizations (SHVs: low continuous calls with tone changed, and general vocalizations (GVs. These vocalizations were classified, based on the shapes of waveforms and spectrograms. Differences in the duration, fundamental frequency, intensity, and formants among the classified vocalizations were found (P<0.0001. Acoustic parameters except intensity and 3rd formant were not different between HVs and SHVs. These results suggest that vocalization analysis could be a useful tool in assessing the emotions of calves. Acoustic parameters are also useful in classifying vocalizations. Also, intensity and 3rd formant are advantageous in distinguishing HVs and SHVs.

  15. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Radfar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  16. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2009-02-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC and the fundamental frequency in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) whose song, unlike that of the cardinal, consists of a series of almost constant frequency notes. Cineradiography of singing sparrows shows that the oropharyngeal cavity and cranial end of the esophagus expand abruptly at the start of each note and maintain a relatively constant volume until the end of the note. Computation of the vocal tract transfer function suggests a major resonance of the OEC follows the fundamental frequency, making sound transmission more efficient. The presence of similar prominent song-related vocal tract motor patterns in two Oscine families suggests that the active control of the vocal tract resonance by varying the volume of the OEC may be widespread in songbirds.

  17. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansereau Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  18. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Tilsen; Pascal Spincemaille; Bo Xu; Peter Doerschuk; Wen-Ming Luh; Elana Feldman; Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or ...

  19. The role of classroom acoustics on vocal intensity regulation and speakers’ comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David

    Teachers are one of the professional groups with the highest risk of suffering from voice disorders. Teachers point out classroom acoustics among the potential hazards affecting their vocal health, together with air dryness, background noise, and other environmental factors. The present project has...... investigated the relationships between the classroom acoustic condition and teachers’ voice, focusing on their vocal intensity, and between the classroom acoustic condition and the sensation of acoustic comfort for a speaker. In the presence of low background noise levels, teachers were found to adjust...... their vocal intensity according to the room gain or voice support of the classroom, which are equivalent objective measures that quantify the amplification of one’s own voice in a room due to the reflections at the room boundaries. Most of the vocal intensity variation among classrooms was due to differences...

  20. Real-time system for studies of the effects of acoustic feedback on animal vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eSkocik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of behavioral and neural responses to distorted auditory feedback can help shed light on the neural mechanisms of animal vocalizations. We describe an apparatus for generating real-time acoustic feedback. The system can very rapidly detect acoustic features in a song and output acoustic signals if the detected features match the desired acoustic template. The system uses spectrogram-based detection of acoustic elements. It is low-cost and can be programmed for a variety of behavioral experiments requiring acoustic feedback or neural stimulation. We use the system to study the effects of acoustic feedback on birds' vocalizations and demonstrate that such an acoustic feedback can cause both immediate and long-term changes to birds’ songs.

  1. Computer-aided segmentation and 3D analysis of in vivo MRI examinations of the human vocal tract during phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismüller, Axel; Behrends, Johannes; Hoole, Phil; Leinsinger, Gerda L.; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2008-03-01

    We developed, tested, and evaluated a 3D segmentation and analysis system for in vivo MRI examinations of the human vocal tract during phonation. For this purpose, six professionally trained speakers, age 22-34y, were examined using a standardized MRI protocol (1.5 T, T1w FLASH, ST 4mm, 23 slices, acq. time 21s). The volunteers performed a prolonged (>=21s) emission of sounds of the German phonemic inventory. Simultaneous audio tape recording was obtained to control correct utterance. Scans were made in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes each. Computer-aided quantitative 3D evaluation included (i) automated registration of the phoneme-specific data acquired in different slice orientations, (ii) semi-automated segmentation of oropharyngeal structures, (iii) computation of a curvilinear vocal tract midline in 3D by nonlinear PCA, (iv) computation of cross-sectional areas of the vocal tract perpendicular to this midline. For the vowels /a/,/e/,/i/,/o/,/ø/,/u/,/y/, the extracted area functions were used to synthesize phoneme sounds based on an articulatory-acoustic model. For quantitative analysis, recorded and synthesized phonemes were compared, where area functions extracted from 2D midsagittal slices were used as a reference. All vowels could be identified correctly based on the synthesized phoneme sounds. The comparison between synthesized and recorded vowel phonemes revealed that the quality of phoneme sound synthesis was improved for phonemes /a/ and /y/, if 3D instead of 2D data were used, as measured by the average relative frequency shift between recorded and synthesized vowel formants (pproduction.

  2. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  3. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-01-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs. PMID:27721476

  4. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-10-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  5. A Vowel-Based Method for Vocal Tract Control in Clarinet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Darleny; Payri, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Our review of scientific literature shows that the activity inside the clarinetist's vocal tract (VT) affects pitch and timbre, while also facilitating technical exercises. Clarinetists adapt their VT intuitively and, in some cases, may compensate an inadequate VT configuration through unnecessary pressure, resulting in technical blockage,…

  6. Influence of vocal tract geometry simplifications on the numerical simulation of vowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnela, Marc; Dabbaghchian, Saeed; Blandin, Rémi; Guasch, Oriol; Engwall, Olov; Van Hirtum, Annemie; Pelorson, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    For many years, the vocal tract shape has been approximated by one-dimensional (1D) area functions to study the production of voice. More recently, 3D approaches allow one to deal with the complex 3D vocal tract, although area-based 3D geometries of circular cross-section are still in use. However, little is known about the influence of performing such a simplification, and some alternatives may exist between these two extreme options. To this aim, several vocal tract geometry simplifications for vowels [ɑ], [i], and [u] are investigated in this work. Six cases are considered, consisting of realistic, elliptical, and circular cross-sections interpolated through a bent or straight midline. For frequencies below 4-5 kHz, the influence of bending and cross-sectional shape has been found weak, while above these values simplified bent vocal tracts with realistic cross-sections are necessary to correctly emulate higher-order mode propagation. To perform this study, the finite element method (FEM) has been used. FEM results have also been compared to a 3D multimodal method and to a classical 1D frequency domain model.

  7. Multifunctional and Context-Dependent Control of Vocal Acoustics by Individual Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J

    2015-10-21

    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles were dedicated to the control of single parameters, then the brain could control each parameter independently by modulating the appropriate muscle or muscles. Alternatively, if each muscle influenced multiple parameters, a more complex control strategy would be required to selectively modulate a single parameter. Additionally, it is unknown whether the function of single muscles is fixed or varies across different vocal gestures. A fixed relationship would allow the brain to use the same changes in muscle activation to, for example, increase the fundamental frequency of different vocal gestures, whereas a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single muscles drive changes in multiple parameters and that the function of single muscles differs across vocal gestures, suggesting that the brain uses a complex, gesture-dependent control scheme to regulate vocal output.

  8. Acoustic communication in Panthera tigris: A study of tiger vocalization and auditory receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edward J.; Wang, Lily M.; Armstrong, Douglas L.; Curro, Thomas; Simmons, Lee G.; McGee, Joann

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic communication represents a primary mode of interaction within the sub-species of Panthera tigris and it is commonly known that their vocal repertoire consists of a relatively wide range of utterances that include roars, growls, grunts, hisses and chuffling, vocalizations that are in some cases produced with extraordinary power. P. tigris vocalizations are known to contain significant amounts of acoustic energy over a wide spectral range, with peak output occurring in a low frequency bandwidth in the case of roars. von Muggenthaler (2000) has also shown that roars and other vocal productions uttered by P. tigris contain energy in the infrasonic range. While it is reasonable to assume that low and infrasonic acoustic cues are used as communication signals among conspecifics in the wild, it is clearly necessary to demonstrate that members of the P. tigris sub-species are responsive to low and infrasonic acoustic signals. The auditory brainstem response has proven to be an effective tool in the characterization of auditory performance among tigers and the results of an ongoing study of both the acoustical properties of P. tigris vocalizations and their auditory receptivity support the supposition that tigers are not only responsive to low frequency stimulation, but exquisitely so.

  9. Multifunctional and context-dependent control of vocal acoustics by individual muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles...... a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we...... recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single...

  10. Pitch (F0) and formant profiles of human vowels and vowel-like baboon grunts: The role of vocalizer body size and voice-acoustic allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Drew; Kollias, Sophie; Ney, Christina; Lloyd, Peter

    2005-02-01

    Key voice features-fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies-can vary extensively between individuals. Much of the variation can be traced to differences in the size of the larynx and vocal-tract cavities, but whether these differences in turn simply reflect differences in speaker body size (i.e., neutral vocal allometry) remains unclear. Quantitative analyses were therefore undertaken to test the relationship between speaker body size and voice F0 and formant frequencies for human vowels. To test the taxonomic generality of the relationships, the same analyses were conducted on the vowel-like grunts of baboons, whose phylogenetic proximity to humans and similar vocal production biology and voice acoustic patterns recommend them for such comparative research. For adults of both species, males were larger than females and had lower mean voice F0 and formant frequencies. However, beyond this, F0 variation did not track body-size variation between the sexes in either species, nor within sexes in humans. In humans, formant variation correlated significantly with speaker height but only in males and not in females. Implications for general vocal allometry are discussed as are implications for speech origins theories, and challenges to them, related to laryngeal position and vocal tract length. .

  11. Data-driven automated acoustic analysis of human infant vocalizations using neural network tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Dale, Rick; Kozma, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant vocalizations has typically employed traditional acoustic measures drawn from adult speech acoustics, such as f0, duration, formant frequencies, amplitude, and pitch perturbation. Here an alternative and complementary method is proposed in which data-derived spectrographic features are central. 1-s-long spectrograms of vocalizations produced by six infants recorded longitudinally between ages 3 and 11 months are analyzed using a neural network consisting of a self-organizing map and a single-layer perceptron. The self-organizing map acquires a set of holistic, data-derived spectrographic receptive fields. The single-layer perceptron receives self-organizing map activations as input and is trained to classify utterances into prelinguistic phonatory categories (squeal, vocant, or growl), identify the ages at which they were produced, and identify the individuals who produced them. Classification performance was significantly better than chance for all three classification tasks. Performance is compared to another popular architecture, the fully supervised multilayer perceptron. In addition, the network’s weights and patterns of activation are explored from several angles, for example, through traditional acoustic measurements of the network’s receptive fields. Results support the use of this and related tools for deriving holistic acoustic features directly from infant vocalization data and for the automatic classification of infant vocalizations. PMID:20370038

  12. Vocal Tract Discomfort and Voice-Related Quality of Life in Wind Instrumentalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellaro, Juliane; Beber, Bárbara Costa

    2017-06-06

    This study aimed to investigate vocal tract discomfort and quality of life in the voice of wind instrumentalists. It is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 37 musicians of the orchestra of Caxias do Sul city, RS, Brazil. The participants answered a nonstandard questionnaire about demographic and professional information, the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL), the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale, and additional items about fatigue after playing the instrument and pain in the cervical muscles. Correlation analyses were performed using Spearman correlation test. The most frequent symptoms mentioned by musicians in the VTD, for both frequency and intensity of occurrence, were dryness, ache, irritability, and cervical muscle pain, in addition to the frequency of occurrence of fatigue after playing. The musicians showed high scores in the V-RQOL survey. Several symptoms evaluated by the VTD had a negative correlation with the musicians' years of orchestra membership and with V-RQOL scores. Symptoms of vocal tract discomfort are present in wind instrumentalists in low frequency and intensity of occurrence. However, these symptoms affect the musicians' voice-related quality of life, and they occur more in musicians with fewer years of orchestra membership. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Time dependence of vocal tract modes during production of vowels and vowel sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Brad H

    2007-06-01

    Vocal tract shaping patterns based on articulatory fleshpoint data from four speakers in the University of Wisconsin x-ray microbeam (XRMB) database [J. Westbury, UW-Madison, (1994)] were determined with a principal component analysis (PCA). Midsagittal cross-distance functions representative of approximately the front 6 cm of the oral cavity for each of 11 vowels and vowel-vowel (VV) sequences were obtained from the pellet positions and the hard palate profile for the four speakers. A PCA was independently performed on each speaker's set of cross-distance functions representing static vowels only, and again with time-dependent cross-distance functions representing vowels and VV sequences. In all cases, results indicated that the first two orthogonal components (referred to as modes) accounted for more than 97% of the variance in each speaker's set of cross-distance functions. In addition, the shape of each mode was shown to be similar across the speakers suggesting that the modes represent common patterns of vocal tract deformation. Plots of the resulting time-dependent coefficient records showed that the four speakers activated each mode similarly during production of the vowel sequences. Finally, a procedure was described for using the time-dependent mode coefficients obtained from the XRMB data as input for an area function model of the vocal tract.

  14. Análise do trato vocal em pacientes com nódulos, fendas e cisto de prega vocal Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Buzelin Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O plano supraglótico representa uma importante dimensão na produção vocal, sendo de grande relevância sua caracterização na avaliação e conduta terapêutica de indivíduos disfônicos. OBJETIVO: Verificar se determinadas configurações glóticas se relacionam com ajustes específicos de trato vocal. Avaliar por meio da nasofibrolaringoscopia a freqüência dos ajustes do trato vocal supraglótico em mulheres disfônicas com nódulos, fendas e cistos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 31 mulheres disfônicas, faixa etária entre 18 e 45 anos, com alteração vocal e diagnóstico de nódulos, fenda médioposterior e cisto e realizada avaliação resumida do sistema sensório-motor e oral e exames de videolaringoestroboscopia e nasofibrolaringoscopia. Três grupos distintos foram selecionados: pacientes com nódulos bilaterais, com fenda e com cisto, com configurações glóticas semelhantes. Foi realizada, por fonoaudiólogas e otorrinolaringologistas, a análise visual do trato vocal dos exames de nasofibrolaringoscopia, verificando os parâmetros de: constrição supraglótica, mobilidade vertical da laringe, constrição faríngea e mobilidade de língua. Os dados foram descritos e tratados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Na análise visual não foi encontrada diferença estatística significante que separasse os grupos das alterações glóticas. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve correlação dos ajustes do trato supraglótico com determinado tipo de alteração glótica. São comportamentos individuais que geram os ajustes e justificam as diferentes qualidades vocais em pacientes com mesmo tipo de alteração laríngea.The supraglottic plan represents an important dimension in vocal production, and its characterization is very important in the evaluation and treatment approach of dysphonic individuals. AIM: to check if certain glottic configurations are related to specific adjustments in the vocal tract. To use nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy to assess

  15. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Tilsen

    Full Text Available Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response. In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  16. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  17. Airway flow dynamics and voice acoustics after autologous fascia augmentation of paralyzed vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, A; Rihkanen, H; Lehikoinen-Söderlund, S; Sovijärvi, A R

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vocal fold medialization, accomplished by injection of autologous fascia, on airflow dynamics and voice acoustics. Ten patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were included. Flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, and acoustic analysis of voice were performed within 1 week before injection of autologous fascia and 4 to 14 months after operation. Medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold decreased the mean peak inspiratory flow (PIF) from 4.63 L to 4.10 L (p = .012). The acoustic characteristics of the voice improved: the values of jitter, shimmer, and mean noise-to-harmonics ratio decreased significantly (p = .006, p = .017, and p = .047, respectively), and the mean maximal phonation time almost doubled (p = .002). Changes in PIF and shimmer showed a negative correlation (r = -.857, p = .007). In conclusion, injection of autologous fascia improves voice acoustics, but induces a slight abnormal limitation on PIF. The results also suggest that improvement in voice acoustics is most prominent in subjects with the least deterioration in inspiratory airflow.

  18. Bio-inspired evolutionary oral tract shape modeling for physical modeling vocal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Tyrrell, Andy M; Murphy, Damian T; Cooper, Crispin; Mullen, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Physical modeling using digital waveguide mesh (DWM) models is an audio synthesis method that has been shown to produce an acoustic output in music synthesis applications that is often described as being "organic," "warm," or "intimate." This paper describes work that takes its inspiration from physical modeling music synthesis and applies it to speech synthesis through a physical modeling mesh model of the human oral tract. Oral tract shapes are found using a computational technique based on the principles of biological evolution. Essential to successful speech synthesis using this method is accurate measurements of the cross-sectional area of the human oral tract, and these are usually derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, such images are nonideal, because of the lengthy exposure time (relative to the time of articulation of speech sounds) required, the local ambient acoustic noise associated with the MRI machine itself and the required supine position for the subject. An alternative method is described where a bio-inspired computing technique that simulates the process of evolution is used to evolve oral tract shapes. This technique is able to produce appropriate oral tract shapes for open vowels using acoustic and excitation data from two adult males and two adult females, but shapes for close vowels that are less appropriate. This technique has none of the drawbacks associated with MRI, because all it requires from the subject is an acoustic and electrolaryngograph (or electroglottograph) recording. Appropriate oral tract shapes do enable the model to produce excellent quality synthetic speech for vowel sounds, and sounds that involve dynamic oral tract shape changes, such as diphthongs, can also be synthesized using an impedance mapped technique. Efforts to improve performance by reducing mesh quantization for close vowels had little effect, and further work is required.

  19. Human acoustics: From vocal chords to inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Michael Drew

    2005-11-01

    Part I covers the vocal chords, more accurately known as the vocal folds (VF). Modeling efforts are split into two areas: the VF tissue and the airflow. There are multiple existing models of the VF, with varying ranges of complexity for both the tissue and the airflow. In our model, the tissue is based on a recent two-mass model of Bogaert's [5], while the airflow is quasi-one-dimensional and is derived from the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our model is more accurate than Bernoulli's law (quasi-steady approximation), yet less complex than the full Navier-Stokes system. The model is shown to reproduce important transient behaviour intrinsic in vocal fold motion, such as pressure peaks before and after vocal fold closure. Part II concerns the inner ear, or cochlea. Again the modeling effort is split into two areas: the cochlear tissue and the cochlear fluid. We model the cochlear fluid with the well known two-dimensional box model of the cochlea, derived from the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The cochlear tissue structure is where the complexity takes place. We start with Neely and Kim's [25] linear active model for the cochlear structure and modify their active gain parameter into a nonlinear nonlocal functional. The nonlinearity forces us to work in the time domain, which is prone to dispersive instabilities if one uses a frequency domain middle ear model. The middle ear's role as a transient absorber is discussed and its time domain formulation is shown to reduce the dispersive instability. We perform simulations on the full system and show that the model recovers many important nonlinear phenomena, such as suppression and difference tones. A spectrogram based on the cochlear response is created and compared with the spectrogram of the input waveform. In both Part I and Part II, the emphasis is on time dependent modeling and numerical implementation.

  20. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints...

  1. Occurrence Frequencies of Acoustic Patterns of Vocal Fry in American English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Drugman, Thomas; Red Owl, R H

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the occurrence frequencies of three individual acoustic patterns (A, B, C) and of vocal fry overall (A + B + C) as a function of gender, word position in the sentence (Not Last Word vs. Last Word), and sentence length (number of words in a sentence). This is an experimental design. Twenty-five male and 29 female American English (AE) speakers read the Grandfather Passage. The recordings were processed by a Matlab toolbox designed for the analysis and detection of creaky segments, automatically identified using the Kane-Drugman algorithm. The experiment produced subsamples of outcomes, three that reflect a single, discrete acoustic pattern (A, B, or C) and the fourth that reflects the occurrence frequency counts of Vocal Fry Overall without regard to any specific pattern. Zero-truncated Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Gender and Word Position as predictors and Sentence Length as a covariate. The results of the present study showed that the occurrence frequencies of the three acoustic patterns and vocal fry overall (A + B + C) are greatest at the end of sentences but are unaffected by sentence length. The findings also reveal that AE female speakers exhibit Pattern C significantly more frequently than Pattern B, and the converse holds for AE male speakers. Future studies are needed to confirm such outcomes, assess the perceptual salience of these acoustic patterns, and determine the physiological correlates of these acoustic patterns. The findings have implications for the design of new excitation models of vocal fry. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  3. Background noise cancellation for improved acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2005-06-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of an increase in the number of collisions with boats. A device to alert boaters of the presence of manatees, so that a collision can be avoided, is desired. A practical implementation of the technology is dependent on the hydrophone spacing and range of detection. These parameters are primarily dependent on the manatee vocalization strength, the decay of the signal's strength with distance, and the background noise levels. An efficient method to extend the detection range by using background noise cancellation is proposed in this paper. An adaptive line enhancer (ALE) that can detect and track narrow band signals buried in broadband noise is implemented to cancel the background noise. The results indicate that the ALE algorithm can efficiently extract the manatee calls from the background noise. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the signal can be used to extend the range of detection of manatee vocalizations and reduce the false alarm and missing detection rate in their natural habitat. .

  4. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  5. Effect of Performance Time of the Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Exercises in Dysphonic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lorena de Almeida; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to verify the effects of execution time on auditory-perceptual and acoustic responses in children with dysphonia completing straw phonation exercises. A randomized, prospective, comparative intra-subject study design was used. Twenty-seven children, ranging from 5 to 10 years of age, diagnosed with vocal cord nodules or cysts, were enrolled in the study. All subjects included in the Experimental Group were also included in the Control Group which involved complete voice rest. Sustained vowels (/a/e/ε/e/) counting from 1 to 10 were recorded before the exercises (m0) and then again after the first (m1), third (m3), fifth (m5), and seventh (m7) minutes of straw phonation exercises. The recordings were randomized and presented to five speech therapists, who evaluated vocal quality based on the Grade Roughness Breathiness Asthenia/Strain Instability scale. For acoustic analysis, fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, glottal to noise excitation ratio, and noise parameters were analyzed. Reduced roughness, breathiness, and noise measurements as well as increased glottal to noise excitation ratio were observed in the Experimental Group after 3 minutes of exercise. Reduced grade of dysphonia and breathiness were noted after 5 minutes. The ideal duration of straw phonation in children with dysphonia is from 3 to 5 minutes. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case-study magnetic resonance imaging and acoustic investigation of the effects of vocal warm-up on two voice professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Horáček, Jaromir; Havlík, Radan

    2012-07-01

    Vocal warm-up (WU)-related changes were studied in one male musical singer and one female speech trainer. They sustained vowels before and after WU in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device. Acoustic recordings were made in a studio. The vocal tract area increased after WU, a formant cluster appeared between 2 and 4.5 kHz, and SPL increased. Evidence of larynx lowering was only found for the male. The pharyngeal inlet over the epilaryngeal outlet ratio (A(ph)/A(e)) increased by 10%-28%, being 3-4 for the male and 5-7 for the female. The results seem to represent different voice training traditions. A singer's formant cluster may be achievable without a high A(ph)/A(e) (≥ 6), but limitations of the 2D method should be taken into account.

  7. Long-term horizontal vocal directivity of opera singers: effects of singing projection and acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Densil; Davis, Pamela J; Connolly, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Vocal directivity refers to how directional the sound is that comes from a singer's mouth, that is, whether the sound is focused into a narrow stream of sound projecting in front of the singers or whether it is spread out all around the singer. This study investigates the long-term vocal directivity and acoustic power of professional opera singers and how these vary among subjects, among singing projections, and among vastly different acoustic environments. The vocal sound of eight professional opera singers (six females and two males) was measured in anechoic and reverberant rooms and in a recital hall. Subjects sang in four different ways: (1) paying great attention to intonation; (2) singing as in performance, with all the emotional connection intended by the composer; (3) imagining a large auditorium; and (4) imagining a small theatre. The same song was sung by all singers in all conditions. A head and torso simulator (HATS), radiating sound from its mouth, was used for comparison in all situations. Results show that individual singers have quite consistent long-term average directivity, even across conditions. Directivity varies substantially among singers. Singers are more directional than the standard HATS (which is a physical model of a talking person). The singer's formant region of the spectrum exhibits greater directivity than the lower-frequency range, and results indicate that singers control directivity (at least, incidentally) for different singing conditions as they adjust the spectral emphasis of their voices through their formants.

  8. Experimental Validation of Simplified Free Jet Turbulence Models Applied to the Vocal Tract

    CERN Document Server

    Grandchamp, Xavier; Pelorson, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Sound production due to turbulence is widely shown to be an important phenomenon involved in a.o. fricatives, singing, whispering and speech pathologies. In spite of its relevance turbulent flow is not considered in classical physical speech production models mostly dealing with voiced sound production. The current study presents preliminary results of an experimental validation of simplified turbulence models in order to estimate the time-mean velocity distribution in a free jet downstream of a tube outlet. Aiming a future application in speech production the influence of typical vocal tract shape parameters on the velocity distribution is experimentally and theoretically explored: the tube shape, length and the degree and geometry of the constriction. Simplified theoretical predictions are obtained by applying similarity solutions of the bidimensional boundary layer theory to a plane and circular free jet in still air. The orifice velocity and shape are the main model input quantities. Results are discussed...

  9. Evaluation of the Vocal Tract Length Normalization Based Classifiers for Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hussein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates classifiers based on Vocal Tract Length Normalization (VTLN in a text-dependent speaker verification (SV task with short testing utterances. This type of tasks is important in commercial applications and is not easily addressed with methods designed for long utterances such as JFA and i-Vectors. In contrast, VTLN is a speaker compensation scheme that can lead to significant improvements in speech recognition accuracy with just a few seconds of speech samples. A novel scheme to generate new classifiers is employed by incorporating the observation vector sequence compensated with VTLN. The modified sequence of feature vectors and the corresponding warping factors are used to generate classifiers whose scores are combined by a Support Vector Machine (SVM based SV system. The proposed scheme can provide an average reduction in EER equal to 14% when compared with the baseline system based on the likelihood of observation vectors.

  10. Natural variations of vocal effort and comfort in simulated acoustic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    levels of background noise, the room has also an effect on the talker‟s voice. In order to quantify the relative importance of the acoustic environment on the vocal demands for teachers, a laboratory investigation was carried out. Thirteen teachers had to read a text aloud under ten different room......Many teachers suffer from voice problems related to the use of their voices in the working environment. The noise generated by students and external sound sources (like traffic noise or neighboring classrooms) is a major problem, as it leads to an increased vocal effort. In the absence of high...... decreased with the reverberation time at a rate of 5 words/minute per s. The sensation of comfort and suitability of the rooms for a talker was investigated using a questionnaire. A non-linear relationship between this magnitude and the reverberation time was observed, defining an optimum range around 0...

  11. The Acoustic Structure and Information Content of Female Koala Vocal Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Determining the information content of animal vocalisations can give valuable insights into the potential functions of vocal signals. The source-filter theory of vocal production allows researchers to examine the information content of mammal vocalisations by linking variation in acoustic features with variation in relevant physical characteristics of the caller. Here I used a source-filter theory approach to classify female koala vocalisations into different call-types, and determine which acoustic features have the potential to convey important information about the caller to other conspecifics. A two-step cluster analysis classified female calls into bellows, snarls and tonal rejection calls. Additional results revealed that female koala vocalisations differed in their potential to provide information about a given caller's phenotype that may be of importance to receivers. Female snarls did not contain reliable acoustic cues to the caller's identity and age. In contrast, female bellows and tonal rejection calls were individually distinctive, and the tonal rejection calls of older female koalas had consistently lower mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency. In addition, female bellows were significantly shorter in duration and had higher fundamental frequency, formant frequencies, and formant frequency spacing than male bellows. These results indicate that female koala vocalisations have the potential to signal the caller's identity, age and sex. I go on to discuss the anatomical basis for these findings, and consider the possible functional relevance of signalling this type of information in the koala's natural habitat.

  12. Functional connectivity associated with acoustic stability during vowel production: implications for vocal-motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidtis, John J

    2015-03-01

    Vowels provide the acoustic foundation of communication through speech and song, but little is known about how the brain orchestrates their production. Positron emission tomography was used to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sustained production of the vowel /a/. Acoustic and blood flow data from 13, normal, right-handed, native speakers of American English were analyzed to identify CBF patterns that predicted the stability of the first and second formants of this vowel. Formants are bands of resonance frequencies that provide vowel identity and contribute to voice quality. The results indicated that formant stability was directly associated with blood flow increases and decreases in both left- and right-sided brain regions. Secondary brain regions (those associated with the regions predicting formant stability) were more likely to have an indirect negative relationship with first formant variability, but an indirect positive relationship with second formant variability. These results are not definitive maps of vowel production, but they do suggest that the level of motor control necessary to produce stable vowels is reflected in the complexity of an underlying neural system. These results also extend a systems approach to functional image analysis, previously applied to normal and ataxic speech rate that is solely based on identifying patterns of brain activity associated with specific performance measures. Understanding the complex relationships between multiple brain regions and the acoustic characteristics of vocal stability may provide insight into the pathophysiology of the dysarthrias, vocal disorders, and other speech changes in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  13. Steroid-dependent auditory plasticity for the enhancement of acoustic communication: recent insights from a vocal teleost fish

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A Sisneros

    2009-01-01

    The vocal plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) has become an excellent model for identifying neural mechanisms of auditory perception that may be shared by all vertebrates. Recent neuroethological studies of the midshipman fish have yielded strong evidence for the steroid-dependent modulation of hearing sensitivity that leads to enhanced coupling of sender and receiver in this vocal-acoustic communication system. Previous work shows that non-reproductive females treated with either t...

  14. The Acoustic Properties of Low Intensity Vocalizations Match Hearing Sensitivity in the Webbed-Toed Gecko, Gekko subpalmatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfeng; Jono, Teppei; Cui, Jianguo; Yue, Xizi; Tang, Yezhong

    2016-01-01

    The design of acoustic signals and hearing sensitivity in socially communicating species would normally be expected to closely match in order to minimize signal degradation and attenuation during signal propagation. Nevertheless, other factors such as sensory biases as well as morphological and physiological constraints may affect strict correspondence between signal features and hearing sensitivity. Thus study of the relationships between sender and receiver characteristics in species utilizing acoustic communication can provide information about how acoustic communication systems evolve. The genus Gekko includes species emitting high-amplitude vocalizations for long-range communication (loud callers) as well as species producing only low-amplitude vocalizations when in close contact with conspecifics (quiet callers) which have rarely been investigated. In order to investigate relationships between auditory physiology and the frequency characteristics of acoustic signals in a quiet caller, Gekko subpalmatus we measured the subjects’ vocal signal characteristics as well as auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to assess auditory sensitivity. The results show that G. subpalmatus males emit low amplitude calls when encountering females, ranging in dominant frequency from 2.47 to 4.17 kHz with an average at 3.35 kHz. The auditory range with highest sensitivity closely matches the dominant frequency of the vocalizations. This correspondence is consistent with the notion that quiet and loud calling species are under similar selection pressures for matching auditory sensitivity with spectral characteristics of vocalizations. PMID:26752301

  15. Effects of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on the glottal closed quotient in untrained male voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Christopher Somers

    The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique has remained poorly understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a / vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, followed by a minute of repeated phonation into a hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. The tube parameters and tube phonation task criteria were selected according to theoretical calculations predicting an increase in the acoustic load such that phonation would occur under conditions of near-maximum inertive reactance. Following tube phonation, each participant repeated a similar series of spoken /a/ vowels. Electroglottography (EGG) was used to measure the glottal closed quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design with direct replication across subjects was used to identify any changes in CQ across the phases of the experiment. Single-subject analysis using the method of Statistical Process Control (SPC) revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques.

  16. Flow-Structure-Acoustic Interaction Simulation of Vocalization of a Non-song Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Have Rasmussen, Jeppe; Elemans, Coen; Complex Flow Modeling; Simulation Lab Team; Elemans Lab Team

    2016-11-01

    The myoelastic-aerodynamic mechanism of vocalization was recently evidenced in birds across a wide range of taxa, which, for a long time, was believed to generate sound based on the aerodynamic whistle mechanism. The objective of the current study is to: (1) develop a first-principle based, flow-structure-acoustics (FSA) interaction computational model of a non-song bird (rock pigeon); (2) strongly validate the computational model by comparing to the experimental data on the same bird model; (3) examine the data so as to generate new insights into the physics of vocalization of birds. In the current approach, a sharp interface immersed boundary method based incompressible flow solver is utilized to model the air flow; A finite element based solid mechanics solver is utilized to model the LVM(lateral vibratory mass) vibration; A high-order immersed boundary method based acoustics solver is utilized to directly compute sound. Geometric structure of the syrinx, including syringeal lumen, LVM, position of tracheal rings, is based on CT scan of a rock pigeon. The LVM is simulated as isotropic material according to the experimental measurements. Simulation setup about the bronchial pressure, static deformation due to air sac pressure also follows the setup in the experiments. Results including the fundamental frequency, air flow rate, gap, vibration shape will be analyzed and compared to the experimental data.

  17. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  18. Wing, tail, and vocal contributions to the complex acoustic signals of courting Calliope hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James CLARK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component signals contain multiple signal parts expressed in the same physical modality. One way to identify individual components is if they are produced by different physical mechanisms. Here, I studied the mechanisms generating acoustic signals in the courtship displays of the Calliope hummingbird Stellula calliope. Display dives consisted of three synchronized sound elements, a high-frequency tone (hft, a low frequency tone (lft, and atonal sound pulses (asp, which were then followed by a frequency-modulated fall. Manipulating any of the rectrices (tail-feathers of wild males impaired production of the lft and asp but not the hft or fall, which are apparently vocal. I tested the sound production capabilities of the rectrices in a wind tunnel. Single rectrices could generate the lft but not the asp, whereas multiple rectrices tested together produced sounds similar to the asp when they fluttered and collided with their neighbors percussively, representing a previously unknown mechanism of sound production. During the shuttle display, a trill is generated by the wings during pulses in which the wingbeat frequency is elevated to 95 Hz, 40% higher than the typical hovering wingbeat frequency. The Calliope hummingbird courtship displays include sounds produced by three independent mechanisms, and thus include a minimum of three acoustic signal components. These acoustic mechanisms have different constraints and thus potentially contain different messages. Producing multiple acoustic signals via multiple mechanisms may be a way to escape the constraints present in any single mechanism [Current Zoology 57 (2: 187–196, 2011].

  19. Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Human Voice Parameters to Investigate the Influence of Psychological Stress and to Determine the Vocal Tract Transfer Function of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar Mongia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 parameters follow a unique course of variation from normal to positive and negative stress in 32% of the total analyzed signals. The upshot of the analysis is to determine the vocal tract transfer function for each vowel for an individual. The analysis indicates that it can be computed by estimating the mean of the pole zero plots of that individual’s vocal tract estimated for the whole day. Besides this, an analysis is presented to find the relationship between the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract and the vocal tract cavities. The results of the analysis indicate that all the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract are affected due to change in the position of any cavity.

  20. Effect of Changing the Vocal Tract Shape on the Sound Production of the Recorder: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Auvray, R; Terrien, S; Fabre, B; Vergez, C

    2016-01-01

    Changing the vocal tract shape is one of the techniques which can be used by the players of wind instruments to modify the quality of the sound. It has been intensely studied in the case of reed instruments but has received only little attention in the case of air-jet instruments. This paper presents a first study focused on changes in the vocal tract shape in recorder playing techniques. Measurements carried out with recorder players allow to identify techniques involving changes of the mouth shape as well as consequences on the sound. A second experiment performed in laboratory mimics the coupling with the vocal tract on an artificial mouth. The phase of the transfer function between the instrument and the mouth of the player is identified to be the relevant parameter of the coupling. It is shown to have consequences on the spectral content in terms of energy distribution among the even and odd harmonics, as well as on the stability of the first two oscillating regimes. The results gathered from the two exp...

  1. Effects of noise and acoustics in schools on vocal health in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of noise and acoustics in the classroom on voice symptoms among teachers have exclusively relied on self-reports. Since self-reported physical conditions may be biased, it is important to determine the role of objective measurements of noise and acoustics in the presence of voice symptoms. To assess the association between objectively measured and self-reported physical conditions at school with the presence of voice symptoms among teachers. In 12 public schools in Bogotα, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 682 Colombian school workers at 377 workplaces. After signed the informed consent, participants filled out a questionnaire on individual and work-related conditions and the nature and severity of voice symptoms in the past month. Short-term environmental measurements of sound levels, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between work-related factors and voice symptoms. High noise levels outside schools (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.99) and self-reported poor acoustics at the workplace (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.88-3.53) were associated with voice symptoms. We found poor agreement between the objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions at the workplace. This study indicates that noise and acoustics may play a role in the occurrence of voice symptoms among teachers. The poor agreement between objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions indicate that these are different entities, which argue for inclusion of physical measurements of the working environment in studies on the influence of noise and acoustics on vocal health.

  2. Wing,tail,and vocal contributions to the complex acoustic signals of courting Calliope hummingbirds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher James CLARK

    2011-01-01

    Multi-component signals contain multiple signal parts expressed in the same physical modality.One way to identify individual components is if they are produced by different physical mechanisms.Here,I studied the mechanisms generating acoustic signais in the courtship displays of the Calliope hummingbird Stellula calliope.Display dives consisted of three synchronized sound elements,a high-frequency tone(hft),a low frequency tone(lft),and atonal sound pulses(asp),which were then followed by a frequency-modulaled fall.Manipulating any of the rectrices(tail-feathers)of wild males impaired production of the lft and asp,but not the hft or fall,which are apparently vocal.I tested the sound production capabilities of the rectrices in a wind tuunel.Single rectrices could generate the lft but not the asp,whereas multiple rectrices tested together produced sounds similar to the asp when they fluttered and collided with their neighbors percussively,representing a previously unknown mechanism of sound production.During the shuttle display,a trill is generated by the wings during pulses in which the wingbeat frequency is elevated to 95 Hz,40% higher than the typical hovering wingbeat frequency.Tbe Caillope hummingbird courtship displays include sounds produced by three independent mechauisms,and thus include a minimum of three acoustic signal components.These acoustic mechanisms have different constraints and thus potentially contain different messages.Producing multiple acoustic signals via multiple mechanisms may be a way to escape the constraints present in any single mechanism.

  3. Weight-bearing MR imaging as an option in the study of gravitational effects on the vocal tract of untrained subjects in singing phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traser, Louisa; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Vicari, Marco; Echternach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of subjects in a supine position can be used to evaluate the configuration of the vocal tract during phonation. However, studies of speech phonation have shown that gravity can affect vocal tract shape and bias measurements. This is one of the reasons that MRI studies of singing phonation have used professionally trained singers as subjects, because they are generally considered to be less affected by the supine body position and environmental distractions. A study of untrained singers might not only contribute to the understanding of intuitive singing function and aid the evaluation of potential hazards for vocal health, but also provide insights into the effect of the supine position on singers in general. In the present study, an open configuration 0.25 T MRI system with a rotatable examination bed was used to study the effect of body position in 20 vocally untrained subjects. The subjects were asked to sing sustained tones in both supine and upright body positions on different pitches and in different register conditions. Morphometric measurements were taken from the acquired images of a sagittal slice depicting the vocal tract. The analysis concerning the vocal tract configuration in the two body positions revealed differences in 5 out of 10 measured articulatory parameters. In the upright position the jaw was less protruded, the uvula was elongated, the larynx more tilted and the tongue was positioned more to the front of the mouth than in the supine position. The findings presented are in agreement with several studies on gravitational effects in speech phonation, but contrast with the results of a previous study on professional singers of our group where only minor differences between upright and supine body posture were observed. The present study demonstrates that imaging of the vocal tract using weight-bearing MR imaging is a feasible tool for the study of sustained phonation in singing for vocally untrained subjects.

  4. Vowel Acoustic Space Development in Children: A Synthesis of Acoustic and Anatomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Kent, Ray D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article integrates published acoustic data on the development of vowel production. Age specific data on formant frequencies are considered in the light of information on the development of the vocal tract (VT) to create an anatomic-acoustic description of the maturation of the vowel acoustic space for English. Method: Literature…

  5. Audience effects, but not environmental influences, explain variation in gorilla close distance vocalizations-A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Daniela; Mundry, Roger; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Close distance vocalizations are an integral part of primate vocal communication. They exhibit large acoustic variation which has been suggested to constitute flexible responses to the highly variable social setting of group living animals. However, a recent study suggested that acoustic variation in close distance calls of baboons may also arise from acoustic adaptations to environmental factors in order to counteract sound degradation. We tested whether the variation in calling rate and acoustic structure of gorilla close distance vocalizations may serve to counteract distorting effects of vegetation during sound propagation. Using focal animal sampling we recorded the vocal behavior of 15 adult individuals living in two groups: one group of western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and one group of mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei. We considered the distance between the caller and its nearest neighbor as the minimum transmission distance of calls; while vegetation density was quantified through measures of visibility. Our analysis revealed vocal plasticity in gorilla close calls in relation to changes in visibility and nearest neighbor distance. However, the observed changes in fundamental frequency and calling rate are unlikely to counteract degrading effects of vegetation, but rather seem to reflect reactions to variation in spatial and visual separation from other group members, similar to the audience effects demonstrated in a range of other species. We propose that vocal plasticity to counteract distorting environmental effects may not be prevalent across taxa and perhaps confined to species living in heterogeneous habitats with highly variable transmission conditions.

  6. Assessment of dysphonia due to benign vocal fold lesions by acoustic and aerodynamic indices: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarella, Giovanna; Baracca, Giovanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Forti, Stella

    2011-04-01

    The goal was to identify acoustic and aerodynamic indices that allow the discrimination of a benign organic dysphonic voice from a normal voice. Fifty-three patients affected by dysphonia caused by vocal folds benign lesions, and a control group were subjected to maximum phonation time (MPT) measurements, GRB perceptual evaluations and acoustic/aerodynamic tests. All analyzed variables except the airflow variation coefficient were significantly different between the two groups. The unique significant factors in the discrimination between healthy and dysphonic subjects were the aerodynamic indices of MPT and Glottal efficiency index, and the acoustic index Shimmer. These results show that a combination of three parameters can discriminate a voice deviance and highlight the importance of a multidimensional assessment for objective voice evaluation.

  7. An investigation of bimodal jet trajectory in flow through scaled models of the human vocal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2006-05-01

    Pulsatile two-dimensional flow through static divergent models of the human vocal folds is investigated. Although the motivation for this study is speech production, the results are generally applicable to a variety of engineering flows involving pulsatile flow through diffusers. Model glottal divergence angles of 10, 20, and 40° represent various geometries encountered in one phonation cycle. Frequency and amplitude of the flow oscillations are scaled with physiological Reynolds and Strouhal numbers typical of human phonation. Glottal velocity trajectories are measured along the anterior-posterior midline by using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry to acquire 1,000 realizations at ten discrete instances in the phonation cycle. The angular deflection of the glottal jet from the streamwise direction (symmetric configuration) is quantified for each realization. A bimodal flow configuration is observed for divergence angles of 10 and 20°, with the flow eventually skewing and attaching to the vocal fold walls. The deflection of the flow toward the vocal fold walls occurs when the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. For a divergence angle of 40°, the flow never attaches to the vocal fold walls; however, there is increased variability in the glottal jet after the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. The variation in the jet trajectory as a function of divergence angle is explained by performance maps of diffuser flow regimes. The smaller angle cases are in the unstable transitory stall regime while the 40° divergent case is in the fully developed two-dimensional stall regime. Very small geometric variations in model size and surface finish significantly affect the flow behavior. The bimodal, or flip-flopping, glottal jet behavior is expected to influence the dipole contribution to sound production.

  8. An investigation of bimodal jet trajectory in flow through scaled models of the human vocal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W. [Purdue University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Pulsatile two-dimensional flow through static divergent models of the human vocal folds is investigated. Although the motivation for this study is speech production, the results are generally applicable to a variety of engineering flows involving pulsatile flow through diffusers. Model glottal divergence angles of 10, 20, and 40 represent various geometries encountered in one phonation cycle. Frequency and amplitude of the flow oscillations are scaled with physiological Reynolds and Strouhal numbers typical of human phonation. Glottal velocity trajectories are measured along the anterior-posterior midline by using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry to acquire 1,000 realizations at ten discrete instances in the phonation cycle. The angular deflection of the glottal jet from the streamwise direction (symmetric configuration) is quantified for each realization. A bimodal flow configuration is observed for divergence angles of 10 and 20 , with the flow eventually skewing and attaching to the vocal fold walls. The deflection of the flow toward the vocal fold walls occurs when the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. For a divergence angle of 40 , the flow never attaches to the vocal fold walls; however, there is increased variability in the glottal jet after the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. The variation in the jet trajectory as a function of divergence angle is explained by performance maps of diffuser flow regimes. The smaller angle cases are in the unstable transitory stall regime while the 40 divergent case is in the fully developed two-dimensional stall regime. Very small geometric variations in model size and surface finish significantly affect the flow behavior. The bimodal, or flip-flopping, glottal jet behavior is expected to influence the dipole contribution to sound production. (orig.)

  9. Advances in real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract for speech science and technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOUTIOS, ASTERIOS; NARAYANAN, SHRIKANTH S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) of the moving vocal tract during running speech production is an important emerging tool for speech production research providing dynamic information of a speaker's upper airway from the entire mid-sagittal plane or any other scan plane of interest. There have been several advances in the development of speech rtMRI and corresponding analysis tools, and their application to domains such as phonetics and phonological theory, articulatory modeling, and speaker characterization. An important recent development has been the open release of a database that includes speech rtMRI data from five male and five female speakers of American English each producing 460 phonetically balanced sentences. The purpose of the present paper is to give an overview and outlook of the advances in rtMRI as a tool for speech research and technology development. PMID:27833745

  10. The acoustic and perceptual differences to the non-singer's singing voice before and after a singing vocal warm-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Angela

    The present study analyzed the acoustic and perceptual differences in non-singer's singing voice before and after a vocal warm-up. Experiments were conducted with 12 females who had no singing experience and considered themselves to be non-singers. Participants were recorded performing 3 tasks: a musical scale stretching to their most comfortable high and low pitches, sustained productions of the vowels /a/ and /i/, and singing performance of the "Star Spangled Banner." Participants were recorded performing these three tasks before a vocal warm-up, after a vocal warm-up, and then again 2-3 weeks later after 2-3 weeks of practice. Acoustical analysis consisted of formant frequency analysis, singer's formant/singing power ratio analysis, maximum phonation frequency range analysis, and an analysis of jitter, noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), relative average perturbation (RAP), and voice turbulence index (VTI). A perceptual analysis was also conducted with 12 listeners rating comparison performances of before vs. after the vocal warm-up, before vs. after the second vocal warm-up, and after both vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the formant frequency analysis of the vowel /a/, but there was significance for the 1st formant frequency analysis of the vowel /i/. Singer's formant analyzed via Singing Power Ratio analysis showed significance only for the vowel /i/. Maximum phonation frequency range analysis showed a significant increase after the vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the acoustic measures of jitter, NHR, RAP, and VTI. Perceptual analysis showed a significant difference after a vocal warm-up. The results indicate that a singing vocal warm-up can have a significant positive influence on the singing voice of non-singers.

  11. Measurement of acoustic and anatomic changes in oral and maxillofacial surgery patients

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Daniel; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Jääsaari, Päivi; Kivelä, Atle; Kuortti, Juha; Luukinen, Jean-Marc; Malinen, Jarmo; Murtola, Tiina; Parkkola, Riitta; Saunavaara, Jani; Soukka, Tero; Vainio, Martti

    2013-01-01

    We describe an arrangement for simultaneous recording of speech and geometry of vocal tract in patients undergoing surgery involving this area. Experimental design is considered from an articulatory phonetic point of view. The speech and noise signals are recorded with an acoustic-electrical arrangement. The vocal tract is simultaneously imaged with MRI. A MATLAB-based system controls the timing of speech recording and MR image acquisition. The speech signals are cleaned from acoustic MRI noise by a non-linear signal processing algorithm. Finally, a vowel data set from pilot experiments is compared with validation data from anechoic chamber as well as with Helmholtz resonances of the vocal tract volume.

  12. Role of the Internal Superior Laryngeal Nerve in the Motor Responses of Vocal Cords and the Related Voice Acoustic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Seifpanahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repeated efforts by researchers to impose voice changes by laryngeal surface electrical stimulation (SES have come to no avail. This present pre-experimental study employed a novel method for SES application so as to evoke the motor potential of the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN and create voice changes. Methods: Thirty-two normal individuals (22 females and 10 males participated in this study. The subjects were selected from the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Two monopolar active electrodes were placed on the thyrohyoid space at the location of the ISLN entrance to the larynx and 1 dispersive electrode was positioned on the back of the neck. A current with special programmed parameters was applied to stimulate the ISLN via the active electrodes and simultaneously the resultant acoustic changes were evaluated. All the means of the acoustic parameters during SES and rest periods were compared using the paired t-test. Results: The findings indicated significant changes (P=0.00 in most of the acoustic parameters during SES presentation compared to them at rest. The mean of fundamental frequency standard deviation (SD F0 at rest was 1.54 (SD=0.55 versus 4.15 (SD=3.00 for the SES period. The other investigated parameters comprised fundamental frequency (F0, minimum F0, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR, mean intensity, and minimum intensity. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated significant changes in most of the important acoustic features, suggesting that the stimulation of the ISLN via SES could induce motor changes in the vocal folds. The clinical applicability of the method utilized in the current study in patients with vocal fold paralysis requires further research.

  13. Comparison of optimization methods for human vocal tract resonance properties tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radolf V.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the two various optimization processes finding such geometrical form of acoustical cavities which leads to excitation of predefined acoustic resonance. A computing times and accuracy of a solutions are compared. The attention is focused both on the first two formants that are important for vowel production, and on a domain between the third and the fifth formant. This frequency domain is important for voice timbre, namely for singing voice. The problem is solved by the help of transfer matrix method using conic acoustic elements. The results should help to have a physical background for voice rehabilitation, for teaching of operasingers at musical faculties and for better understanding of biomechanics of voice production.

  14. Caracteristicas vocais acústicas de homens com voz e laringe normal Vocal acoustic characteristic in men with normal voice and laryngeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Costa Beber

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: características vocais acústicas do filtro e das medidas da fonte vocal masculina. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura descrevendo e discutindo os aspectos que envolvem as características vocais acústicas de homens com laringe normal relacionadas às medidas da fonte e ao filtro vocal. CONCLUSÃO: as medidas de Jita, ShdB e NHR tendem a ser maiores nos homens, enquanto a f0, PHR/HNR e o ATRI tendem a ser menores. As espectrografias tendem a apresentar formantes graves, com média de alcance menor, com escurecimento variável e menos regular do que nas mulheres.BACKGROUND: vocal acoustic characteristics of the filter and the male measures of the vocal source. PURPOSE: to accomplish a literature review describing and discussing the aspects that involve the vocal acoustic characteristic in men with normal laryngeal related to measures of the source and the vocal filter. CONCLUSION: the measures related to Jita, ShdB and NRH tend to be bigger in men, when f0, PHR/HNR and ATRI tend to be smaller. Spectrographies tend to show deep formants with darker variation and less regular than in women.

  15. Acoustic allometry revisited: morphological determinants of fundamental frequency in primate vocal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Herbst, Christian T; Bowling, Daniel L; Dunn, Jacob C; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-09-05

    A fundamental issue in the evolution of communication is the degree to which signals convey accurate ("honest") information about the signaler. In bioacoustics, the assumption that fundamental frequency (f o) should correlate with the body size of the caller is widespread, but this belief has been challenged by various studies, possibly because larynx size and body size can vary independently. In the present comparative study, we conducted excised larynx experiments to investigate this hypothesis rigorously and explore the determinants of f o. Using specimens from eleven primate species, we carried out an inter-specific investigation, examining correlations between the minimum f o produced by the sound source, body size and vocal fold length (VFL). We found that, across species, VFL predicted minimum f o much better than body size, clearly demonstrating the potential for decoupling between larynx size and body size in primates. These findings shed new light on the diversity of primate vocalizations and vocal morphology, highlighting the importance of vocal physiology in understanding the evolution of mammal vocal communication.

  16. Investigation into the response of the auditory and acoustic communications systems in the Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of the St. Lawrence River Estuary to noise, using vocal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter Martin

    2003-06-01

    Noise pollution has only recently become recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in particular. These small gregarious Odontocetes make extensive use of sound for social communication and pod cohesion. The St. Lawrence River Estuary is habitat to a small, critically endangered population of about 700 Beluga whales who congregate in four different sites in its upper estuary. The population is believed to be threatened by the stress of high-intensity, low frequency noise. One way to determine whether noise is having an effect on an animal's auditory ability might be to observe a natural and repeatable response of the auditory and vocal systems to varying noise levels. This can be accomplished by observing changes in animal vocalizations in response to auditory feedback. A response such as this observed in humans and some animals is known as the Lombard Vocal Response, which represents a reaction of the auditory system directly manifested by changes in vocalization level. In this research this population of Beluga Whales was tested to determine whether a vocalization-as-a-function-of-noise phenomenon existed by using Hidden Markhov "classified" vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that the phenomenon does exist and results of a human subjects experiment along with results from other animal species known to exhibit the response strongly implicate the Lombard Vocal Response in the Beluga.

  17. Phonatory vocal tract stability in stuttering children before and after fluency--enhancing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehqan, A; Ali Dashti, G; Mirzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex disorder. Essentially, it is a neuromuscular disorder whose core consists of tiny lags and disruptions in the timing of the complicated movements required for speech. The purpose of the current study was to collec and comparg jitters and shimmer values in children who stutter before and after fluency--enhancing therapy. Subjects consisted of 15 Iranian preschool girls with stutterg, and 15 Iranial preschool girls without afflictions, matched according to age. Vocal jittering and shimmer measurements of thesphonation of the children were compared before and after therapy. Each subject phonated vowels nine times in a random order. Each phonation was sustained for at least five seconds and was recorded. The middle three-second portion of each recorded vowel phonation was subjected to jitter and shimmer analysis. On shimmer measures between pre-treatment and post treatment, significant differences were found in all sustained vowels of persons who stutter group and means of shimmer in post therapy were significantly lower than pre-treatment. Differences in jitter measurements were not significant between pre-treatment and post-treatment statuses and this parameter did not change after therapy. The findings showed that therapy resulted in decreaseg irregularity in the amplitude of vibrations (shimmer). In other words, the therapy increases the steady-state of the laryngeal system. Moreover, this parameter may be used as an index for the effectiveness of therapy.

  18. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivera Chavarría

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz, and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats.

  19. Visualizing sound emission of elephant vocalizations: evidence for two rumble production types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Stoeger

    Full Text Available Recent comparative data reveal that formant frequencies are cues to body size in animals, due to a close relationship between formant frequency spacing, vocal tract length and overall body size. Accordingly, intriguing morphological adaptations to elongate the vocal tract in order to lower formants occur in several species, with the size exaggeration hypothesis being proposed to justify most of these observations. While the elephant trunk is strongly implicated to account for the low formants of elephant rumbles, it is unknown whether elephants emit these vocalizations exclusively through the trunk, or whether the mouth is also involved in rumble production. In this study we used a sound visualization method (an acoustic camera to record rumbles of five captive African elephants during spatial separation and subsequent bonding situations. Our results showed that the female elephants in our analysis produced two distinct types of rumble vocalizations based on vocal path differences: a nasally- and an orally-emitted rumble. Interestingly, nasal rumbles predominated during contact calling, whereas oral rumbles were mainly produced in bonding situations. In addition, nasal and oral rumbles varied considerably in their acoustic structure. In particular, the values of the first two formants reflected the estimated lengths of the vocal paths, corresponding to a vocal tract length of around 2 meters for nasal, and around 0.7 meters for oral rumbles. These results suggest that African elephants may be switching vocal paths to actively vary vocal tract length (with considerable variation in formants according to context, and call for further research investigating the function of formant modulation in elephant vocalizations. Furthermore, by confirming the use of the elephant trunk in long distance rumble production, our findings provide an explanation for the extremely low formants in these calls, and may also indicate that formant lowering functions to

  20. Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Smith, Edward W.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The warble songs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are composed of a number of complex, variable acoustic elements that are sung by male birds in intimate courtship contexts for periods lasting up to several minutes. If these variable acoustic elements can be assigned to distinct acoustic-perceptual categories, it provides the opportunity to explore whether birds are perceptually sensitive to the proportion or sequential combination of warble elements belonging to different categories. By the inspection of spectrograms and by listening to recordings, humans assigned the acoustic elements in budgerigar warble from several birds to eight broad, overlapping categories. A neural-network program was developed and trained on these warble elements to simulate human categorization. The classification reliability between human raters and between human raters and the neural network classifier was better than 80% both within and across birds. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical task, budgerigars were tested on large sets of these elements from different acoustic categories and different individuals. The birds consistently showed high discriminability for pairs of warble elements drawn from between acoustic categories and low discriminability for pairs drawn from within acoustic categories. With warble elements reliably assigned to different acoustic categories by humans and birds, it affords the opportunity to ask questions about the ordering of elements in natural warble streams and the perceptual significance of this ordering. PMID:22142040

  1. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Chavarría, Mario; Castro, Jorge; Camacho, Arturo

    2015-09-04

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone) and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  3. Acoustic impact of the glottal chink on the production of fricatives: A numerical study

    OpenAIRE

    Elie, Benjamin; Laprie, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical study about the acoustic impact of the glottal chink opening on the production of fricatives. Sustained fricatives are simulated by using classic lumped circuit element methods to compute the propagation of the acoustic wave along the vocal tract. A recent glottis model is connected to the wave solver to simulate a partial abduction of the vocal folds during their self-oscillating cycles. Area functions of fricatives at the three places of articulation of French...

  4. Exposure to advertisement calls of reproductive competitors activates vocal-acoustic and catecholaminergic neurons in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christopher L; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Mohr, Robert A; Sisneros, Joseph A; Forlano, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate's nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male's call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups in

  5. Exposure to advertisement calls of reproductive competitors activates vocal-acoustic and catecholaminergic neurons in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Petersen

    Full Text Available While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate's nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male's call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic

  6. Articulatory Speech Synthesis from the Fluid Dynamics of the Vocal Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Stephen; Slimon, Scott; Juang, BH

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of articulatory speech synthesis based on computed vocal tract geometries and the basic physics of sound production in it. Unlike conventional methods based on analysis/synthesis using the well-known source filter model, which assumes the independence of the excitation and filter, we treat the entire vocal apparatus as one mechanical system that produces sound by means of fluid dynamics. The vocal apparatus is represented as a three-dimensional time-varying mechanism and the sound propagation inside it is due to the non-planar propagation of acoustic waves throu

  7. Acoustic properties of vocal singing in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Zhang, Mengchao; Nutter, Heather; Zhang, Yijing; Zhou, Qixin; Liu, Qiaoyun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xu, Li

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate vocal singing performance of hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aids (HA) as well as to evaluate the relationship between demographic factors of those hearing-impaired children and their singing ability. Thirty-seven prelingually-deafened children with CIs and 31 prelingually-deafened children with HAs, and 37 normal-hearing (NH) children participated in the study. The fundamental frequencies (F0) of each note in the recorded songs were extracted and the duration of each sung note was measured. Five metrics were used to evaluate the pitch-related and rhythm-based aspects of singing accuracy. Children with CIs and HAs showed significantly poorer performance in either the pitch-based assessments or the rhythm-based measure than the NH children. No significant differences were seen between the CI and HA groups in all of these measures except for the mean deviation of the pitch intervals. For both hearing-impaired groups, length of device use was significantly correlated with singing accuracy. There is a marked deficit in vocal singing ability either in pitch or rhythm accuracy in a majority of prelingually-deafened children who have received CIs or fitted with HAs. Although an increased length of device use might facilitate singing performance to some extent, the chance for the hearing-impaired children fitted with either HAs or CIs to reach high proficiency in singing is quite slim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What makes a voice masculine: physiological and acoustical correlates of women's ratings of men's vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartei, Valentina; Bond, Rod; Reby, David

    2014-09-01

    Men's voices contain acoustic cues to body size and hormonal status, which have been found to affect women's ratings of speaker size, masculinity and attractiveness. However, the extent to which these voice parameters mediate the relationship between speakers' fitness-related features and listener's judgments of their masculinity has not yet been investigated. We audio-recorded 37 adult heterosexual males performing a range of speech tasks and asked 20 adult heterosexual female listeners to rate speakers' masculinity on the basis of their voices only. We then used a two-level (speaker within listener) path analysis to examine the relationships between the physiological (testosterone, height), acoustic (fundamental frequency or F0, and resonances or ΔF) and perceptual dimensions (listeners' ratings) of speakers' masculinity. Overall, results revealed that male speakers who were taller and had higher salivary testosterone levels also had lower F0 and ΔF, and were in turn rated as more masculine. The relationship between testosterone and perceived masculinity was essentially mediated by F0, while that of height and perceived masculinity was partially mediated by both F0 and ΔF. These observations confirm that women listeners attend to sexually dimorphic voice cues to assess the masculinity of unseen male speakers. In turn, variation in these voice features correlate with speakers' variation in stature and hormonal status, highlighting the interdependence of these physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Acoustic features involved in the neighbour-stranger vocal recognition process in male Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, J S; Charrier, I; Rogers, T L; Canfield, R; Arnould, J P Y

    2008-09-01

    Many territorial species have the ability to recognise neighbours from stranger individuals. If the neighbouring individual is assumed to pose less of a threat, the territorial individual responds less and avoids unnecessary confrontations with familiar individuals at established boundaries, thus avoiding the costly energy expenditure associated with fighting. Territorial male Australian fur seals respond more to strangers than to neighbouring males. The present study evaluated which acoustic features were important in the neighbour-stranger recognition process in male Australian fur seals. The results reveal that there was an increase in response strength or intensity from males when they heard more bark units, indicating the importance of repetition to detect a caller. However, lengthening and shortening the inter-unit spaces, (i.e. changing the rhythm of the call) did not appear to significantly affect an animal's response. In addition, the whole frequency spectrum was considered important to recognition with results suggesting that they may vary in their importance. A call containing the dominant and surrounding harmonics was considered important to a male's ability to recognise its neighbour. Furthermore, recognition occurs even with a partial bark, but males need to hear between 25 and 75% of each bark unit from neighbouring seals. Our study highlights which acoustic features induce stronger or weaker responses from territorial males, decoding the important features in neighbour-stranger recognition.

  10. Modificações vocais acústicas produzidas pelo som hiperagudo Acoustic vocal modifications produced by high-pitched sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geise Roman-Niehues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever as modificações vocais acústicas após a produção da técnica vocal do som hiperagudo em mulheres adultas jovens, sem queixas vocais e com laringe normal. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 23 sujeitos que assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido, preencheram um questionário, realizaram avaliação otorrinolaringológica com laringoscopia indireta, exame dos órgãos fonoarticulatórios e funções estomatognáticas e triagem auditiva. Realizaram o som hiperagudo em três séries de 15 repetições, em tempo máximo de fonação com intervalos de 30 segundos de repouso passivo entre cada série. A análise vocal acústica foi realizada através do Multi-Dimensional Voice Program, Modelo 5105, da Kay Pentax. RESULTADOS: na avaliação acústica vocal, após o som hiperagudo, constatou-se o aumento das medidas de frequência fundamental e das medidas de perturbação da frequência fundamental, diminuição das medidas de perturbação da intensidade, ruído, quebra de voz, irregularidade da voz e tremor, mas não houve significância estatística em todas as medidas oferecidas pelo programa. CONCLUSÃO: neste grupo, os sons hiperagudos não produziram efeitos acústicos estatisticamente significantes sobre o sinal vocal.PURPOSE: to describe acoustic vocal modifications that may occur after the vocal technique production of high-pitched sound in young adult women without voice complaints and with normal larynx. METHODS: 23 subjects participated in the study and signed the Free and Clarified Consent, completed a questionnaire, the ear, nose and throat evaluation was performed with indirect laryngoscopy; stomatognathic system evaluation, and hearing screening. They produced the high-pitched sound in three series of fifteen repetitions, maximum time speech with intervals of 30-second rest between each series. Vocal acoustic analysis was carried out using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program Model 5105, of Kay

  11. Exploring the anatomical encoding of voice with a mathematical model of the vocal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaneo, M Florencia; Sitt, Jacobo; Varoquaux, Gael; Sigman, Mariano; Cohen, Laurent; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2016-11-01

    The faculty of language depends on the interplay between the production and perception of speech sounds. A relevant open question is whether the dimensions that organize voice perception in the brain are acoustical or depend on properties of the vocal system that produced it. One of the main empirical difficulties in answering this question is to generate sounds that vary along a continuum according to the anatomical properties the vocal apparatus that produced them. Here we use a mathematical model that offers the unique possibility of synthesizing vocal sounds by controlling a small set of anatomically based parameters. In a first stage the quality of the synthetic voice was evaluated. Using specific time traces for sub-glottal pressure and tension of the vocal folds, the synthetic voices generated perceptual responses, which are indistinguishable from those of real speech. The synthesizer was then used to investigate how the auditory cortex responds to the perception of voice depending on the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Our fMRI results show that sounds are perceived as human vocalizations when produced by a vocal system that follows a simple relationship between the size of the vocal folds and the vocal tract. We found that these anatomical parameters encode the perceptual vocal identity (male, female, child) and show that the brain areas that respond to human speech also encode vocal identity. On the basis of these results, we propose that this low-dimensional model of the vocal system is capable of generating realistic voices and represents a novel tool to explore the voice perception with a precise control of the anatomical variables that generate speech. Furthermore, the model provides an explanation of how auditory cortices encode voices in terms of the anatomical parameters of the vocal system.

  12. Estudo do comportamento vocal no ciclo menstrual: avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, acústica e auto-perceptiva Vocal behavior during menstrual cycle: perceptual-auditory, acoustic and self-perception analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. de Figueiredo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período pré-menstrual é comum a ocorrência de disfonia, e são poucas as mulheres que se dão conta dessa variação da voz dentro do ciclo menstrual (Quinteiro, 1989. OBJETIVO: Verificar se há diferença no padrão vocal de mulheres no período de ovulação em relação ao primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual, utilizando-se da análise perceptivo-auditiva, da espectrografia, dos parâmetros acústicos e quando esta diferença está presente, se é percebida pelas mulheres. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso-controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra coletada foi de 30 estudantes de Fonoaudiologia, na faixa etária de 18 a 25 anos, não-fumantes, com ciclo menstrual regular e sem o uso de contraceptivo oral. As vozes foram gravadas no primeiro dia de menstruação e no décimo-terceiro dia pós-menstruação (ovulação, para posterior comparação. RESULTADOS: Observou-se durante o período menstrual que as vozes estão rouco-soprosa de grau leve a moderado, instáveis, sem a presença de quebra de sonoridade, com pitch e loudness adequados e ressonância equilibrada. Há pior qualidade de definição dos harmônicos, maior quantidade de ruído entre eles e menor extensão dos harmônicos superiores. Encontramos uma f0 mais aguda, jitter e shimmer aumentados e PHR diminuída. CONCLUSÃO: No período menstrual há mudanças na qualidade vocal, no comportamento dos harmônicos e nos parâmetros vocais (f0,jitter, shimmer e PHR. Além disso, a maioria das estudantes de Fonoaudiologia não percebeu a variação da voz durante o ciclo menstrual.During the premenstruation period dysphonia often can be observed and only few women are aware of this voice variation (Quinteiro, 1989. AIM: To verify if there are vocal quality variations between the ovulation period and the first day of the menstrual cycle, by using perceptual-auditory and acoustic analysis, including spectrography, and the self perception of the vocal changes when it occurs. STUDY DESIGN: Case

  13. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  14. Grasshopper mice employ distinct vocal production mechanisms in different social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Tokuda, Isao T; Riede, Tobias

    2017-07-26

    Functional changes in vocal organ morphology and motor control facilitate the evolution of acoustic signal diversity. Although many rodents produce vocalizations in a variety of social contexts, few studies have explored the underlying production mechanisms. Here, we describe mechanisms of audible and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys). Grasshopper mice are predatory rodents of the desert that produce both loud, long-distance advertisement calls and USVs in close-distance mating contexts. Using live-animal recording in normal air and heliox, laryngeal and vocal tract morphological investigations, and biomechanical modelling, we found that grasshopper mice employ two distinct vocal production mechanisms. In heliox, changes in higher-harmonic amplitudes of long-distance calls indicate an airflow-induced tissue vibration mechanism, whereas changes in fundamental frequency of USVs support a whistle mechanism. Vocal membranes and a thin lamina propria aid in the production of long-distance calls by increasing glottal efficiency and permitting high frequencies, respectively. In addition, tuning of fundamental frequency to the second resonance of a bell-shaped vocal tract increases call amplitude. Our findings indicate that grasshopper mice can dynamically adjust motor control to suit the social context and have novel morphological adaptations that facilitate long-distance communication. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons and their perceptual discrimination by baboon listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Drew; Owren, Michael J.; Weerts, Elise; Hienz, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study quantifies sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons (Papio spp.) and tests the basic perceptual discriminability of these differences to baboon listeners. Acoustic analyses were performed on 1028 grunts recorded from 27 adult baboons (11 males and 16 females) in southern Africa, focusing specifically on the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies. The mean F0 and the mean frequencies of the first three formants were all significantly lower in males than they were in females, more dramatically so for F0. Experiments using standard psychophysical procedures subsequently tested the discriminability of adult male and adult female grunts. After learning to discriminate the grunt of one male from that of one female, five baboon subjects subsequently generalized this discrimination both to new call tokens from the same individuals and to grunts from novel males and females. These results are discussed in the context of both the possible vocal anatomical basis for sex differences in call structure and the potential perceptual mechanisms involved in their processing by listeners, particularly as these relate to analogous issues in human speech production and perception.

  16. The effect of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on estimated glottal contact quotient in untrained male voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Christopher S; Erickson, Molly L

    2010-01-01

    The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique is not well understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a/ vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, before and after a minute of repeated phonation into a 50-cm hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. Electroglottography was used to measure the glottal contact quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. Single-subject analysis revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques.

  17. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

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    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  18. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Airflow visualization in a model of human glottis near the self-oscillating vocal folds model

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    Horáček J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry measurement of airflow in the glottal region of complex physical models of the voice production that consist of 1 : 1 scaled models of the trachea, the self-oscillating vocal folds and the human vocal tract with acoustical spaces that correspond to the vowels /a:/, /u:/ and /i:/. The time-resolved PIV method was used for visualization of the airflow simultaneously with measurements of subglottal pressure, radiated acoustic pressure and vocal fold vibrations. The measurements were performed within a physiologically real range of mean airflow rate and fundamental phonation frequency. The images of the vibrating vocal folds during one oscillation period were recorded by the high-speed camera at the same time instants as the velocity fields measured by the PIV method.In the region above the models of the ventricular folds and of the epilaryngeal tube it is possible to detect large vortices with dimensions comparable with the channel cross-section and moving relatively slowly downstream. The vortices disappear in the narrower pharyngeal part of the vocal tract model where the flow is getting more uniform. The basic features of the coherent structures identified in the laryngeal cavity models in the interval of the measured airflow rates were found qualitatively similar for all three vowels investigated.

  20. Vocal Tract Morphology in Inhaling Singing: Characteristics During Vowel Production-A Case Study in a Professional Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Mieke; Vanhecke, Françoise; Van Assche, Lieven; Vercruysse, Johan

    2017-09-05

    A professional singer produced various vowels on a comfortable loudness and pitch in an inspiratory and expiratory phonation manner. The present study investigates the morphological differences and tries to find a link with the acoustical characteristics. We hypothesize that features, constantly present over all vowels, characterize inhaling phonation and that the formant frequencies reflect the morphological findings. A prospective case study was carried out. A female singer uttered the vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ in a supine position under magnetic resonance imaging, on a comfortable loudness and pitch, in both inhaling and exhaling manner. The exact same parameters as in previous reports were measured (1-3). Acoustical analysis was performed with Praat. Wilcoxon directional testing demonstrates a statistically significant difference in (1) the distance between the lips, (2) the antero-posterior tongue diameter, (3) the distance between the lips and the tip of the tongue, (4) the distance between the epiglottis and the posterior pharyngeal wall, (5) the narrowing of the subglottic space, and (6) the oropharyngeal and the hypopharyngeal areas. Acoustical analysis reveals slightly more noise and irregularity during reverse phonation. The central frequency of F0 and F1 is identical, whereas that of F2 and F3 increases, and that of F4 varies. A smaller mouth opening, a narrowing of the subglottic space, a larger supralaryngeal inlet, and a smaller antero-posterior tongue diameter can be considered as morphological characteristics for reverse phonation. Acoustically, reverse phonation discretely contains more noise and perturbation. The formant frequency distribution concurs with a mouth narrowing and pharyngeal widening during inhaling. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Análise perceptivo-auditiva e acústica da voz de indivíduos gagos Vocal perceptual and acoustic analysis of stutterers

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    Eliane Regina Carrasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: análise de desvios vocais em sujeitos com gagueira do desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: participaram 23 sujeitos adultos, de ambos os sexos, com graus variados de gagueira, de acordo com a Escala de severidade de Yowa. Foi realizada análise perceptivo-auditiva da voz pela escala GIRBAS, com a inclusão de aspectos adicionais, além de análise acústica de parâmetros vocais e leitura espectrográfica. RESULTADOS: qualidade vocal alterada para 13% dos indivíduos, na vogal sustentada, com instabilidade (69,57% em grau leve e 20% em grau moderado e rugosidade (48,70% em grau leve e 11,30% em grau moderado; alterações na normalidade na fala encadeada, com rugosidade (59,13% em grau leve e 1,74% em grau moderado e tensão ocasional (46,08% em grau leve e 3,49% moderado. Foi encontrada grande inconsistência nos valores de tempo máximo de fonação intra-sujeito e elevada variabilidade inter-sujeitos. O padrão espectrográfico revelou instabilidade, tanto pela presença de quebra de sonoridade (21,74%, como pela presença de sub-harmônicos (30,43%, variabilidade da freqüência fundamental e qualidade vocal (8,7% para ambas. A análise dos parâmetros acústicos selecionados indicou alteração de shimmer (91,30% e de jitter (34,78%. CONCLUSÕES: desvios vocais em gagos são discretos, mas evidenciados na tarefa de vogal sustentada, sem relação com o grau de gagueira. As alterações são sugestivas de instabilidade neuromotora no sistema fonoarticulatório.PURPOSE: this study aims to assess vocal deviation in individuals with developmental stuttering. METHODS: 23 adults, 9 females and 14 males, with different degrees of stuttering (Yowa Severity Scale mean age: 31.2 years, ranging from 23 to 45, took part in the study. Perceptual auditory analysis of vocal quality was assessed by means of GIRBAS scale, with the inclusion of extra features; selected acoustic parameters were extracted. RESULTS: vocal quality was deviated in 13% of

  2. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  3. Biomechanical control of vocal plasticity in an echolocating bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinhong; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Many animal species adjust the spectral composition of their acoustic signals to variable environments. However, the physiological foundation of such spectral plasticity is often unclear. The source-filter theory of sound production, initially established for human speech, applies to vocalizations in birds and mammals. According to this theory, adjusting the spectral structure of vocalizations could be achieved by modifying either the laryngeal/syringeal source signal or the vocal tract, which filters the source signal. Here, we show that in pale spear-nosed bats, spectral plasticity induced by moderate level background noise is dominated by the vocal tract rather than the laryngeal source signal. Specifically, we found that with increasing background noise levels, bats consistently decreased the spectral centroid of their echolocation calls up to 3.2 kHz, together with other spectral parameters. In contrast, noise-induced changes in fundamental frequency were small (maximally 0.1 kHz) and were inconsistent across individuals. Changes in spectral centroid did not correlate with changes in fundamental frequency, whereas they correlated negatively with changes in call amplitude. Furthermore, while bats consistently increased call amplitude with increasing noise levels (the Lombard effect), increases in call amplitude typically did not lead to increases in fundamental frequency. In summary, our results suggest that at least to a certain degree echolocating bats are capable of adjusting call amplitude, fundamental frequency and spectral parameters independently. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Modificações vocais acústicas produzidas pela fonação reversa Acoustic vocal modifications produced by reverse phonation

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    Leila Susana Finger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as modificações vocais acústicas e as sensações ocorridas após a técnica vocal de fonação reversa em mulheres adultas jovens, sem queixas vocais e com laringe normal. MÉTODOS: Trinta e duas mulheres adultas jovens submeteram-se à avaliação otorrinolaringológica e triagem fonoaudiológica para descartar possíveis alterações que pudessem interferir nos resultados da pesquisa; tiveram amostras vocais coletadas antes e após realizarem três séries de 15 repetições de fonação reversa, em tempo máximo de fonação com tom e intensidade habituais, e 30 segundos de repouso passivo entre cada série. Após, responderam a um questionário referente às sensações percebidas. A análise vocal acústica foi realizada através do software Praat (versão 4.6.10 e os dados analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e pelo teste de Wilcoxon, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Aumento estatisticamente significativo da frequência fundamental e da frequência máxima; diminuição da frequência mínima; aumento das medidas de Jitter, exceto da medida de Jitter local-absoluto que diminuiu; diminuição das medidas de Shimmer, relação ruído/harmônico (NHR e relação harmônico/ruído (HNR; e predomínio das sensações positivas. CONCLUSÃO: A fonação reversa pareceu promover efeito positivo sobre a vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais e sobre o seu alongamento. Sugere efeito sobre a musculatura, favorecendo mudanças de frequência fundamental; e sobre sua homogeneização e modificação da camada de muco. Além disso, promoveu melhora global do sinal vocal e das sensações durante sua produção.PURPOSE: To describe the acoustic vocal modifications and the sensations occurred after the reverse phonation technique in young adult women without vocal complaints and with normal larynx. METHODS: Thirty-two young adult women were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic and speech-language pathology

  5. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pdysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pdysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  6. Características vocais acústicas de crianças pré-escolares Vocal acoustic characteristics in pre-school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Michele Cappellari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro passo em qualquer tratamento é a avaliação. Desta forma, parâmetros de normalidade são a base para uma adequada avaliação. OBJETIVO: Verificar as medidas e características vocais de 23 crianças pré-escolares, entre quatro e seis anos, de ambos os sexos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostragem contou com questionário, triagem auditiva, e avaliação perceptivo-auditiva vocal, por meio da escala R.A.S.A.T.. A análise acústica foi realizada por meio do Multidimensional Voice Program. ESTUDO: Prospectivo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS: A variação de freqüência (vf0 e a proporção harmônico-ruído (NHR foram maiores na amostra total que aos cinco e seis anos; à medida que a idade aumentou, o NHR reduziu; à medida que o quociente de perturbação de Amplitude (PPQ aumentou, a vf0, variação de amplitude (vAm, o índice de fonação suave (SPI e o NHR também aumentaram; à medida que o PPQ, quociente de perturbação de amplitude (APQ e índice de turbulência vocal (VTI aumentaram, o índice de fonação suave (SPI reduziu. CONCLUSÃO: Os parâmetros acústicos, aos quatro anos, evidenciaram a imaturidade das estruturas e a falta de controle neuromuscular nessa idade e que o início deste processo de maturação, possivelmente, ocorre próximo aos cinco e seis anos de idade.Evaluation is the first step for any treatment. Therefore, normal parameters are the bases for proper evaluation. AIM: Verify measures and vocal acoustic characteristics of 23 pre-school aged children of both genders, aged four to six years and eight months. METHODS: The sampling process comprised a questionnaire -that was sent to parents, auditory screening and vocal-perception auditory assessment, based on the R.A.S.A.T. scale. Acoustic analysis was carried out through the Multi Dimensional Voice Program. STUDY: Prospective and cross-sectional. RESULTS: The noise-harmonic ratio (NHR and frequency variation (vf0 of the total sample was higher than what

  7. Accurate recovery of articulator positions from acoustics: New conclusions based on human data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J. [MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lofqvist, A.; Gracco, V. [Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Zlokarnik, I. [MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rubin, P.; Saltzman, E. [Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Vocal tract models are often used to study the problem of mapping from the acoustic transfer function to the vocal tract area function (inverse mapping). Unfortunately, results based on vocal tract models are strongly affected by the assumptions underlying the models. In this study, the mapping from acoustics (digitized speech samples) to articulation (measurements of the positions of receiver coils placed on the tongue, jaw, and lips) is examined using human data from a single speaker: Simultaneous acoustic and articulator measurements made for vowel-to-vowel transitions, /g/ closures, and transitions into and out of /g/ closures. Articulator positions were measured using an EMMA system to track coils placed on the lips, jaw, and tongue. Using these data, look-up tables were created that allow articulator positions to be estimated from acoustic signals. On a data set not used for making look-up tables, correlations between estimated and actual coil positions of around 94{percent} and root-mean-squared errors around 2 mm are common for coils on the tongue. An error source evaluation shows that estimating articulator positions from quantized acoustics gives root-mean-squared errors that are typically less than 1 mm greater than the errors that would be obtained from quantizing the articulator positions themselves. This study agrees with and extends previous studies of human data by showing that for the data studied, speech acoustics can be used to accurately recover articulator positions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  8. Response to "Comments on 'A theoretical model of the pressure distributions arising from asymmetric intraglottal flows applied to a two-mass model of the vocal folds'" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 389-403 (2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron D; Peterson, Sean D; Zañartu, Matías; Wodicka, George R; Stewart, Kelley C; Plesniak, Michael W

    2013-08-01

    Hirschberg [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 9-12 (2013)] presents a commentary and criticisms of the viscous flow model presented by Erath et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 389-403 (2011)] that solves for the asymmetric pressure loading on the vocal fold walls. This pressure loading arises from asymmetric flow attachment to one vocal fold wall when the glottal channel forms a divergent configuration. Hirschberg proposes an alternative model for the asymmetric loading based upon inviscid flow curvature at the glottal inlet. In this manuscript further evidence is provided in support of the model of Erath et al. and the underlying assumptions, and demonstrates that the primary criticisms presented by Hirschberg are unwarranted. The model presented by Hirschberg is compared with the model from the original paper by Erath et al., and it is shown that each model describes different and complementary aspects of divergent glottal flows.

  9. Medidas vocais acústicas na doença de Parkinson: estudo de casos Vocal acoustic measures in Parkinson disease: case study

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    Fernanda Vargas Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: características vocais acústicas de indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson (DP. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de casos, estatística descritiva; cinco pares de parkinsonianos e controle, três masculinos e dois femininos, entre 36 e 63 anos. Avaliação otorrinolaringológica, fonoaudiológica, voz analisada pelo Multi-Dimensional Voice Program Advanced Model 5105 da Kay Pentax®. RESULTADOS: a f0 das mulheres adultas de meia-idade com DP ficou na faixa masculina e a f0 dos controles no limite inferior da faixa feminina. Nos demais sujeitos, que eram homens de diferentes idades, a f0 foi normal; houve aumento de todas as medidas acústicas principalmente nos sujeitos com DP de todas as faixas etárias estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: o processo de envelhecimento e suas consequências parecem atuar como fator interferente nas modificações acústicas da voz, mas, aparentemente, a DP e a idade precoce de seu aparecimento podem acentuar tais alterações, repercutindo de forma negativa na fonação.BACKGROUND: vocal acoustic measures in individuals with Parkinson Disease (PD. PROCEDURES: case studies, descriptive statistics; five pairs of Parkinson patients and control group, three male and two female subjects, between 36 and 63-year old. Evaluations on otorhinolaryngology, speech therapy, voice analyzed by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program Advanced Model 5105 by Kay Pentax®. RESULTS: f0 in women adults of middle age with PD, was in full male and f0 of the controls on the bottom of the band of women. In other subjects, who were men of different ages, f0 was normal; there was an increase for all acoustic measures, mainly, in the subjects with PD of all studied age groups. CONCLUSION: aging process and its consequences seem to act as an interference factor in the changes of acoustic voice, but apparently, PD and the early age of its appearance may come to enhance these changes, reflecting a negative impact on phonation.

  10. Vocal power and pressure-flow relationships in excised tiger larynges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L; McGee, Joann; Walsh, Edward J

    2010-11-15

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure-flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed 'vocal pads' in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0-2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s(-1) per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure.

  11. Vocalizações e interações acústicas em Hyla raniceps (Anura, Hylidae durante a atividade reprodutiva Vocalizations and acoustic interactions in Hyla Raniceps (Anura, Hylidae during the breeding season

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    Lorena dall'Ara Guimarães

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The vocalizations of H. raniceps (Cope, 1826 and their functions are described, including an analysis of the influence of temperature, weight, or SVL (snout-vent length of males on the acoustic parameters. The vocalizations were recorded in three areas in Fazenda Lagoa Grande, Municipality of Pontalina, State of Goiás, central Brazil. Males began their vocalizations just before sunset, extending them, in some cases, to dawn of the following day. The peak of activities happened between 21h and 23h. The height of calling sites varied plenty, being the position horizontal in about 50% of them. Males defended sites in different areas during consecutive nights. Rain and strong winds interrupted the calling activities. Males emitted three vocalizations: advertisement, territorial and distress calls. The advertisement call has pulsionated structures and it is the most common, being emitted in the presence/absence of females. Significant correlation was found between number of notes and air temperature, notes duration and both male weight and air temperature, calling rate and both male SVL or weight, and frequency and male weight.

  12. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

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    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  13. Dimensões perceptivas das alterações de qualidade vocal e suas correlações aos planos da acústica e da fisiologia Perceptual dimensions of voice disorders and their correlations to acoustical and physiological arenas

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    Zuleica Antonia de Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo fundamenta-se na necessidade de compreensão de mecanismos compensatórios usados por indivíduos portadores de alterações da qualidade vocal (disfonias. O objetivo foi investigar amostras de vozes com alterações da qualidade vocal por procedimentos perceptivo-auditivos (qualidade vocal e reconhecimento de fala, acústicos (análise de curto e de longo termo e fisiológicos (eletroglotografia-EGG, videolaringoestroboscopia e videoquimografia. Do ponto de vista perceptivo-auditivo, foi destacada a validade do uso de roteiro com embasamento fonético e de teste de reconhecimento de fala. Algumas dimensões perceptivas mostraram correlações, as quais encontram respaldo nas descrições acústicas e fisiológicas. Os resultados acústicos indicaram a relevância dos eventos de longo termo e sua correspondência àqueles de curto termo. Dados de EGG revelaram correspondência aos resultados do exame otorrinolaringológico. Os resultados evidenciam a multiplicidade de manifestações clínicas descritas sob a terminologia "disfonia", de forma a revelar as correlações entre os planos perceptivo, acústico e fisiológico da qualidade vocal.This study departs from the necessity of understanding compensatory mechanisms used by dysphonic individuals. The objective was to investigate dysphonic voices by taking into account acoustic analysis (long and short term analysis, physiological examination (electroglottography - EGG, laryngeal endoscopy, videostroboscopy and videokymography and perceptual evaluation (voice quality and speech recognition procedures. From the perceptual point of view, both the usefulness of the phonetically oriented vocal profile and the speech recognition task have been validated. Some perceptual dimensions correlated to each other, with correspondences to acoustical and physiological descriptions. From the acoustic point of view results indicated the relevance of long - term events and their correspondence

  14. Computational Modeling of Fluid–Structure–Acoustics Interaction during Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The paper presented a three-dimensional, first-principle based fluid–structure–acoustics interaction computer model of voice production, which employed a more realistic human laryngeal and vocal tract geometries. Self-sustained vibrations, important convergent–divergent vibration pattern of the vocal folds, and entrainment of the two dominant vibratory modes were captured. Voice quality-associated parameters including the frequency, open quotient, skewness quotient, and flow rate of the glottal flow waveform were found to be well within the normal physiological ranges. The analogy between the vocal tract and a quarter-wave resonator was demonstrated. The acoustic perturbed flux and pressure inside the glottis were found to be at the same order with their incompressible counterparts, suggesting strong source–filter interactions during voice production. Such high fidelity computational model will be useful for investigating a variety of pathological conditions that involve complex vibrations, such as vocal fold paralysis, vocal nodules, and vocal polyps. The model is also an important step toward a patient-specific surgical planning tool that can serve as a no-risk trial and error platform for different procedures, such as injection of biomaterials and thyroplastic medialization. PMID:28243588

  15. A modeling investigation of vowel-to-vowel movement planning in acoustic and muscle spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandipour, Majid

    The primary objective of this research was to explore the coordinate space in which speech movements are planned. A two dimensional biomechanical model of the vocal tract (tongue, lips, jaw, and pharynx) was constructed based on anatomical and physiological data from a subject. The model transforms neural command signals into the actions of muscles. The tongue was modeled by a 221-node finite element mesh. Each of the eight tongue muscles defined within the mesh was controlled by a virtual muscle model. The other vocal-tract components were modeled as simple 2nd-order systems. The model's geometry was adapted to a speaker, using MRI scans of the speaker's vocal tract. The vocal tract model, combined with an adaptive controller that consisted of a forward model (mapping 12-dimensional motor commands to a 64-dimensional acoustic spectrum) and an inverse model (mapping acoustic trajectories to motor command trajectories), was used to simulate and explore the implications of two planning hypotheses: planning in motor space vs. acoustic space. The acoustic, kinematic, and muscle activation (EMG) patterns of vowel-to-vowel sequences generated by the model were compared to data from the speaker whose acoustic, kinematic and EMG were also recorded. The simulation results showed that: (a) modulations of the motor commands effectively accounted for the effects of speaking rate on EMG, kinematic, and acoustic outputs; (b) the movement and acoustic trajectories were influenced by vocal tract biomechanics; and (c) both planning schemes produced similar articulatory movement, EMG, muscle length, force, and acoustic trajectories, which were also comparable to the subject's data under normal speaking conditions. In addition, the effects of a bite-block on measured EMG, kinematics and formants were simulated by the model. Acoustic planning produced successful simulations but motor planning did not. The simulation results suggest that with somatosensory feedback but no auditory

  16. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  17. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    OpenAIRE

    STARNBERGER, IRIS; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The divers...

  18. Eletromiografia laríngea e análise vocal em pacientes com Mal de Parkinson: estudo comparativo Laryngeal electromyography and acoustic voice analysis in Parkinson's disease: a comparative study

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    Ana Paula Zarzur

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A doença ou Mal de Parkinson se deve à deficiência dopaminérgica nos núcleos da base que geram alterações motoras. Comprometimento da comunicação verbal ocorre em 70 a 90% dos doentes. Existem poucas referências da aplicação da eletromiografia no estudo dos músculos laríngeos em pacientes com a doença de Parkinson. OBJETIVOS: Definir o padrão contrátil da musculatura intrínseca da laringe e sua correlação com a análise acústica vocal nos parkinsonianos. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo onde 26 adultos com o diagnóstico de Mal de Parkinson foram submetidos à eletromiografia laríngea e análise acústica vocal. Foram coletados potenciais de ação, tanto em repouso vocal quanto em fonação. Para a análise acústica da voz foram utilizados os programas VOXMETRIA® e GRAM 5.1.6®. RESULTADOS: O padrão eletromiográfico predominante no grupo estudo foi o de hipercontratibilidade (ou recrutamento aumentado durante repouso vocal que ocorreu em 73% dos indivíduos, sem que houvesse registro eletromiográfico de tremor. Quanto às características vocais, detectou-se a presença de tremor vocal no traçado do espectrograma (VOXMETRIA E GRAM e na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva em 69,5 % e 61 % dos sujeitos, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O tremor vocal foi a característica acústica predominante no grupo estudado, sem que houvesse correlação eletromiográfica.Parkinson's disease (PD involves a progressive depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia leading to motor alterations. Oral communication impairment occurs in 75% to 90% of patients and has been poorly studied. AIM: to asses laryngeal electromyography (LEMG patterns and correlate them to vocal analysis in patients with Parkinson's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study. Twenty six adults with PD underwent laryngeal electromyography. Rest and phonation potentials were analyzed. VOXMETRIA® and GRAM 5.1.6. ® were used in acoustic analysis

  19. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

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    Ingo R Titze

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  20. 声带干燥对嗓音基频微扰和振幅微扰的影响%The Influence of Vocal Fold Dehydration on Voice Acoustic Function and the Effect of Hydration Inhalation Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李暐; 屈季宁; 周涛; 杨希林; 华杜鹃; 解为全; 邹哲飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨声带干燥处理后嗓音的变化以及生理盐水雾化吸入治疗的效果.方法 对48例健康自愿者采用鼻夹阻止鼻腔吸入气体,通过面罩呼吸干燥空气行声带干燥处理,然后随机分为两组,治疗组(36例)行雾化治疗,对照组(12例)不做治疗,对两组干燥处理前后和治疗后的嗓音进行声学分析.结果 两组受试者干燥处理后基频微扰及振幅微扰均较处理前明显增高(P<0.05),噪谐比(NHR)无明显变化(P>0.05).治疗组0.9%生理盐水雾化治疗后,基频微扰及振幅微扰较治疗前和对照组明显降低(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.结论 声带干燥可影响嗓音的稳定性,生理盐水雾化吸入是一种有效的治疗方法.%Objective To explore the influence of vocal fold dehydration on voice and the curative effect of hy dration inhalation. Methods Fourty- eight healthy volunteers were given intervention of vocal fold dehydration and were divided into two groups, thirty six volunteers received inhalation treatment and 12 were recruited as control group. The voice acoustic detection was performed before and after the process of dehydration as well as the hydra tion inhalation treatment. Results The value of acoustic jitter and shimmer showed significant increase after the process of vocal fold dehydration (P0. 05). The experiment group was given the inhalation treatment, and the value of acoustic jitter and shimmer decreased signifi cantly compared with that of before treatment. (P0. 05) ,and the value of jitter and shimmer decreased obviously compared with those of in control group. Conclusion Dryness can cause the vocal fold dehydration and have adverse effects on voice function, hydration inhalation treatment may be as a prompt and effective treatment.

  1. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  2. Voice analysis before and after vocal rehabilitation in patients following open surgery on vocal cords

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    Bunijevac Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major role of larynx in speech, respiration and swallowing makes carcinomas of this region and their treatment very influential for patients’ life quality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of voice therapy in patients after open surgery on vocal cords. Methods. This study included 21 male patients and the control group of 19 subjects. The vowel (A was recorded and analyzed for each examinee. All the patients were recorded twice: firstly, when they contacted the clinic and secondly, after a three-month vocal therapy, which was held twice per week on an outpatient basis. The voice analysis was carried out in the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT Clinic, Clinical Hospital Center “Zvezdara” in Belgrade. Results. The values of the acoustic parameters in the patients submitted to open surgery on the vocal cords before vocal rehabilitation and the control group subjects were significantly different in all specified parameters. These results suggest that the voice of the patients was damaged before vocal rehabilitation. The results of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A before and after vocal rehabilitation of the patients with open surgery on vocal cords were statistically significantly different. Among the parameters - Jitter (%, Shimmer (% - the observed difference was highly statistically significant (p 0.05 . Conclusion. There was a significant improvement of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A in the study subjects three months following vocal therapy. Only one out of five representative parameters showed no significant improvement.

  3. Quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyps, glottal gap and their relation to vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Kaseta, Marius; Pribuisiene, Rūta; Saferis, Viktoras; Jokūzis, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Adas; Bacauskiene, Marija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the size of vocal fold polyps and to investigate the relationship between the glottal gap and parameters of acoustic voice analysis and phonetography. Eighty-one microlaryngoscopic images and digital recordings of voices (acoustic analysis and phonetogram) acquired from the patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs) were employed in this study. Vocal fold (VF) images were collected during routine direct microlaryngoscopy using Moller-Wedel Universa 300 surgical microscope, 3-CCD Elmo 768 x 576-pixel color video camera and a 300 W Xenon light source. Acoustic voice analysis and phonetography were established using Dr. Speech (Tiger Electronics Inc.) software. Microlaryngoscopic images were processed by original software created by ELINTA and displayed on a monitor. The relative lengths and widths of vocal fold polyps as well as percentage area of VFP were calculated. The Pearson's correlation was applied to reveal the correlation between VFP dimensions and acoustic voice parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the dimensions of left and right vocal folds and VFPs. Statistically significant slight to mild correlations between measured dimensions of VFP acoustic and phonetogram parameters were revealed, with HNR and phonetogram area showing the strongest correlation to the size of VFPs. The results of our study confirm that quantitative microlaryngoscopic measurements of vocal fold polyp and glottal gap dimensions may be a useful tool for objective assessment of glottic incompetence and voice impairment.

  4. Um estudo fonético-acústico do /R/ vocalizado em posição de coda silábica An acoustic-phonetic study of vocalized /R/ in syllable coda position

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    Cândida Mara Britto Leite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os principais objetivos deste trabalho, são: (i caracterizar, através de um estudo fonético-acústico, o /R/ vocalizado que ocorre em posição de coda silábica medial em dados de um informante natural do interior paulista e (ii estabelecer comparações entre as ocorrências de /R/, do glide [j] e da vogal anterior alta [i], além das comparações entre [j] e [i], pois algumas das realizações de /R/ se aproximam, auditivamente, das realizações desses dois últimos segmentos. As amostras foram exploradas quanto à frequência dos três primeiros formantes (F1, F2 e F3. Para análise dos dados, o referencial teórico adotado foi o da Teoria Acústica de Produção da Fala, conforme Fant (1960, somado aos pressupostos da Sociolinguística. Como resultado, a análise dos dados mostrou que diante de vogais /e/ e /a/, há vocalização do /R/ e (ii diante das vogais posteriores /ɔ/ e /u/, o /R/ não sofre o processo de vocalização e é produzido com retroflexão.This paper aims at (i characterizing, in a acoustic-phonetic approach, the vocalized /R/ that occurs in medial syllabic coda position, based on data collected with one informant from the countryside cities in São Paulo state and (ii contrasting occurrences of /R/, the glide [j], the high vowel [i]. It also compares [j] with [i], once some /R/ realizations are similar to [j] and [i] ones. The sample analysis focuses on the frequency of the first three formants (F1, F2 e F3. This data were recorded and we undertook acoustic analyses. The adopted theoretical reference was that of Acoustic Theory of Speech Production by Fant (1960, added to Sociolinguistic framework. The results suggest that (i before /e/ and /a/, /R/ is vocalized, and (ii before /ɔ/ and /u/, /R/ is produced as a retroflex sound and does not undergo vocalization.

  5. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

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    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  6. The evolution of coordinated vocalizations before language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. briefly point out the potential significance of coordinated vocal behavior in the dual pathway model of acoustic communication. Rhythmically entrained and articulated pre-linguistic vocal activity in early hominins might have set the evolutionary stage for later refinements that manifest in modern humans as language-based conversational turn-taking, joint music-making, and other behaviors associated with prosociality.

  7. Características vocais acústicas do som basal em homens com fissura pós-forame reparada Acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in men with repaired post-foramen cleft

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    Giseane Conterno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: características vocais acústicas da emissão em registro basal de pacientes adultos masculinos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada cirurgicamente. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de casos envolvendo quatro sujeitos do sexo masculino portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada cirurgicamente. Foi realizada análise acústica da emissão sustentada da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal, através dos programas Multi Dimensional Voice Program (análise da fonte glótica e Real-Time Spectrogram (análise espectrográfica, ambos da Kay Elemetrics Corp. RESULTADOS: por meio da análise espectrográfica do basal, observou-se: diminuição de definição, intensidade e de largura de banda de alguns formantes, diminuição da intensidade de todo o espectro, e discreta diminuição do ruído nas altas frequências; o efeito damping apresentou discreto aumento. Pela análise da fonte glótica no basal através do MDVPA, observou-se: frequência fundamental dentro da faixa do registro modal de fala e aumentada quando comparada à emissão para comparação em registro modal; grande aumento das medidas que evidenciam variação de frequência e de amplitude; maioria das medidas de jitter e de shimmer significativamente aumentadas; medidas de ruído, de quebras de voz, de segmentos não sonorizados e de tremor aumentadas; e índice de fonação suave (SPI significativamente diminuído. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados evidenciam a alta instabilidade e ruído da emissão em registro basal, bem como sua fraca intensidade e diminuição do fluxo aéreo transglótico.PURPOSE: to describe the vocal acoustic characteristics of emission in vocal fry of male adult patients, with surgically repaired post-foramen cleft. METHODS: study of cases involving four male subjects with surgically repaired post-foramen cleft. Acoustic analysis concerning sustained emission of vowel [a] was accomplished in modal register and vocal fry, through the programs Multi

  8. What can vortices tell us about vocal fold vibration and voice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sid; Murugappan, Shanmugam; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2008-06-01

    Much clinical research on laryngeal airflow has assumed that airflow is unidirectional. This review will summarize what additional knowledge can be obtained about vocal fold vibration and voice production by studying rotational motion, or vortices, in laryngeal airflow. Recent work suggests two types of vortices that may strongly contribute to voice quality. The first kind forms just above the vocal folds during glottal closing, and is formed by flow separation in the glottis; these flow separation vortices significantly contribute to rapid closing of the glottis, and hence, to producing loudness and high frequency harmonics in the acoustic spectrum. The second is a group of highly three-dimensional and coherent supraglottal vortices, which can produce sound by interaction with structures in the vocal tract. Present work is also described that suggests that certain laryngeal pathologies, such as asymmetric vocal fold tension, will significantly modify both types of vortices, with adverse impact on sound production: decreased rate of glottal closure, increased broadband noise, and a decreased signal to noise ratio. Recent research supports the hypothesis that glottal airflow contains certain vortical structures that significantly contribute to voice quality.

  9. Comments on "A theoretical model of the pressure field arising from asymmetric intraglottal flows applied to a two-mass model of the vocal folds" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 389-403 (2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Avraham

    2013-07-01

    After demonstrating by means of an in vitro model experiment that the flow in the glottis can become asymmetric, Erath et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 389-403 (2011)] propose a theory to estimate the resulting asymmetry in the lateral hydrodynamic force on the vocal folds. A wall-jet attached to one side of the divergent downstream part of the glottis is considered. The model assumes that the wall is a flat plate and that the jet separates at the glottal exit. They implement this so-called Boundary Layer Estimation of Asymmetric Pressure force model in a lumped two mass model of the vocal folds. This should allow them to study the impact of the asymmetry on voiced sound production. A critical discussion of the merits and shortcomings of the model is provided. It predicts discontinuities in the time dependency of the lateral force. It predicts this force to be independent from the glottal opening, which is not reasonable. An alternative model is proposed, which avoids these problems and predicts that there is a minimum glottal opening below which the wall-jet does not separate from the wall at the glottal exit. This is in agreement with the experimental results provided by Erath et al.

  10. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  11. Effects of voice training and voice hygiene education on acoustic and perceptual speech parameters and self-reported vocal well-being in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilomaki, Irma; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Leppanen, Kirsti; Vilkman, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Voice education programs may help in optimizing teachers' voice use. This study compared effects of voice training (VT) and voice hygiene lecture (VHL) in 60 randomly assigned female teachers. All 60 attended the lecture, and 30 completed a short training course in addition. Text reading was recorded in working environments and analyzed for fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), alpha ratio, jitter, shimmer, and perceptual quality. Self-reports of vocal well-being were registered. In the VHL group, increased F0 and difficulty of phonation and in the VT group decreased perturbation, increased alpha ratio, easier phonation, and improved perceptual and self-reported voice quality were found. Both groups equally self-reported increase of voice care knowledge. Results seem to indicate improved vocal well-being after training.

  12. Peripheral Mechanisms for Vocal Production in Birds--Differences and Similarities to Human Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is a model system for studying learned vocal behavior. As in humans, bird phonation involves three main motor systems (respiration, vocal organ and vocal tract). The avian respiratory mechanism uses pressure regulation in air sacs to ventilate a rigid lung. In songbirds sound is generated with two independently…

  13. A model of acoustic interspeaker variability based on the concept of formant-cavity affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Lian; Perrier, Pascal; Bailly, Gérard

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed to model the interspeaker variability of formant patterns for oral vowels. It is assumed that this variability originates in the differences existing among speakers in the respective lengths of their front and back vocal-tract cavities. In order to characterize, from the spectral description of the acoustic speech signal, these vocal-tract differences between speakers, each formant is interpreted, according to the concept of formant-cavity affiliation, as a resonance of a specific vocal-tract cavity. Its frequency can thus be directly related to the corresponding cavity length, and a transformation model can be proposed from a speaker A to a speaker B on the basis of the frequency ratios of the formants corresponding to the same resonances. In order to minimize the number of sounds to be recorded for each speaker in order to carry out this speaker transformation, the frequency ratios are exactly computed only for the three extreme cardinal vowels [eye, aye, you] and they are approximated for the remaining vowels through an interpolation function. The method is evaluated through its capacity to transform the (F1,F2) formant patterns of eight oral vowels pronounced by five male speakers into the (F1,F2) patterns of the corresponding vowels generated by an articulatory model of the vocal tract. The resulting formant patterns are compared to those provided by normalization techniques published in the literature. The proposed method is found to be efficient, but a number of limitations are also observed and discussed. These limitations can be associated with the formant-cavity affiliation model itself or with a possible influence of speaker-specific vocal-tract geometry in the cross-sectional direction, which the model might not have taken into account.

  14. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus: acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  15. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  16. A modeling investigation of articulatory variability and acoustic stability during American English /are/ production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Guenther, Frank H.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Curtin, Hugh D.

    2005-05-01

    This paper investigates the functional relationship between articulatory variability and stability of acoustic cues during American English /are/ production. The analysis of articulatory movement data on seven subjects shows that the extent of intrasubject articulatory variability along any given articulatory direction is strongly and inversely related to a measure of acoustic stability (the extent of acoustic variation that displacing the articulators in this direction would produce). The presence and direction of this relationship is consistent with a speech motor control mechanism that uses a third formant frequency (F3) target; i.e., the final articulatory variability is lower for those articulatory directions most relevant to determining the F3 value. In contrast, no consistent relationship across speakers and phonetic contexts was found between hypothesized vocal-tract target variables and articulatory variability. Furthermore, simulations of two speakers' productions using the DIVA model of speech production, in conjunction with a novel speaker-specific vocal-tract model derived from magnetic resonance imaging data, mimic the observed range of articulatory gestures for each subject, while exhibiting the same articulatory/acoustic relations as those observed experimentally. Overall these results provide evidence for a common control scheme that utilizes an acoustic, rather than articulatory, target specification for American English /are/. .

  17. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  18. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Audiovisual vocal outburst classification in noisy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate an audiovisual approach for classification of vocal outbursts (non-linguistic vocalisations) in noisy conditions using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Fusion of geometric shape features and acoustic low-level descript

  20. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Brauer, Alexander F.L.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as “LSVT/LOUD®”, does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  1. Dor muscular em cabeça e pescoço e medidas vocais acústicas de fonte glótica Head and neck muscles pain and glottic source acoustical vocal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane de Moraes Boton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a relação entre a presença de dor na musculatura da cabeça, face, boca e pescoço envolvidos no processo fisiológico da função mastigatória e nos aspectos lateral e posterior da articulação temporomandibular (ATM e medidas vocais acústicas da fonte glótica. MÉTODO: amostra de 24 mulheres com idades entre 16 e 56 anos com queixas e sintomatologia de Disfunção Temporomandibular (DTM. Aplicação de um questionário de anamnese, exame clínico específico para verificação da presença de dor na musculatura da cabeça, face, boca e pescoço e nas ATM; avaliações otorrinolaringológica, do sistema estomatognático, audiológica e gravação digital da voz com análise vocal acústica da fonte glótica por meio do software Multi Dimensional Voice Program Advanced da KayPENTAX. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado ao nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: houve significância estatística entre: ausência de dor no masseter superficial e alteração do índice de turbulência vocal (VTI; ausência de dor no aspecto posterior da ATM e alteração do coeficiente de perturbação do pitch (PPQ e alteração da variação da frequência fundamental (vf0; presença de dor no pterigóideo medial e normalidade do grau de quebra vocal (DVB. CONCLUSÃO: verificou-se que não houve relação entre as medidas de voz alteradas e a presença de dor nos músculos avaliados, mas algumas medidas alteradas se relacionaram com a ausência de dor muscular, sugerindo que outros aspectos da DTM, que não a dor, podem ocasionar alteração de medidas vocais acústicas.PURPOSE: to check the relationship between pain presence in head, face, mouth and neck muscles involved in the physiological process of chewing function and in the lateral and posterior aspects of temporomandibular joint (ATM and acoustical glottic source vocal measures. METHOD: 24 women with ages varying between 16 and

  2. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  3. Dynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, J. D.; Amador, A.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    Birdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms of how the avian sound source might contribute to spectral richness are largely unknown. Here we show in the most widely studied songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that the broad range of upper harmonic content in different low-frequency song elements is the fingerprint of the dynamics displayed by its vocal apparatus, which can be captured by a two-dimensional dynamical model. As in human speech and singing, the varying harmonic content of birdsong is not only the result of vocal tract filtering but of a varying degree of tonality emerging from the sound source. The spectral content carries a strong signature of the intrinsic dynamics of the sound source.

  4. Vocal intensity in lecturers: Results of measurements conducted during lecture sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational voice users (inter alia: lecturers speak with different levels of vocal intensity. Speakers adjust this intensity knowingly (e.g. to underline the importance of fragments of the speech or unknowingly. The unknown adjustment of voice intensity occurs e.g. in the presence of high acoustic background noise (so-called Lombard effect, but it also results from many other factors: hearing loss, construction of the vocal tract, habits and others. The aim of the article is to confirm the thesis that in similar conditions of acoustic properties of the room different lecturers speak with different levels of vocal intensity. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a group of 10 lecturers in the same conference room. A-weighted sound pressure level determined at 1 m from the lecturer's mouth was adopted as a parameter defining the intensity of the lecturer's voice. The levels of all lecturers' voice intensity were compared and evaluated according to the criteria defined in EN ISO 9921. Results: Nine in ten lecturers were speaking with normal voice intensity (60-65 dB and only one full-time university lecturer was speaking with raised voice (66-71 dB. Conclusions: It was found that in the room of the same acoustic conditions the lecturers spoke with different intensities of voice. Some lecturers occasionally, and one all the time spoke with the voice intensity specified by PN-EN ISO 9921 as a raised voice. The results of the preliminary study warrant further studies in a larger group of teachers. Med Pr 2013;64(6:797–804

  5. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar (Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  6. Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development in Infants and Machines: The Role of Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eMoulin-Frier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We bridge the gap between two issues in infant development: vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation.

  7. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head......This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... with an artificial head (corresponding to the mouth-ears path) placed at the talker position while simulating the classrooms. Time histories of the vocal fold vibration readings, with the trend of the fundamental frequency and an estimation of the sound pressure level, sampled every 50 ms, were obtained. From...

  8. Modificações vocais acústicas espectrográficas produzidas pela fonação reversa Spectrography acoustic vocal modifications produced by reverse phonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer os efeitos da técnica de fonação reversa, realizando análise da sua eficácia sobre vozes femininas normais, por meio da espectrografia acústica de banda larga e de banda estreita. MÉTODOS: 32 mulheres adultas jovens, que assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido da pesquisa, submeteram-se à avaliação otorrinolaringológica e triagem fonoaudiológica a fim de eliminar possíveis alterações que pudessem interferir nos resultados da pesquisa. Tiveram amostras vocais coletadas antes e após realizar três séries de 15 repetições de fonação reversa em tempo máximo de fonação com tom e intensidade habituais, com 30 segundos de repouso passivo entre cada série. Utilizou-se o software Real Time Spectrogram (Kay Elemetrics Corp. para gerar espectrogramas de banda larga e de banda estreita. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de porcentagem simples e do teste do Qui-Quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: houve tendência percentual ao aumento da definição de harmônicos, da regularidade do traçado, da intensidade e da definição dos Formantes 3 e 4, da intensidade das altas frequências e em todo o espectro; e aumento significante da definição do Formante 1. CONCLUSÃO: acredita-se que a técnica favoreça o alongamento e a vibração das pregas vocais com possível homogeneização e modificações ocorridas na mucosa, e conseqüente melhoria do sinal vocal, com maior regularidade de vibração e melhora de ressonância.PURPOSE: to improve knowledge on the effects of reverse phonation technique based on an analysis of its efficiency on normal female voice, using wideband and narrowband spectrograph. METHODS: 32 young adult women who signed the Informed Consent were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic evaluation and speech and hearing screening in order to avoid alterations that could interfere in the results of the study; voice samples were collected before and after three

  9. Acoustic comparison of vowel sounds produced before and after orthognathic surgery for mandibular advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Matti; Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Kurimo, Jukka; Aaltonen, Olli; Happonen, Risto-Pekka

    2006-06-01

    The effects of orthognathic surgery on the phonetic quality of speech were studied by analyzing the main acoustic features of vowel sounds. Five men with dentofacial deformities undergoing surgical operation for correction of malocclusion were enrolled in the study. The speech material consisted of 8 vowels in sentence context. Every utterance was repeated 10 times in 3 different sessions: before the operation, 6 weeks after the operation, and 30 weeks after the operation. The acoustic features (F1, F2, F0, duration) of vowels were measured and analyzed. At the group level, no significant acoustic changes were found between the 3 different sessions in any parameter measured (all F values vowel quality, ranging from slightly affected to completely unaffected. The 2 lowest vocal-tract resonances changed in frequency for 2 of the subjects, and 1 subject had short-term changes returning to the presurgical level. Significant changes of F0 were observed for 1 subject, and 3 of the subjects had short-term changes. No significant changes were found for duration. One subject had no significant changes in any parameter measured. No long-lasting perceptually significant changes were identified in vowel production in patients undergoing a variety of orthognathic procedures. The facial skeleton (consisting of palate, maxilla, mandible, dentition, nasal cavity, etc) imposes direct limits on the morphology of the resonating vocal tract cavities, and is therefore of immediate relevance to both speech articulation and acoustics.

  10. The impact of rate reduction and increased vocal intensity on coarticulation in dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris

    2003-04-01

    The dysarthrias are a group of speech disorders resulting from impairment to nervous system structures important for the motor execution of speech. Although numerous studies have examined how dysarthria impacts articulatory movements or changes in vocal tract shape, few studies of dysarthria consider that articulatory events and their acoustic consequences overlap or are coarticulated in connected speech. The impact of rate, loudness, and clarity on coarticulatory patterns in dysarthria also are poorly understood, although these prosodic manipulations frequently are employed as therapy strategies to improve intelligibility in dysarthria and also are known to affect coarticulatory patterns for at least some neurologically healthy speakers. The current study examined the effects of slowed rate and increased vocal intensity on anticipatory coarticulation for speakers with dysarthria secondary to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), as inferred from the acoustic signal. Healthy speakers were studied for comparison purposes. Three repetitions of twelve target words embedded in the carrier phrase ``It's a -- again'' were produced in habitual, loud, and slow speaking conditions. F2 frequencies and first moment coefficients were used to infer coarticulation. Both group and individual speaker trends will be examined in the data analyses.

  11. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  12. Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-06-05

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data.

  13. Effects of smoking on the elderly people's vocal cords dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos, Sandrelli Virginio de

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is highly aggressive and the vocal tract is one of the main risk factors for cancer of the larynx. The tobacco may lead to irritation of the vocal tract, edema in the vocal cords, hoarseness, coughing, increased secretion and infections. Objective: To evaluate the dimensions of the vocal cords in elderly smokers and male non-smokers. Method: We studied 15 male corpses, aged from 60 to 90 years, 8 of whom were non-smokers and 7 smokers. For data collection, four sequential steps were followed: 1st Clinical history of the corpse; 2nd Removal of the larynx, 3rd Dissection of the larynx and 4th Morphometry of the vocal cords dimensions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference as for the morphology of the vocal cords dimensions between elderly smokers and nonsmokers, and the length (p = 0.58, width (p = 0.72 and thickness (p = 0.65 were equivalent between both groups. Conclusion: We confirmed it's macroscopically impossible to find differences caused by smoking in the three dimensions of the vocal cords, however, in the histology, smokers are proved to be more susceptible to findings regarding dysplasia and neoplasms in the vocal cords tissue with problems in voice quality.

  14. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  15. Endoscopic laterofixation in bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Zawadzka-Glos; Magdalena, Frackiewicz; Mieczyslaw, Chmielik

    2010-06-01

    Vocal cords paralysis is the second most frequent cause of laryngeal stridor in children. Symptoms of congenital vocal cords paralysis can occur shortly after birth or later. Vocal cords paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral. Symptoms of unilateral paralysis include hoarse weeping or stridor during a deep inhalation. In children unilateral vocal cords paralysis often retreats spontaneously or can be completely compensated. Children with bilateral vocal cords paralysis present mainly breathing disorders while phonation is normal. Symptoms are different, starting from complete occlusion of respiratory tracts and ending on small symptoms connected with the lack of effort tolerance. When symptoms are severe, patients from this group require a tracheotomy. The lack of restoration of normal function of vocal cords or lack of complete compensation and maintenance of symptoms are an indication for surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to present results of the treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children using the endoscopic method of laterofixation of vocal cords. In the Pediatric ENT Department between 1998 and 2009 sixty four children with dyspnoea and/or phonation disorders caused by vocal cords paralysis were treated. In ten cases laterofixation of vocal cords was performed, in most cases with good result. In this article the authors present the method of endoscopic laterofixation and achieved results. Endoscopic laterofixation of vocal cords in children is a safe and an easy method of surgical treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis. This method can be used as a first and often as a one stage treatment of vocal cords paralysis. In some cases this procedure is insufficient and has to be completed with other methods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 嗓音声学检测对喉白斑患者嗓音评估的临床价值%Clinic Value of the Vocal Acoustics on Voice Evaluation in Patients with Larynx Leukoplakia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕倩; 彭鑫; 王晓雨; 王巍; 杜建群; 李丽; 张圣池; 林鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic value of the vocal acoustics on voice evaluation in larynx leukoplakia pa⁃tients. Methods Dr. Speech software was used to perform voice acoustic analysis and deduce EGG parameters in 48 sub⁃jects with larynx leukoplakia and 50 normal subjects. Voice acoustic analysis parameters (Jitter, Shimmer, NNE, HNR, SNR, MPT), EGG parameters ( EGG-Jitter、EGG-Shimmer、EGG-NNE、EGG-HNR、EGG-SNR, CQP,CIP) and EGG wave⁃form were compared between two groups. Results For voice acoustic analysis, Jitter, Shimmer, NNE in larynx leukoplakia group were higher than those in normal group while HNR, SNR in larynx leukoplakia group were lower than those of normal group. What’s more,MPT in larynx leukoplakia group was obviously shorter than that in normal group with, statistically sig⁃nificant difference (P<0.05). For EGG analysis, EGG-Jitter, EGG-Shimmer, EGG-NNE were higher in larynx leukoplakia group than those in normal group with significant difference (P<0.05). EGG-HNR and EGG-SNR in larynx leukoplakia group were lower than those in normal group. Furthermore, CQP and CIP in larynx leukoplakia group were higher than those normal group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Most patients’(72.9%) EGG waveform showed gradually ac⁃celerate phase velocity and fast close phase, which represent a spike-like shape. Conclusion Voice acoustic analysis com⁃bined with EGG provide objective indicators to assess degree of hoarseness, and to provide sonic evidences for prevention, recurrence, assessment and pronunciation correction of the larynx leukoplakia.%目的:探讨嗓音声学检测对喉白斑患者嗓音评估的临床价值。方法采用Dr. Speech软件对48例喉白斑患者(喉白斑组)和50例健康者(正常组)进行嗓音分析和电声门图(EGG)检测,比较2组基频微扰(Jitter)、振幅微扰(Shimmer)、噪声能量(NNE)、谐噪比(HNR)、信噪比(SNR

  17. Superfast vocal muscles control song production in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen P H Elemans

    Full Text Available Birdsong is a widely used model for vocal learning and human speech, which exhibits high temporal and acoustic diversity. Rapid acoustic modulations are thought to arise from the vocal organ, the syrinx, by passive interactions between the two independent sound generators or intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of sound generating structures. Additionally, direct neuromuscular control could produce such rapid and precisely timed acoustic features if syringeal muscles exhibit rare superfast muscle contractile kinetics. However, no direct evidence exists that avian vocal muscles can produce modulations at such high rates. Here, we show that 1 syringeal muscles are active in phase with sound modulations during song over 200 Hz, 2 direct stimulation of the muscles in situ produces sound modulations at the frequency observed during singing, and that 3 syringeal muscles produce mechanical work at the required frequencies and up to 250 Hz in vitro. The twitch kinematics of these so-called superfast muscles are the fastest measured in any vertebrate muscle. Superfast vocal muscles enable birds to directly control the generation of many observed rapid acoustic changes and to actuate the millisecond precision of neural activity into precise temporal vocal control. Furthermore, birds now join the list of vertebrate classes in which superfast muscle kinetics evolved independently for acoustic communication.

  18. COMPUTER CONTROL OF AN ANALOG VOCAL TRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    electrically controlled by a nasal coupling signal, and represent the action of the velum . The remaining sections are fixed as they do not vary significantly during the production of speech sounds. (Author)

  19. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dom...

  20. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  1. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  3. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  4. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars).

  5. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  6. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  7. Motor planning for vocal production in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Eliades, Steven J; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2009-11-01

    The vocal motor plan is one of the most fundamental and poorly understood elements of primate vocal production. Here we tested whether a single vocal motor plan comprises the full length of a vocalization. We hypothesized that if a single motor plan was determined at vocal onset, the acoustic features early in the call should be predictive of the subsequent call structure. Analyses were performed on two classes of features in marmoset phee calls: continuous and discrete. We first generated correlation matrices of all the continuous features of phee calls. Results showed that the start frequency of a phee's first pulse significantly correlated with all subsequent spectral features. Moreover, significant correlations were evident within the spectral features as well as within the temporal features, but there was little relationship between these measures. Using a discrete feature, 'the number of pulses in the phee call', a discriminant function was able to correctly classify the number of pulses in the calls well above chance based solely on the acoustic structure of the call's first pulse. Together, these data suggest that a vocal motor plan for the complete call structure is established at call onset. These findings provide a key insight into the mechanisms underlying vocal production in nonhuman primates.

  8. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gabriel E; Peterson, Sean D; Erath, Byron D; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E; Zañartu, Matías

    2017-09-18

    Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal voice is altered by introducing various prephonatory configurations. Potential compensatory mechanisms (increased subglottal pressure, muscle activation, and supraglottal constriction) are adjusted to restore an acoustic target output through a control loop that mimics a simplified version of auditory feedback. The degree of incomplete glottal closure in both the membranous and posterior portions of the folds consistently leads to a reduction in sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, harmonic richness, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The compensatory mechanisms lead to significantly increased vocal-fold collision forces, maximum flow-declination rate, and amplitude of unsteady flow, without significantly altering the acoustic output. Modeling provided potentially important insights into the pathophysiology of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction by demonstrating that compensatory mechanisms can counteract deterioration in the voice acoustic signal due to incomplete glottal closure, but this also leads to high vocal-fold collision forces (reflected in aerodynamic measures), which significantly increases the risk of developing phonotrauma.

  9. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  10. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  11. Acoustic interaction between the right and left piriform fossae in generating spectral dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Hironori; Adachi, Seiji; Mokhtari, Parham; Kitamura, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    It is known that the right and left piriform fossae generate two deep dips on speech spectra and that acoustic interaction exists in generating the dips: if only one piriform fossa is modified, both the dips change in frequency and amplitude. In the present study, using a simple geometrical model and measured vocal tract shapes, the acoustic interaction was examined by the finite-difference time-domain method. As a result, one of the two dips was lower in frequency than the two independent dips that appeared when either of the piriform fossae was occluded, and the other dip was higher in frequency than the two dips. At the lower dip frequency, the piriform fossae resonated almost in opposite phase, while at the higher dip frequency, they resonated almost in phase. These facts indicate that the piriform fossae and the lower part of the pharynx can be modeled as a coupled two-oscillator system whose two normal vibration modes generate the two spectral dips. When the piriform fossae were identical, only the higher dip appeared. This is because the lower mode is not acoustically coupled to the main vocal tract enough to generate an absorption dip.

  12. Acoustic vocal measures in women without voice complaints and with normal larynxes Medidas vocais acústicas de mulheres sem queixas de voz e com laringe normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Susana Finger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to establish normal voice standards in order to help guide voice professionals. AIM: to describe acoustic voice measures of adult young women with normal larynxes and without voice complaints. METHOD: 56 women underwent ENT evaluation and speech screening. The "A" vowel utterance was digitally recorded and analyzed by means of the Praat (Version 4.6.10 software. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and by the Shapiro-Wilk test with a 5% significance level. The study was cross-section and exploratory. RESULTS: normal distribution measures were: fundamental frequency; Jitter (local; Jitter (local, absolute; Jitter (ppq5; Jitter (ddp. The Jitter (rap, all the Shimmer, the noise/harmonic ratio (NHR and the harmonic/noise ratio (HNR values did not follow a normal distribution. CONCLUSION: It seems that the measures which followed the normal distribution can be used as base-normal values for the interpretation of acoustic voice analysis of those women with and without laryngeal disorders. All the values with and without normal distribution showed results similar to the ones present in the national and international literature.O estabelecimento de padrões de base da normalidade é importante para guiar os profissionais na área da voz. OBJETIVO: Descrever as medidas acústicas de vozes de mulheres adultas jovens, com laringe normal e sem queixas de voz. MÉTODO: 56 mulheres realizaram avaliação otorrinolaringológica e triagem fonoaudiológica. A emissão da vogal /a/ foi gravada digitalmente e analisada por meio do software Praat (versão 4.6.10. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, e pelo teste Shapiro-Wilk, em nível de significância de 5%. O estudo foi transversal e exploratório. RESULTADOS: Medidas com distribuição normal foram: Frequência fundamental; Jitter (local; Jitter (local, absoluto; Jitter (ppq5; Jitter (ddp. As medidas de Jitter (rap; todas as de Shimmer; a Propor

  13. Acoustic and auditory phonetics: the adaptive design of speech sound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Randy L

    2008-03-12

    Speech perception is remarkably robust. This paper examines how acoustic and auditory properties of vowels and consonants help to ensure intelligibility. First, the source-filter theory of speech production is briefly described, and the relationship between vocal-tract properties and formant patterns is demonstrated for some commonly occurring vowels. Next, two accounts of the structure of preferred sound inventories, quantal theory and dispersion theory, are described and some of their limitations are noted. Finally, it is suggested that certain aspects of quantal and dispersion theories can be unified in a principled way so as to achieve reasonable predictive accuracy.

  14. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F; Ginocchio, D; Maruzzi, P; Atac, M; Ottaviani, F

    2012-10-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. The aim of this study was to analyze voice changes in a group of dysphonic patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions, evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and after voice therapy. Sixteen consecutive patients, 12 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 49.7 years were enrolled. Each subject had 10 voice therapy sessions with an experienced speech/language pathologist for a period of 1-2 months, and was evaluated before and at the end of voice therapy with a multidimensional protocol that included self-assessment measures and videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic and acoustic ratings. Videostroboscopic examination did not reveal resolution of the initial pathology in any case. No improvement was observed in aerodynamic and perceptual ratings. A clear and significant improvement was visible on Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the mean values of Jitt%, Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Even if it is possible that, for benign vocal fold lesions, only a minor improvement of voice quality can be achieved after voice therapy, rehabilitation treatment still seems useful as demonstrated by improvement in self-assessment measures. If voice therapy is provided as an initial treatment to the patients with benign vocal fold lesions, this may lead to an improvement in the perceived voice quality, making surgical intervention unnecessary. This is one of the first reports on the efficacy of voice therapy in the management of benign vocal fold

  15. 有效高斯分量通用背景模型下耳语音声道系统转换研究%Research of whispered speech vocal tract system conversion based on universal background model and effective Gaussian components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪勤; 赵鹤鸣

    2013-01-01

    Directing to the weakness of the present fixed values mapping methods (method_F), a vocal tract system conversion method based on the universal background model (UBM) is proposed for improving the performance of the speech conversion system from Chinese whispered speech to normal speech. For the numerous components of UBM, the errors produced by the acoustical probability density statistical model can't be ignored. Thus an effective Gaussian mixture components chosen method based on the posterior probability summation of the minimum spectral distortion is developed to optimizing the system performance. The proposed method (method_U) is analyzed and compared using the performance index (PI) based on Itakura-Saito spectral distortion measure. It is shown experimentally that the performance of method_U is more stability for different speakers and different phonemes than that of methodJF. The average PI of method.U is better than method_F. It is shown that by selecting effective Gaussian mixture components, the PI of method_U can be further improved 5.11%. Subjective auditory tests also show that the proposed method can improve the definition and intelligibility of conversion speech.%为了改善耳语音转换中声道系统的转换性能,针对定值转换方法在非特定入耳语音转换系统中效果不理想的情况,提出使用通用背景模型建立独立于说话人的声道系统转换模型.进一步针对在通用背景模型中由于较大分量数产生的声学概率密度统计模型的误差问题,提出基于最小谱失真度的后验概率和有效高斯分量选择方法优化特征矢量的转换性能.定义了板仓-斋田谱失真测度的性能指标对该模型进行分析比较,实验表明,基于通用背景模型的转换特征矢量平均谱失真度性能指标优于定值偏移方法,且稳定性明显好于定值偏移方法.通用背景模型基础上有效高斯分量选择方法可进一步将性能指标提高5.11%,主观

  16. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  17. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires--Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches: e0125785

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Wadewitz; Kurt Hammerschmidt; Demian Battaglia; Annette Witt; Fred Wolf; Julia Fischer

    2015-01-01

      To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide...

  18. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  19. The Value of Vocal Extent Measure (VEM) Assessing Phonomicrosurgical Outcomes in Vocal Fold Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Tatjana; Ermakova, Tatiana; Möller, Andreas; Seipelt, Matthias; Weikert, Sebastian; Rummich, Julius; Gross, Manfred; Nawka, Tadeus; Caffier, Philipp P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to present vocal extent measure (VEM), demonstrate its changes with phonomicrosurgical treatment in patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs), and to compare its performance to that of established vocal parameters. This is an individual cohort study. Microlaryngoscopic ablation was executed in 61 patients with manifestation of VFP (28 male, 33 female; 45 ± 13 years [mean ± SD]). Analysis of treatment outcome was based on pre- and postoperative voice function diagnostics and videolaryngostroboscopy. Examination instruments were: auditory-perceptual voice assessment (roughness, breathiness, and overall hoarseness [RBH]-status), voice range profile (VRP), acoustic-aerodynamic analysis, and patients' self-assessment of voice using the voice handicap index. The VEM, a parameter not yet commonly established in phoniatric diagnostics, was calculated from area and shape of the VRP to be compared with the dysphonia severity index (DSI) concerning diagnostic suitability. All polyps were completely excised. Three months postoperatively, mucosal wave propagation had recovered. All subjective and most objective acoustic and aerodynamic parameters showed highly significant improvement. The VHI-9i-score decreased from 15 ± 8 to 6 ± 7 points. The average total vocal range extended by 4 ± 5 semitones, the mean speaking pitch decreased by 1 ± 2 semitones. The DSI increased on average from 2.6 ± 2.1 to 4.0 ± 2.2, VEM from 83 ± 28 to 107 ± 21 (P VRP evaluation. This positive measure of vocal function seems to be a compelling diagnostic addition for objective quantification of vocal performance. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multidimensional Analysis on the Effect of Vocal Function Exercises on Aged Vocal Fold Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mami; Hirano, Shigeru; Tateya, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ito, Juichi

    2015-09-01

    Age-related voice change is characterized as weak, harsh, and breathy. These changes are caused by histologic alteration of the lamina propria of the vocal fold mucosa as well as atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle. Several therapeutic strategies involving laryngeal framework surgery and injection laryngoplasty have been tried, but effects have been limited. Vocal function exercises (VFE) have been used to treat age-related vocal fold atrophy although the effectiveness has been shown with limited analysis. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of VFE for the treatment of aged atrophy using multidimensional analysis. This is a retrospective study. Sixteen patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-81 years underwent voice therapy using VFE. Six patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-85 years were involved as a historical control group. The grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS) scale, stroboscopic examinations, aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) were performed before and after VFE. Normalized mucosal wave amplitude (NMWA), normalized glottal gap (NGG), and bowing index (BI) were measured by image analysis during stroboscopic examinations. After VFE, significant improvements were shown in GRBAS, maximum phonation time, jitter, NMWA, NGG, and VHI-10 although BI has not changed significantly. There were no significant improvements in the historical control. The data suggest that VFE produces significant improvement in subjective, objective, and patient self-evaluation and deserves further attention as a treatment for aged atrophy of the vocal fold. It was also suggested that VFE does not improve the vocal fold bowing but may improve muscular function during voicing. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations by intra-laryngeal planar impinging jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, Elena; Agarwal, Anurag; Perkel, David

    2016-01-01

    and experimental evidence for an alternative and novel vocal production mechanism: a glottal jet impinging onto the laryngeal inner planar wall. Our data provide a framework for future research on the neuromuscular control of mouse vocal production and for interpreting mouse vocal behavior phenotypes.......Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are a vital tool for linking gene mutations to behavior in mouse models of communication disorders, such as autism [1]. However, we currently lack an understanding of how physiological and physical mechanisms combine to generate acoustic features...

  2. Vocal acrobatics in a Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Albert; Narins, Peter; Xu, Chun-He

    2002-06-01

    Although amphibians are highly vocal, they generally emit only a limited number of acoustic communication signals. We report here the extraordinarily rich vocal repertoire of Amolops tormotus, a ranid species in China. These frogs produce countless vocalizations, some of which share features of birdsong or primate calls, e.g., ultrasonic frequency components, multiple upward and downward FM sweeps, and sudden onset and offset of selective harmonic components within a call note. Frame-by-frame video analysis of the frog's calling behavior suggests the presence of two pairs of vocal sacs that may contribute to the remarkable call-note complexity in this species. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0335-x.

  3. A HMM-Based Method for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observations methods. There are different approaches for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. This paper presents a method based on hidden markov model which classifies speeches into two classes: the normal and the pathological. Two hidden markov models are trained based on these two classes of speech and then the trained models are used to classify the dataset. The proposed method is able to classify the speeches with an accuracy of 93.75%. The results of this algorithm provide insights that can help biologists and computer scientists design high-performance system for detection of vocal fold pathology diagnosis.

  4. The vocal repertoire of adult and neonate giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A S Mumm

    Full Text Available Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1 a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species' complex social organisation, 2 that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3 that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species.

  5. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  6. Perceptual cues in nonverbal vocal expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Calder, Andrew J; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-11-01

    Work on facial expressions of emotions (Calder, Burton, Miller, Young, & Akamatsu, [2001]) and emotionally inflected speech (Banse & Scherer, [1996]) has successfully delineated some of the physical properties that underlie emotion recognition. To identify the acoustic cues used in the perception of nonverbal emotional expressions like laugher and screams, an investigation was conducted into vocal expressions of emotion, using nonverbal vocal analogues of the "basic" emotions (anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and surprise; Ekman & Friesen, [1971]; Scott et al., [1997]), and of positive affective states (Ekman, [1992], [2003]; Sauter & Scott, [2007]). First, the emotional stimuli were categorized and rated to establish that listeners could identify and rate the sounds reliably and to provide confusion matrices. A principal components analysis of the rating data yielded two underlying dimensions, correlating with the perceived valence and arousal of the sounds. Second, acoustic properties of the amplitude, pitch, and spectral profile of the stimuli were measured. A discriminant analysis procedure established that these acoustic measures provided sufficient discrimination between expressions of emotional categories to permit accurate statistical classification. Multiple linear regressions with participants' subjective ratings of the acoustic stimuli showed that all classes of emotional ratings could be predicted by some combination of acoustic measures and that most emotion ratings were predicted by different constellations of acoustic features. The results demonstrate that, similarly to affective signals in facial expressions and emotionally inflected speech, the perceived emotional character of affective vocalizations can be predicted on the basis of their physical features.

  7. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the results of a preliminary study about the determination of the optimal acoustical conditions for speakers in small classrooms. An experiment was carried out in a laboratory facility with 22 untrained talkers, who read a text passage from “Goldilocks” during two minutes under 13...... different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head......-worn microphone, convolved in real time with the impulse response of the chosen classroom, and reproduced through 29 loudspeakers placed around the subject. In particular, two different primary school classrooms were selected, with very low and very high reverberation time and, for each of them, two speaker...

  8. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  9. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    were inspired by research directed at discriminating the timbre of different musical instruments – a passive classification problem – which suggests...the method should be able to classify marine mammal vocalizations since these calls possess many of the acoustic attributes of music . APPROACH

  10. The acoustic features of human laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Owren, Michael J.

    2002-05-01

    Remarkably little is known about the acoustic features of laughter, despite laughter's ubiquitous role in human vocal communication. Outcomes are described for 1024 naturally produced laugh bouts recorded from 97 young adults. Acoustic analysis focused on temporal characteristics, production modes, source- and filter-related effects, and indexical cues to laugher sex and individual identity. The results indicate that laughter is a remarkably complex vocal signal, with evident diversity in both production modes and fundamental frequency characteristics. Also of interest was finding a consistent lack of articulation effects in supralaryngeal filtering. Outcomes are compared to previously advanced hypotheses and conjectures about this species-typical vocal signal.

  11. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa......” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline...... (no-stimulation). The phonetic parameters extracted were pitch (mean F0), phonatory fluctuations (range F0) and loudness (acoustic energy level). Results: Only for the vowels “u” and “schwa,” which might be considered best approximations to moaning and groaning, did pitch and loudness increase during...

  12. Control of Spoken Vowel Acoustics and the Influence of Phonetic Context in Human Speech Sensorimotor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Kristofer E.

    2014-01-01

    Speech production requires the precise control of vocal tract movements to generate individual speech sounds (phonemes) which, in turn, are rapidly organized into complex sequences. Multiple productions of the same phoneme can exhibit substantial variability, some of which is inherent to control of the vocal tract and its biomechanics, and some of which reflects the contextual effects of surrounding phonemes (“coarticulation”). The role of the CNS in these aspects of speech motor control is not well understood. To address these issues, we recorded multielectrode cortical activity directly from human ventral sensory-motor cortex (vSMC) during the production of consonant-vowel syllables. We analyzed the relationship between the acoustic parameters of vowels (pitch and formants) and cortical activity on a single-trial level. We found that vSMC activity robustly predicted acoustic parameters across vowel categories (up to 80% of variance), as well as different renditions of the same vowel (up to 25% of variance). Furthermore, we observed significant contextual effects on vSMC representations of produced phonemes that suggest active control of coarticulation: vSMC representations for vowels were biased toward the representations of the preceding consonant, and conversely, representations for consonants were biased toward upcoming vowels. These results reveal that vSMC activity for phonemes are not invariant and provide insight into the cortical mechanisms of coarticulation. PMID:25232105

  13. Control of spoken vowel acoustics and the influence of phonetic context in human speech sensorimotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Kristofer E; Chang, Edward F

    2014-09-17

    Speech production requires the precise control of vocal tract movements to generate individual speech sounds (phonemes) which, in turn, are rapidly organized into complex sequences. Multiple productions of the same phoneme can exhibit substantial variability, some of which is inherent to control of the vocal tract and its biomechanics, and some of which reflects the contextual effects of surrounding phonemes ("coarticulation"). The role of the CNS in these aspects of speech motor control is not well understood. To address these issues, we recorded multielectrode cortical activity directly from human ventral sensory-motor cortex (vSMC) during the production of consonant-vowel syllables. We analyzed the relationship between the acoustic parameters of vowels (pitch and formants) and cortical activity on a single-trial level. We found that vSMC activity robustly predicted acoustic parameters across vowel categories (up to 80% of variance), as well as different renditions of the same vowel (up to 25% of variance). Furthermore, we observed significant contextual effects on vSMC representations of produced phonemes that suggest active control of coarticulation: vSMC representations for vowels were biased toward the representations of the preceding consonant, and conversely, representations for consonants were biased toward upcoming vowels. These results reveal that vSMC activity for phonemes are not invariant and provide insight into the cortical mechanisms of coarticulation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412662-16$15.00/0.

  14. Source-tract coupling in birdsong production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2009-06-01

    Birdsong is a complex phenomenon, generated by a nonlinear vocal device capable of displaying complex solutions even under simple physiological motor commands. Among the peripheral physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of complex sounds in songbirds, the understanding of the dynamics emerging from the interaction between the sound source and the upper vocal tract remains most elusive. In this work we study a highly dissipative limit of a simple sound source model interacting with a tract, mathematically described in terms of a delay differential equation. We explore the system numerically and, by means of reducing the problem to a phase equation, we are capable of studying its periodic solutions. Close in parameter space to the point where the resonances of the tract match the frequencies of the uncoupled source solutions, we find coexistence of periodic limit cycles. This hysteresis phenomenon allows us to interpret recently reported features found in the vocalization of some songbirds, in particular, “frequency jumps.”

  15. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  16. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  17. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  18. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemuk, Sarah A; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J; Titze, Ingo R

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  19. A case study of vocal features associated with galvanic skin response to stressors in a clinical interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsenova, Marie; Holt, Erik; Heyn, Lena; Groeneveld, Kim; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated vocal characteristics associated with physiologically determined stressful episodes by means of post-hoc acoustic analyses of speech recorded in a clinical setting. Our research addressed the understudied question of which vocal features may serve as cues naturally

  20. Encoding of situations in the vocal repertoire of piglets (Sus scrofa): a comparison of discrete and graded classifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    .... The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well...

  1. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  2. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  3. Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Latinus, Marianne; Bruckert, Laetitia; Rouger, Julien; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Social interactions involve more than "just" language. As important is a more primitive nonlinguistic mode of communication acting in parallel with linguistic processes and driving our decisions to a much higher degree than is generally suspected. Amongst the "honest signals" that influence our behavior is perceived vocal attractiveness. Not only does vocal attractiveness reflect important biological characteristics of the speaker, it also influences our social perceptions according to the "what sounds beautiful is good" phenomenon. Despite the widespread influence of vocal attractiveness on social interactions revealed by behavioral studies, its neural underpinnings are yet unknown. We measured brain activity while participants listened to a series of vocal sounds ("ah") and performed an unrelated task. We found that voice-sensitive auditory and inferior frontal regions were strongly correlated with implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness. While the involvement of auditory areas reflected the processing of acoustic contributors to vocal attractiveness ("distance to mean" and spectrotemporal regularity), activity in inferior prefrontal regions (traditionally involved in speech processes) reflected the overall perceived attractiveness of the voices despite their lack of linguistic content. These results suggest the strong influence of hidden nonlinguistic aspects of communication signals on cerebral activity and provide an objective measure of this influence.

  4. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  5. Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pereira, Danillo R.; Papa, João P.; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available. PMID:27654941

  6. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...

  7. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  8. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers.

  9. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  10. Prediction of acoustic feature parameters using myoelectric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2010-07-01

    It is well-known that a clear relationship exists between human voices and myoelectric signals (MESs) from the area of the speaker's mouth. In this study, we utilized this information to implement a speech synthesis scheme in which MES alone was used to predict the parameters characterizing the vocal-tract transfer function of specific speech signals. Several feature parameters derived from MES were investigated to find the optimal feature for maximization of the mutual information between the acoustic and the MES features. After the optimal feature was determined, an estimation rule for the acoustic parameters was proposed, based on a minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. In a preliminary study, 60 isolated words were used for both objective and subjective evaluations. The results showed that the average Euclidean distance between the original and predicted acoustic parameters was reduced by about 30% compared with the average Euclidean distance of the original parameters. The intelligibility of the synthesized speech signals using the predicted features was also evaluated. A word-level identification ratio of 65.5% and a syllable-level identification ratio of 73% were obtained through a listening test.

  11. Location and acoustic scale cues in concurrent speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, D Timothy; Vestergaard, Martin D; Kistler, Doris J; Patterson, Roy D

    2010-06-01

    Location and acoustic scale cues have both been shown to have an effect on the recognition of speech in multi-speaker environments. This study examines the interaction of these variables. Subjects were presented with concurrent triplets of syllables from a target voice and a distracting voice, and asked to recognize a specific target syllable. The task was made more or less difficult by changing (a) the location of the distracting speaker, (b) the scale difference between the two speakers, and/or (c) the relative level of the two speakers. Scale differences were produced by changing the vocal tract length and glottal pulse rate during syllable synthesis: 32 acoustic scale differences were used. Location cues were produced by convolving head-related transfer functions with the stimulus. The angle between the target speaker and the distracter was 0 degrees, 4 degrees, 8 degrees, 16 degrees, or 32 degrees on the 0 degrees horizontal plane. The relative level of the target to the distracter was 0 or -6 dB. The results show that location and scale difference interact, and the interaction is greatest when one of these cues is small. Increasing either the acoustic scale or the angle between target and distracter speakers quickly elevates performance to ceiling levels.

  12. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  13. Plasticity in the vocalizations of anurans in response to traffic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Glenn M.; Fahrig, Lenore

    2010-09-01

    Many species use acoustic signals to attract mates, and such signals can be degraded by anthropogenic noise. Anuran abundance has been shown to be negatively correlated with road traffic which could be due in part to the interruption of mate attraction by traffic noise. However, this impact could be small if anurans can alter their vocalization characteristics to avoid masking of their calls by traffic noise. We predicted that: (i) anuran vocalization characteristics (dominant frequency, mean amplitude and call rate) should be different in areas with different traffic noise levels; (ii) increases in traffic noise can cause immediate changes in amphibian vocalization characteristics; (iii) these altered vocalizations are similar to those at high traffic sites. To test the first prediction we compared vocalizations of four species of anuran at breeding sites in locations with low traffic noise vs. sites with high traffic noise. For the second prediction we broadcast traffic noise at low traffic (quiet) sites, and compared the anuran vocalizations before vs. during the broadcast traffic noise. For the third prediction we compared vocalizations at high traffic sites to those produced at low traffic sites while broadcasting traffic noise. Three species of anurans found at locations with low traffic noise produced vocalizations with different characteristics than individuals of the same species found in locations with high traffic noise. Broadcast traffic noise immediately altered amphibian vocalization characteristics such that they became similar to those of the same species found in locations with high traffic noise. We conclude that plasticity in the vocalizations of anurans allows for the maintenance of acoustic communication in the presence of traffic noise.

  14. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Conor W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables). PMID:28144622

  15. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music.

  16. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, MacKenzie; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kelly, Conor W; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables).

  17. In Search of Autocorrelation Based Vocal Cord Cues for Speaker Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Sahidullah, Md

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a technique to find out vocal source based features from the LP residual of speech signal for automatic speaker identification. Autocorrelation with some specific lag is computed for the residual signal to derive these features. Compared to traditional features like MFCC, PLPCC which represent vocal tract information, these features represent complementary vocal cord information. Our experiment in fusing these two sources of information in representing speaker characteristics yield better speaker identification accuracy. We have used Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based speaker modeling and results are shown on two public databases to validate our proposition.

  18. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  19. Quantifying the Effects of Propagation on Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Acoustic Measurements, Kos, Greece, (2011). [8] Stefan Murphy and Paul C. Hines, “Examining the robustness of automated aural classification of active ... Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Paul C. Hines Dalhousie University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 5269 Morris St. Morray...a classification system capable of operating in many environments one must understand the role of propagation on the classifier. A prototype aural

  20. The temporary effect of short-term endotracheal intubation on vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskiene, Iveta; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Petrulionis, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess and perceive the vocal and pharyngeal symptoms and acoustic changes of voice after short-term endotracheal intubation and to evaluate the relation between these changes and the endotracheal tube parameters, number of intubation attempts, duration of anaesthesia, experience of anaesthesiologist. A total of 108 patients were evaluated preoperatively, 1-2 and 24 h after extubation. The vocal and pharyngeal symptoms, voice acoustic characteristics and maximum phonation time (MPT) were evaluated to find the relationship with endotracheal tube parameters, number of intubation attempts, duration of anaesthesia, experience of anaesthesiologist. All vocal and pharyngeal symptoms increased significantly at 24 h and remained significantly increased at 24 h after general anaesthesia. The vocal acoustic parameters changed significantly at 1-2 h: decrease of MPT and increase relative average perturbation were recorded. The day after the short-term intubation: only noise to harmony ratio and habitual pitch remains significantly changed. The most important endotracheal tube parameters that affect significantly (P value intubation attempts. In relation to the anaesthesia, the changes of the acoustic parameters did not associate significantly with the anaesthesia-related parameters. No statistically significant relationship between experience of an anaesthesiologist and changes of the voice after anaesthesia was detected. Though being short-term, endotracheal anaesthesia is an invasive procedure, and its temporary influence on vocal function is important.

  1. Effects of a Straw Phonation Protocol on Acoustic Measures of an SATB Chorus Singing Two Contrasting Renaissance Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manternach, Jeremy N; Clark, Chad; Daugherty, James F

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have found that semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises may increase vocal economy by reducing phonation threshold pressure and effort while increasing or maintaining consistent acoustic output. This research has focused solely on individual singers. Much singing instruction, however, takes place in choral settings. Choral singers may use different resonance strategies or unconsciously adjust their singing based on the ability to hear their own sound in relation to others. Results of studies with individual singers, then, may not be directly applicable to choral settings. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effect of an SOVT protocol (ie, straw phonation) on acoustic changes of conglomerate, choral sound. This is a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest design. Participants in this study constituted an intact SATB choir (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass) (N = 15 singers) who performed from memory two unaccompanied pieces of varied tempos from memory, participated in a 4-minute straw phonation protocol with a small stirring straw, and then sang each piece a second time. The long-term average spectrum results indicated small, statistically significant increases in spectral energy for both pieces in the 0-10 kHz (.32 and .20 dB Sound Pressure Level) and 2-4 kHz regions (.46 and .25 dB SPL). These results, although not likely audible to average hearing humans, seem consistent with the assertion that singers enjoy vocal benefits with consistent or increased vocal output. SOVT exercises, therefore, may be useful as a time-efficient way to evoke more efficient and economical singing during choral warm-up and voice building procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  3. Classification of Captive North American River Otters (Lontra canadensis Vocal Repertoires: Individual Variations, and Age Class Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Almonte

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to examine in detail the vocal behaviors of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis, and the results suggest that river otters have complex vocal repertoires comprised of four distinct vocal types and seven sub-call types. The vocalizations and behaviors of ten captive North American river otter adults, one litter of newborn pups and one litter of pups at eight weeks old were recorded using a SONY Handheld DV camera and an infrared surveillance system. A quantitative analysis of 2726 calls on the adults and 299 calls for the pups was conducted for acoustic parameters that included frequencies, powers, and duration. Whine, chirp and chatter call types were the main vocal elements of the vocal repertoire and were present at birth. Pups vocals were structurally underdeveloped versions of the adult vocals and adults call types showed individual variations. This suggests that vocalizations are likely individually modified as pups enter adulthood. A unique whistle was present in newborn pup vocal repertoires but appeared to be reduced in the repertoire by eight weeks old. However, further research needs to be conducted to determine the function of the whistle.

  4. Vocal Features of Song and Speech: Insights from Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Merrill

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of speech or song support top-down processes, which influence listeners' perception of acoustic information. In order to examine vocal features associated with speaking and singing, we propose an innovative approach designed to facilitate bottom-up mechanisms in perceiving vocalizations by using material situated between speech and song: Speechsong. 25 participants were asked to evaluate 20 performances of a speechsong composition by Arnold Schoenberg, “Pierrot lunaire” op. 21 from 1912, evaluating 20 features of vocal-articulatory expression. Raters provided reliable judgments concerning the vocal features used by the performers and did not show strong appeal or specific expectations in reference to Schoenberg's piece. By examining the relationship between the vocal features and the impression of song or speech, the results confirm the importance of pitch (height, contour, range, but also point to the relevance of register, timbre, tension and faucal distance. Besides highlighting vocal features associated with speech and song, this study supports the relevance of the present approach of focusing on a theoretical middle category in order to better understand vocal expression in song and speech.

  5. Inhibition does not affect the timing code for vocalizations in the mouse auditory midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G Dimitrov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many animals use a diverse repertoire of complex acoustic signals to convey different types of information to other animals. The information in each vocalization therefore must be coded by neurons in the auditory system. One way in which the auditory system may discriminate among different vocalizations is by having highly selective neurons, where only one or two different vocalizations evoke a strong response from a single neuron. Another strategy is to have specific spike timing patterns for particular vocalizations such that each neural response can be matched to a specific vocalization. Both of these strategies may occur in the auditory midbrain of mice. However, the neural mechanisms underlying rate and time coding are unclear, but it is likely that inhibition plays a role. Here, we examined whether inhibition is involved in creating neural selectivity to vocalizations via rate and/or time coding in the mouse inferior colliculus. We examined extracellular single unit responses to vocalizations before and after iontophoretically blocking GABA_A and glycine receptors in the IC of awake mice. In general, we found that pharmacologically blocking inhibitory receptors in the IC increased response rate to vocalizations but did not dramatically affect spike timing. We observed two main effects when inhibition was locally blocked: 1 Highly selective neurons maintained their selectivity and the information about the stimuli did not change, but response rate increased slightly. 2 Neurons that responded to vocalizations in the control condition, also responded to the same stimuli in the test condition, with similar timing and pattern, but with a greater number of spikes, and, in some cases, greater reliability. Interestingly, in some neurons, blocking inhibition had no effect on vocalization-evoked responses. Overall, we found that inhibition in the IC does not play a substantial role in creating the reliable neuronal temporal patterns in response to

  6. Model for vocalization by a bird with distensible vocal cavity and open beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H; Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2006-02-01

    Some birds make use of a distensible oral cavity to produce nearly pure-tone song. Songbirds such as the Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) have a muscularly distended oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity between the top of the trachea and the open beak. The present paper analyzes the acoustics of this vocal system. It is shown that the resonance of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity, vented through the beak, introduces a dominant peak in the radiation efficiency, the frequency of which can be adjusted by varying the volume of the cavity, the beak gape, and perhaps the position of the tongue in the mouth. To produce nearly pure-tone song, the bird adjusts the frequency of this peak to coincide with the fundamental of the syringeal oscillation. The present paper provides the acoustical analysis underlying this behavior.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  8. Neuronal Control of Mammalian Vocalization, with Special Reference to the Squirrel Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Uwe

    Squirrel monkey vocalization can be considered as a suitable model for the study in humans of the neurobiological basis of nonverbal emotional vocal utterances, such as laughing, crying, and groaning. Evaluation of electrical and chemical brain stimulation data, lesioning studies, single-neurone recordings, and neuroanatomical tracing work leads to the following conclusions: The periaqueductal gray and laterally bordering tegmentum of the midbrain represent a crucial area for the production of vocalization. This area collects the various vocalization-triggering stimuli, such as auditory, visual, and somatosensory input from diverse sensory-processing structures, motivation-controlling input from some limbic structures, and volitional impulses from the anterior cingulate cortex. Destruction of this area causes mutism. It is still under dispute whether the periaqueductal region harbors the vocal pattern generator or merely couples vocalization-triggering information to motor-coordinating structures further downward in the brainstem. The periaqueductal region is connected with the phonatory motoneuron pools indirectly via one or several interneurons. The nucleus retroambiguus represents a crucial relay station for the laryngeal and expiratory component of vocalization. The articulatory component reaches the orofacial motoneuron pools via the parvocellular reticular formation. Essential proprioceptive feedback from the larynx and lungs enter the vocal-controlling network via the solitary tract nucleus.

  9. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.

    1996-09-23

    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  10. The control of aerodynamics, acoustics, and perceptual characteristics during speech production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2004-10-01

    One of the most important areas of study in speech motor control is the identification of control variables, the variables controlled by the nervous system during motor tasks. The current study examined two hypotheses regarding control variables in speech production: (1) pressure and resistance in the vocal tract are controlled, and (2) perceptual and acoustic accuracy are controlled. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were collected on 20 subjects in three conditions, normally (NT), with an open air pressure bleed tube in place (TWB), and with a closed bleed tube in place (TNB). The voice recordings collected from the speakers in the production study were used in the perceptual study. Results showed that oral pressure (Po) was significantly lower in the TWB condition than in the NT and TNB conditions. The Po in the TWB condition seemed to be related to maintenance of subglottal pressure (Ps). Examination of the perceptual and acoustic data indicated that perceptual accuracy for [opena] was achieved by maintaining Ps to preserve a steady sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and voicing. Overall, it appeared speakers controlled pressure in compensating, but for the ultimate goal of maintaining acoustic and perceptual accuracy. .

  11. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  12. Vocal Assessment Before, After, and the Day After Opera Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica; Evans, Joseph; Powitzky, Eric

    2016-03-01

    To explore aerodynamic, acoustic, and laryngeal changes surrounding opera performance. Prospective preperformance, postperformance, and day after performance. The laryngeal and vocal function of five male and five female classically trained singers was assessed immediately before, immediately after, and 1 day after an actual operatic performance. Phonatory threshold pressure was obtained. In addition, during a full-voice singing task, aerodynamic and acoustic measures included estimated subglottal pressure, airflow during voicing, laryngeal resistance, and sound pressure level (SPL). Expert listeners in the audience judged performers' voice quality at the beginning and the end of the performance. Laryngeal visualization was performed immediately before performance and the day after performance. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed allergy symptoms with no change in vocal fold edges for all men. Women were less impacted by allergies. For all singers, perceptual judgments of expert listeners in the audience corresponded well with laryngeal findings. The men whose voices were perceived to be balanced and strong across the performance demonstrated increased airflow and reduced laryngeal resistance after performance. The two women who did not sing in church the morning after the performance demonstrated increased airflow and reduced laryngeal resistance. The two men who did sing in church the morning after the performance demonstrated noticeably reduced SPL and increased laryngeal resistance the day after performance. It appears most useful to describe the complexity of vocal performance with a variety of acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual measures. The findings further suggest that vocal rest the day after performance may facilitate recovery. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  14. Vocal effectiveness of speech-language pathology students: Before and after voice use during service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Couch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist’s(SLP vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours,poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors.Objectives: To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice.Method: A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research design was used. Participants included third- and final-year speech-language pathology students at the University of Pretoria(South Africa. Voice parameters were evaluated in a pre-test measurement, after which the participants provided two consecutive hours of therapy. A post-test measurement was then completed. Data analysis consisted of an instrumental analysis in which the multidimensional voice programme (MDVP and the voice range profile (VRP were used to measure vocal parameters and then calculate the dysphonia severity index (DSI. The GRBASI scale wasused to conduct a perceptual analysis of voice quality. Data were processed using descriptive statistics to determine change in each measured parameter after service delivery.Results: A change of clinical significance was observed in the acoustic and perceptual parameters of voice.Conclusion: Guidelines for SLPs in order to maintain optimal vocal effectiveness were suggested.

  15. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) vocally protest against violations of social expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Zanna; Ravaux, Lucie; de Waal, Frans B M; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that great apes possess certain expectations about social regularities and both perceive and act according to social rules within their group. During natural and experimentally induced contexts, such as the inequitable distribution of resources, individuals also show protesting behaviors when their expectations about a social situation are violated. Despite broad interest in this topic, systematic research examining the nature of these expectations and the communicative signals individuals use to express them remains scant. Here, we addressed this by exploring whether bonobos (Pan paniscus) respond to violations of social expectations in naturally occurring social interactions, focusing on the vocal behavior of victims following socially expected and unexpected aggression. Expected aggression included conflicts over a contested resource and conflicts that were provoked by the victim. Unexpected aggression was any spontaneous, unprovoked hostility toward the victim. For each conflict, we also determined its severity and the composition of the nearby audience. We found that the acoustic and temporal structure of victim screams was individually distinct and varied significantly depending on whether or not aggression could be socially predicted. Certain acoustic parameters also varied as a function of conflict severity, but unlike social expectation, conflict severity did not discriminate scream acoustic structure overall. We found no effect of audience composition. We concluded that, beyond the physical nature of a conflict, bonobos possess certain social expectations about how they should be treated and will publicly protest with acoustically distinctive vocal signals if these expectations are violated.

  16. Dynamics of vocalization-induced modulation of auditory cortical activity at mid-utterance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaocong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has addressed the suppression of cortical sensory responses to altered auditory feedback that occurs at utterance onset regarding speech. However, there is reason to assume that the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor processing at mid-utterance are different than those involved in sensorimotor control at utterance onset. The present study attempted to examine the dynamics of event-related potentials (ERPs to different acoustic versions of auditory feedback at mid-utterance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects produced a vowel sound while hearing their pitch-shifted voice (100 cents, a sum of their vocalization and pure tones, or a sum of their vocalization and white noise at mid-utterance via headphones. Subjects also passively listened to playback of what they heard during active vocalization. Cortical ERPs were recorded in response to different acoustic versions of feedback changes during both active vocalization and passive listening. The results showed that, relative to passive listening, active vocalization yielded enhanced P2 responses to the 100 cents pitch shifts, whereas suppression effects of P2 responses were observed when voice auditory feedback was distorted by pure tones or white noise. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings, for the first time, demonstrate a dynamic modulation of cortical activity as a function of the quality of acoustic feedback at mid-utterance, suggesting that auditory cortical responses can be enhanced or suppressed to distinguish self-produced speech from externally-produced sounds.

  17. High-pitched notes during vocal contests signal genetic diversity in ocellated antbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Men Araya-Ajoy

    Full Text Available Animals use honest signals to assess the quality of competitors during aggressive interactions. Current theory predicts that honest signals should be costly to produce and thus reveal some aspects of the phenotypic or genetic quality of the sender. In songbirds, research indicates that biomechanical constraints make the production of some acoustic features costly. Furthermore, recent studies have found that vocal features are related to genetic diversity. We linked these two lines of research by evaluating if constrained acoustic features reveal male genetic diversity during aggressive interactions in ocellated antbirds (Phaenostictus mcleannani. We recorded the aggressive vocalizations of radiotagged males at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, and found significant variation in the highest frequency produced among individuals. Moreover, we detected a negative relationship between the frequency of the highest pitched note and vocalization duration, suggesting that high pitched notes might constrain the duration of vocalizations through biomechanical and/or energetic limitations. When we experimentally exposed wild radiotagged males to simulated acoustic challenges, the birds increased the pitch of their vocalization. We also found that individuals with higher genetic diversity (as measured by zygosity across 9 microsatellite loci produced notes of higher pitch during aggressive interactions. Overall, our results suggest that the ability to produce high pitched notes is an honest indicator of male genetic diversity in male-male aggressive interactions.

  18. A Joyful Noise: The Vocal Health of Worship Leaders and Contemporary Christian Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Leon; Meyer, David

    2016-08-15

    Contemporary commercial music (CCM) is a term that encompasses many styles of music. A growing subset of CCM is contemporary Christian music, a genre that has outpaced other popular styles such as Latin, jazz, and classical music. Contemporary Christian singers (CCSs) and worship leaders (WLs) are a subset of CCM musicians that face unique vocal demands and risks. They typically lack professional training and often perform in acoustically disadvantageous venues with substandard sound reinforcement systems. The vocal needs and risks of these singers are not well understood, and because of this, their training and care may be suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vocal health of this growing population and their awareness of standard vocal hygiene principles. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to participants in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia. A total of 614 participants responded to the questionnaire, which is made available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Many participants reported vocal symptoms such as vocal fatigue (n = 213; 34.7%), tickling or choking sensation (n = 149; 24.3%), loss of upper range (n = 172; 28%), and complete loss of voice (n = 25; 4.1%). One third of the participants (n = 210; 34%) indicated that they do not warm up their voices before performances and over half of the participants (n = 319; 52%) have no formal vocal training. Results suggest that this population demonstrates low awareness of vocal hygiene principles, frequently experience difficulty with their voices, and may face elevated risk of vocal pathology. Future studies of this population may confirm the vocal risks that our preliminary findings suggest.

  19. Transfer function of Brazilian Portuguese oral vowels: a comparative acoustic analysis Função de transferência das vogais orais do Português brasileiro: análise acústica comparativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Rebelo Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The vocal tract transfers its characteristics onto the sounds produced at the glottis, depending on its tridimensional configuration. AIM: this study aims to determine which of the seven oral vowels in Brazilian Portuguese is acoustically less impacted by changes to the vocal tract. MATERIALS AND METHOD: this is a cross-sectional prospective study. Twenty-three males and 23 females with ages ranging between 20 and 45 years (mean values of 28.95 and 29.79 years respectively were enrolled in the study; none had voice complaints and their voices were normal under perceptive-auditory evaluation. Three-hundred and twenty-two sustained vocal emissions were digitized and acoustically analyzed by three computer programs combined. Results were compared against the distribution of resonance frequencies in a straight tube with one end sealed. RESULTS: statistical analysis showed that vowel /ε/ was significantly different when compared to the other vowels, with higher mean harmonic values and lower standard deviation for both genders. CONCLUSION: in Brazilian Portuguese, vowel /ε/ is less impacted by changes to the vocal tract and is significantly less attenuated in both genders. The inclusion of this vowel in voice assessment standard protocols may contribute to improve the quality of the information obtained as a result of quantitative spectrographic and acoustic tests.O trato vocal transfere suas características ao som produzido na glote, de acordo com sua configuração tridimensional. OBJETIVO: Determinar qual das sete vogais orais do Português brasileiro sofre a menor interferência acústica das modificações do trato vocal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo transversal prospectivo. Os indivíduos foram 23 homens e 23 mulheres, na faixa etária entre 20 e 45 anos (médias de 28,95 e 29,79 respectivamente, sem queixas vocais e com qualidade vocal normal na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva. 322 emissões vocais sustentadas foram digitalizadas e analisadas

  20. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan LINGLE; Megan T.WYMAN; Radim KOTRBA; Lisa J.TEICHROEB; Cora A.ROMANOW

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the cries of human infants,sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort,isolation,capture by humans or predators) are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations.However,if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways,we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function,showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant's level of arousal.Based on this premise,we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls,those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls) or captured by humans (capture calls).We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups,followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts.In addition,we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers.Across vertebrate species,distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron,flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation.Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal,and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response.The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal,and not discrete functions.The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in vertebrates.Bioacoustic research may move

  1. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan LINGLE, Megan T. WYMAN, Radim KOTRBA, Lisa J. TEICHROEB, Cora A. ROMANOW

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the cries of human infants, sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort, isolation, capture by humans or predators are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations. However, if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways, we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function, showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant’s level of arousal. Based on this premise, we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls, those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls or captured by humans (capture calls. We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups, followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts. In addition, we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers. Across vertebrate species, distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron, flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation. Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal, and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal, and not discrete functions. The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in

  2. The impact of vocal hyperfunction on relative fundamental frequency during voicing offset and onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Hillman, Robert E; Heaton, James T

    2010-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with vocal hyperfunction would show decreases in relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding a voiceless consonant. This retrospective study of 2 clinical databases used speech samples from 15 control participants and women with hyperfunction-related voice disorders: 82 prior to treatment (muscle tension dysphonia, n=22; vocal fold nodules, n=30; vocal fold polyps, N=30) and 18 before and after surgical removal of vocal fold nodules or polyps. Acoustic samples were analyzed with respect to the RFF at the offset and onset of voicing surrounding a voiceless consonant. Individuals with vocal hyperfunction in a large clinical sample showed significant lowering of offset and onset RFF compared with controls. Voicing offset and onset RFFs were not significantly changed by the removal of vocal fold lesions in the surgical group. Altered offset and onset RFF in patients with hyperfunction-related voice disorders can be interpreted as a by-product of heightened levels of laryngeal muscle tension. Measurement of RFF during voice offset and onset has potential for use as a simple, noninvasive measure of vocal hyperfunction.

  3. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    : Twenty non-smoking women with ages between 18 and 55 years from the Endocrinology Ambulatory of the institution were evaluated after clinical and lab diagnosis for hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The parameters investigated were: period bearing the disease, vocal complaint, maximum phonation time /a/, /s/, and /z/, fundamental frequency (F0, glottal noise (GNE. The aspects evaluated in the auditory-perceptive analysis were: pneumo-phono-articulatory coordination (coordinated or uncoordinated, pitch, loudness, vocal attack, resonance, speech speed and vocal quality, that could be classified as one or two of the following: neutral, hoarse, whispered, coarse, or tense, and degree: light, moderate or severe. Data were statistically analyzed through the EPI-INFO 6.04b software, Fisher qualitative method, considering a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The auditory-perceptive analysis showed that seven patients with hypothyroidism and nine with hyperthyroidism presented changes in vocal quality. Eight subjects from both groups presented pneumo-phono-articulatory incoordination. Eight subjects from group A and six from group B referred vocal complaints, such as hoarseness and thick voice, respectively. In the acoustic analysis, nine subjects presented change in glottal noise. CONCLUSION: The results showed great incidence of vocal changes on the studied groups (both hyper and hypothyroidism groups, which evidences the relation between dysphonia and thyroidal dysfunctions.

  4. An Acoustic Study of Vowels Produced by Alaryngeal Speakers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jia-Shiou

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the acoustic properties of 6 Taiwan Southern Min vowels produced by 10 laryngeal speakers (LA), 10 speakers with a pneumatic artificial larynx (PA), and 8 esophageal speakers (ES). Each of the 6 monophthongs of Taiwan Southern Min (/i, e, a, ɔ, u, ə/) was represented by a Taiwan Southern Min character and appeared randomly on a list 3 times (6 Taiwan Southern Min characters × 3 repetitions = 18 tokens). Each Taiwan Southern Min character in this study has the same syllable structure, /V/, and all were read with tone 1 (high and level). Acoustic measurements of the 1st formant, 2nd formant, and 3rd formant were taken for each vowel. Then, vowel space areas (VSAs) enclosed by /i, a, u/ were calculated for each group of speakers. The Euclidean distance between vowels in the pairs /i, a/, /i, u/, and /a, u/ was also calculated and compared across the groups. PA and ES have higher 1st or 2nd formant values than LA for each vowel. The distance is significantly shorter between vowels in the corner vowel pairs /i, a/ and /i, u/. PA and ES have a significantly smaller VSA compared with LA. In accordance with previous studies, alaryngeal speakers have higher formant frequency values than LA because they have a shortened vocal tract as a result of their total laryngectomy. Furthermore, the resonance frequencies are inversely related to the length of the vocal tract (on the basis of the assumption of the source filter theory). PA and ES have a smaller VSA and shorter distances between corner vowels compared with LA, which may be related to speech intelligibility. This hypothesis needs further support from future study.

  5. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  6. Vocal production complexity correlates with neural instructions in the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, C. P. H.; Mensinger, A. F.; Rome, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    frequencies are determined directly by the firing rate of a vocal-acoustic neural network that drives the contraction frequency of superfast swimbladder muscles. The oyster toadfish boatwhistle call starts with an irregular sound waveform that could be an emergent property of the peripheral nonlinear sound...

  7. Changes after voice therapy in objective and subjective voice measurements of pediatric patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.

  8. Evidence for an audience effect in mice: male social partners alter the male vocal response to female cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagraves, Kelly M; Arthur, Ben J; Egnor, S E Roian

    2016-05-15

    Mice (Mus musculus) form large and dynamic social groups and emit ultrasonic vocalizations in a variety of social contexts. Surprisingly, these vocalizations have been studied almost exclusively in the context of cues from only one social partner, despite the observation that in many social species the presence of additional listeners changes the structure of communication signals. Here, we show that male vocal behavior elicited by female odor is affected by the presence of a male audience - with changes in vocalization count, acoustic structure and syllable complexity. We further show that single sensory cues are not sufficient to elicit this audience effect, indicating that multiple cues may be necessary for an audience to be apparent. Together, these experiments reveal that some features of mouse vocal behavior are only expressed in more complex social situations, and introduce a powerful new assay for measuring detection of the presence of social partners in mice.

  9. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  10. Correlation of the Vocal Fold Vibratory Pattern to the Post-Operative Surgical Wound in the Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-15

    critical depth of vocal fold injury causing significant disruption of the vocal fold vibration. Materials and Methods Twelve adult, male, castrated ...near the apex of the vestibule, were away from the biopsy site. 14 Discussion Miniswine were selected for this study for several reasons. Castrated male...Nerve Stimulation on Phonation: A Glottographic Study Using in vivo Canine Model. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 83:705-715, 1988. 10. Tanabe, M., Isshiki, N

  11. Decreased approach behavior and nucleus accumbens immediate early gene expression in response to Parkinsonian ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Many individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) have difficulty producing normal speech and voice, resulting in problems with interpersonal communication and reduced quality of life. Translational animal models of communicative dysfunction have been developed to assess disease pathology. However, it is unknown whether acoustic feature changes associated with vocal production deficits in these animal models lead to compromised communication. In rodents, male ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have a...

  12. Comparison of acoustic voice characteristics in smoking and nonsmoking teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice of vocal professionals is exposed to great temptations, i.e. there is a high probability of voice alterations. Smoking, allergies and respiratory infections greatly affect the voice, which can change its acoustic characteristics. In smokers, the vocal cords mass increases, resulting in changes in vocal fold vibratory cycle. Pathological changes of vocal folds deform the acoustic signal and affect voice production. As vocal professionals, teachers are much more affected by voice disorders than average speakers. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in acoustic parameters of voice between smoking and nonsmoking teachers, in a sample of vocal professionals. The sample consisted of 60 female subjects, aged from 25 to 59. For voice analysis we used Computer lab, model 4300, 'Kay Elemetrics Corporation'. The statistical significance of differences in the values of acoustic parameters between smokers and nonsmokers was tested by ANOVA. Results showed that in the sample of female teachers, professional use of voice combined with the smoking habit can be linked to the changes in voice parameters. Comparing smokers and nonsmokers, average values of the parameters in short-term and long-term disturbances of frequency and amplitude proved to be significantly different.

  13. Speech across species : on the mechanistic fundamentals of vocal production and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohms, Verena Regina

    2011-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. The most important parameters in human speech are vocal tract resonances, called formants. Different formant patterns characterize different vo

  14. Vocal fold hyalinosis in Urbach-Wiethe disease, a rare cause of hoarseness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Rossum, M.M. van; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipoid proteinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyalin deposits in the skin and mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract; currently, no treatment exists. Nearly all patients experience hoarseness and speech difficulties, due to hyalin deposition in the vocal folds a

  15. Vocal Improvisation for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the three-phase process of musical creativity (exploratory, invention, organizational), identifying activities in each of the creative phases. Included are vocal impression, picture sounds, chord tones, and name improvisation. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  16. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dominant effects on the vertical phase difference between the upper and lower margins of the medial surface, closed quotient, H1-H2, and higher-order harmonics excitation. The main effects of vocal fold approximation or decreasing resting glottal opening are to lower the phonation threshold pressure, reduce noise production, and increase the fundamental frequency. Increasing subglottal pressure is primarily responsible for vocal intensity increase but also leads to significant increase in noise production and an increased fundamental frequency. Increasing AP stiffness significantly increases the fundamental frequency and slightly reduces noise production. The interaction among vocal fold thickness, stiffness, approximation, and subglottal pressure in the control of F0, vocal intensity, and voice quality is discussed.

  17. 嗓音障碍指数主观评估与发音障碍严重程度指数客观检测的相关性分析%Correlation between voice handicap index and voice acoustic analysis in patients with vocal cord polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓雨; 李进让

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨声带息肉患者嗓音障碍指数(voice handicap index,VHI)量表自我评估和发音障碍严重程度指数(dysphonia severity index,DSI)客观评估的相关性。方法取104例声带息肉患者,用VHI中文版量表进行自评及DIVAS2.5声学分析软件分析DSI,按性别、侧别、形状、大小分组比较,分析VHI和DSI的相关性。结果声带息肉的大小、形状对VHI各指标差异均无统计学意义,但较大或广基底形息肉基频微扰较重;女性患者功能、生理和VHI总体评价高于男性,但DSI却低于男性;双侧息肉比单侧在生理方面影响较重,同时DSI也较重;VHI量表各指标与嗓音声学分析各参数之间无明显相关性。结论目前临床上评估嗓音障碍程度的两种主客观方法都不理想,应进一步研究更好的评价方法。%[ABSTRACT]OBJECTIVETo investigate the relationship between self-assessment of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and objective detection of Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in vocal ford polyp patients.METHODSAll 104 vocal cord polyp patients assessed the Chinese version of VHI scale by themselves. The DSI was calculated by acoustic analysis of DIVAS2.5. The correlation between VHI and DSI was analyzed in Pearson test.RESULTS There was no significant difference in each index of VHI scale score by side and shape, but the Shimmer of larger or wide-base polyps was more severe. The female patients' function, physiology, and VHI total score were higher than that of male patients, but the DSI was lower than that of male patients. The physiology score was higher in bilateral vocal cord polyp patients, so as well as DSI. There was no significant correlation between each item of VHI scale score and DSI.CONCLUSIONNeither the current subjective VHI nor objective DSI in clinical assessment of voice disorders disability is ideal, further research and better evaluation methods should be further explored.

  18. The acoustic correlates of valence depend on emotion family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The voice expresses a wide range of emotions through modulations of acoustic parameters such as frequency and amplitude. Although the acoustics of individual emotions are well understood, attempts to describe the acoustic correlates of broad emotional categories such as valence have yielded mixed results. In the present study, we analyzed the acoustics of emotional valence for different families of emotion. We divided emotional vocalizations into "motivational," "moral," and "aesthetic" families as defined by the OCC (Ortony, Clore, and Collins) model of emotion. Subjects viewed emotional scenarios and were cued to vocalize congruent exclamations in response to them, for example, "Yay!" and "Damn!". Positive valence was weakly associated with high-pitched and loud vocalizations. However, valence interacted with emotion family for both pitch and amplitude. A general acoustic code for valence does not hold across families of emotion, whereas family-specific codes provide a more accurate description of vocal emotions. These findings are consolidated into a set of "rules of expression" relating vocal dimensions to emotion dimensions.

  19. Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Brown, Emily; Fox, Robert A; Xu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the acoustic features of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). The subjects included 14 native Mandarin-speaking, prelingually deafened children with CIs (2.9-8.3 yr old) and 60 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children (3.1-9.0 years old). Each subject produced a list of monosyllables containing seven Mandarin vowels: [i, a, u, y, ɤ, ʅ, ɿ]. Midpoint F1 and F2 of each vowel token were extracted and normalized to eliminate the effects of different vocal tract sizes. Results showed that the CI children produced significantly longer vowels and less compact vowel categories than the NH children did. The CI children's acoustic vowel space was reduced due to a retracted production of the vowel [i]. The vowel space area showed a strong negative correlation with age at implantation (r = -0.80). The analysis of acoustic distance showed that the CI children produced corner vowels [a, u] similarly to the NH children, but other vowels (e.g., [ʅ, ɿ]) differently from the NH children, which suggests that CI children generally follow a similar developmental path of vowel acquisition as NH children. These findings highlight the importance of early implantation and have implications in clinical aural habilitation in young children with CIs.

  20. Acquisition of vowel articulation in childhood investigated by acoustic-to-articulatory inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2017-02-01

    While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters. We conducted the discriminant analysis to reveal differences in articulatory states for production of each vowel. The analysis suggested that development of vowel production went through gradual functionalization of articulatory parameters. At 6-9 months, the coordination of position of tongue body and lip aperture forms three vowels: front, back, and central. At 10-17 months, recruitments of jaw and tongue apex enable differentiation of these three vowels into five. At 18 months and older, recruitment of tongue shape produces more distinct vowels specific to Japanese. These results suggest that the jaw and tongue apex contributed to speech production by young children regardless of kinds of vowel. Moreover, initial articulatory states for each vowel could be distinguished by the manner of coordination between lip and tongue, and these initial states are differentiated and refined into articulations adjusted to the native language over the course of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  2. Effects of transitory lingual nerve impairment on speech: an acoustic study of vowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Matti; Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Vähätalo, Kimmo; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Aaltonen, Olli; Happonen, Risto-Pekka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the lingual nerve impairment on phonetic quality of speech by analyzing the main acoustic features of vowel sounds when the normal lingual nerve function was partly distorted by local anesthesia. The study group consisted of 7 men, whose right side lingual nerve was anesthetized with 0.8 mL of Ultracaine D-Suprarenin (Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmpH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The speech material analyzed consisted of 8 vowels produced in sentence context by speakers. Every utterance was repeated 10 times with and without local anesthesia. After recording, the speech samples were analyzed with a computerized speech laboratory. In addition, the vowels of 1 man with permanent nerve impairment were studied. The results show that the deprived function of the tongue after lingual nerve impairment had various effects on vowel quality for every subject. The main acoustic determinants of different vowels, the lowest vocal tract resonances, changed in frequency. In addition, the total duration of vowels changed and the vowels had different fundamental frequencies. However, these effects were extremely individual and variable. According to the results of acoustic analysis, the distortion of lingual nerve function has effects on vowel production. Some of these changes were so extensive that they also could be perceptually detectable. Lingual nerve impairment seems to have potential to change speech production. Copyright 2002 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 60:647-652, 2002

  3. Comparison of vocal tract formants in singing and nonperiodic phonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, DG; Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Wolf, RF

    The skilled use of nonperiodic phonation techniques in combination with spectrum analysis has been proposed here as a practical method for locating formant frequencies in the singing voice. The study addresses the question of the degree of similarity between sung phonations and their nonperiodic

  4. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires—Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadewitz, Philip; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Battaglia, Demian; Witt, Annette; Wolf, Fred; Fischer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses among individuals, populations and taxa. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of standard in methodology, however. One problem is that researchers may settle on different variables to characterize the calls, which may impact on the classification of calls. More important, there is no agreement how to best characterize the overall structure of the repertoire in terms of the amount of gradation within and between call types. Here, we address these challenges by examining 912 calls recorded from wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We extracted 118 acoustic variables from spectrograms, from which we constructed different sets of acoustic features, containing 9, 38, and 118 variables; as well 19 factors derived from principal component analysis. We compared and validated the resulting classifications of k-means and hierarchical clustering. Datasets with a higher number of acoustic features lead to better clustering results than datasets with only a few features. The use of factors in the cluster analysis resulted in an extremely poor resolution of emerging call types. Another important finding is that none of the applied clustering methods gave strong support to a specific cluster solution. Instead, the cluster analysis revealed that within distinct call types, subtypes may exist. Because hard clustering methods are not well suited to capture such gradation within call types, we applied a fuzzy clustering algorithm. We found that this algorithm provides a detailed and quantitative description of the gradation within and between chacma baboon call types. In conclusion, we suggest that fuzzy clustering should be used in future studies to analyze the graded structure of vocal repertoires. Moreover, the use of factor analyses to

  5. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires--Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wadewitz

    Full Text Available To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses among individuals, populations and taxa. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of standard in methodology, however. One problem is that researchers may settle on different variables to characterize the calls, which may impact on the classification of calls. More important, there is no agreement how to best characterize the overall structure of the repertoire in terms of the amount of gradation within and between call types. Here, we address these challenges by examining 912 calls recorded from wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus. We extracted 118 acoustic variables from spectrograms, from which we constructed different sets of acoustic features, containing 9, 38, and 118 variables; as well 19 factors derived from principal component analysis. We compared and validated the resulting classifications of k-means and hierarchical clustering. Datasets with a higher number of acoustic features lead to better clustering results than datasets with only a few features. The use of factors in the cluster analysis resulted in an extremely poor resolution of emerging call types. Another important finding is that none of the applied clustering methods gave strong support to a specific cluster solution. Instead, the cluster analysis revealed that within distinct call types, subtypes may exist. Because hard clustering methods are not well suited to capture such gradation within call types, we applied a fuzzy clustering algorithm. We found that this algorithm provides a detailed and quantitative description of the gradation within and between chacma baboon call types. In conclusion, we suggest that fuzzy clustering should be used in future studies to analyze the graded structure of vocal repertoires. Moreover, the use of

  6. Analysis of the Acoustic Response of a Railroad Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    atmospheric explosions, surf, missiles, rockets, weather systems and even animal vocalizations [1]. In order for up-going infrasonic energy to be...systems – Animal vocalizations – Urban Noise* PREMISE: Structures generate coupled low-frequency acoustics as fundamental modes of motion What is...rating tests: – Strain Gages (44 Used) • Main Structural Elements – One Train Engine Stringer Bottom Chord Diagonal Chord Diagonal Floor Beam Top

  7. Central pattern generator for vocalization: is there a vertebrate morphotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Andrew H

    2014-10-01

    Animals that generate acoustic signals for social communication are faced with two essential tasks: generate a temporally precise signal and inform the auditory system about the occurrence of one's own sonic signal. Recent studies of sound producing fishes delineate a hindbrain network comprised of anatomically distinct compartments coding equally distinct neurophysiological properties that allow an organism to meet these behavioral demands. A set of neural characters comprising a vocal-sonic central pattern generator (CPG) morphotype is proposed for fishes and tetrapods that shares evolutionary developmental origins with pectoral appendage motor systems.

  8. General principles involved in the effect of noise on hearing and vocal communication in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooling, Robert J.; Dent, Michael L.

    2002-05-01

    Birds provide very useful models for understanding the effects of noise on hearing and acoustic communication. They are excellent subjects for laboratory studies of hearing in which signals and noise can be precisely defined and delivered and behavioral responses can be unambiguously interpreted. For this reason, a huge amount is already known about their hearing. Acoustic communication is critically important for most species of birds and some even acquire their communication signals through vocal learning. For this reason, a lot is already known about how birds perceive complex acoustic signals such as vocalizations. Drawing from both field and laboratory studies, we review what is known about the effects of noise on hearing and vocal communication in birds. This includes the effects of intense noise on the ear, the effects of background noise on the detection and discrimination of both simple sounds and complex vocalizations, and the spatial effects of signal detection in noise in the free-field. As a whole, these studies show that birds are resistant to damage and interference from noise and have developed a variety of strategies to effectively communicate.

  9. Modeling the acoustics of American English /r/ using configurable articulatory synthesis (CASY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert-Lehouillier, Heike; Iskarous, Khalil; Whalen, Douglas H.

    2001-05-01

    The claim that articulatory variation in /r/ production exhibits systematic tradeoffs to achieve a stable acoustic signal (Guenther et al., 1999) was tested using configurable articulatory synthesis (CASY) and ultrasound data. In particular, the hypothesis was tested that multiple constrictions during /r/ production are necessary to achieve a low enough F3. Ultrasound and Optotrak data from four speakers pronouncing /r/ in different vocalic contexts were used to determine where in the vocal tract the tongue gestures are placed. This data was then modeled using CASY parameters and was used to determine how the three gestures in /r/ (labial, palatal, and pharyngeal) contribute to the F3 value observed in the speech signal simultaneously recorded with the ultrasound. This was done by varying the degree and location of the lingual constrictions and the degree of the labial constriction and determining the effect on F3. It was determined that the three gestures in /r/ contribute in differing amounts to the overall F3 lowering. Furthermore, it does not seem that all three gestures are necessary for F3 lowering. This lends support to the hypothesis that the goal in /r/ production is the simultaneous achievement of three gestures. [Work supported by NIH Grant DC-02717.

  10. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  11. Detection and Analysis of Low-Frequency Sperm Whale Vocalizations with a Towed Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Alexander

    Sperm whale vocalizations recorded during a sea test and calibration experiment in the Gulf of Maine on a single towed, horizontal, densely sampled, low-frequency (developed to achieve automatic detection of vocalizations. This analysis is shown to have potential utility despite restriction to only the low-frequency component of the vocalizations by sampling theory. In addition, transmission loss in the New England continental shelf and slope environment is accounted for with an ocean waveguide-acoustic propagation model. Multiple averaged realizations of this model are used to estimate transmission loss as a function of range and depth for transects between the receiver array and vocalizing whales. Comparison of the vocalizations and background noise levels and the estimated transmission loss suggests the sperm whale detection range after coherent array processing exceeds 60 km in low-to-moderate sea states. Low-frequency source levels of vocalizations are estimated using the received levels and the estimated transmission loss, and applications of both this estimate and the receiver-side statistics are discussed.

  12. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  13. Indication of a Lombard vocal response in the St. Lawrence River beluga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, P. M.; Andrew, S.; Cooper, R. A.; Darre, M.; Musiek, F. E.; Max, L.

    2005-03-01

    Noise pollution is recognized as a potential danger to marine mammals in general, and to the St. Lawrence beluga in particular. One method of determining the impacts of noise on an animal's communication is to observe a natural and repeatable response of the vocal system to variations in noise level. This is accomplished by observing intensity changes in animal vocalizations in response to environmental noise. One such response observed in humans, songbirds, and some primates is the Lombard vocal response. This response represents a vocal system reaction manifested by changes in vocalization level in direct response to changes in the noise field. In this research, a population of belugas in the St. Lawrence River Estuary was tested to determine whether a Lombard response existed by using hidden Markhov-classified vocalizations as targets for acoustical analyses. Correlation and regression analyses of signals and noise indicated that the phenomenon does exist. Further, results of human subjects experiments [Egan, J. J. (1966), Ph.D. dissertation; Scheifele, P. M. (2003), Ph.D. dissertation], along with previously reported data from other animal species, are similar to those exhibited by the belugas. Overall, findings suggest that typical noise levels in the St. Lawrence River Estuary have a detectable effect on the communication of the beluga. .

  14. Vocal characteristics of congenital anterior glottic webs in children: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; White, Katherine; Dohar, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a 5-year-old girl with chronic dysphonia and high-pitched voice since birth. Vocal quality was noted to be harsh. Videostroboscopy revealed significant hyperfunction and a Type II congenital anterior glottic web. Endoscopic division of the anterior glottic web was performed with significant improvement in vocal quality and quality of life. This paper describes methods of analyzing, diagnosing, and treating anterior glottic web with a focus on quality of life. Also, unique acoustic and aerodynamic voice features are identified. No other descriptions of a voice characteristic for anterior glottic web currently exist in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  16. Objective assessment of vocal hyperfunction: an experimental framework and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, R E; Holmberg, E B; Perkell, J S; Walsh, M; Vaughan, C

    1989-06-01

    This report describes the experimental design and initial results of an ongoing clinical investigation of voice disorders. Its major focus is the development and use of quantitative measures to provide objective descriptions of conditions referred to as "vocal hyperfunction." The experimental design for this project is based on a descriptive theoretical framework, which holds that there are different types and stages of hyperfunctionally related voice disorders. Data consist of indirect measures derived from noninvasive aerodynamic and acoustic recordings including (a) parameters derived from inverse filtered approximations of the glottal air flow waveform; (b) estimates of transglottal pressure, average glottal air flow, glottal resistance and vocal efficiency; and (c) measures of vocal intensity and fundamental frequency. Initial results (based on comparisons among 15 voice patients and 45 normal speakers) support major assumptions that underlie the theoretical framework, and indicate that the measurement approach being utilized is capable of differentiating hyperfunctional from normal voices and hyperfunctional conditions from one another. Organic manifestations of vocal hyperfunction (nodules, polyps, contact ulcers) are accompanied by abnormally high values for the glottal waveform parameters of AC flow and maximum flow declination rate, suggesting increased potential for vocal fold trauma due to high vocal fold closure velocities and collision forces. In contrast, nonorganic manifestations of hyperfunction (functional disorders) tend to be associated with abnormally high levels of unmodulated DC flow, without high values for AC flow and maximum flow declination rate, suggesting reduced potential for vocal fold trauma. Measures also suggest different underlying mechanisms for nodules and polyps as compared to contact ulcers. Results are discussed relative to predictions based on the theoretical framework for vocal hyperfunction.

  17. Som fricativo sonoro /ℑ/: modificações vocais Fricative hearing sound /ℑ/: vocal modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena D'Avila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as modificações vocais após a utilização do fricativo sonoro /ž/, em dez mulheres sem alterações vocais/laríngeas. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas medidas acústicas, perceptivo-auditiva, eletroglotografia e auto-avaliação da voz pré e pós-produção da técnica. RESULTADOS: foram estatisticamente significantes: as sensações subjetivas positivas; a maior definição de harmônicos e de formantes, diminuição do ruído, e maior regularidade no traçado. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica promove estabilidade vocal, gerando menor esforço fonatório, maior conforto durante a produção vocal e maior projeção vocal no grupo estudado.PURPOSE: verify the vocal modifications that occurred after the utilization of the fricative hearing sound /ž/ in ten adult women that had no vocal laryngeal alterations. METHODS: they passed through a vocal and acoustic evaluation as well as hearing perception, and then they auto-evaluated their voices before and after the technique. RESULTS: statistically significant, namely: positive subjective feelings; spectrograms showing more definition for the harmonic and formants, noise reduction, and more regularity on the trace. CONCLUSION: the technique produced less effort in phonation, more comfort during the vocal production and a more vocal production in the studied group.

  18. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies.

  19. Detection and Classification of Whale Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yin

    This dissertation focuses on two vital challenges in relation to whale acoustic signals: detection and classification. In detection, we evaluated the influence of the uncertain ocean environment on the spectrogram-based detector, and derived the likelihood ratio of the proposed Short Time Fourier Transform detector. Experimental results showed that the proposed detector outperforms detectors based on the spectrogram. The proposed detector is more sensitive to environmental changes because it includes phase information. In classification, our focus is on finding a robust and sparse representation of whale vocalizations. Because whale vocalizations can be modeled as polynomial phase signals, we can represent the whale calls by their polynomial phase coefficients. In this dissertation, we used the Weyl transform to capture chirp rate information, and used a two dimensional feature set to represent whale vocalizations globally. Experimental results showed that our Weyl feature set outperforms chirplet coefficients and MFCC (Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients) when applied to our collected data. Since whale vocalizations can be represented by polynomial phase coefficients, it is plausible that the signals lie on a manifold parameterized by these coefficients. We also studied the intrinsic structure of high dimensional whale data by exploiting its geometry. Experimental results showed that nonlinear mappings such as Laplacian Eigenmap and ISOMAP outperform linear mappings such as PCA and MDS, suggesting that the whale acoustic data is nonlinear. We also explored deep learning algorithms on whale acoustic data. We built each layer as convolutions with either a PCA filter bank (PCANet) or a DCT filter bank (DCTNet). With the DCT filter bank, each layer has different a time-frequency scale representation, and from this, one can extract different physical information. Experimental results showed that our PCANet and DCTNet achieve high classification rate on the whale

  20. Architectural acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    .... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...

  1. Voice parameters and videonasolaryngoscopy in children with vocal nodules: a longitudinal study, before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Victor; Ysunza, Antonio; Ocharan-Hernandez, Esther; Garrido-Bustamante, Norma; Sanchez-Valerio, Araceli; Pamplona, Ma C

    2012-09-01

    Vocal Nodules (VN) are a functional voice disorder associated with voice misuse and abuse in children. There are few reports addressing vocal parameters in children with VN, especially after a period of vocal rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to describe measurements of vocal parameters including Fundamental Frequency (FF), Shimmer (S), and Jitter (J), videonasolaryngoscopy examination and clinical perceptual assessment, before and after voice therapy in children with VN. Voice therapy was provided using visual support through Speech-Viewer software. Twenty patients with VN were studied. An acoustical analysis of voice was performed and compared with data from subjects from a control group matched by age and gender. Also, clinical perceptual assessment of voice and videonasolaryngoscopy were performed to all patients with VN. After a period of voice therapy, provided with visual support using Speech Viewer-III (SV-III-IBM) software, new acoustical analyses, perceptual assessments and videonasolaryngoscopies were performed. Before the onset of voice therapy, there was a significant difference (ptherapy period, a significant improvement (pvocal nodules were no longer discernible on the vocal folds in any of the cases. SV-III software seems to be a safe and reliable method for providing voice therapy in children with VN. Acoustic voice parameters, perceptual data and videonasolaryngoscopy were significantly improved after the speech therapy period was completed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  3. Morphological, olfactory, and vocal development in big brown bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather W. Mayberry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.

  4. A Neural Code That Is Isometric to Vocal Output and Correlates with Its Sensory Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Stepien, Anna E.; Keller, Georg B.; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2016-01-01

    What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns. NIf multiunit firing during song precedes responses in auditory cortical neurons by about 50 ms, revealing delayed congruence between NIf spiking and a neural representation of auditory feedback. Our findings suggest that NIf codes for imminent acoustic events within vocal performance. PMID:27723764

  5. Skin temperature changes in wild chimpanzees upon hearing vocalizations of conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Davila-Ross, Marina; Dahl, Christoph D.

    2017-01-01

    A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a significant temperature decrease over the nose after exposure to conspecifics' vocalizations, whereas we found a corresponding increase for ear temperature. Our study suggests that IRT can be used in wild animals to quantify changes in emotional states in response to the diversity of vocalizations, their functional significance and acoustical characteristics. We hope that it will contribute to more research on physiological changes associated with social interactions in wild animals.

  6. Vocal signals in a tropical avian species, the redvented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer: their characteristics and importance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar; Dinesh Bhatt

    2000-12-01

    Acoustic signals play an important role in the lives of birds. Almost all avian species produce vocal signals in a variety of contexts either in the form of calls or songs or both. In the present study different types of vocal signals of the tropical avian species Pycnonotus cafer were characterized on the basis of their physical characteristics and context of production. This species used six types of vocal signals: contact signals, roosting signals, alarm signals, twittering signals, distress signals and begging signals. Two types of alarm signals are produced based on predation pressure. These signals are dissimilar in all physical characteristics except for dominant frequency. Although alarm signal type I and roosting signals are phonetically similar, they have completely different sonogram characteristics.

  7. A Neural Code That Is Isometric to Vocal Output and Correlates with Its Sensory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Alexei L; Stepien, Anna E; Keller, Georg B; Hahnloser, Richard H R

    2016-10-01

    What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns. NIf multiunit firing during song precedes responses in auditory cortical neurons by about 50 ms, revealing delayed congruence between NIf spiking and a neural representation of auditory feedback. Our findings suggest that NIf codes for imminent acoustic events within vocal performance.

  8. Facial biases on vocal perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-06-01

    Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Considerações sobre modificações vocais e laríngeas ocasionadas pelo som basal em mulheres sem queixa vocal Considerations regarding vocal and laryngeal modifications caused by vocal fry in women without voice complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Meurer Brum

    2010-01-01

    vowel /a/ and the videostroboscopic examination of the larynx. Both laryngeal and vocal data found prior to and after the vocal fry technique were submitted to acoustic, auditory-perceptive, and videostroboscopic analyses. The acoustic analysis was generated by the Multi Speech program. Analyses showed the following effects of the vocal fry: increase of the vibration of the vocal folds mucosa; alteration or maintenance of voice type and pitch; decrease or maintenance of measures related to jitter and shimmer, as well as the index that suggests glottic noise; decrease of the soft phonation index; maintenance or alteration of the vocal quality and resonance focus, with laryngopharyngeal prevalence; decrease of the fundamental frequency; and increase of frequency and width variations. The study allowed the conclusion that vocal fry had a positive effect on the vibration of the vocal folds mucosa as well as on voice noise, and a negative effect on voice resonance and stability.

  10. Decomposition of vocal cycle length perturbations into vocal jitter and vocal microtremor, and comparison of their size in normophonic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, J

    2003-06-01

    A statistical method that enables raw vocal cycle length perturbations to be decomposed into perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and vocal tremor is presented, together with a comparison of the size of jitter and tremor. The method is based on a time series model that splits the vocal cycle length perturbations into uncorrelated cycle-to-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal jitter and supra-cycle perturbations ascribed to vocal tremor. The corpus was composed of 114 vocal cycle length time series for sustained vowels [a], [i], and [u] produced by 22 male and 16 female normophonic speakers. The results were the following. First, 100 out of 114 time series were decomposed successfully by means of the time series model. Second, vocal perturbations ascribed to tremor were significantly larger than perturbations ascribed to jitter. Third, the correlation between vocal jitter and vocal tremor was moderate, but statistically significant. Fourth, small but statistically significant differences were observed among the three vowel timbres in the relative jitter and the arithmetic difference of jitter and tremor. Fifth, the differences between male and female speakers were not statistically significant in the relative raw perturbations, the relative jitter, or the modulation level owing to tremor.

  11. Virtual Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Savioja, Lauri

    The term virtual acoustics is often applied when sound signal is processed to contain features of a simulated acoustical space and sound is spatially reproduced either with binaural or with multichannel techniques. Therefore, virtual acoustics consists of spatial sound reproduction and room acoustics modeling.

  12. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults.

  13. Multidimensional effects of voice therapy in patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Camila Barbosa; Silveira, Paula Angélica Lorenzon; Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Gonçalves, Aline Nogueira; Slobodticov, Luciana Dall'Agnol Siqueira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de

    2017-08-24

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may demonstrate different degrees of voice perturbation depending on the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. Understanding the effectiveness of voice therapy in this population may be an important coefficient to define the therapeutic approach. To evaluate the voice therapy effectiveness in the short, medium and long-term in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and determine the risk factors for voice rehabilitation failure. Prospective study with 61 patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis enrolled. Each subject had voice therapy with an experienced speech pathologist twice a week. A multidimensional assessment protocol was used pre-treatment and in three different times after voice treatment initiation: short-term (1-3 months), medium-term (4-6 months) and long-term (12 months); it included videoendoscopy, maximum phonation time, GRBASI scale, acoustic voice analysis and the portuguese version of the voice handicap index. Multiple comparisons for GRBASI scale and VHI revealed statistically significant differences, except between medium and long term (p<0.005). The data suggest that there is vocal improvement over time with stabilization results after 6 months (medium term). From the 28 patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis, 18 (69.2%) reached complete glottal closure following vocal therapy (p=0.001). The logistic regression method indicated that the Jitter entered the final model as a risk factor for partial improvement. For every unit of increased jitter, there was an increase of 0.1% (1.001) of the chance for partial improvement, which means an increase on no full improvement chance during rehabilitation. Vocal rehabilitation improves perceptual and acoustic voice parameters and voice handicap index, besides favor glottal closure in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The results were also permanent during the period of 1 year. The Jitter value, when elevated, is

  14. Impact of adenotonsillectomy on vocal emission in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimatos, Spyros Cardoso; Neves, Luciano Rodrigues; Beltrame, Jéssica Monique; Azevedo, Renata Rangel; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue Nagata

    2016-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed by otolaryngologists in pediatric age, and one of the most frequently asked questions about the postoperative period is whether there is a potential for change in vocal pattern of these children. To evaluate the impact of adenotonsillectomy in the voice emission pattern of children with hypertrophy of palatine and pharyngeal tonsils. This is a prospective study in which we carried out perceptual auditory assessments and acoustic analysis of 26 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy at three time points: before surgery, one month and three months after surgery. The following acoustic parameters were estimated using the Praat software: fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-noise ratio. A statistically significant change was found between shimmer and harmonic-noise ratio during vowel /u/ production between the preoperative and 1st month postoperative time points. No significant differences were detected for acoustic parameters between preoperative analysis and that of the 3rd month post-operation. Transient changes in acoustic parameters occur in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy submitted to adenotonsillectomy, progressing to normalization in the 3rd postoperative month. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of adenotonsillectomy on vocal emission in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Cardoso Dimatos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed by otolaryngologists in pediatric age, and one of the most frequently asked questions about the postoperative period is whether there is a potential for change in vocal pattern of these children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of adenotonsillectomy in the voice emission pattern of children with hypertrophy of palatine and pharyngeal tonsils. METHODS: This is a prospective study in which we carried out perceptual auditory assessments and acoustic analysis of 26 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy at three time points: before surgery, one month and three months after surgery. The following acoustic parameters were estimated using the Praat software: fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-noise ratio. RESULTS: A statistically significant change was found between shimmer and harmonic-noise ratio during vowel /u/ production between the preoperative and 1st month postoperative time points. No significant differences were detected for acoustic parameters between preoperative analysis and that of the 3rd month post-operation. CONCLUSION: Transient changes in acoustic parameters occur in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy submitted to adenotonsillectomy, progressing to normalization in the 3rd postoperative month.

  16. Combining multiobjective optimization and cluster analysis to study vocal fold functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaparthi, Anil; Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R

    2014-07-01

    Morphological design and the relationship between form and function have great influence on the functionality of a biological organ. However, the simultaneous investigation of morphological diversity and function is difficult in complex natural systems. We have developed a multiobjective optimization (MOO) approach in association with cluster analysis to study the form-function relation in vocal folds. An evolutionary algorithm (NSGA-II) was used to integrate MOO with an existing finite element model of the laryngeal sound source. Vocal fold morphology parameters served as decision variables and acoustic requirements (fundamental frequency, sound pressure level) as objective functions. A two-layer and a three-layer vocal fold configuration were explored to produce the targeted acoustic requirements. The mutation and crossover parameters of the NSGA-II algorithm were chosen to maximize a hypervolume indicator. The results were expressed using cluster analysis and were validated against a brute force method. Results from the MOO and the brute force approaches were comparable. The MOO approach demonstrated greater resolution in the exploration of the morphological space. In association with cluster analysis, MOO can efficiently explore vocal fold functional morphology.

  17. Vocal mechanics in Darwin's finches: correlation of beak gape and song frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podos, Jeffrey; Southall, Joel A; Rossi-Santos, Marcos R

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies of vocal mechanics in songbirds have identified a functional role for the beak in sound production. The vocal tract (trachea and beak) filters harmonic overtones from sounds produced by the syrinx, and birds can fine-tune vocal tract resonance properties through changes in beak gape. In this study, we examine patterns of beak gape during song production in seven species of Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands. Our principal goals were to characterize the relationship between beak gape and vocal frequency during song production and to explore the possible influence therein of diversity in beak morphology and body size. Birds were audio and video recorded (at 30 frames s(-1)) as they sang in the field, and 164 song sequences were analyzed. We found that song frequency regressed significantly and positively on beak gape for 38 of 56 individuals and for all seven species examined. This finding provides broad support for a resonance model of vocal tract function in Darwin's finches. Comparison among species revealed significant variation in regression y-intercept values. Body size correlated negatively with y-intercept values, although not at a statistically significant level. We failed to detect variation in regression slopes among finch species, although the regression slopes of Darwin's finch and two North American sparrow species were found to differ. Analysis within one species (Geospiza fortis) revealed significant inter-individual variation in regression parameters; these parameters did not correlate with song frequency features or plumage scores. Our results suggest that patterns of beak use during song production were conserved during the Darwin's finch adaptive radiation, despite the evolution of substantial variation in beak morphology and body size.

  18. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study.

  19. A mechanical experimental setup to simulate vocal folds vibrations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruty, Nicolas; Pelorson, Xavier; Lopez-Arteaga, Ines; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of vocal folds oscillation during phonation. In order to test theoretical models of phonation, a new experimental set-up using a deformable vocal folds replica is presented. The replica is shown to be able to produce self sustained oscillations under controlled experimental conditions. Therefore different parameters, such as those related to elasticity, to acoustical coupling or to the subglottal pressure can be quantitatively studied. In this work we focused on the oscillation fundamental frequency and the upstream pressure in order to start (on-set threshold) either end (off-set threshold) oscillations in presence of a downstream acoustical resonator. As an example, it is shown how this data can be used in order to test the theoretical predictions of a simple one-mass model.

  20. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  1. VOCALS-UK: An overview of UK VOCALS science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Vocals-Uk Science Team

    2010-12-01

    This paper will highlight a variety of process studies, observationally led studies and modelling studies, both completed and in progress, conducted by groups in the United Kingdom, working in collaboration with international partners on the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The VOCALS field experiment was conducted out of Arica, Chile, between October and November, 2008. The study aims to better understand the nature and variability of interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and steep topography, as well as local and long-range transport of pollutants and aerosol, in the context of their role in controlling the climate of the South East Pacific - an important region in terms of the global energy budget and which is currently poorly characterised in global climate models. Specific highlights will include a statistical representation of the SEP marine boundary layer during VOCALS-Rex to inform future modelling; an analysis of the synoptic and large-scale dynamical influences on cloud in the SEP; results from improved Met Office Unified Model forecast runs which examine aerosol-cloud interactions with a comparison to results from WRF-CHEM; and large eddy modelling of simulated gravity waves and their potential to induce open cellular convection (create pockets of open cells). In addition, early results from a number of further studies will be presented.

  2. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  3. Mapping emotions into acoustic space: the role of voice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sona; Scherer, Klaus R; Björkner, Eva; Sundberg, Johan

    2011-04-01

    Research on the vocal expression of emotion has long since used a "fishing expedition" approach to find acoustic markers for emotion categories and dimensions. Although partially successful, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. To illustrate that this research can profit from considering the underlying voice production mechanism, we specifically analyzed short affect bursts (sustained/a/vowels produced by 10 professional actors for five emotions) according to physiological variations in phonation (using acoustic parameters derived from the acoustic signal and the inverse filter estimated voice source waveform). Results show significant emotion main effects for 11 of 12 parameters. Subsequent principal components analysis revealed three components that explain acoustic variations due to emotion, including "tension," "perturbation," and "voicing frequency." These results suggest that future work may benefit from theory-guided development of parameters to assess differences in physiological voice production mechanisms in the vocal expression of different emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An exploratory baseline study of boy chorister vocal behaviour and development in an intensive professional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenevora; Welch, Graham; Howard, David M

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no existing published empirical longitudinal data on the singing behaviours and development of choristers who perform in UK cathedrals and major chapels. Longitudinal group data is needed to provide a baseline against which individual chorister development can be mapped. The choristers perform to a professional standard on a daily basis, usually with linked rehearsals, whilst also following a full school curriculum. The impact of this intensive schedule in relation to current vocal behaviour, health and future development requires investigation. Furthermore, it is also necessary to understand the relationship between the requirements of chorister singing behaviour and adolescent voice change. The paper will report the initial findings of a new longitudinal chorister study, based in one of London's cathedrals. Singing and vocal behaviours are being profiled on a six-monthly basis using data from a specially designed acoustic and behavioural instrument. The information obtained will enable us to understand better the effects of such training and performance on underlying vocal behaviour and vocal health. The findings will also have implications for singing teachers and choral directors in relation to particular methods of vocal education and rehearsal.

  5. Peripheral androgen action helps modulate vocal production in a suboscine passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Heston, Jonathan B; Schlinger, Barney A

    2014-07-01

    Androgenic activation of intracellular androgen receptors (AR) influences avian vocal production, though this has largely been investigated at the level of the brain. We investigated the influence of predominantly peripheral AR on vocal output in wild Golden-collared Manakins (Manacus vitellinus). In this suboscine species, males court females by performing acrobatic displays and by producing relatively simple chee-poo vocalizations. To assess whether peripheral AR influences the acoustic structure of these vocal signals, we treated reproductively active adult males with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide and then measured phonation performance. Inhibiting AR outside of the central nervous system increased the duration of the chee note and decreased the fundamental frequency of the poo note. This treatment caused no discernable change to chee-poo frequency modulation or entropy. Our results show that activation of peripheral AR mediates note-specific changes to temporal and pitch characteristics of the Golden-collared Manakin's main sexual call. Thus, our study provides one of the first demonstrations that androgenic action originating outside of the brain and likely on musculoskeletal targets can modulate avian vocal production.

  6. Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Delin; Garcia, Heriberto; Huang, Wei; Tran, Duong D; Jain, Ankita D; Yi, Dong Hoon; Gong, Zheng; Jech, J Michael; Godø, Olav Rune; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2016-03-17

    Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.

  7. Learned vocal variation is associated with abrupt cryptic genetic change in a parrot species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul F H Ribot

    Full Text Available Contact zones between subspecies or closely related species offer valuable insights into speciation processes. A typical feature of such zones is the presence of clinal variation in multiple traits. The nature of these traits and the concordance among clines are expected to influence whether and how quickly speciation will proceed. Learned signals, such as vocalizations in species having vocal learning (e.g. humans, many birds, bats and cetaceans, can exhibit rapid change and may accelerate reproductive isolation between populations. Therefore, particularly strong concordance among clines in learned signals and population genetic structure may be expected, even among continuous populations in the early stages of speciation. However, empirical evidence for this pattern is often limited because differences in vocalisations between populations are driven by habitat differences or have evolved in allopatry. We tested for this pattern in a unique system where we may be able to separate effects of habitat and evolutionary history. We studied geographic variation in the vocalizations of the crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans parrot species complex. Parrots are well known for their life-long vocal learning and cognitive abilities. We analysed contact calls across a ca 1300 km transect encompassing populations that differed in neutral genetic markers and plumage colour. We found steep clinal changes in two acoustic variables (fundamental frequency and peak frequency position. The positions of the two clines in vocal traits were concordant with a steep cline in microsatellite-based genetic variation, but were discordant with the steep clines in mtDNA, plumage and habitat. Our study provides new evidence that vocal variation, in a species with vocal learning, can coincide with areas of restricted gene flow across geographically continuous populations. Our results suggest that traits that evolve culturally can be strongly associated with reduced gene flow

  8. Variação da intensidade vocal: estudo da vibração das pregas vocais em seres humanos com videoquimografia Vocal intensity variation: a study of vocal folds vibration in humans with videokymography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry U. Koishi

    2003-08-01

    functional disorders, like adductor spasmodic dysphonia and hyperfunctional dysphonia, even during soft phonation. AIM: To evaluate the vibratory pattern of the vocal folds in subjects with normal voice according to intensity variation, in order to establish standard values for the vibratory cycle phases. These values may improve the diagnosis and the follow up of those disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight adults were evaluated during habitual (soft and loud phonation. Vocal folds vibration patterns were analyzed with videokymography. Vocal intensity variation was studied with acoustic analysis software, comparing the intensity levels during habitual phonation and loud phonation. RESULTS: The results showed a spontaneous fundamental frequency (F0 rise as vocal intensity grew and a decrease of the open quotient at loud intensity phonation. CONCLUSION: Sound intensity levels were established at habitual (63,46 dB and loud phonation (72,55dB. Open quotient (OQ values were also established for those intensity phonation levels.

  9. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit H. Yapanel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  10. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapanel UmitH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  11. The structure and usage of female and male mouse ultrasonic vocalizations reveal only minor differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hammerschmidt

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV of mice are increasingly recognized as informative dependent variables in studies using mouse models of human diseases. While pup vocalizations primarily serve to re-establish contact with the mother, adult male "songs" were considered to be courtship signals. Alternatively, mouse USVs may generally function as territorial signals. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we compared the structure and usage of adult male and female USVs in staged resident-intruder encounters. If calls function primarily as courtship signals, males should respond stronger than females, specifically when presented with a female intruder. Refuting this hypothesis, we found that in response to female intruders, females called more than males (228±32 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, and males called more to female than to male intruders (14±7.5 calls/min. There were no significant differences in the acoustic characteristics of the calls given by females and males. To control for the influence of the intruder's behavior on calling, we repeated the experiments using anaesthetized intruders. Again, females produced more calls to female than male intruders (173±17 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, while males called more in response to female than male intruders (39±17 calls/min, and there were no acoustic differences in female and male calls. The vocal activity did not differ significantly with regard to intruder state (awake or anaesthetized, while the acoustic structure exhibited significant differences. Taken together, our findings support the view that calls do not mainly function as courtship signals, although they might serve both a territorial (sex-independent and a courtship function. The comparison of responses to awake vs. anaesthetized intruders suggests that the latter are sufficient to elicit vocal activity. The subtle acoustic differences, however, indicate that the subject differentiates between intruder states.

  12. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  13. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  14. Universal vocal signals of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F.; Ekman, P.; Scott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  15. Speaker-Oriented Classroom Acoustics Design Guidelines in the Context of Current Regulations in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    experienced at work. With the aim of improving working conditions for teachers, this article presents guidelines for classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort and speech intelligibility, which may be of use in future discussions for updating regulatory requirements...... in classroom acoustics. Two room acoustic parameters are shown relevant for a speaker: the voice support, linked to vocal effort, and the decay time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response, linked to vocal comfort. Theoretical prediction models for room-averaged values of these parameters are combined...... with a model of speech intelligibility based on the useful-to-detrimental ratio and empirical models of signal-to-noise ratio in classrooms in order to derive classroom acoustic guidelines, taking into account physical volume restrictions linked to the number of students present in a classroom. The recommended...

  16. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, A; MOZZANICA, F.; Ginocchio, D.; MARUZZI, P.; Atac, M.; OTTAVIANI, F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. Th...

  17. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  18. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  19. Aesthetic and Culture Origin of Vocal Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延春

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most commonly and widely adopted art forms, vocal art has been closely related with national culture and the aesthetics trend. Traditional Chinese vocal art rooted from China' s long history and distinctive culture. On the contrary, Italian bel canto stems from the prospect of Italian Opera Art during the Renaissance period. This essay discusses the differences between East and West vocal art, from its aesthetic and culture origin.

  20. gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  1. Evidence of a Vocalic Proto-System in the Baboon (Papio papio) Suggests Pre-Hominin Speech Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boë, Louis-Jean; Berthommier, Frédéric; Legou, Thierry; Captier, Guillaume; Kemp, Caralyn; Sawallis, Thomas R.; Becker, Yannick; Rey, Arnaud; Fagot, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes. This confirms that hominoids can produce contrasting vowel qualities despite a high larynx. It suggests that spoken languages evolved from ancient articulatory skills already present in our last common ancestor with Cercopithecoidea, about 25 MYA. PMID:28076426

  2. Amplitude Modulations of Acoustic Communication Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.

    2011-12-01

    In human speech, amplitude modulations at 3 -- 8 Hz are important for discrimination and detection. Two different neurophysiological theories have been proposed to explain this effect. The first theory proposes that, as a consequence of neocortical synaptic dynamics, signals that are amplitude modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz are propagated better than un-modulated signals, or signals modulated above 8 Hz. This suggests that neural activity elicited by vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz is optimally transmitted, and the vocalizations better discriminated and detected. The second theory proposes that 3 -- 8 Hz amplitude modulations interact with spontaneous neocortical oscillations. Specifically, vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz entrain local populations of neurons, which in turn, modulate the amplitude of high frequency gamma oscillations. This suggests that vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz should induce stronger cross-frequency coupling. Similar to human speech, we found that macaque monkey vocalizations also are amplitude modulated between 3 and 8 Hz. Humans and macaque monkeys share similarities in vocal production, implying that the auditory systems subserving perception of acoustic communication signals also share similarities. Based on the similarities between human speech and macaque monkey vocalizations, we addressed how amplitude modulated vocalizations are processed in the auditory cortex of macaque monkeys, and what behavioral relevance modulations may have. Recording single neuron activity, as well as, the activity of local populations of neurons allowed us to test both of the neurophysiological theories presented above. We found that single neuron responses to vocalizations amplitude modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz resulted in better stimulus discrimination than vocalizations lacking 3 -- 8 Hz modulations, and that the effect most likely was mediated by synaptic dynamics. In contrast, we failed to find support for the oscillation-based model proposing a

  3. On the acoustics of overlapping laughter in conversational speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Trouvain, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The social nature of laughter invites people to laugh together. This joint vocal action often results in overlapping laughter. In this paper, we show that the acoustics of overlapping laughs are different from non-overlapping laughs. We found that overlapping laughs are stronger prosodically marked

  4. Acoustic telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive acoustic...

  5. Linear versus Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speaker Recognition (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    Schematic of vocal tract. B) Simple tube model for vowel production (a schwa sound). C) Vocal tract acoustic responses for a length L 16 cm (solid...However, based on theories in speech production , some speaker characteristics associated with the structure of the vocal tract, particularly the vocal...by the mel scale. However, based on theory in speech production [2][3], speaker characteristics associated with the structure of the vocal tract

  6. Three-Dimensional Optical Reconstruction of Vocal Fold Kinematics Using High-Speed Video With a Laser Projection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luegmair, Georg; Mehta, Daryush D; Kobler, James B; Döllinger, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Vocal fold kinematics and its interaction with aerodynamic characteristics play a primary role in acoustic sound production of the human voice. Investigating the temporal details of these kinematics using high-speed videoendoscopic imaging techniques has proven challenging in part due to the limitations of quantifying complex vocal fold vibratory behavior using only two spatial dimensions. Thus, we propose an optical method of reconstructing the superior vocal fold surface in three spatial dimensions using a high-speed video camera and laser projection system. Using stereo-triangulation principles, we extend the camera-laser projector method and present an efficient image processing workflow to generate the three-dimensional vocal fold surfaces during phonation captured at 4000 frames per second. Initial results are provided for airflow-driven vibration of an ex vivo vocal fold model in which at least 75% of visible laser points contributed to the reconstructed surface. The method captures the vertical motion of the vocal folds at a high accuracy to allow for the computation of three-dimensional mucosal wave features such as vibratory amplitude, velocity, and asymmetry.

  7. Quantitative measurement of the medial surface dynamics of the vocal folds using high-speed digital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellinger, Michael; Neubauer, Juergen; Berry, David A.

    2003-10-01

    To increase our understanding of pathological and healthy voice production, the quantitative measurement of the medial surface dynamics of the vocal folds is significant, albeit rarely performed because of the inaccessibility of the vocal folds. Hence, an excised hemilarynx procedure is applied, Berry et al. recently reported such quantitative measurements along one coronal plane of the left vocal fold of a canine [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2539-2547 (2001)]. The present work extends previous studies by capturing vibrations along the entire medial surface of the left vocal fold. The number of vertical rows of sutures used to demarcate fleshpoints was increased from one to five. An automatic algorithm for tracking vocal fold fleshpoints will be reported, along with calibration techniques, and error estimation. Preliminary results will be reported for both periodic and aperiodic vocal fold vibrations. High-speed digital imaging was performed using a Photron APX machine with a sampling frequency of 4000 Hz, a spatial resolution of 1024×512 pixels, and 256 levels of grayscale.

  8. Two-voice complexity from a single side of the syrinx in northern mockingbird Mimus polyglottos vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Sue Anne; Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2008-06-01

    The diverse vocal signals of songbirds are produced by highly coordinated motor patterns of syringeal and respiratory muscles. These muscles control separate sound generators on the right and left side of the duplex vocal organ, the syrinx. Whereas most song is under active neural control, there has been a growing interest in a different class of nonlinear vocalizations consisting of frequency jumps, subharmonics, biphonation and deterministic chaos that are also present in the vocal repertoires of many vertebrates, including many birds. These nonlinear phenomena may not require active neural control, depending instead on the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the oscillators housed within each side of the syrinx. This study investigates the occurrence of these phenomena in the vocalizations of intact northern mockingbirds Mimus polyglottos. By monitoring respiratory pressure and airflow on each side of the syrinx, we provide the first analysis of the contribution made by each side of the syrinx to the production of nonlinear phenomena and are able to reliably discriminate two-voice vocalizations from potentially similar appearing, unilaterally produced, nonlinear events. We present the first evidence of syringeal lateralization of nonlinear dynamics during bilaterally produced chaotic calls. The occurrence of unilateral nonlinear events was not consistently correlated with fluctuations in air sac pressure or the rate of syringeal airflow. Our data support previous hypotheses for mechanical and acoustic coupling between the two sides of the syrinx. These results help lay a foundation upon which to understand the communicative functions of nonlinear phenomena.

  9. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. First Communion: The Emergence of Vocal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that vocal communion between infant and caregiver supports infants' language acquisition and connectedness with caregivers. Recommends research to determine whether social behaviors such as joint attention and vocal imitation are functionally related to language learning or are only symptomatic of a survival-centered caregiving…

  11. Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H. J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; K M Prathima; Moideen, Riyaz

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

  12. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lautenbacher

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:. Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain.

  13. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer,Valquíria; Cielo,Carla Aparecida; Ferreira,Fernanda Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas...

  14. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  15. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: vocal and quality of life analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Furtado e Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare voice and life quality of male patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, with individuals without disease (Control Group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that evaluated the voice of individuals with Parkinson's disease, the group was composed of 27 subjects, aged from 39 to 79 years-old (average 59.96. The Control Group was matched on sex and age. Participants underwent voice recording. Perceptual evaluation was made using GRBASI scale, which considers G as the overall degree of dysphonia, R as roughness, B as breathiness, A as asthenia, S as strain and I as instability. The acoustic parameters analyzed were: fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic to noise ratio (NHR. For vocal self-perception analysis, we used the Voice Related Quality of Life protocol. RESULTS: Fundamental frequency and jitter presented higher values in the Parkinson's group. NHR values were higher in the Control Group. Perceptual analysis showed a deviation ranging. The vocal disorder self-perception demonstrated a worse impact on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with Parkinson's disease have an altered voice quality and a negative impact on quality of life.

  16. Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae) in Brazilian Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos

    2013-09-01

    The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare) is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal). The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA). We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans.

  17. Vocal Tremor: Novel Therapeutic Target for Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Ravikumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tremulous voice is characteristically associated with essential tremor, and is referred to as essential vocal tremor (EVT. Current estimates suggest that up to 40% of individuals diagnosed with essential tremor also present with EVT, which is associated with an impaired quality of life. Traditional EVT treatments have demonstrated limited success in long-term management of symptoms. However, voice tremor has been noted to decrease in patients receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS with the targeting of thalamic nuclei. In this study, we describe our multidisciplinary procedure for awake, frameless DBS with optimal stimulation targets as well as acoustic analysis and laryngoscopic assessment to quantify tremor reduction. Finally, we investigate the most recent clinical evidence regarding the procedure.

  18. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of ... UTI spreads to your kidneys. Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to ...

  20. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  1. Effects of vocal intensity and vowel type on cepstral analysis of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Giovinco, Ashley; Owens, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to specifically examine the effects of vocal loudness/intensity condition and vowel type on cepstral analysis measurements. Experimental, mixed design. Sustained vowel samples of /i/, /ɑ/, /u/, and /æ/ were elicited from 92 healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years at three different vocal loudness conditions: (1) "Comfortable pitch and loudness," (2) "As softly as possible without whispering," and (3) "As loudly as possible, without screaming/straining the voice or tensing of the neck region." Recordings were made using a calibrated headset microphone and digitized to computer. Vowel samples were analyzed for vocal intensity (decibels), fundamental frequency (F0 in Hertzz), and relative amplitude of the smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPs in decibels). Significant main effects of loudness condition (with a significant increase in CPPs from quiet to comfortable to loud voice) and gender (males having significantly greater mean CPPs than females) were observed. In addition, results indicated that vowel type had a significant effect on the CPP (greater CPPs for low vowels [/ɑ/ and /æ/] vs high vowels [/i/ and /u/]). The results of this study indicate that both the loudness/intensity of vowel elicitation and vowel type should be monitored closely in both research and clinical situations. Changes in the mode of phonation, as well supraglottal changes that effect vocal tract resonances and vocal intensity, appear to combine to result in substantial differences in the CPPs for different vocal loudness/intensity conditions and vowel types. These results indicate that separate cepstral norms are necessary for vowel type, as well as for gender, when using cepstral analysis as a clinical tool. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  3. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Classroom acoustics design for speakers’ comfort and speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, David Pelegrin; Rasmussen, Birgit; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Current European regulatory requirements or guidelines for reverberation time in classrooms have the goal of enhancing speech intelligibility for students and reducing noise levels in classrooms. At the same time, school teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to high vocal load...... experienced at work. With the aim of improving teachers’ working conditions, this paper proposes adjustments to current regulatory requirements on classroom acoustics in Europe from novel insights on classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort for teachers and speech...... are combined with a model of speech intelligibility based on the useful-to-detrimental ratio and empirical models of signal-to-noise ratio in classrooms in order to derive classroom acoustic guidelines, taking into account physical volume restrictions linked to the number of students present in a classroom...

  5. Acoustic Structure and Contextual Use of Calls by Captive Male and Female Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya S Smirnova

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120 and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts. Context-specific call types (chirr, growl, howl and hiss were related to courting behaviour (chirr or to aggressive behaviour (growl, howl and hiss. Other call types (chirp, purr and meow were not context-specific. The values of acoustic variables differed between call types. The meow was the most often call type. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high potential of meows to encode individual identity and sex at short terms, however, the vocal individuality was unstable over years. We discuss the contextual use and acoustic variables of call types, the ratios of individual and sex differences in calls and the pathways of vocal ontogeny in the cheetah with relevant data on vocalization of other animals.

  6. Acoustic Structure and Contextual Use of Calls by Captive Male and Female Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Darya S; Volodin, Ilya A; Demina, Tatyana S; Volodina, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120) and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females) in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts. Context-specific call types (chirr, growl, howl and hiss) were related to courting behaviour (chirr) or to aggressive behaviour (growl, howl and hiss). Other call types (chirp, purr and meow) were not context-specific. The values of acoustic variables differed between call types. The meow was the most often call type. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high potential of meows to encode individual identity and sex at short terms, however, the vocal individuality was unstable over years. We discuss the contextual use and acoustic variables of call types, the ratios of individual and sex differences in calls and the pathways of vocal ontogeny in the cheetah with relevant data on vocalization of other animals.

  7. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  8. Talking in Fury: The Cortico-Subcortical Network Underlying Angry Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Klaas, Hannah S; Patel, Sona; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Although the neural basis for the perception of vocal emotions has been described extensively, the neural basis for the expression of vocal emotions is almost unknown. Here, we asked participants both to repeat and to express high-arousing angry vocalizations to command (i.e., evoked expressions). First, repeated expressions elicited activity in the left middle superior temporal gyrus (STG), pointing to a short auditory memory trace for the repetition of vocal expressions. Evoked expressions activated the left hippocampus, suggesting the retrieval of long-term stored scripts. Secondly, angry compared with neutral expressions elicited activity in the inferior frontal cortex IFC and the dorsal basal ganglia (BG), specifically during evoked expressions. Angry expressions also activated the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the latter correlated with pupil size as an indicator of bodily arousal during emotional output behavior. Though uncorrelated, both ACC activity and pupil diameter were also increased during repetition trials indicating increased control demands during the more constraint production type of precisely repeating prosodic intonations. Finally, different acoustic measures of angry expressions were associated with activity in the left STG, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and dorsal BG. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Influence of parental deprivation on the behavioral development in Octodon degus: modulation by maternal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Katharina; Kremz, Petra; Wetzel, Wolfram; Wagner, Thomas; Poeggel, Gerd

    2003-04-01

    Repeated separation from the family during very early stages of life is a stressful emotional experience which induces a variety of neuronal and synaptic changes in limbic cortical areas that may be related to behavioral alterations. First, we investigated whether repeated parental separation and handling, without separation from the family, leads to altered spontaneous exploratory behavior in a novel environment (open field test) in 8-day-old Octodon degus. Second, we tested whether the parentally deprived and handled animals display different stimulus-evoked exploratory behaviors in a modified open field version, in which a positive emotional stimulus, the maternal call, was presented. In the open field test a significant influence of previous emotional experience was found for the parameters of running, rearing, and vocalization. Parentally deprived degus displayed increased horizontal (running) and vertical (rearing) motoric activities, but decreased vocalization, compared to normal and handled controls. The presentation of maternal vocalizations significantly modified running, vocalization, and grooming activities, which in the case of running activity was dependent on previous emotional experience. Both deprivation-induced locomotor hyperactivity together with the reduced behavioral response towards a familiar acoustic emotional signal are similar to behavioral disturbances observed in human attachment disorders.

  10. A Novel GMM-Based Feature Reduction for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observation, methods. There are different approaches and algorithms for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. These algorithms usually have three stages which are Feature Extraction, Feature Reduction and Classification. While the third stage implies a choice of a variety of machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Gaussian Mixture Model, etc., the first and second stages play a critical role in performance and accuracy of the classification system. In this study we present initial study of feature extraction and feature reduction in the task of vocal fold pathology diagnosis. A new type of feature vector, based on wavelet packet decomposition and Mel-Frequency-Cepstral-Coefficients (MFCCs, is proposed. Also a new method for feature reduction is proposed and compared with conventional methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA, F-Ratio and Fisher’s discriminant ratio. Gaussian Mixture Model is used as a classifier for evaluating the performance of the proposed method. The results show the priority of the proposed method in comparison with current methods.

  11. Segmentation of Killer Whale Vocalizations Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Adam

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of cetacean vocalizations is usually based on spectrogram analysis. The feature extraction is obtained from 2D methods like the edge detection algorithm. Difficulties appear when signal-to-noise ratios are weak or when more than one vocalization is simultaneously emitted. This is the case for acoustic observations in a natural environment and especially for the killer whales which swim in groups. To resolve this problem, we propose the use of the Hilbert-Huang transform. First, we illustrate how few modes (5 are satisfactory for the analysis of these calls. Then, we detail our approach which consists of combining the modes for extracting the time-varying frequencies of the vocalizations. This combination takes advantage of one of the empirical mode decomposition properties which is that the successive IMFs represent the original data broken down into frequency components from highest to lowest frequency. To evaluate the performance, our method is first applied on the simulated chirp signals. This approach allows us to link one chirp to one mode. Then we apply it on real signals emitted by killer whales. The results confirm that this method is a favorable alternative for the automatic extraction of killer whale vocalizations.

  12. Potential Sources of High Frequency and Biphonic Vocalization in the Dhole (Cuon alpinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Frey

    Full Text Available Biphonation, i.e. two independent fundamental frequencies in a call spectrum, is a prominent feature of vocal activity in dog-like canids. Dog-like canids can produce a low (f0 and a high (g0 fundamental frequency simultaneously. In contrast, fox-like canids are only capable of producing the low fundamental frequency (f0. Using a comparative anatomical approach for revealing macroscopic structures potentially responsible for canid biphonation, we investigated the vocal anatomy for 4 (1 male, 3 female captive dholes (Cuon alpinus and for 2 (1 male, 1 female wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes. In addition, we analyzed the acoustic structure of vocalizations in the same dholes that served postmortem as specimens for the anatomical investigation. All study dholes produced both high-frequency and biphonic calls. The anatomical reconstructions revealed that the vocal morphologies of the dhole are very similar to those of the red fox. These results suggest that the high-frequency and biphonic calls in dog-like canids can be produced without specific anatomical adaptations of the sound-producing structures. We discuss possible production modes for the high-frequency and biphonic calls involving laryngeal and nasal structures.

  13. Potential Sources of High Frequency and Biphonic Vocalization in the Dhole (Cuon alpinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Volodin, Ilya A; Fritsch, Guido; Volodina, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    Biphonation, i.e. two independent fundamental frequencies in a call spectrum, is a prominent feature of vocal activity in dog-like canids. Dog-like canids can produce a low (f0) and a high (g0) fundamental frequency simultaneously. In contrast, fox-like canids are only capable of producing the low fundamental frequency (f0). Using a comparative anatomical approach for revealing macroscopic structures potentially responsible for canid biphonation, we investigated the vocal anatomy for 4 (1 male, 3 female) captive dholes (Cuon alpinus) and for 2 (1 male, 1 female) wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes). In addition, we analyzed the acoustic structure of vocalizations in the same dholes that served postmortem as specimens for the anatomical investigation. All study dholes produced both high-frequency and biphonic calls. The anatomical reconstructions revealed that the vocal morphologies of the dhole are very similar to those of the red fox. These results suggest that the high-frequency and biphonic calls in dog-like canids can be produced without specific anatomical adaptations of the sound-producing structures. We discuss possible production modes for the high-frequency and biphonic calls involving laryngeal and nasal structures.

  14. Laryngeal biomechanics and vocal communication in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles H.; Alipour, Fariborz; Berry, David A.; Montequin, Douglas

    2003-04-01

    The larynges of eight squirrel monkeys were harvested, dissected, mounted on a pseudotracheal tube, and phonated using compressed air. Patterns of vocal fold oscillation were compared with sound spectrograms of calls recorded from monkeys in our colony. Four different regimes of vocal fold activation were identified. Regime 1 resembled typical human vowel production, with regular vocal-fold vibration, a prominent fundamental frequency, and an accompanying series of harmonic overtones. This regime is likely to give rise to squirrel monkey ``cackles,'' as well as a variety of other harmonically structured calls. In regime 2, the pattern of vibrations exhibited the presence of two or more unrelated frequencies (biphonation). This regime of glottal activity resembled the biphonation observed in many exemplars of ``twitter'' and ``kecker'' calls. The vocal folds oscillated continuously in regime 3, but produced glottal pulses whose amplitudes waxed and waned rhythmically. This phenomenon resulted in the percept of a series of discrete pulses, and may give rise to ``errs,'' ``churrs,'' and other calls composed of a rapid sequence of acoustic elements. In regime 4, the period of each oscillation was quasi-irregular. Shrieks and other broadband calls or call elements that lack an apparent fundamental frequency may be produced in this manner.

  15. Vocal production complexity correlates with neural instructions in the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemans, Coen P H; Mensinger, Allen F; Rome, Lawrence C

    2014-06-01

    Sound communication is fundamental to many social interactions and essential to courtship and agonistic behaviours in many vertebrates. The swimbladder and associated muscles in batrachoidid fishes (midshipman and toadfish) is a unique vertebrate sound production system, wherein fundamental frequencies are determined directly by the firing rate of a vocal-acoustic neural network that drives the contraction frequency of superfast swimbladder muscles. The oyster toadfish boatwhistle call starts with an irregular sound waveform that could be an emergent property of the peripheral nonlinear sound-producing system or reflect complex encoding in the central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that the start of the boatwhistle is indicative of a chaotic strange attractor, and tested whether its origin lies in the peripheral sound-producing system or in the vocal motor network. We recorded sound and swimbladder muscle activity in awake, freely behaving toadfish during motor nerve stimulation, and recorded sound, motor nerve and muscle activity during spontaneous grunts. The results show that rhythmic motor volleys do not cause complex sound signals. However, arrhythmic recruitment of swimbladder muscle during spontaneous grunts correlates with complex sounds. This supports the hypothesis that the irregular start of the boatwhistle is encoded in the vocal pre-motor neural network, and not caused by peripheral interactions with the sound-producing system. We suggest that sound production system demands across vocal tetrapods have selected for muscles and motorneurons adapted for speed, which can execute complex neural instructions into equivalently complex vocalisations. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    Humans routinely produce acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward high-definition (HD) voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE) is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing) when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from "The Star-Spangled Banner") with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants) and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  17. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans routinely create acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward HD voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from The Star-Spangled Banner with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  18. Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hagen, Leonie; Rodríguez, Ariel; Menke, Norbert; Göcking, Christian; Bisping, Michael; Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Ziegler, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic communication is prominent in adult anuran amphibians, in reproductive, territorial and defensive contexts. In contrast, reports on vocalizations of juvenile anurans are rare and anecdotal, and their function unstudied. We here provide conclusive evidence for vocalizations in juvenile spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) in very early terrestrial stages. While the aquatic tadpoles did not emit sounds, first vocalizations of metamorphs were heard as early as in stages 42-43, and calls were regularly emitted from stage 44 on, often from specimens still bearing extensive tail stubs. Three main types of calls could be distinguished, of which one consists of a series of short notes, one of a typically single longer and pulsed note, and one of a single tonal note. In experimental setups, the number of calls per froglet increased with density of individuals and after feeding, while on the contrary calls were not elicited by playback. The function of these juvenile calls remains unclarified, but they might reflect a general arousal in the context of feeding. Further evidence is necessary to test whether such feeding calls could confer a signal to conspecifics and thus might represent intraspecific acoustic communication in these immature terrestrial amphibians.

  19. Acoustic biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of ...

  20. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  1. 听障儿童声带小结个案研究%A Case Study of a Hearing-impaired Child with Vocal Nodule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金秀; 白银婷; 黄昭鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effective vocal training for a hearing-impaired child with vocal nodule. Methods The child with vocal nodule received the vocal training. A single-subject experimental design was applied to analyze the acoustic parameters such as FO, jitter, shimmer and NNE before and after the treatment so as to monitor the training effect. Results There was a significant difference in F0(P0.05). Conclusion The integrated vocal training including laryngea! Massage, vocal cord relaxation and yawn-sigh technique, is an effective approach for hearing-impaired children with vocal nodule.%目的 探讨听障儿童声带小结发声训练的有效方法.方法 对一名患有声带小结的听障患儿进行发声训练,采用单一被试法分析治疗前后声学参数F0、jitter、shimmer、NNE,监控其训练效果.结果 基线期与处理期的F0有显著性差异(P0.05).结论 喉部按摩、声带放松训练、哈欠-叹息法等综合发声训练对改善听障儿童声带小结有着较好的效果.

  2. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Form and function of long-range vocalizations in a Neotropical fossorial rodent: the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Amaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground environment poses particular communication challenges for subterranean rodents. Some loud and low-pitched acoustic signals that can travel long distances are appropriate for long-range underground communication and have been suggested to be territorial signals. Long-range vocalizations (LRVs are important in long-distance communication in Ctenomys tuco-tucos. We characterized the LRV of the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp. using recordings from free-living individuals and described the behavioral context in which this vocalization was produced during laboratory staged encounters between individuals of both sexes. Long-range calls of Anillaco tuco-tucos are low-frequency, broad-band, loud, and long sounds composed by the repetition of two syllable types: series (formed by notes and soft-notes and individual notes. All vocalizations were initiated with series, but not all had individual notes. Males were heavier than females and gave significantly lower-pitched vocalizations, but acoustic features were independent of body mass in males. The pronounced variation among individuals in the arrangement and number of syllables and the existence of three types of series (dyads, triads, and tetrads, created a diverse collection of syntactic patterns in vocalizations that would provide the opportunity to encode multiple types of information. The existence of complex syntactic patterns and the description of soft-notes represent new aspects of the vocal communication of Ctenomys. Long-distance vocalizations by Anillaco Tuco-Tucos appear to be territorial signals used mostly in male-male interactions. First, emission of LRVs resulted in de-escalation or space-keeping in male-male and male-female encounters in laboratory experiments. Second, these vocalizations were produced most frequently (in the field and in the lab by males in our study population. Third, males produced LRVs with greater frequency during male-male encounters compared to

  4. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx.

  5. Vocal cord paralysis in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Stephen; Brennan, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present in this case report the return to flying duty of a pilot with vocal cord paralysis secondary to removal of a thymoma. We discuss the importance of glottic function as it pertains to the unique aviation environment. We also discuss the anatomy and physiology of the glottis, the evaluation for vocal cord paralysis, and surgical approaches for paralyzed vocal cords. Although the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis is low in the military aviation community, it is important to recognize that its sequelae can be managed so that the aviator may return to flight duties.

  6. Evaluation of Synthetic Self-Oscillating Models of the Vocal Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Elizabeth P.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Hancock, Adrienne B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 30% of people will suffer from a voice disorder at some point in their lives. The probability doubles for those who rely heavily on their voice, such as teachers and singers. Synthetic vocal fold (VF) models are fabricated and evaluated experimentally in a vocal tract simulator to replicate physiological conditions. Pressure measurements are acquired along the vocal tract and high-speed images are captured at varying flow rates during VF oscillation to facilitate understanding of the characteristics of healthy and damaged VFs. The images are analyzed using a videokymography line-scan technique that has been used to examine VF motion and mucosal wave dynamics in vivo. Clinically relevant parameters calculated from the volume-velocity output of a circumferentially-vented mask (Rothenberg mask) are compared to patient data. This study integrates speech science with engineering and flow physics to overcome current limitations of synthetic VF models to properly replicate normal phonation in order to advance the understanding of resulting flow features, progression of pathological conditions, and medical techniques. Supported by the GW Institute for Biomedical Engineering (GWIBE) and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  7. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04

  8. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  9. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  10. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pascal Belin; Shirley Fecteau; Ian Charest; Nicholas Nicastro; Marc D Hauser; Jorge L Armony

    2008-01-01

    .... Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys...

  11. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  12. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... chapters represent review articles covering the most relevant areas of the field. They are written with the goal of providing students with comprehensive introductions. Further they offer a supply of numerous references to the relevant literature. Besides its usefulness as a textbook, this will make...

  13. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  14. Nonlinear Bayesian cue integration explains the dynamics of vocal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baohua; Sober, Samuel; Nemenman, Ilya

    The acoustics of vocal production in songbirds is tightly regulated during both development and adulthood as birds progressively refine their song using sensory feedback to match an acoustic target. Here, we perturb this sensory feedback using headphones to shift the pitch (fundamental frequency) of song. When the pitch is shifted upwards (downwards), birds eventually learn to compensate and sing lower (higher), bringing the experienced pitch closer to the target. Paradoxically, the speed and amplitude of this motor learning decrease with increases in the introduced error size, so that birds respond rapidly to a small sensory perturbation, while seemingly never correcting a much bigger one. Similar results are observed broadly across the animal kingdom, and they do not derive from a limited plasticity of the adult brain since birds can compensate for a large error as long as the error is imposed gradually. We develop a mathematical model based on nonlinear Bayesian integration of two sensory modalities (one perturbed and the other not) that quantitatively explains all of these observations. The model makes predictions about the structure of the probability distribution of the pitches sung by birds during the pitch shift experiments, which we confirm using experimental data. This work was supported in part by James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant # 220020321, NSF Grant # IOS/1208126, NSF Grant # IOS/1456912 and NIH Grants # R01NS084844.

  15. Ontogenesis of agonistic vocalizations in the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Scaion, Delphine; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Attia, Joël; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    While acoustic communication has been described in adults of various fish species, our knowledge about the ontogeny of fish sound production is limited. In adults, sound signals are known to be involved during aggressive interactions. However, aggressive behaviour may appear early in the life of fishes due to the possible competition for food and space. If acoustic signals are used to send information to competitors, sounds are likely to play a role during interactions between juvenile fish as well. The apparition and evolution of sound production were monitored in a group of juveniles of the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra from hatching to 4 months of age. In addition, the link between vocalizations and agonistic behaviour was studied during dyadic interactions at three different ages. Sounds production appeared to be present early in the development of this fish and increased along with the number of aggressive behaviours. Recorded sounds consisted, in juveniles, in isolated pulses showing a decrease in frequency and duration as the fish grew. In adults, sounds became bursts of pulses but the transition from isolated to repetitive pulses was not observed. These results are compared to the existing literature on sound production ontogeny in fishes.

  16. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    begun. Diazepam , chlordiazepoxide , morphine, or naloxone was administered I.P. prior to placing the rat in the tailshock apparatus. Four different...by chlordiazepoxide and diazepam . Drug Dev. Res., 5, 185-193 (1985). Gardner, C.R., and Budhram, P. Effects of agents which interact with central... diazepam , and chlorpromazine, attenuate these vocalizations. Recent work by Kaltwasser (1990) examined the occurrence of vocalizations in response to

  17. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear mode...

  18. A bioreactor for the dynamic mechanical stimulation of vocal-fold fibroblasts based on vibro-acoustography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.; Rodriguez, Maritza

    2005-09-01

    During voice production, the vocal folds undergo airflow-induced self-sustained oscillation at a fundamental frequency of around 100-1000 Hz, with an amplitude of around 1-3 mm. The vocal-fold extracellular matrix (ECM), with appropriate tissue viscoelastic properties, is optimally tuned for such vibration. Vocal-fold fibroblasts regulate the gene expressions for key ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, fibromodulin, and hyaluronic acid), and these expressions are affected by the stress fields experi- enced by the fibroblasts. This study attempts to develop a bioreactor for cultivating cells under a micromechanical environment similar to that in vivo, based on the principle of vibro-acoustography. Vocal-fold fibroblasts from primary culture were grown in 3D, biodegradable scaffolds, and were excited dynamically by the radiation force generated by amplitude modulation of two confocal ultrasound beams of slightly different frequencies. Low-frequency acoustic radiation force was applied to the scaffold surface, and its vibratory response was imaged by videostroboscopy. A phantom tissue (standard viscoelastic material) with known elastic modulus was also excited and its vibratory frequency and amplitude were measured by videostroboscopy. Results showed that the bioreactor was capable of delivering mechanical stimuli to the tissue constructs in a physiological frequency range (100-1000 Hz), supporting its potential for vocal-fold tissue engineering applications. [Work supported by NIH Grant R01 DC006101.

  19. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  20. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  2. Terrestrial predator alarm vocalizations are a valid monitor of stress in captive brown capuchins (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The vocal behavior of captive animals is increasingly exploited as an index of well-being. Here we show that the terrestrial predator alarm (TPA) vocalization, a robust and acoustically distinctive anti-predation vocal response present in many mammal and bird species, offers useful information on the relative well-being and stress levels of captive animals. In a 16-week experiment evaluating the effects of varying levels of physical environmental enrichment (control cages of eight singly housed adult male brown capuchins, we quantified the 1) emission rate of TPAs, 2) proportions of normal and abnormal behavior sample intervals, and 3) fecal and plasma cortisol levels. Variation in TPA emission across the experimental conditions was significant. We found significant reductions in the mean TPA production rate by the group in the enriched (toys, foraging box, and foraging box and toys) compared to the control condition; pre-and post-experimental conditions, however, did not differ from the control condition. Mean TPA production by the group was also significantly positively correlated to mean group levels of fecal cortisol and proportion of abnormal behavior sample intervals, and significantly negatively correlated to the average proportion of normal behavior sample intervals in the group. Based on group means, plasma cortisol levels were positively, but not significantly, related to increasing TPA rate. At the level of the responses of an individual subject, however, the covariation between the vocal and non-vocal behavioral measures and the cortisol assays seldom attained significance. Nevertheless, the direction of the relationships among these parameters within individual subjects typically mirrored those correlations based on group means. At both the group mean and individual levels, our results are consistent with the.

  3. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  4. The Research of the Relationship between Perceived Stress Level and Times of Vibration of Vocal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhigang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Whether a syllable is perceived as stressed or not and whether the stress is strong or weak are hot issues in speech prosody research and speech recognition. A focus of the stress study is on the investigation of the acoustic factors which contribute to the perception of stress level. This study examined all possible acoustic/physiological cues to stress based on data from Annotated Chinese Speech Corpus and proposed that times of vibration of vocal folds (TVVF reflects stress level best. It is traditionally held that pitch and duration are the most important acoustic parameters to stress. But for Chinese which is a tone language and features special strong-weak pattern in prosody, these two parameters might not be the best ones to represent stress degree. This paper proposed that TVVF, reflected as the number of wave pulses of the vocalic part of a syllable, is the ideal parameter to stress level. Since number of pulses is the integral of pitch and duration (Pulse=?f(pitchdt, TVVF can embody the effect of stress on both pitch and duration. The analyses revealed that TVVF is most correlated with the grades of stress. Therefore, it can be a more effective parameter indicating stress level.

  5. Relationships between vocal structures, the airway, and craniocervical posture investigated using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicola A; Gregory, Jennifer S; Semple, Scott I K; Aspden, Richard M; Stollery, Peter J; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2012-01-01

    Traditional voice research focuses on the vocal tract, articulators, and larynx. By ignoring their direct/indirect attachments (skull, cervical spine, and sternum) important information may be missed. We aim to investigate vocal structures within this wider context and assess the validity of this approach for subsequent voice production studies. Using a cross-sectional study design, we obtained midsagittal MR images from 10 healthy adults (five males and five females) while at rest and breathing quietly. With reference points based on cephalometry, 17 craniocervical, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior variables were chosen to describe craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, and airway dimensions. Relationships between variables were sought using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We found widespread correlations relating vocal structures to the craniofacial skeleton and cervical spine (r>0.6). Increasing airway size (hyocervical distance) was associated with greater distances from the cranial base of the hyoid, larynx, epiglottis tip and uvula tip, and of C3 from the menton. A wider velopharyngeal opening was associated with a shorter and higher soft palate, and a greater (lower) craniocervical angle was associated with a wider laryngeal tube opening, narrower airway at the uvula tip and shorter distances of the hyoid and uvula tip from the cranial base. Finding widespread correlations relating vocal structures to the craniofacial skeleton and cervical spine confirms the potential of this approach to uncover functional activity during voice production and demonstrates the importance of considering vocal structures and the airway within this wider context if important information is not to be missed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  7. Correlation between vocal functions and glottal measurements in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagi, K; Khidr, A A; Ford, C N; Bless, D M; Heisey, D M

    1997-06-01

    Observations and analysis of glottal characteristics are critical in choosing the best modality for surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP). This study suggests that multiple glottal characteristics influence the vocal product in patients with UVP. In addition to the horizontal position of the paralyzed vocal fold (deviation from the midline), the glottal area, degree of bowing of the paralyzed and contralateral vocal folds, maximum separation between vocal folds, compensatory glottal maneuvers, and the vertical glottic closure plane significantly influenced the quality of the voice. Clinicians should be aware of these observations to facilitate treatment planning and assessment of the results of surgical procedures used to improve voice quality in cases of UVP.

  8. Booming far: the long-range vocal strategy of a lekking bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornec, C; Hingrat, Y; Aubin, T; Rybak, F

    2017-08-01

    The pressures of selection acting on transmission of information by acoustic signals are particularly high in long-distance communication networks. Males of the North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) produce extremely low-frequency vocalizations called 'booms' as a component of their courtship displays. These displays are performed on sites separated by a distance of on average 550 m, constituting exploded leks. Here, we investigate the acoustic features of booms involved in species-specific identity. We first assessed the modifications of acoustic parameters during boom transmission at long range within the natural habitat of the species, finding that the frequency content of booms was reliably transmitted up to 600 m. Additionally, by testing males' behavioural responses to playbacks of modified signals, we found that the presence of the second harmonic and the frequency modulation are the key parameters for species identification, and also that a sequence of booms elicited stronger responses than a single boom. Thus, the coding-decoding process relies on redundant and propagation-resistant features, making the booms particularly well adapted for the long-range transmission of information between males. Moreover, by experimentally disentangling the presentation of visual and acoustic signals, we showed that during the booming phase of courtship, the two sensory modalities act in synergy. The acoustic component is dominant in the context of intra-sexual competition. While the visual component is not necessary to induce agonistic response, it acts as an amplifier and reduces the time of detection of the signaller. The utilization of these adaptive strategies allows houbara males to maximize the active space of vocalizations emitted in exploded leks.

  9. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  11. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  12. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  13. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  14. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  15. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  16. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  17. Comment on “Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms” [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2072–2082 (2009)] (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a paper written by Brunskog Gade, Paya´-Ballester and Reig-Calbo, “Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms” [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2072–2082 (2009)] related teachers’ variation in vocal intensity during lecturing to the room acoustic conditions, introducing...

  18. Individual, unit and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gero, Shane; Whitehead, Hal; Rendell, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The ‘social complexity hypothesis’ suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally...... transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as ‘codas’. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units—the basic element of sperm whale society—using data from nine Caribbean social units across six years. Codas were assigned to individuals using photo...

  19. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  20. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  1. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  2. Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in the brain of Gekko gecko: implications for understanding the role of androgens in controlling auditory and vocal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y Z; Piao, Y S; Zhuang, L Z; Wang, Z W

    2001-09-17

    The neuroanatomical distribution of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA-containing cells in the brain of a vocal lizard, Gekko gecko, was mapped using in situ hybridization. Particular attention was given to auditory and vocal nuclei. Within the auditory system, the cochlear nuclei, the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis, the nucleus medialis, and the medial region of the dorsal ventricular ridge contained moderate numbers of labeled neurons. Neurons labeled with the AR probe were located in many nuclei related to vocalization. Within the hindbrain, the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the vagal part of the nucleus ambiguus, and the dosal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve contained many neurons that exhibited strong expression of AR mRNA. Neurons located in the peripheral nucleus of the torus in the mesencephalon exhibited moderate levels of hybridization. Intense AR mRNA expression was also observed in neurons within two other areas that may be involved in vocalization, the medial preoptic area and the hypoglossal nucleus. The strongest mRNA signals identified in this study were found in cells of the pallium, hypothalamus, and inferior nucleus of the raphe. The expression patterns of AR mRNA in the auditory and vocal control nuclei of G. gecko suggest that neurons involved in acoustic communication in this species, and perhaps related species, are susceptible to regulation by androgens during the breeding season. The significance of these results for understanding the evolution of reptilian vocal communication is discussed.

  3. Efetividade de um programa de aprimoramento vocal para professores Effectiveness of a vocal improvement program for teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar parâmetros fonoarticulatórios de professores, pré e pós-programa de aprimoramento vocal. MÉTODO: um programa de aprimoramento vocal foi oferecido numa escola estadual do município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. Treze professores aceitaram participar do programa. Devido ao critério de exclusão, apenas cinco foram selecionados para as análises. Os sujeitos foram previamente submetidos à avaliação laringológica. Foram realizados 12 encontros semanais de 1 hora e 30 minutos na própria escola. No primeiro e no último encontro os sujeitos gravaram três "frases-veículo". As gravações foram submetidas à análise perceptivo-auditiva (para avaliação do pitch, da modulação e da articulação e acústica (para avaliação da freqüência fundamental, da extensão de freqüência e dos dois primeiros formantes. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: mesmo com o pequeno número de sujeitos, os resultados do presente estudo, revelaram ampliação significante da extensão de freqüência, indicando maior uso deste recurso expressivo pós-aprimoramento, além do aumento estatisticamente significante de F1 nas vogais /i/ e /u/ pós-intervenção, sugerindo melhora no ajuste articulatório. CONCLUSÕES: não foram observadas modificações no pitch, modulação e articulação avaliados por meio da análise perceptivo-auditiva, bem como da freqüência fundamental pós-intervenção.PURPOSE: to analyze and correlate teachers' vocal and articulation parameters in a pre and post vocal improvement program. METHOD: a vocal improvement program was offered to a fundamental education state school, located in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Thirteen teachers agreed to take part in the program, however, due to the exclusion criterion, only five "subjects" were selected for the analysis. Teachers were previously submitted to a laryngologist evaluation. Twelve weekly meetings of one and a half hour each

  4. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  6. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  7. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  8. Gestures, vocalizations and memory in language origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to conciliate two existing views on language evolution: one that makes emphasis on hand control and gestures, and the other that makes emphasis on auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced into the non-human primate brain. In its core, this circuit makes up an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a ventral pathway connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a dorsal pathway connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homologue to the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-ventrolateral prefrontal network for hand and gestural action selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of this dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to have marked a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  9. Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys' (Alouatta pigra): Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Jaramillo, Margarita; Biquand, Véronique; Estrada, Alejandro; Lemasson, Alban

    2017-01-17

    Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males' call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.

  10. Acoustic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  11. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  12. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture......-validated training and test setup. The database is divided in two different ways: with/without artist overlap between training and test sets, so as to study the so called ‘artist effect’. The performance and results are analyzed in depth: from error rates to sample-to-sample error correlation. A voting scheme...

  13. Vocal responses of austral forest frogs to amplitude and degradation patterns of advertisement calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Mario; Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Muñoz, Matías I; Cisternas, Javiera

    2017-07-01

    Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns. The results show a strong dependence of vocal responses on signal amplitude, and a general lack of differential responses to signals with different pulse amplitude modulation depths in E. emiliopugini and no effect of relative amplitude of harmonics in E. calcaratus. Such limited discrimination of signal degradation patterns from non-degraded signals is likely related to the burrowing habits of these species. Shelters amplify outgoing and incoming conspecific vocalizations, but do not counteract signal degradation to an extent comparable to calling strategies used by other frogs. The limited detection abilities and resultant response permissiveness to degraded calls in these syntopic burrowing species would be advantageous for animals communicating in circumstances in which signal alteration prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis and localization of blue whale vocalizations in the Solomon Sea using waveform amplitude data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Scott D; Ferris, Aaron N

    2011-08-01

    During the Woodlark Basin seismic experiment in eastern Papua New Guinea (1999-2000), an ocean-bottom seismic array recorded marine mammal vocalizations along with target earthquake signals. The array consisted of 14 instruments, 7 of which were three-component seismometers with a fourth component hydrophone. They were deployed at 2.0-3.2 km water depth and operated from September 1999 through February 2000. While whale vocalizations were recorded throughout the deployment, this study focuses on 3 h from December 21, 1999 during which the signals are particularly clear. The recordings show a blue whale song composed of a three-unit phrase. That song does not match vocalization characteristics of other known Pacific subpopulations and may represent a previously undocumented blue whale song. Animal tracking and source level estimates are obtained with a Bayesian inversion method that generates probabilistic source locations. The Bayesian method is augmented to include travel time estimates from seismometers and hydrophones and acoustic signal amplitude. Tracking results show the whale traveled northeasterly over the course of 3 h, covering approximately 27 km. The path followed the edge of the Woodlark Basin along a shelf that separates the shallow waters of the Trobriand platform from the deep waters of the basin.

  15. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Cannito

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Cannito, Joel C Kahane, Lesya ChornaSchool of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age.Keywords: vocal aging, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, botulinum toxin, voice quality, speech fluency

  16. The contribution of sound intensity in vocal emotion perception: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhai Chen

    Full Text Available Although its role is frequently stressed in acoustic profile for vocal emotion, sound intensity is frequently regarded as a control parameter in neurocognitive studies of vocal emotion, leaving its role and neural underpinnings unclear. To investigate these issues, we asked participants to rate the angry level of neutral and angry prosodies before and after sound intensity modification in Experiment 1, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG for mismatching emotional prosodies with and without sound intensity modification and for matching emotional prosodies while participants performed emotional feature or sound intensity congruity judgment in Experiment 2. It was found that sound intensity modification had significant effect on the rating of angry level for angry prosodies, but not for neutral ones. Moreover, mismatching emotional prosodies, relative to matching ones, induced enhanced N2/P3 complex and theta band synchronization irrespective of sound intensity modification and task demands. However, mismatching emotional prosodies with reduced sound intensity showed prolonged peak latency and decreased amplitude in N2/P3 complex and smaller theta band synchronization. These findings suggest that though it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, sound intensity contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that sound intensity should not simply be taken as a control parameter and its unique role needs to be specified in vocal emotion studies.

  17. Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

  18. Comparison of electroglottographic and acoustic analysis of pitch perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Maves, M D; Scialfa, T M; Eitnier, C M; Steckol, K F

    1992-11-01

    Pitch perturbation is a measure of the cycle-to-cycle variation in vocal fold vibration. Perturbation can be assessed by means of electroglottographic or acoustic signals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these two analysis techniques are equivalent measures. The Laryngograph, an electroglottograph, and the Visi-Pitch, an acoustic analyzer, were used to measure pitch perturbation in 80 dysphonic subjects. Both instruments use Koike's formula to calculate relative average perturbation. While intra-subject variability appeared erratic, statistical analysis of intersubject data indicated that the two instruments provided an equivalent measure of pitch perturbation.

  19. Advanced Methods for Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and Localization of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Classification, and Localization of Marine Mammals Jonathan Klay NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) 2115 SE OSU Dr. Newport, OR...classify marine mammal vocalizations and ultimately, in some cases, provide data for estimating the population density of the species present. In...types of marine mammal sounds. OBJECTIVES We are developing advanced real-time passive acoustic marine mammal detection, classification, and

  20. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    1. Acoustic surveys have become a common survey method for bats and other vocal taxa. Previous work shows that bat echolocation may be misidentified, but common analytic methods, such as occupancy models, assume that misidentifications do not occur. Unless rare, such misidentifications could lead to incorrect inferences with significant management implications.

  1. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  2. Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. G.

    2001-05-01

    Acoustics plays a very important multi-faceted role in Vedic Hinduism. Vedas, that is an infinitely large collection of chants (mantras) in ancient Sanskrit language, form the foundational literature of Vedic Hinduism. The Vedic chants have specific acoustical qualities and intonations. The Vedic literature describes the various aspects of acoustics, namely, philosophical, spiritual, and cultural. The use of sounds from conch-shell, bells, cymbal in addition to the Vedic chants in rituals shows the spiritual aspects. Vedic literature discusses the role of sound in the philosophical understanding of our world. Music, both vocal and instrumental, plays an important role in the cultural aspects of Vedic Hinduism. It can be seen that certain musical instruments such as ``mridangam,'' a percussion drum, reflect scientific principles underlying in their design. This paper presents an overview of the various important and interesting roles of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism.

  3. Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. G.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics plays a very important multi-faceted role in Vedic Hinduism. Vedas, that is an infinitely large collection of chants (mantras) in ancient Sanskrit language, form the foundational literature of Vedic Hinduism. The Vedic chants have specific acoustical qualities and intonations. The Vedic literature describes the various aspects of acoustics, namely, philosophical, spiritual, and cultural. The use of sounds from conch-shell, bells, cymbal in addition to the Vedic chants in rituals shows the spiritual aspects. Vedic literature discusses the role of sound in the philosophical understanding of our world. Music, both vocal and instrumental, plays an important role in the cultural aspects of Vedic Hinduism. It can be seen that certain musical instruments such as ``mridangam,'' a percussion drum, reflect scientific principles underlying in their design. This paper presents an overview of the various important and interesting roles of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism.

  4. Vocal Variability Post Swallowing in Individuals with and without Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Karoline Weber dos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Voice modification after swallowing may indicate changes in the transit of the bolus. Objective The aim of this study is to verify the use of perceptual voice analysis to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Study Design Case series. Methods Twenty-seven patients with dysphagia as diagnosed by videofluoroscopy and 25 without were evaluated. The sustained vowel /a/ was recorded before this exam and after swallowing different consistencies (pasty, liquid and solid. For the voice evaluation, the GRBAS scale (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain and the parameter “wet voice” were used. Three judges blinded to study group and time of emission performed voice analysis. Results Individuals with dysphagia showed significant decrease in grade of voice and asthenia and increase in strain after swallowing pasty substances, differing from individuals without dysphagia who showed no modification of the parameters after swallowing. The wet voice parameter showed no difference after swallowing in both study groups. Conclusion The decrease in grade and asthenia and increased strain are indicative of a swallowing disorder, indicating increased vocal strain to clean the vocal tract of food. The modification of vocal production after swallowing proved to be a trusted resource for detection of swallowing disorders.

  5. Variation in harbour seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls among recoding sites relevant for passive acoustic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...

  6. Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features.

  7. Droplets Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Dahan, Raphael; Carmon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to their capillary resonances (Rayleigh, 1879) and their optical resonances (Ashkin, 1977), droplets acoustical resonances were rarely considered. Here we experimentally excite, for the first time, the acoustical resonances of a droplet that relies on sound instead of capillary waves. Droplets vibrations at 37 MHz rates and 100 quality factor are optically excited and interrogated at an optical threshold of 68 microWatt. Our vibrations span a spectral band that is 1000 times higher when compared with drops previously-studied capillary vibration.

  8. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  9. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  10. [Etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of vocal fold paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Hoffmann, T K; Rotter, N; Pickhard, A; Scheithauer, M O; Brosch, S

    2014-03-01

    Etiology of vocal fold paralysis is broad: e. g. iatrogenic/traumatic, associated with neoplasms or with systemic diseases. The cause of idiopathic paralysis is unknown. The main symptom of unilateral vocal fold paralysis is hoarseness because of a remaining glottic gap during phonation. Patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis typically have no impairment of the voice but dyspnea. Examination of patients with an idopathic vocal fold paralysis is a CT of the vagal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve from skull base to neck and mediastinum. Serological tests are not obligatory. Differential diagnosis of vocal fold immobility is vocal fold paralysis/neurological causes and arthrogene causes such as arytenoid subluxation, interarytenoid adhesion and vocal fold fixation in laryngeal carcinomas. Voice therapy is a promising approach for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, but not all patients benefit sufficiently. Temporary vocal fold augmentation by injection medialization results in satisfactory voice quality that is comparable with a thyroplasty. Patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility show typically dyspnea requiring immediate therapy such as temporary tracheotomy or reversible laterofixation of the paralyzed vocal chord. If the paralysis persists a definitive enlargement of the glottic airway by eg. arytenoidectomy needs to be performed.

  11. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  12. Bird population density estimated from acoustic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Efford, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Many animal species are detected primarily by sound. Although songs, calls and other sounds are often used for population assessment, as in bird point counts and hydrophone surveys of cetaceans, there are few rigorous methods for estimating population density from acoustic data. 2. The problem has several parts - distinguishing individuals, adjusting for individuals that are missed, and adjusting for the area sampled. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) is a statistical methodology that addresses jointly the second and third parts of the problem. We have extended SECR to use uncalibrated information from acoustic signals on the distance to each source. 3. We applied this extension of SECR to data from an acoustic survey of ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla density in an eastern US deciduous forest with multiple four-microphone arrays. We modelled average power from spectrograms of ovenbird songs measured within a window of 0??7 s duration and frequencies between 4200 and 5200 Hz. 4. The resulting estimates of the density of singing males (0??19 ha -1 SE 0??03 ha-1) were consistent with estimates of the adult male population density from mist-netting (0??36 ha-1 SE 0??12 ha-1). The fitted model predicts sound attenuation of 0??11 dB m-1 (SE 0??01 dB m-1) in excess of losses from spherical spreading. 5.Synthesis and applications. Our method for estimating animal population density from acoustic signals fills a gap in the census methods available for visually cryptic but vocal taxa, including many species of bird and cetacean. The necessary equipment is simple and readily available; as few as two microphones may provide adequate estimates, given spatial replication. The method requires that individuals detected at the same place are acoustically distinguishable and all individuals vocalize during the recording interval, or that the per capita rate of vocalization is known. We believe these requirements can be met, with suitable field methods, for a significant

  13. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language.

  14. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  15. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  16. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  17. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  18. Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Stephen A

    2003-11-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. The resultant symptoms can include dyspnea, chest tightness, cough, throat tightness, wheezing, or voice change. Most patients with VCD are female, and among adolescents and children, VCD tends to be triggered by exercise and is typically confused with exercise-induced asthma. Both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychiatric illness have been reported as having strong associations with VCD, although, to date, there is no evidence that either causes VCD. VCD often coexists with asthma, and should be suspected in any patient in whom asthma treatment fails. Confirming the diagnosis involves direct visualization of abnormal vocal cord motion, and this usually only occurs during symptoms. Adolescent athletes often require free running exercise challenge to reproduce their symptoms and confirm abnormal vocal cord motion laryngoscopically. The primary treatment for VCD involves a combination of patient education and speech therapy, and, in most cases, patients may resume their activities without significant limitation.

  19. VOCALIZATIONS AND BREEDING BEHAVIOUR OF PTYCHADENA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also produced resuIarly and its production is dependent on the prCSCDCe of two or more individuals. ... analyser) within the frequency range 80 Hz-8 kHz using a wide band filter (300 Hz). ..... The evoked vocal response of the bullfrog. Res.

  20. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  1. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof